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Letter, T. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
July 18, 1857
Thomas J. Marsh, who arrived in the Kansas Territory on July 11, 1857, made Lawrence his base of operation. He had made the journey as an agent for the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. His objective was to observe and financially support free state efforts to capture the legislature at the polls in early October (this included conducting a census). During his first week in Kansas Territory, Marsh attended the "entirely harmonious" Free State Party convention in Topeka and reported on initial efforts to organize the campaign. He also seemed very concerned about "petty, personal feuds" among the leadership in the territory. Marsh had personally discussed this issue with the men involved and believed the "discordant elements have been harmonized." Upon his return to Lawrence, Marsh found "U. S. Dragoons parading the streets" and Governor Walker threatening to make numerous arrests because of the unauthorized election of city officials the previous Monday.

Keywords: Blood, James; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dragoons; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Constitution; Travel; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.

Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
August 11, 1857
On August 11, 1857, Marsh reported from Lawrence that the governor was "still here with his Troops, but nobody pays any regard to him, or them." According to D. W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas, however, all but forty troops left on August 3, the day of the election under the Topeka Constitution, which Marsh also mentioned. His primary concern remained the October election, which many feared would not be fairly conducted despite the governor's promises, and the growing talk of another Free State Party boycott of the polls.

Keywords: Cato, Sterling G.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Free State Party; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Constitution; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.

Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
September 7, 1857
Nearly two months into his K.T. assignment and stay in Lawrence, Marsh reported several significant observations about the Free State Party: Governor Walker's apparent commitment to a fair canvas, the rapidly approaching territorial election (October 1857), and the money so far spent and needed for the campaign. He also observed that the Constitutional Convention was opening in Lecompton, and wrote: "If you could see the town, and people of Lecompton, and had the opportunity that I have had to witness their Plantation Manners--I think you would at once be reminded of the Scriptural inquiry, 'Can any good thing, come out of Nazareth?'"

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.

Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Mr. [G. L.] Stearns
October 25, 1857
In this report from Lawrence, Whitman complained about his money problem and wrote that John Brown, who, according to Sanborn, had been in Iowa for some weeks, would be in Lawrence for "a very important council" of the military organization. "Look for something decisive this winter and Satisfactory." He informed Stearns that he (Whitman) would take care of "J. B.'s wants" as soon as he could, but there was a limit to what he could borrow on his own account. "I am willing to work, wear out, die if need be in the cause, but I cannot send a brick always without straw."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state militia; Iowa; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, E. B. Whitman to George L. Stearns
February 20, 1858
This rather lengthy report from Lawrence addressed many issues, especially those surrounding the Lecompton constitutional controversy. With "the Topeka Movement . . . abandoned," the question was what would take its place to resist the Lecompton Constitution if it were accepted by the Congress. The territorial legislature had formally "protested against the admission of Kansas into the Union under the Lecompton Constitution," and "the Mass of the people are determined" to resist its imposition. Whitman went on to make many other interesting observations about the political situation, regarding Democrats and Republicans and even abolitionists: "men who seek here and now, on this issue, to break the back bone of slavery forever." In addition to the political, Whitman described his "labor of distributing the clothing . . . for the relief of Kansas," and discussed in some detail the financial situation regarding the Committee, his personal debt, and Kansas relief and support to John Brown.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Buchanan administration; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, S.C.S. [most likely Samuel C. Smith] to "Doctor" [Robinson]
January 11, 1858
This letter, dated Lawrence, January 11, 1858, most likely from Samuel C. Smith, mentions many of the Free State Party's main actors and issues at this critical time in Kansas politics. He described the activities of the Legislature, which assembled in Lawrence in January, and devotes considerable attention to the machinations of the "villain" Jim Lane.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Free State Party; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Railroad companies; Railroad legislation; Railroad promotion; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Temperance movement; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion

Authors: Smith, Samuel C.

Letter, [C. Robinson] to "My Dear Sir" [Henry Wilson]
May 12, 1858
This important document is reportedly a copy of a letter from Charles Robinson, Lawrence, May 12, 1858, to Massachusetts Senator Henry Wilson in which the Kansas governor expresses confidence that the Lecompton Constitution will be overwhelmingly defeated in the upcoming election and makes numerous observations about the state of politics--present and future--in Kansas. Robinson believed that half the Democrats would oppose the Lecompton instrument because they knew that freestaters would dominate any state government that would be admitted under it and subsequently "the Constitution would be changed in the 'twinkling of an eye.'" Thus, he predicted no Kansas admission until at least December 1859, and in the meantime expected Democrats to "take the lead in aiding in developing the resources of Kansas, & [the Democratic Party] will claim to be the special friends of our infant State."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, August 1858; Election, Lecompton Constitution, August 1857; English Bill; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state supporters; Journals; Lecompton Constitution; Partisan press; Press and politics; Press and propaganda; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Photograph, Governor's Mansion, Lecompton, Kansas Territory, 1856
1857
Photograph of an illustration showing the Governor's Mansion, Lecompton, Kansas Territory, 1856, copied from Harper's Weekly, June 6, 1857.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Houses; Lecompton buildings; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations

Authors: Unknown

Photograph, Lecompton, Kansas, 1861.
1861
An exterior view of the U. S. Land Office building, Lecompton, Kansas, 1861.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton buildings; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; United States. General Land Office

Authors: Unknown

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
1855
Photograph of a sketch showing part of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855 by J. E. Rice. The sketch was photographed by H. T. Martin, 237 Kansas Ave., Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Martin, H. T.; Photographs and Illustrations; Sketches

Authors: Rice, J. E.

Lawrence Land Agency
1856
Advertisement about the Lawrence Land Agency, which provided information about the services the agency offered to settlers.

Keywords: Bonds; Land acquisition; Land sales; Land surveys; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Loans; Pratt, Caleb S.; Real estate

Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
J. N. O. P. (Dr. John P.) Wood filed claim #321 for costs resulting from boarding prisoners in Lecompton during 1856. His itemized claim also included various property and animals that were taken from him also during 1856. This is one of the few claims filed for costs that fell into the "public" class. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Food; Groceries; Household equipment; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Wood, John P.

