Skip Redundent Navigation
Territorial Kansas Online 1854-1861 Explore Topics Territorial A-Z Map Lesson Plans  
County:Linn   (49 results)

Letter, James Montgomery to L. [Leander] Martin
December 18, 1859
James Montgomery, writing from Mound City, K.T., responded to Leander Martin's suggestion that he (Montgomery) contest the results of the November 8, 1859 election for representatives to the territorial legislature. Montgomery lost a race for a seat in the territorial house of representatives to William R. Wagstaff. Montgomery indicated that he had no plans to contest the election himself but would not object if others contested it on his behalf. Martin's letter is included at the top of the document.

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, November 1859; Elections; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Martin, Leander; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)

Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
Isaac T. De Ment filed claim # 252 for items stolen or destroyed in his storehouse and home by proslavery forces under the command of G. W. Clarke. The itemized list included a variety of good from fabrics and clothing to food and hardware. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Clarke, George W.; Clothing and dress; Damage claims; De Ment, Isaac T.; Food; Groceries; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
William Hutchin of Linn County filed claim # 270 for various losses suffered in August, 1856. His statement described his experiences as a prisoner of G. W. Clarke and his men. His losses included horses, cash, guns, ammunition and miscellaneous items. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Clarke, George W.; Damage claims; Guns; Horses; Hutchin, William; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Photograph, Stone house built by Augustus Wattles
c. 1940
Ruins of a stone house built by Augustus Wattles, Linn County, Kansas Territory, 1857-1859. John Brown wrote his "Parallels" in this house. The photograph was taken c. 1940.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Houses; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Wattles, Augustus

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Photograph, Saw Mill, Linn County, Kansas Territory
1857
A saw mill built by Joseph Trego and the Smiths on Little Sugar Creek, Linn County, Kansas Territory, 1857.

Keywords: Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Sawmills; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Diary
June 1857 - July 1858
Joseph Trego first came to Kansas Territory in June 1857. He chose to settle near Mound City (originally Sugar Mound), Miami County, Kansas Territory. He returned to his home near Rock Island, Illinois to prepare to move to Kansas. He then came back to Kansas Territory in the fall of 1857, though he did not bring his wife and three girls at that time. In March of 1858, he again returned to Illinois to bring his family to their new home. These diary entries started with his second trip to the territory in September 1857 and described the various trips to and from Kansas Territory and his various activities here. The diary entries from March 17, 1858 to May 25, 1858 (15 pages) are not included. Trego, along with Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell in the diary entries) and his brother Edwin Smith, constructed and operated a sawmill on Little Sugar Creek. Trego was involved in town company activities, and the sawmill furnished lumber and shingles for many of the buildings in Mound City. The diary entries provided information on the efforts of settlement including the furnishing of a cabin and construction of the sawmill. They documented the operation of the sawmill and other activities in the area, including some of the border disputes. Trego was a free state supporter and this was reflected in some of the entries.

Keywords: Diaries; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Free state settlers; House furnishings; Household activities; Houses; Illinois; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sawmills; Settlement; Smith, Edwin; Smith, Thomas Ellwood; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Diary
July 25, 1858 - December 9, 1859
Joseph Trego first came to Kansas in June 1857. He lived near Mound City (originally Sugar Mound), Linn County, Kansas Territory. These diary entries started on July 25, 1858 and are a continuation of an earlier diary (portions of which were also digitized as part of this project). He described various daily activities including the operation a sawmill in partnership with Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell in the diary entries) and his brother Edwin Smith. The diary entries provided information on the efforts of making a living and settling on a frontier. They documented some of the border disputes and related activities. Trego was a free state supporter and this was reflected in some of the entries.

