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Speech, Fellow Citizens--In Support of the Wyandotte Constitution
c. July 1859
This eleven-page document was a speech or essay, most likely in John Alexander Martin's handwriting, in support of the proposed Wyandotte Constitution, which was ratified by the voters of the territory on October 4, 1859. Martin, a twenty-year-old Atchison editor, served as secretary for the convention which finished its work at the end of July. Thus, this speech, attacking the Democrats for conspiring to defeat this latest free-state constitution and for "the Lecomptonizing of Kansas," was undoubtedly delivered several times during the months of August and September 1859. It covered the various issues opponents were likely to use to defeat it at the polls and stressed that in light of actions of "a servile judiciary" slavery could not be removed from Kansas until it was admitted as a "sovereign state."

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); English Bill; Free state constitutions; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Lecompton Constitution; Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Missouri compromise; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Scott, Dred; Slave power; Slavery; Squatter sovereignty; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859

Authors: Martin, John A., 1839-1889

Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
November 21, 1858
Much of this interesting letter, dated November 21, 1858, from Sumner, describes the Ingalls law practice and the nature of a "frontier" court proceedings that often attracted "nearly all the population." According to Ingalls, "the chief difficulty arising [in the courts came] from the conflict of the two Codes, adopted by two hostile legislatures, each of which had adherents who call the other 'bogus.'" Ingalls also discussed the business of land sales, as something many successfully combine with the practice of law.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Coal; Courts; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Land sales; Lawyers; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Pikes Peak gold rush; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Thanksgiving Day; Weather

Authors: Ingalls, John James

Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
March 15, 1859
Although Ingalls began this relatively brief letter from Sumner with comments on the local election (he won the race for city attorney), he devoted most of it to the Pike's Peak Gold Rush--"the amount and character of the emigration to Pike's Peak is truly astonishing. . . . [T] military roads are already thronged with anxious hundreds, on foot, dragging hand carts, on mules, and with ox teams."

Keywords: Business; Cities and towns; Economic conditions; Elections; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Pettit, John; Pikes Peak gold rush; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation; Travel

Authors: Ingalls, John James

Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
December 2, 1858
Ingalls opened this letter with comments on the weather ("the fine days are so beautiful as to compensate for a large amount of ambiguous weather"), problems with shipping freight, and mention of various items of clothing he had received from the family, but he gave considerable attention to the city of Atchison, its newspaper (Freedom's Champion) and its growth. Sumner compared favorably, as to future prospects, in Ingalls's estimation, with the location of future railroads the key to success. He also encouraged his father to make a spring visit so he could assess for himself "the opportunities for business and the prospects of progress" in this "most important party of the continent."

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Business enterprises; Clothing and dress; Freedom's Champion; Freight and freightage; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Newspapers - Free State; Newspapers - Pro-slavery; Railroads; Squatter Sovereign; Weather

Authors: Ingalls, John James

Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
June 10, 1859
From Sumner on June 10, 1859, just days after the election for delegates to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, Ingalls wrote his father about the "well fought" contest in a county (Atchison) that was "an old stronghold of pro-slavery democracy." Ingalls won, of course, even though he at first "regarded the contest as a hopeless one," but still feared that the Democrats could control the convention; if so, "Kansas may be a Slave State after all. . . . It is Estimated that there are five hundred slaves in the territory today by virtue of the Dred Scott decision. A family recently came to this place from Kentucky with five."

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Dred Scott decision; Election, Wyandotte Constitution delegates to convention, June 1859; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Osawatomie convention; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Slaves in Kansas Territory

Authors: Ingalls, John James

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