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Letter, E. B. Whitman to George L. Stearns
April 13, 1858
Whitman wrote a rather lengthy update on the Kansas situation for Stearns, focusing on the political machinations of the previous few and the uncertain situation created by the Lecompton debate. Of territorial leadership, Whitman observed: "While Kansas is blessed with many of the truest men of the age, men who are fully up to the emergency, she is also cursed with some of the most unprincipled demagogues that ever afflicted any country." There was much confusion and disagreement about the best course of action for free state men to take, now that many acknowledge the death of the Topeka movement. He then turned to the work of the Minneola/Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March 1858.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, Joseph Gardner to George L. Stearns
May 29, 1860
Joseph Gardner, a free-state partisan of Douglas County and member of the Doy rescue party, wrote Stearns requesting firearms and ammunition as there were people in the vicinity of St. Joseph, Mo., who reportedly were preparing to "make war upon my house." Word had reportedly gone out that Gardner was "harboring fugitives" [fugitive slaves).

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Firearms; Fugitive slaves; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; St. Joseph, Missouri; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Underground railroad

Authors: Gardner, Joseph

Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to General [James W. Denver]
November 22, 1858
Acting Governor Hugh S. Walsh, writing from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to former territorial governor James W. Denver, described his strategy for the upcoming session of the territorial legislature. Walsh expressed the opinion that the legislature, due to voting irregularities, was not truly representative of the people of the territory. He hoped to convince the legislators to resign and call for new elections.

Keywords: Census; Courts; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Election fraud; Elections; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Walsh, Hugh Sleight

Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight

Letter, W. H. Powell to "Dear Sir" [James Blood]
September 12, 1860
A Rev. Charles Reynolds, who wrote to Blood on the 7th and the 10th of September, had raised some $600-$700 in relief money and contacted Powell to ask him to purchase and ship some "winter wheat" to Kansas Territory. Writing from his home in Springfield, Powell indicated that he would do so "with pleasure" but the "best winter wheat" had just been sold. He intended to locate a good supply and ship it by railroad as soon as possible.

Keywords: Agriculture; Blood, James; Chicago, Illinois; Crops; National Kansas Committee; Railroads; Relief; Reynolds, Charles; Springfield, Illinois; Transportation

Authors: Powell, W. H.

Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to Lewis Cass, Secretary of State
November 19, 1858
Acting Governor Hugh S. Walsh wrote from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to Secretary of State Lewis Cass. Walsh requested permission to use $3000 remaining from funds appropriated for the August 1858 election as a means to offer rewards for the capture of James Montgomery, John Brown, and other Free State supporters allegedly engaged in violence in southeastern Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cass, Lewis, 1782-1866; Jayhawkers; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Proslavery perspective; Violence; Walsh, Hugh Sleight

Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight

Letter, [Governor] S. [Samuel] Medary to My Dear Sir [former governor James W. Denver]
January 13, 1859
Governor Samuel Medary, writing from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to former governor James W. Denver, reported on his successful effort to convince the Territorial House of Representatives to pass a bill establishing a special court to try James Montgomery and other free state supporters allegedly engaged in violence in southeast Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Jayhawkers; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Violence

Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864

Letter, E. [Ephraim] Nute to Rev. E. E. [Edward Everett] Hale
April 6, 1857
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute included a list of books that he wished to add to his Unitarian church library. Nute commented on the difficulties experienced by those attempting to spread Christianity in Kansas. He also observed that immigration to Kansas was increasing.

Keywords: Books; Churches; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Entertainment; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Libraries; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Reading; Relief; Religion

Authors: Nute, Ephraim

Bill, Gaius Jenkins to Kansas State Central Committee
June 24, 1856
Most of the items on this itemized bill, presented to the Kansas State Central Committee by Gaius Jenkins of Lawrence (a free-state man who was subsequently shot and killed by Jim Lane), are related to armaments (powder, lead, etc.) or other necessities for supplying a militia force.

Keywords: Ammunition; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Kansas State Central Committee; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Jenkins, Gaius

Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Rev. E. E. [Edward Everett] Hale
April 7, 1857
Charles Robinson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Robinson complained about the lack of respect he had received from New England Emigrant Aid Company leaders. He was particularly upset about criticisms of his financial ability. Robinson expressed anger at what he perceived as Eli Thayer's and the New England Emigrant Aid Company's opposition to the development of the town of Quindaro. Robinson included excerpts from a letter he received from James Redpath outlining Thayer's criticisms of Robinson's involvement with Quindaro.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, Charles H. Branscomb to Rev. Edward E. Hale
April 25, 1857
Charles Branscomb wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Branscomb informed Hale that he had advanced money Francis Serenbetz and his party of thirty German emigrants to assist them in their effort to establish a colony on the Neosho River. Branscomb indicated that there had been considerable confusion about whether the New England Emigrant Aid Company had agreed to provide the Serenbetz party with funds, but he felt it best to provide the money.

Keywords: Branscomb, Charles H.; Collective settlement; Germans; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Religious communities; Serenbetz, Francis M.; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Branscomb, Charles H.

To the voters of Lawrence
Feb. 25, 1859
This document urged the voters of Lawrence to vote against a new charter. It gave seven reasons why Lawrence citizens should vote against the new charter.

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Voting

Authors: Many Tax Payers

To the people of Lawrence, A Proclamation
July 17, 1857
Quotes from the governor's proclamation against the independent city charter and includes rebuttals to his arguments.

Keywords: Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Many Tax Payers

Citizens of Lawrence! L. Arms in area for negro hunting
c. 1860
This document warned the citizens of Lawrence that a U.S Marshal named L[eonard] Arms was searching Lawrence for slaves and that they had the right to keep him out of their homes.

Keywords: African Americans; Arms, Leonard; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Slaves; United States marshals

Authors: Many Tax Payers

Letter, Geo. W. Smith, et al to the Friends of Law and Order convened at Topeka
July 1, 1856
From a "camp near Lecompton," George W. Smith and the other Free State captives, including Charles Robinson and John Brown, Jr., wrote to state their views on issues facing the Topeka legislature as it convened. First, Smith and company argued that the freestaters had a "right to meet as a Legislature, complete the State organization and pass all laws necessary to the successful administration of Justice," but the assembly should not resist "Federal officer in the service of the legal process" unless they threaten the state organization. Smith, et al, believe success of the cause depended on "a right position and, second upon calm, and unflinching firmness."

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, John, Jr.; Deitzler, George W.; Federal troops; Free state cause; Free state government; Jenkins, Gaius; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States Government; Williams, Henry H.

Authors: Brown, Jr., John ; Deitzler, George W.; Jenkins, Gaius ; Robinson, Charles ; Smith, George W.; Williams, Henry H.