Keywords: Diaries; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sawmills; Smith, Edwin; Smith, Thomas Ellwood; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, James Montgomery to George L. Stearns
October 6, 1860
Having returned from a trip to the East (where he visited Stearns, Horace Greeley, and others in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia), Montgomery wrote from Mound City, Linn County, that he "found the people greatly excited." News of violence directed against free state men in Texas and Arkansas had awakened Kansans' sense of urgency, as Montgomery continued his efforts to free slaves and undercut the slave economy of western Missouri.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border ruffians; Free state supporters; Fugitive slaves; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Texas

Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871

Letter, Dr. C. R. Jennison to Dear friend [George L. Stearns]
November 28, 1860
From Mound City, Jennison opened his letter to Stearns by acknowledging that the two men did not know each other but Jennison counted Stearns "a true friend to the cause of freedom." Jennison told him about the so-called "desperadoes known as Kidnapers" who had been active in the region. After warning them of serious consequences if caught and convicted of "man hunting," Jennison's free state force captured, tried, and hung one Russ Hinds. Despite the threat from Gen. William S. Harney's federal troops, Jennison insisted "we are detirmined to Stand or fall by our weight for we have taken our position and it is honorable and Just." Federal troops were unfairly targeting free staters and ignoring proslave outrages.

Keywords: Beebe, George Monroe; Free state cause; Fugitive slaves; Hamelton, Charles A.; Harney, William S.; Hinds, Russell; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Kidnapping; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; United States. Army

Authors: Jennison, Charles Rainsford, 1834-1884

Letter, J.M. [James Montgomery] to George L. Stearns
December 14, 1860
In response to a letter dated November 29, Montgomery informed Stearns that "Uncle Sam has stolen all my late corrispondence [sic]. I suppose he thinks he will find some Treason in it:--He is welcome to all he can find." Much of the news about his activities and intention, insisted Montgomery, was simply newspaper talk. "'Montgomery's Band' is a myth. Montgomery's men are the people, and Montgomery himslef is one them. [sic]." He was very interested in getting the press back East to inform the public of "the real state of affairs here."

Keywords: Free labor; Free state activities; Fugitive slaves; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Linn County, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; United States. Army

Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871

Letter, James Montgomery to George L. Stearns
November 27, 1860
From Mound City, James Montgomery wrote Stearns about recent trouble at Fort Scott and acting governor George M. Beebe's visit. He came, according to Montgomery, to ascertain for himself if the rumors about Montgomery's activities were correct. He left satisfied that the free staters were acting properly and "promising to do what he could to reform abuses" in the federal courts and protect their rights. Although things were quiet at present and Montgomery mentioned the arrival of more fugitive slaves, who could now stay safely in Kansas, he warned that the introduction of federal troops into southern Kansas would create an explosive situation.

Keywords: Beebe, George Monroe; Bowie knife; Democratic Party (U.S.); Firearms; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Fugitive slaves; Guns; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871

Letter, J.M. [James Montgomery] to George L. Stearns
December 12, 1860
Montgomery wrote again from Mound City to update Stearns on the activities of "old Harney" (General William S. Harney) and the futile federal government efforts at "enforcing the Fugitive Slave law on us here; it can't be done." Montgomery insisted that despite the government's effort to portray "'Montgomery and his band'" as not of the people, popular support for his activities had just been unanimously endorsed at a mass meeting in Mound City.

Keywords: Free state perspective; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Harney, William S.; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; United States. Army; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871

Letter, James Montgomery to F. B. Sanborn
January 14, 1861
Just two weeks before Kansas would be admitted to the Union and in the midst of the early secession crisis, Montgomery (Mound City) told Franklin B. Sanborn (Boston) that he (Montgomery) did not favor an invasion of "the slave states so long as they keep themselves at home," but Missouri was crossing the line and interfering in Kansas affairs. He also commented on recent mob violence in Boston and General Harney's futile efforts to enforce the Fugitive Slave law in southern Kansas.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Democratic Party (U.S.); Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Harney, William S.; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Martial law; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Secession; Slavery

Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871

Photograph, Marais des Cygnes Massacre
1858
An illustration of the Marais des Cygnes Massacre in Linn County, Kansas Territory, copied from Beyond the Mississippi by Albert. D. Richardson, 1867. In May 1858, Missourians crossed the border and murdered five Free-State men. This massacre was generally viewed as the last major violent occurrence during the territorial period. The site of the massacre is now one of the Kansas State Historical Society's historic properties.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Firearms; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Massacres; Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery activities; Violence; Violent deaths

Authors: Chapin, John R.