Letter, C. W. Holder to J. Blood Esq.
October 27, 1860
As were several other individuals from Illinois, Holder wrote to notify Blood that the people in his community (around Bloomington, Illinois) were eager to share their "abundance" with "their brethren in Kansas." They were preparing to send potatoes, as well as wheat and oats, but needed help purchasing sacks and paying freight; "our people as you are probably aware are just recovering from the financial pressure of the past 3 years" and thus had "little money."

Keywords: Agriculture; Blood, James; Crops; Droughts; Illinois; Panic of 1857; Relief; Transportation

Authors: Holder, C. W.

Letter, H. B. Hurd to James Blood
March 27, 1861
From Chicago, H. B. Hurd wrote to inquire about reports that the Kansas legislature was to appoint a committee to investigate the conduct of the National Kansas Committee's agents and their handling of relief funds and supplies. Several correspondents had expressed similar concerns during the fall of 1860--that is, concern that funds were being misused or that certain agents could not be trusted. Hurd encouraged Blood to support such an investigation.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blood, James; Chicago, Illinois; Droughts; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Legislature; National Kansas Committee; Relief

Authors: Hurd, H. B.

Letter, H. [Hiram] J. [Jackson] Stickler to Col. [Thomas N. Stinson]
February 12, 1857
Hiram Jackson Strickler, writing from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to Thomas N. Stinson of Tecumseh, Kansas Territory, described his attempts as a Territorial Council member to advocate on behalf of Tecumseh. He commented upon an unsuccessful effort to have the penitentiary located at Tecumseh. He also mentioned his opposition to issuing bank charters due to his concerns that the banks would issue "wild cat shin plasters" (devalued paper money).

Keywords: Banks and banking; Kansas Territory. Council; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Paper money; Prisons; Stinson, Thomas N.; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Territorial Council (see Kansas Territory. Council)

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Eldridge Hotel, Floor plans (2 sheets)

These hand drawn floor plans for the Eldridge Hotel show the room layout and approximate size of the rooms on the first and second floors. The Eldridge Hotel was the site of numerous free state meetings and the target of attacks by proslavery forces.

Keywords: Eldridge House; Free state supporters; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Letter, R. S. Stevens to S. N. Wood
August 6, 1860
Writing from Lecompton, R. S. Stevens addressed an issue of grave concern to the people of Council Grove--"the Kaw Treaty," which had been taken up "the last day of the Extra or called Executive session & then ratified with certain amendments." He then explained the provisions and discussed the land survey to come.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Droughts; Huffaker, T. S.; Kansa Indians treaty; Land surveys; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Stevens, Robert S.; United States. Congress; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Authors: Stevens, Robert S.

Photograph, William H. R. Lykins house, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
1854
A view of the William H. R. Lykins house, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. This probably is the second house built by Lykins on the future site of Lawrence. He settled in the area on May 26, 1854, many weeks before the first Emigrant Aid Society party arrived. Lykins built one house northwest of the present-day Lawrence in May 1854. In August of that year, he built another house near the future site of the Emigrant Aid Company's sawmill on the south bank of the Kansas River. The photograph is from a cabinet card made by Leonard, 613 Kansas Ave., Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Houses; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leonard, J. H.; Lykins, William H. R.; Photographs and Illustrations

Authors: Leonard, 613 Kansas Ave., Topeka, KS.

Receipt, Lawrence, KT
November 12, 1856
Itemized listing of clothing, food, and other provisions issued by the Kansas Central Committee to Dr. Samuel E. Martin for distribution "in Topeka and vicinity among the destitute."

Keywords: Kansas Central Committee; Ketcham, Justus G.; Martin, Samuel E. (Dr.); Receipts; Relief; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Authors: Ketcham, Justus G.

George Washington Brown, Near Lecompton, KT to his mother
July 24, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856, on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Brown, despite his imprisonment, expressed optimism about Kansas's prospects of becoming a free state.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Lecompton, Kansas Territory

Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915

Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
July 21, 1857
From Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Marsh wrote his third letter in four days to keep his Massachusetts colleague informed about Gov. Walker's occupation of Lawrence. Marsh, who knew the governor when he was secretary of the treasury under President James K. Polk, had a chance to visit with Walker but found out nothing regarding his current intentions. And the city's residents were "attending to their ordinary affairs as though he were not in their midst"--with some 600 dragoons. Marsh then mentioned, among other things, his visit with G. W. Brown, one of the "hostile chiefs." As with the others, Marsh reportedly emphasized the importance of harmony through the elections and the fact "that their differences was a source of grief to all their friends East, no matter who was right, or who was wrong."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dragoons; Factionalism; Free State Party; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Railroads; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Travel; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.

Letter/Order, Wilson Shannon to C. Robinson and J. H. Lane
December 9, 1855
According to D. W. Wilder, Governor Wilson Shannon arrived in Lawrence on December 7, 1855, and on December 8 made "a treaty with the Free-State Generals" ending the Wakarusa War. The paper was signed by Shannon, Robinson and Lane. With the document represented here, dated Lawrence, December 9, 1855, Governor Shannon "authorized & directed [Robinson and Lane] to take such measures & use the enrolled force under your command in such manner for the preservation of the peace & the protection of the persons & property of the people in Lawrence & vicinity as in your judgment shall best secure that end." ( A subsequent notation indicated that the order was written in Robinson's hand, but signed by Shannon.)

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855

Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877

Letter, T. J. Robinson to Governor [James W. Denver]
March 3, 1858
Thomas J. Robinson, writing from Washington D.C. to Governor James W. Denver, speculated that Kansas would be admitted as a state under the Lecompton Constitution. Robinson suggested that Denver's future political prospects would improve from such an occurrence.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Herndon, Lou; Lecompton Constitution; Robinson, Thomas J.; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Town promotion

Authors: Robinson, Thomas J.

Letter, J. H. Lane to Gov. of Minnesota [Willis A. Gorman]
January 22, 1856
This "Appeal of Gen. Lane & Gov. Robinson" to Willis A. Gorman, the territorial governor of Minnesota, was a call for assistance during Kansas Territory's present crisis: the territory face, wrote Lane and Robinson from Lawrence, K.T., on January 22, 1856, "an overwhelming force of the Citizens of Missouri" organized for invasion on the Missouri border.

Keywords: Free state cause; Gorman, Willis A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Minnesota; Missouri; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles

General Order No. 2, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
July 20, 1857
General Order No. 2 established divisions and brigades which were to protect the ballot box in Topeka. It lists the divisions, brigades, and the superintendents of the divisions and brigades. James Lane was organizing the Kansas Volunteers and Martin Conway was the Adjutant General for the K.V.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Stewart, John E.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting; Williams, Henry H.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Order No. 2, Quartermaster's Department, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, Lawrence, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
October 19, 1857
This printed letter written by E. B. Whitman concerned the success of Kansas volunteers in organizing to help freemen and the lack of success with voting lists.

Keywords: Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

George Washington Brown, Near Lecompton, KT to I.B. Donaldson
July 9, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Brown wrote to Israel B. Donaldson, the U.S. Marshal in Kansas, requesting that he terminate and settle a contract with his wife, Mrs. Lois Brown, for boarding the prisoners. Brown asked to board with fellow prisoners John Brown, Jr. and Henry H. Williams and sought to distance himself from Charles Robinson and his followers.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Mrs. George Washington; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Herald of Freedom; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States marshals; Williams, Henry H.

Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915

Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to My Dear Parents and Sister
April 6, 1856
In this, his first extant letter from Kansas Territory, Oscar Learnard wrote his parents and sister in Vermont that Lawrence was now his "distant and strangely romantic retreat." This letter recorded Learnard's early impressions of "unfortunate abused Kansas." The situation was bad, but the reality of "Kansas affairs" was being distorted in the Eastern press. Learnard made reference to the bogus laws, the Free State movement, and the anticipated congressional investigation.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Vermont

Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.

Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
June 6, 1856
From an embattled Lawrence, Learnard again wrote of near daily "occurrences of exciting interest," including skirmishes between the two "antagonistic parties" and actions of federal troops to "quell disturbances." The problem was with Missourians who had crossed over the border, not "actual settlers." Learnard claimed to be ready to do battle with them over the issue of "slavery or liberty in this country," and predicted that if things continued in this same direction, the entire country would soon be "embroiled in civil war."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Civil war; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Federal troops; Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Skirmishing; Slavery; Vermont; Violence

Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.

Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
August 10, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote from Lawrence of his continued commitment to the "Sacked City," insisting that he would not be "bullied or frightened" by those committing outrages in Kansas Territory. He commented on the political composition of the territory and Lawrence, where he found many Douglas Democrats. Although there were some "fanatics" and "abolitionists," most residents of Lawrence were "western men" who had been driven to oppose the administration by the outrages. He insisted that the significance of the New England Emigrant Company had been exaggerated and that although more violent confrontations were likely, Kansas would eventually be free.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Douglas Democrats; Dragoons; Free State Party; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pierce administration; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.

Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
James Campbell submitted this claim (#80) for damages suffered on August 15, 1857 from 200 men under the command of Captain Walker. Mr. Campbell lived in Douglas County and claimed the loss of various household and agricultural items. Mr. Campbell must have either been a slave owner or had a free black employee because he claimed bedding and wearing apparel for a negro. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: African Americans; Campbell, James; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; House furnishings; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
August 27, 1857
In this letter from Lawrence, K.T., Marsh reported that despite opposition from Judge Martin Conway, the delegates at the Grasshopper Falls Convention on August 26 "voted to go into the [October] Election with all the power they have." So, the stage was set for the campaign that needed all the financial support Stearns's committee could give it through Marsh.

Keywords: Congressional delegate; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Convention; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867

Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.

Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
September 28, 1857
In this letter to Stearns, Marsh expressed confidence that the October election would turn in favor of the Free State Party. Marsh had been traveling in the "Southern Counties" and was encouraged: "You may rest assured, that the people are united and earnest." He predicted a victory for Marcus Parrott and "a good working majority" for the Free State Party in both houses of the legislature. Unless he received further instructions from the committee, Marsh planned to leave Kansas about three days after the election.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Crusader of Freedom; Doniphan, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867

Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.

Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Sir [G. L. Stearns]
October 11, 1857
E. B. Whitman, an agent of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee, reported from Lawrence about money problems and his efforts to provide assistance to John Brown, etc. He also observed that free state men seemed to have won the election, said all was "peaceful in the territory" right then, and reported less than favorably on the organizational work done by T. J. Marsh.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, J. A. Andrew to Dear [George] Collamore
July 7, 1857
J. A. Andrew wrote to George Collamore with advice to the people of Lawrence regarding the bogus legislature. Andrew suggested that the free state men continue to vote down any constitution that is not the one drawn in Topeka. He also described his impressions of the free state leaders, such as Charles Robinson, James Lane, and others.

Keywords: Andrew, J.A.; Bogus legislature; Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Conway, Martin Franklin; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Charles; Taxation; Topeka Constitution

Authors: Andrew, J. A.

An Act to incorporate the City of Topeka
February 14, 1857 & April 22, 1857
This act, handwritten by Cyrus K. Holliday, was passed by the territorial legislature at Lecompton on February 14th, 1857. Its three sections established the city limits of Topeka, designated a board of trustees, and secured the city's rights. Fred P. Stanton, Secretary of the Territory of Kansas, certified this copy of the act.

Keywords: Cleveland, L. G.; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Dickey, Milton C.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Thornton, Thomas G.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Walkley, I.

Authors: Andrew, J. A.

Letter, [Thaddeus] Hyatt to My dear Friend [Horace White] (No. 26); Telegraphic dispatches (No. 27 and No. 28)
August 19, 1856 - November 24, 1856
This copy of a letter, which is added onto the end of another copied letter, was addressed to Horace White and was written by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. The letter began with a description of Hyatt's sleeping arrangements the past two nights, and then moved on to other personal matters. He concluded the letter with committee business, mentioning his fear that funds and provisions were not truly being handed out to the neediest settlers. He also detailed an encounter with Mr. Carpenter, whose mother was Clarina Nichols. At the end of the letter were copies of two telegraphic dispatches sent by Thaddeus Hyatt to William F. M. Arny, general agent for the committee, on November 22th and 24th. They both concern Dr. Root, who was involved in Kansas relief.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Carpenter, A.O.; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; National Kansas Committee; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sharps rifles; Telegraph

Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus

Receipt, Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store to George Collamore
April 14, 1858
George Collamore, Lawrence resident and future mayor, purchased various metal containers at Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Collamore would later be killed during Quantrill's raid on Lawrence in 1863.