Residents on Big Sugar Creek
c. 1857
This account contains the names and origins of both free state and pro slavery settlers that lived on Big Sugar Creek. The document begins with a brief description of the area and mentions particular cases of settlers who had noteworthy experiences. Of the 25 pro slavery residents, two owned slaves. It was presumably collected by Thaddeus Hyatt or some other member of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: African Americans; Big Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers; Slaves

Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus

General Staff Roll, Officers on duty at Sugar Mound
December 19, 1857
This roll list documents the attendance of various Kansas Militia officers to a skirmish at Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory , including Major General James Lane. The list appears to be incomplete, as age, stature, and equipment notes for each man are only provided on the list's first page.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Blunt, James G.; Free state militia; Gilpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leonhardt, Charles F. W., 1827-1884; Linn County, Kansas Territory; McCannon, John; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Shore, Samuel T.; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.; Williams, Henry H.

Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus

Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to My Dear Wife
December 22, 1857
James Abbott, serving as a Colonel in the Kansas free state militia wrote from a military skirmish in Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife back in Lawrence. He had hoped to return home within a week from his departure, but now received word from James Lane, Major General of the militia, that he could start home the following Saturday. Abbott reported the events of the skirmish, which thus far had only resulted in the arrests of some men; no deaths had been reported.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Skirmishing; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory

Authors: Abbott, James Burnett

Residents on the Marais des Cygnes, commencing at the state line
c. 1857
This report provides a listing of the total number of residents along the Marais des Cygnes River, including free state residents, proslavery residents, and free state residents "in distress." It also contains brief accounts of specific individuals and information about the surrounding area, such as the availability of land claims.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Marais des Cygnes River; Proslavery settlers

Authors: Abbott, James Burnett

Settlers on the Marais des Cygnes River
c. 1856 or 1857
This document, presumably compiled by John E. Stewart at the request of Thaddeus Hyatt, lists the pro-slavery and free state settlers who resided on the Marais des Cygnes River in Kansas Territory. The author also included a listing of where the free-state settlers lived before coming to Kansas.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Illinois; Indiana; Kentucky; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes River; Missouri; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Proslavery settlers; Settlement

Authors: Stewart, John E.

Settlers on Little Sugar Creek
c. 1856 or 1857
This listing of the settlers along Little Sugar Creek includes information about each settler, the resources in the area, and local buildings. It also includes an account of an attack by the Missouri ruffians in which a number of men were carried off to Westport, Missouri. It was most likely compiled by John E. Stewart at the request of Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border ruffians; Churches; Free state settlers; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Missouri; Ohio; Proslavery settlers; Schools; Settlement; Timber; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; Westport, Missouri

Authors: Stewart, John E.

Letter, Frank Walker to M. B. Walker
March 4, 1859
Frank Walker of Mound City, Kansas Territory, wrote to Mr. B. Walker (from the context, presumably a brother) recounting recent skirmishes between the free state men led by James Montgomery and the pro-slavery "scamps" in Bourbon and Linn counties. Walker dubbed Montgomery one of "the likedest man in Kanzas," though at the time, in pro-slavery Linn County, he was considered an outlaw. Walker's letter included references to an incident occurring on Dec 16, 1858 in Fort Scott, in which Montgomery and his men attacked a pro-slavery prison to save a fellow free state man. Walker concluded by encouraging his family to obtain a land warrant in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state perspective; Guns; Land acquisition; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Walker, Frank; Walker, M.B.; Weapons (see also Guns); Wounds and injuries

Authors: Walker, Frank

Letter, John Brown to Gents [Old Brown's Parallels]
January 3, 1859
Designated "Old Brown's Parallels" and dated January 3, 1859, from Trading Post, Kansas, this is one of the better-known John Brown documents from Kansas. Written for publication in the newspapers just before his final departure from the territory, Brown began by stating "two parallels"--one being the failure of government to do anything about the murder of free-state men (Marias des Cygnes Massacre) May 1858; the other being his recent raid into Missouri to free eleven slaves and take "some property." In the latter incident, only one white man, a slave owner, was killed, but "all 'Hell is stirred from beneath,'" as the governor of Missouri was demanding the capture of those "concerned in the last named 'dreadful outrage.'"