Keywords: Barker, Ingle; Business; Collamore, George W.; Commerce; Domestics; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Ethnic groups; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store; Receipts

Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus

Letter, Samuel C. [Smith] to "Dear Doctor" [C. Robinson]
December 1, 1858
Samuel Smith, Robinson's attorney and associate in matters having to do especially with the Quindaro venture, wrote from Lawrence on December 1, 1858, about certain farm issues--presumably having to do with the governor's home and property in Douglas County--which he was managing during Robinson's absence (Robinson was in Washington, D.C.). Smith also wrote: "We formed another Board of Trade at Quindaro and shall probably have the Chindowan [newspaper] issued in two weeks."

Keywords: Agriculture; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Quindaro Chindowan; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad legislation; Railroad promotion; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Smith, Samuel C.; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Washington, D.C.

Authors: Smith, Samuel C.

Letter, Samuel C. [Smith] to "Dear Dr." [C. Robinson]
December 7, 1858
In this letter, also from Lawrence, Smith went into some detail about developments with respect to the Delaware lands, apparently connected to a railroad promotion scheme. The Indians "know that [Robert S.] Stevens is connected with the R. R. enterprise and this action of his . . . Has excited their mistrust and caused obstacles to rise in the way of such a treaty as you [Robinson] desire."

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Delaware Indians; English Bill; Indian treaties; Miller, Josiah; Pratt, J. G. (John Gill), 1814-1900; Railroad promotion; Railroads finance; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Stevens, Robert S.

Authors: Smith, Samuel C.

Letter, S.C.S [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [C. Robinson]
December 19, 1858
The focus of this letter from Lawrence to Robinson in Washington, D.C., was the effort underway in Lawrence and Douglas County to attract a railroad and to have it built south of the Kansas River. Leavenworth, Kansas City, and Lawrence were obviously in the midst of their battle to gain advantage on the transportation front, and the decisions being made in Washington at that time with respect to land grants were vital to their future interests.

Keywords: Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Indian treaties; Jayhawkers; Johnnycake, Charles; Kansas City, Missouri; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Pratt, J. G. (John Gill), 1814-1900; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad conventions; Railroad land grants; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Stevens, Robert S.

Authors: Smith, Samuel C.

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
John Wakefield, Douglas County, Kansas Territory, filed claim # 96 for damages caused by the territorial militia on September 1, 1856. He was a farmer and his loses included crops of potatoes, corn, and a garden as well as a house and its furnishings. He also claimed damage to his well. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Crops; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; House furnishings; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Wakefield, John A.

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Letter, W. F. M. Arny to Governor [John White] Geary
December 8, 1856
This broadside of a letter by W. F. M. Arny was written to Governor Geary about the need for education in Kansas. Arny, an agent with the National Kansas Committee, proposed the creation of three funds: a university fund, a seminary fund, and a common school fund. Within the university structure, he proposed a normal school, an agricultural and horticultural school, and a mechanical school. He thought that it would be best to ask Congress for land for schools.

Keywords: Agriculture; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Congress (See United States. Congress); Education; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; National Kansas Committee; Schools; Teachers; Teaching; Universities and colleges

Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881

Letter, George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et al
September 29, 1856
On behalf of a committee of Lawrence citizens, Hunt and Stearns wrote the State Central Committee of Kansas "to urge upon your attention several important points in reference to the present condition of Kansas." They were convinced that a "storm" from Missouri was about "to burst upon the devoted heads of the freemen of Kansas" and "perhaps to deluge Kansas with rivers of blood." The committee urged the state and national organization to help them prepare for the storm, while things were relatively calm, with an adequate supply of arms and ammunition and men. But, with a veiled reference, perhaps, to John Brown, they called only for "moral heroes" who would not follow the "principles of Border Ruffianism."

Keywords: Ammunition; Beecher Bibles; Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; State Central Committee of Kansas; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Hunt, George W.; Stearns, C.

Letter, J. D. Webster to James Blood
October 10, 1856
From Chicago, headquarters of the National Kansas Committee, the committee's vice president wrote to authorize Blood to draw on the treasurer for $3,000 "to be expended under authority of the State Kansas Committee." The purpose was to offer "provisions" to needy free state settlers; this was to be the committee's focus, "rather than to aid emigrants to go there."

Keywords: Blood, James; Chicago, Illinois; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief funds; State Central Committee of Kansas

Authors: Webster, J. D.

Letter, L. W. Hoover to Sirs [State Central Committee]
October 24, 1856
This claim, against the funds being distributed by the State Central Committee, was filed by L. W. Hoover, a farmer and freestater who had settled at Wakarusa on June 1, 1856. His crops, etc., were destroyed while he was serving in the militia during "the Washington Creek difficulty" and he had since fallen quite ill and was dependent on help from his neighbors.

Keywords: Free state settlers; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Wakarusa River; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory

Authors: Hover, L. H.

Letter, E. B. Whitman to S. L. Adair
May 15, 1857
Whitman, located in Lawrence, was the general agent for the National Kansas Committee that was distributing relief supplies in Kansas Territory. He wrote that he was sending Adair potatoes and corn to be distributed for planting. Evidently Adair had written him previously about some boxes of supplies he expected and Whitman speculated they were either in Wyandotte or St. Louis on the Steamer Light Foot on the Kansas River.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lightfoot (steamboat); National Kansas Committee; Relief; Steamboats; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, Joseph Gardner to George L. Stearns
June 9, 1860
From Lawrence, Kansas, Joseph Gardner described one of the last battles of the border war. The attack Gardner had feared came "last night between 12 & 1." With the arms Stearns had made available, the attackers were repulsed, but "one of my [Gardner's] colored men, who had fought most nobly," took "a tremendous charge of buck shot" and died. His last words were "fight, fight hard!!"

Keywords: African Americans; Battles; Border ruffians; Clinton, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Firearms; Fugitive slaves; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory

Authors: Gardner, Joseph

Circular, An appeal from Kansas!
December 14, 1860
This circular detailed the beginnings of the Territorial Executive Committee, which was in charge of collecting relief to aid the struggling settlers of Kansas during the drought of 1860. This committee met in Lawrence, Kansas Territory on November 14, 1860 and passed several resolutions. From 24 Kansas counties 101 delegates were present, and out of this number four men were elected officers, including Samuel Pomeroy. The circular concluded with "Suggestions and Directions to those who purpose Aiding us in our Distress."