Keywords: African Americans; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border disputes and warfare - Proslavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan administration; Civil rights; Free State Party; Fugitive slaves; Hamilton, Charles A.; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Press and propaganda; Slaveholders; Slaves; Trading Post, Kansas Territory

Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859

John Brown "Parallels" Desk
January, 1859
This secretary was used in the home of Augustus Wattles at Moneka, Linn County. Family tradition holds that John Brown, while visiting Wattles in January, 1859, wrote his "Parallels" defense at this desk. The tradition further relates that the Wattles children watched Brown as he wrote, peering through cracks in the floor above. To hide his own location and to protect Wattles from retaliation, Brown indicated the "Parallels" were written at Trading Post instead of at Moneka. In this document Brown compares the authorities' hunt for him (for liberating Missouri slaves) to the lack of a search for the perpetrators of the Marais des Cygnes Massacre.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, John, 1800-1859; House furnishings; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Objects; Underground railroad; Wattles, Augustus

Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859

Letter, your affect. Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
December 5, 1857
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego described the furnishings and atmosphere in their "Bachelor's Hall" of a cabin. As he greatly missed them, Trego was eager to receive his family's daguerreotypes by mail; he also spoke at length about both business and domestic matters at home. His friend Ell (Thomas Ellwood Smith) prepared to embark on a trip to St. Louis to purchase a corn mill, which they hoped would translate into a business enterprise that would sustain the three of them.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Daguerreotypes; Domestics; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Livestock; Mills and mill-work; Missouri River; Smith, Edwin; Smith, Thomas Ellwood; St. Louis, Missouri; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Methodist Episcopal Church in Kansas, Educational Convention
March 17-18, 1857
This item described an education convention held by the Methodist Episcopal Church in Kansas at Blue Mound, Kansas Territory. The purpose of the convention was to "found a University." L. B. Dennis was chosen as the chairman and Walter Oakley was the secretary. The document stated the need for the university and indicated that proposals had been received from the towns of Blue Mound, Prairie City, Centropolis, Topeka, Palmyra, and Lawrence. The proposal from Palmyra was accepted and they promised to provide eight hundred acres of land and to purchase $20,000 in "university stock." The institution founded by this convention was named Baker University and the town of Palmyra became Baldwin City. An association was set up to support the "erection and endowment" of the university.

Keywords: Baker University; Baldwin, Kansas Territory; Blue Mound, Kansas Territory; Dennis, Levin B.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Oakley, Walter; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`; Schools

Authors: Oakley, Walter

Letter, Frank Walker to his family, presumably.
March 24, 1859
Walker wrote from Mound City, Linn County, Kansas Territory. He indicated that he was working for $25 per month. He intended to preempt a claim the next fall but was going to plant corn on 18 acres. Part of the letter referred to some type of imprisonment but the details were not clear.

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Land claims; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Walker, Frank

Authors: Walker, Frank

Letter, Frank Walker to Dear Sister [Augusta Walker]
April 10, 1859
This letter from Frank Walker was written in Mound City, Linn County, Kansas Territory. He continued to describe his plans to acquire land and his hopes that it would increase in value. He recounted an incident in which someone named Byron was shot by "Missourians." He provided some detail of the encounter between Byron and 6 other free staters against 46 men.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state perspective; Land claims; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Walker, Frank

Authors: Walker, Frank

Letter, Frank Walker to Dear Brother
May 23, 1859
This is part of a series of letters from Frank Walker written in Mound City, Linn County, Kansas Territory. The letter implied that Walker was part of a free state militia group and indicated that the free state men never stole things. He wrote that the proslavery men took their horses. He mentioned a meeting of the Republican Party and that Horace Greeley gave a speech.

Keywords: Free state militia; Free state perspective; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Walker, Frank

Authors: Walker, Frank

Letter, Frank Walker to Milo Walker
June 26, 1859
In this letter to his brother Milo, Frank Walker wrote that he had preempted land in Linn County, Kansas Territory, in Section 25 of Township 21S, Range 22E. He had 80 acres that he thought was worth $1000 and he indicated that he intended "to engage in a little speculation that I will make 1000 more. He suggested that if Milo or his sisters could get $150 he could get them 80 acres also. Walker was writing from Mound City, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Land claims; Land speculation; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Walker, Frank

Authors: Walker, Frank

Photograph, Charles Ransford Jennison
Probably 1861
Charles Jennison was born in New York state in 1834 and settled in Osawatomie, Kansas Territory in 1857. He was active in the free state cause and was active in free state militia company. He was credited with several raids into Bates County, Missouri, and was part of a group that captured and hanged a proslavey supporter named Russell Hinds. He was an associate of James Montgomery. During the Civil War, he was a Colonel in the 7th Kansas Cavalry.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state militia; Hinds, Russell; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Violence

Authors: Walker, Frank

Letter, Your devoted Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
December 11, 1857
Joseph Trego wrote from his cabin near Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory to his wife, Alice, at home in Illinois with their three daugthers. His friend Ell's trip to St. Louis had been aborted due to the freezing conditions of the Missouri River. The town company of Sugar Mound was meeting that day, in which the formal site of the town would be selected; Trego hoped to build their new home on a lot near his mill, which was in an especially picturesque area. His comments about the current "political storm" reveal the variation of perspectives among free state supporters, as he found free state supporters in his area were for a "free state government from politic[al] motives & not humane." He also reported that a group of armed free state men had passed by two days before, looking for a "nest" of pro-slavery men in Bourbon County. Trego added descriptions of their daily life and their struggle to keep their living expenses down.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Domestics; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Missouri River; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Town development; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Water transportation

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, Your affectionate Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
December 21, 1857
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego, in addition to elaborating on hunting and mill work, described at length the skirmishing between local free state and proslavery men, which had been continuous throughout the summer and fall. He reported the manner in which Missourians had seized and occupied lands in the absence of their owners, who were free state men. "Bogus courts" had brought the free state men who defended their lands to court, which resulted in so many fees owed that the men had to sell their land to pay them; the new owners were usually Missourians. Trego accused proslavery supporters of fabricating stories about destruction caused by warring Abolitionists in order to draw the support of the U.S. troops. Controversy over the Lecompton Constitution flourished in free state circles; the Free State Legislature in Topeka had repealed the "bogus laws" of the Territorial Legislature and appointed James Lane the head of a free state militia.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Business enterprises; Free state legislature; Free state militia; Hunting; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Military; Mills and mill-work; Missourians; Proslavery supporters; Sharps rifles; Skirmishing; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
January 9, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego reported that the mill was finally up and running, leaving them to occupy themselves with housekeeping and construction of outbuildings near the mill; he had decided to delay building a new home for his family until the spring. Trego responded to his wife's concerns about free state and proslavery skirmishing in the area, conveying his confidence that "truly there is no probability of the people here at Sugar Mound being molested" by them.

Keywords: Construction; Daily life; Domestics; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Skirmishing; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, Your loving Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
January 18, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego, tired of "keeping bach" (living a bachelor's lifestyle), he occupied himself with the milling business, which was sawing 4000 ft of lumber each day. A member of the town company in Mound City, he had also recently traveled to gain support for the construction of some new roads in the area; he was also interested in developing a school. At the end of the letter, Trego wrote personal notes to each of his three daughters.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Roads; School buildings; Schools; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Teachers; Timber; Town development; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, J. [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
October 25, 1857
Joseph Trego wrote from his log cabin near Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego described the beauty of the fall foliage and his plans to build a new home for his family, whom he greatly missed. He worried that he had heard from Alice only once in seven weeks, while he had written every week. Trego showed that he was well connected to current events in the Territory and the county, as he and his friends took several newspapers, including two from Lawrence.