Keywords: Bodwell, Lewis; Byrd, J. H.; Circulars; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fairchild, George H.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lines, C. B.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Reynolds, Charles; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877

Authors: Byrd, J. H.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Reynolds, Charles ; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877

Invitation to a ball at the Free State Hotel
c. 1858
An invitation to a ball held on January 29, 1859, at the Free State hotel with proceeds going toward refurnishing the hotel.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Blood, James; Branscomb, Charles H.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Emery, James Stanley; Entertainment; Free State Hotel; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; McClure, W. M.; Mead, Andrew J.; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Searl, Albert D.; Smith, George W.; Winchell, J. M.

Authors: Byrd, J. H.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Reynolds, Charles ; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877

Announcement, Grand Opening Ball at the Eldridge House, New Year's Eve
December 31, 1858
This announcement advertises a Grand Opening Ball held at the Eldridge House in Lawrence, Kansas on December 31, 1858. It lists committee of arrangement and floor managers.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Balls (parties); Blood, James; Branscomb, Charles H.; Davis, Alson C.; Deitzler, George W.; Eldridge House; Entertainment; Farnsworth, Loring; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Pratt, Caleb S.; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Stinson, Thomas N.; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Authors: Byrd, J. H.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Reynolds, Charles ; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877

Announcement of Masonic Festival
December 27, 1859
Announcement of a Masonic Festival to be held at Masonic Hall, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, for the public installation of the officers of Lawrence Lodge No. 6 Ancient Free and Accepted Masons (AFAM).

Keywords: Clubs; Community life; Fraternal Organizations; Freemasons; Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Ancient Free and Accepted Masons Lawrence Lodge No. 6

Letter, L. B. Russell and C. J. Higginson to Charles H. Branscomb
October 1, 1856
Le Baron Russell and Charles J. Higginson, members of the New England Emigrant Aid Company Executive Committee, wrote from Boston to Charles H. Branscomb in Kansas. Russell and Higginson informed Branscomb, an agents for the company, that he would oversee the rebuilding of the Free State Hotel in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. The hotel had been destroyed during the May 21, 1856 sack of Lawrence.

Keywords: Branscomb, Charles H.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Free State Hotel; Higginson, Charles J.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Russell, Le Baron

Authors: Higginson, Charles J.; Russell, Le Baron

Letter, John F. King to Tho. Ewing Jr
July 1, 1858
Ewing's correspondent, John F. King of Lawrence, had just given testimony in the Lane-Jenkins hearing that supported Lane's testimony that he shot Gaius Jenkins in self-defense on June 3, 1858, and wrote to provide Ewing (one of Lane's attorneys) with some information regarding "the exact position of the court." In the preliminary hearing, conducted by three justices of the peace (Erastus D. Ladd and two others) beginning on June 15, the decision was that no murder had been committed.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Jenkins, Gaius; Justices of the peace; King, John F.; Ladd, Erastus D.; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: King, John F.

Letter, John Doy to Mr. Strong
October 19, 1854
John Doy, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to a Mr. Strong, described an incident in which a Westport, Missouri man charged him extra money for notary services because he "was a Yankee."

Keywords: Antislavery; Doy, John; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Notaries; Proslavery

Authors: Doy, John

Letter, C. Robinson to Rev. E. E. Hale
April 9, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Edward Everett Hale, commented that Free State supporters were forming military companies in response to perceived "outrageous conduct" by Missourians during the March 30, 1855, election of representatives for the territorial legislature. Robinson asked Hale to send two hundred Sharp's rifles and two cannon for the use of Lawrence settlers.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state; Guns; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, Caleb S. Pratt to George L. Stearns
May 30, 1860
Pratt, who seemed to have been acting as Stearns' agent in Lawrence at this time, wrote regarding the Joseph Gardner request for firearms. On his own initiative, Pratt "allowed him [Gardner] to take 7 Rifles and 4 sabres to his house with permission to use the same if necessary . . ." This was a temporary loan that awaited Stearns' endorsement.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Firearms; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Pratt, Caleb S.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867

Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.

Letter, G. [George] W. Brown to Friend [John A.] Halderman
November 19, 1859
In a brief note, something of a follow up to his November 1 letter, G. W. Brown told Halderman that 150 copies of "to-days" (November 19) Herald of Freedom had been sent by "Express" and that another 150 would go out the next day. "I think your friends will be pleased with the present number," wrote the editor, "as it more than sustains all I have said in the past in regard to old John Brown, besides it gives some raps at Conway which will be difficult to overcome."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Herald of Freedom; Newspapers

Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915

Letter, S. [Samuel] Medary to My Dear Sir [John A. Halderman]
December 10, 1859
From Lecompton, territorial Governor Samuel Medary wrote to J. A. Halderman to express his disappointment with his (Medary's) and the Democratic Party's showing in the December 6 elections for state offices under the Wyandotte Constitution. Medary ran against Charles Robinson in the "state's" first gubernatorial contest and lost 7,908 to 5,395. Medary made a number of interesting observations in what amounted to a post election analysis of the outcome. The party should have won, in Medary's estimation, but as a result they would "have to submit to the eternal disgrace of having it [Kansas] go forth as a Black Old John Brown state."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution

Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864

Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to Friend [Captain James] Montgomery
January 23, 1859
William Hutchinson, writing from Lawrence to Captain James Montgomery, described reports of an effort by John Brown to liberate a free state prisoner being held at Paris, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Paris, Kansas Territory

Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904

Letter, S.C.S [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [C. Robinson]
December 29, 1858
In this letter from Lawrence, December 29, 1858, Smith mentions a few business matters (e.g., the railroad convention) but concentrates on the border conflict, with specific criticism leveled at John Brown and James Montgomery. "Captains Brown & Montgomery continue their 'reign of terror' in Linn and Bourbon counties. . . ."

Keywords: African Americans; Bleeding Kansas; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Newspapers; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad conventions; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves; Smith, Samuel C.

Authors: Smith, Samuel C.