Keywords: Free state perspective; Houses; Hunting; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Weather

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, Your affect. Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
January 2, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from his cabin near Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Rock Island, Illinois. Trego briefly updated her on the status of the mill enterprise before expressing more personal sentiments. He felt it had been a mistake not to bring her to the Territory, as he could not devote all of his energy to the tasks at hand for missing her. Trego also discussed the length of time it took her letters to reach him via the postal service.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Postal service; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Women

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, Your loving husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
February 11, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego responded emotionally to his wife's proposition that she would travel East in the spring to visit friends and come to the Territory in the fall, instead of the coming spring as previously planned; he conveyed great disappointment, but insisted that she go if she really wanted to. According to Trego, the structure that would shelter his mill would be raised the next day, and Fort Scott had been seized peacefully be free state men "as the villains fled to save their bacon." He doubted that the treaty drawn there would change the antagonistic conduct of the opposing sides.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Photograph, Robert B. Mitchell

Robert B. Mitchell settled in Paris, Linn County, Kansas Territory, in 1856. He was born in Ohio and studied law. He was active in free state territorial politics. He served in the territorial House of Representatives in 1857 and 1858, was a member of the Leavenworth constitutional convention, and was appointed territorial treasurer on February 11, 1859. He was part of the free state supporters who followed Charles Hamilton and his band after the Marais des Cygnes massacre. After the territorial period he served as a brigadier general in the Second kansas volunteer cavalry and held the appointive post of governor of Nnew Mexico from 1866 to 1869.

Keywords: Constitutional conventions; Free state supporters; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Mitchell, Robert Byington; Paris, Kansas Territory

Authors: Nichols, A. C., Photographer

Letter, Your devoted Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
January 24, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego described how, since the shelter being built around the mill equipment was not yet complete, the wind and rain interfered with their ability to work. Though the work was hard, he favored the milling business over other means toward income. Trego responded to a newspaper article from the Rock Island Advertiser that his wife had sent him, deeming their coverage of the Kansas troubles "sensational." He expected that Fort Scott would soon be destroyed by free state militiamen, as "Bourbon County Bandits" (proslavery supporters) had been harassing extensively free state supporters in the area. Despite all this disorder, the development prospects of Mound City, in Linn County, appeared favorable.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Business enterprises; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Neosho, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Postal service; Proslavery activities; Railroads; Rock Island Advertiser; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Telegraph; Town development; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Weather

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, Your aff. husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
February 13, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego further expressed his disappointment that his wife did not plan to travel to the Territory with him that spring. The change in plans did not seem to disrupt those of the Smith brothers, Trego's companions, as they planned to gather their own families. Trego supposed he would stay behind and conduct business at the mill and perhaps enter the market for land sales. The mill's shelter had successfully been erected the day before, so their production would not not be so dependent on the weather conditions.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Land sales; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Missouri River; Real estate investment; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Weather; Women

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
Samuel Nickel submitted this claim (No. 13) for damages to his property on or about September 1, 1856 by a company of men under the command of General Clark. Mr. Nickel lived in Linn County. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Militia; Nickel, Samuel; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
Claim #280 was filed on behalf of Mrs. Mary Lovell, a widow, for property taken in August, 1856. She lived in Sugar Mound in Linn County. Her horses and household goods were taken by various armed groups and she stated she walked 25 miles to Westport, Missouri, because she feared for her life. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Horses; House furnishings; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Lovell, Mary; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Women

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Letter, [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
October 16, 1857
Joseph H. Trego wrote from his cabin in Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife Alice in Rock Island, Illinois, about his journey from Kansas City to Sugar Mound. His friends, Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell) and his brother Edwin (Ed), and himself were poorly prepared as they expected to stay in public houses during the journey, not camp outside as their wagon transportation preferred. As the road they took went right down the Missouri state line, Trego contrasted the well-established farms to the East with the "open, wild prairie" to the West. He and his brother, upon arriving at their cabin, found that they had "Hoosier" neighbors (from Indiana), who were pleasant but proslavery. Trego recounted the difficulty they had acquiring home furnishings and food, fighting adverse weather at every turn. He spoke at length of how he was comforted by writing to his wife, as he and his friends greatly missed their families.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Hunting; Kansas City, Missouri; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes River; Merchandise; Proslavery supporters; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Transportation; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Wagons; Weather

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Photograph, James Montgomery

James Montogomery came to Linn County, Kansas Territory, early in the territorial period after living in Ohio, Kentucky and Missouri. He was active in the free state cause and was involved in most of the conflict between pro-slavery and free state forces in that area. He was ordered off his property but refused to leave the area. He raised a militia troop that was active in 1857.

Keywords: Free state militia; Free state supporters; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Photographs and Illustrations

Authors: Leonard & Martin, artists

Letter, Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
February 28, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Mound City, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego described his overland travels to an Osage Indian trading post and his encounters with the Osage people. He and his friend, Edwin, traveled through Fort Scott, Bourbon County, on their way back to Sugar Mound; Trego recounted their tour of the town, with large homes, a Plaza at the town's center, and a steam mill much like his own. Trego reported that, if they had stayed longer in Fort Scott, they may not have been allowed out, as free state men were collecting in large numbers to capture proslavery "thieves" and destroy the town in the process.

Keywords: Animals; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Indian lands; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Osage Indians; Real estate investment; Steam power; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trading posts; Travel; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; United States. Army

Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington

Business card and promotial item titled Kansas
Circa 1855-1856
This business card for Orville C. Brown, "agent for the town of Osawatomie, Kansas Territory," accompaned a list of the advantages of settling in Kansas Territory and the city of Osawatomie. A hand written note on the list indicated it was issued by O. C. Brown. The printed circular described the soil, available building materials, wood, produce and opportunities for acquiring land. It also gave the price of various livestock. The business card noted that Brown also was involved in locating land warrants and purchasing and selling claims.

Keywords: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904; Land claims; Livestock; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Natural resources; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Town development

Authors: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904

Letter, John Brown to Wm. Hutchinson
August 3, 1858
From Moneka, Kansas, John wrote to William Hutchinson regarding his (Brown's) "Revolvers," which had been distributed on loan to others in Kansas. Brown had been spending some weeks near the Kansas-Missouri border, "on the claim upon which the whole sale murders [Marias des Cygnes Massacre, May 19, 1858] were committed," as a show of force to more would-be invaders.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missourians; Proslavery activities; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859

Complaint about seizure of Briscoe Davis's house and family in Linn County
November 18, 1856
According to an explanation written by Edward Hoogland on the outside of the document, Briscoe Davis' sister (unnamed) wrote this complaint describing the October 24, 1856 looting of Mr. Davis' house in Linn County by free state supporters led by a Captain Holmes (likely James R. Holmes, a Free State Militia captain). The seizure of Davis' home took place shortly after Governor John Geary's October 1856 visit to southeastern Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Davis, Briscoe; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Holmes, James H.; Hoogland, Edward; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery perspective; Violence

Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859

Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister, father and others"
August 13, 1858
By June 28, 1858, J. H. Kagi was back in K.T. at Lawrence, and on August 13 he was writing the family from Moneka, Linn County, where he had "been very busily engaged in fortifying along the State line to prevent further inroads from Missouri." [See J.B. letter of August 3 to Wm. Hutchinson in which he speaks of building the fort on the site of the Marie des Cygnes Massacre.] In an unusually open and frank few lines, Kagi wrote: "C. W. Moffet and two of the other boys (whom you have not seen) are in Ashtabula Co., Ohio. Some have gone to Harpers Ferry. We are all ready and in good spirits. Things are working rightly, here, and brightening elsewhere for our final work. Those who once thought us the most foolish, now think most cheerfully of the whole plan." He closed by asking that they write him at the "Whitney House" in Lawrence.

Keywords: Ashtabula County, Ohio; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Moffett, Charles; Moneka, Kansas Territory

Authors: Kagi, John Henry

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

The current URL is http://www.territorialkansasonline.org/~imlskto/cgi-bin/index.php?SCREEN=show_location&county_id=21&allresu
lts=1.
This file was last modified September 12 2013 04:09:26 PM.