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
Benjamin S. Hancock submitted claim # 163 for agricultural equipment, livestock, and crops that were destroyed at various times in 1855 and 1856. His list of livestock and other items claim is very detailed. He lived near Lecompton in Douglas County. His losses were caused by the territorial militia under the command of several including William Martin, John Randolph, Colonel Titus, General Richardson, and General Stringfellow. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Crops; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hancock, Benjamin S.; Livestock; Martin, William; Militia; Randolph, John; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Stringfellow, John H.; Titus, Henry Theodore

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Letter, Geo. W. Deitzler to Friend [Samuel N.] Wood
August 18, 1860
In the wake of Abraham Lincoln's nomination, May 16, 1860, as the Republican presidential nominee, Deitzler wrote from Lawrence that Mark W. Delahay had gone to Springfield, Illinois, on behalf of "our Gen'l J. H. Lane," and the latter was going East soon, "to howl frightfully against Democracy & in favor of 'Old Abe' & so secure, if possible, the confidence of that good man." Deitzler was worried about the new administration, if it was to be controlled by the likes of Lane and Delahay. On another subject, in behalf of a friend, Deitzler asked about the new territorial divorce law, and Wood's availability to handle such a case "in a quiet way."

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Delahay, Mark W.; Divorce law and legislation; Election, Presidential, 1860; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lincoln administration; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Authors: Deitzler, George W.

Letter, E. R. Falley to Kansas Central Committee
c. 1857
In this undated letter from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, E. R. Falley informed the Kansas Central Committee that he lost a gun loaned to him by "Mr. Wilder" (D. W. Wilder?) while serving with a free-state militia company at Blanton's bridge (Napoleon B. Blanton, on the Wakarusa in Douglas County) in June 1856. Wilder was demanding payment, and Falley asked the committee to reimburse "Mr. Wilder for said gun."

Keywords: Blantons Bridge; Falley, Edwin R.; Guns; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Wilder, Daniel Webster, 1832-1911

Authors: Falley, Edwin R.

Inventory, Catalogue of . . . The Property of the Kansas Central Committee, Lawrence
n.d.
The complete title of this undated inventory is a "Catalogue of Horses, Waggons [sic], Harnesses, &, the property of the Kansas Central Committee, Lawrence. Twenty-eight different horses or "spans" of horses are identified (e.g., "One Sorrell Colt"), along with four mules and forty harnesses and seventeen wagons.

Keywords: Free state cause; Horses; Kansas Central Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Wagons

Authors: Kansas State Central Committee

Minutes of Executive Committee, Kansas State Central Committee
October 22, 1856
Dated Lawrence, October 22, 1856, these are apparently the minutes of the first meeting the Kansas State Central Committee's executive committee, chaired by James M. Winchell with George S. Hillyer as secretary. Eight resolutions are recorded, authorizing the committee to provide assistance, etc.

Keywords: Free state cause; Hillyer, George S.; Horses; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Minutes; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877

Authors: Kansas State Central Committee

Minutes, First Meeting of Territorial Central Committee of the Free State Party
September 23, 1858
The first meeting of the Free State Party's territorial central committee was convened in Lawrence on September 23, 1858, with, according to the minutes, the following individuals in attendance: James Blood, temporary chair; P. H. Townsend; W. F. M. Arny, and James M. Winchell, along with J. C. Douglas who held proxy for John McKee. Among other things, the committee resolved to nominate Samuel W. Greer for territorial superintendent of public instruction.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blood, James; Free State Convention; Free State Party; Greer, Samuel Wiley; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Political conventions; Superintendent of Public Instruction; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877

Authors: Free State Executive Committee

Receipt, Kansas State Central Committee
October 22, 1856
In light of the receipts that precede this one, dated Lawrence, October 22, 1856, it might be assumed that the provisions and clothing listed here were intended for the Lecompton prisoners. The list was signed by Willard Colburn and included shirts, pants, quilts, etc.

Keywords: Free state support; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Receipts

Authors: Colburn, Willard

Receipt, N. M'Cracken to William Hutchinson
November 27, 1856
Unlike most of the other receipts for money or merchandise saved by James Blood for the Kansas State Central Committee, this one was on a pre-printed form and issued by "N'Mcracken" of Leavenworth for merchandise to be delivered to William Hutchinson at Lawrence. It was actually signed by J. F. Morgan, who apparently delivered the goods from Leavenworth to Lawrence and "received pay of J. Blood" on January 26, 1857.

Keywords: Blood, James; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Receipts; Relief; Transportation

Authors: Morgan, J. F.

Photograph, Free State Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
1856
A painting of the Free State Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas Territory by Robert O. Gibbons. In May 1856, the proslavery sheriff of Douglas County, Samuel Jones, led a posse into Lawrence, the major Free-State stronghold. The chief damage was the burning of the Free-state Hotel shown in this painting.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Gibbons, Robert O.; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations

Authors: Gibbons, Robert O.

Photograph, Shooting of Gaius Jenkins
July 24, 1858
A page from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 24, 1858, showing the shooting of Gaius Jenkins by James H. Lane, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, June 3, 1858. The page also contains portraits of James H. Lane and Gaius Jenkins.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations

Authors: Unknown

Photograph, Ruins of the Free State Hotel
1856
An illustration of the Free State Hotel ruins, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856, copied from Kansas: Its Interior and Exterior Life by Mrs. Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856

Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911

Photograph, Ferry crossing the Kansas River
1857
Drawing of a ferry crossing the Kansas River with a view of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1857, copied from Beyond the Mississippi by Albert D. Richardson, 1867.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Ferries; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Wagons

Authors: Hogan, Thomas

Letter, C. Robinson to Geo. R. Morton Esq
March 9, 1859
In this typed "transcript" of a letter from Lawrence dated March 9, 1859, Charles Robinson confirmed Morton apparent conclusion that Robinson preferred Governor Salmon P. Chase for president in 1860. Robinson considered Chase "the purest & best Statesman in the country," and thought he was "more available than any other man of whatever shade of political faith," including William Seward. Robinson also comments on the Kansas scene which was "badly cursed with the most unscrupulous demagogues that ever afflicted any people, & there is at present but little union of effort or harmony of action among the free State men."

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Antislavery perspective; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Conway, Martin Franklin; Herald of Freedom; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Morton, George R.; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; Vaughan, Champion; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Beware of frauds! Down with the disorganizers!
1858
Discussion of the slate of candidates for a constitutional convention (Leavenworth?), cautioning free state men to beware of attempts to divide them and thus weaken their ability to challenge the pro-slavery force. It also warns about split Free State tickets.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Emery, James Stanley; Free State Convention; Free State Party; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Authors: Central Committee

Letter, E. Nute, Jr. to Rev. E. E. Hale
October 3, 1855
Ephraim Nute, a Unitarian minister writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Edward Everett Hale, described the natural environment, economic developments, politics, religious affairs, and daily life in Kansas Territory. Nute commented on the need for more saw mills, efforts to construct a church, prospects for "free-thinking Christianity," and the possibility of armed conflict in the territory.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Churches; Construction; Daily life; Economic development; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Houses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Sawmills; Timber; Unitarian churches; Violence

Authors: Nute, Ephraim

General Order No. 1, Headquarters of Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
July 18, 1857
This printed document was issued by James H. Lane and indicated that Lane had been authorized by the Free State government in Topeka to organize militia companies in order to protect ballot boxes on election day. It included instructions on how to organize the companies.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Anti-Slavery Mass Meeting
November 26, 1859
Advertisement of an anti-slavery meeting which was to be held on December 2, 1859, in Lawrence on the day that John Brown was executed.. This advertisement is on display in the Kansas Museum of History, Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Letter, Josiah Miller to Father and Mother
October 15, 1855
Josiah Miller, publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper, was writing home about a recent election, and its assumed positive results for the Free State Party.

Keywords: Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Miller, Josiah

Authors: Miller, Josiah

Letter, T. W. Higginson to Dear Sir [William Hutchinson]
October 27, 1856
This letter and accompanying list of forthcoming relief supplies (shirts, dresses, over coats, etc.) were directed to William Hutchinson, "Treasurer Kanzas Committee," by Thomas Wentworth Higginson of Brattleboro, Vermont. Three boxes of clothing had been sent and Higginson reminded Hutchinson that it was "very important that in this case & in all cases, prompt acknowledgement should be made of the receipt of everything contributed to Kanzas." People needed to know that their contributions were getting through and that they were appreciated.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief

Authors: Higginson, Thomas Wentworth

Letter, E. B. Whitman to Dear Sir [Samuel Adair, presumably]
October 5, 1857
Whitman wrote from Lawrence, presumably, to Samuel Adair to ask for his assistance in distributing remaining clothing before winter. He included instructions for notifying the public of the availability of relief goods and indicated that the first priority for receiving materials is for who Adair "knows to be in absolute want." Whitman felt the task of distribution should not take more than one week. He also wanted Adair to estimate the number of poor families in his community.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to A. A. Lawrence
September 28, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Amos A. Lawrence, expressed his optimism about the prospects of Kansas entering the union as a free state within one year. Robinson also informed Lawrence that he had drawn upon him for $1000 to cover New England Emigrant Aid Company expenses.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Indian floats; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, S. Cabot, Jr. to James Blood, Esq
December 28, 1856
Samuel Cabot, who was directing a Boston effort to send clothing to Kansas Territory, advised Blood he was aware of the goods that "had been stopped at St Louis by the closure of navigation." He also comments on the reluctance of some to accept relief; these individuals were to be advised that "This supply is not a mere charity but a contribution of the North to soldiers, who have been bravely battling for the case of freedom & in defense of our common rights, against the Slave Oligarchy." Also included is a printed letter titled "Clothing For Kanzas," listing New England contributions.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Kansas State Central Committee; Missouri River; Nute, Ephraim; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Slave power; St. Louis, Missouri

Authors: Cabot, Samuel

Diary
February 1, 1859 - April 30, 1859
This three month excerpt from a personal diary probably was written by Willard O. Hubbell. The diary described Hubbell's routine daily activities as a twenty-five year old bachelor working as a tinner in Lawrence. Hubbell was active in fraternal organizations and frequently attended dances and other social gatherings.

Keywords: Clubs; Community life; Dance parties; Diaries; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; Freemasons; Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Hubbell, Willard Orvis

Rules and Regulations, Eldridge House
May 10, 1856
The Eldridge House (or hotel) was built in Lawrence, Kansas Territory by the New England Emigrant Aid Society. It was something of a headquarters for the free state movement and as such it was targeted for destruction by Sheriff Jones' proslavery posse, which sacked Lawrence on May 21, 1856, less than two weeks after this document was created. This pocket-sized card contained twelve "rules and regulations" for residents, including the admonition to "lock and bolt the door when you retire," a prohibition against "all kinds of Gaming," and the notice that "persons without Baggage are expected to pay in advance."

Keywords: Boardinghouses; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Eldridge, Thomas B.; Gaming restrictions; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Eldridge, T. B.; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899

Receipt, Thomas J. Aliff to N. B. Blanton
December 3, 1856
Thomas J. Aliff, one of the free-state prisoners held at Lecompton in the fall of 1856 (see previous document #101288) signed this receipt to Napoleon B. Blanton for "one pair of Drawers" and "one flanel [sic] Shirt." The total cost of these items was indicated as being $3.75.

Keywords: Blanton, Napolean Bonaparte; Blood, James; Clothing and dress; Free state militia; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Militia; Receipts

Authors: Aliff, Thomas J.

Letter, C. Robinson, Camp Sacket, to Hon. J. C. Fremont
July 28, 1856
While a prisoner at Camp Sackett near Lecompton, Robinson informed Fremont that James Emery was traveling east and should be used in Fremont's presidential campaign as a stump speaker as he "can do good service to the cause." Robinson also indicated that he did not know if the Pierce administration had decided whether or not to hang Robinson and his fellow prisoners.

Keywords: Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Election, Presidential, 1856; Elections; Emery, James Stanley; Free state cause; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Prisoners; Prisons; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, P. R. Brooks, Lawrence, K. T. to his father
June 6, 1858
This letter described the land claim dispute between James Lane and Gaius Jenkins, which ended with Lane killing Jenkins. Brooks wrote that Jenkins was well respected, mentioned his widow and children and indicated that his funeral was well attended. He also made passing reference to the "Linn county tragedy."

Keywords: Brooks, Paul R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Violence; Violent deaths

Authors: Brooks, P. R.

Certificate, Claim Debt of Kansas Territory
July 2, 1859
This document, issued by the Auditor's Office, Lecompton, K.T., promised to pay James S. Emery $1,045.25 for "Adjustments and Payments of Claims." The portion of the certificate for indicating that the claim was paid was blank.

Keywords: Debt; Kansas Territory. Auditor

Authors: Kansas Territory. Auditor; Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Letter, Thomas A. Hendricks to John A. Halderman
January 16, 1856
Thomas A. Hendricks, commissioner, General Land Office, Lecompton, wrote to J. A. Halderman of Leavenworth regarding a request for information about the preemption laws. He indicated that circulars were being sent and briefly discussed Indian reserves that are not subject to preemption but rather were "to be sold by the United States, on account and for the benefit of said Indians."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Delaware Indians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Hendricks, Thomas A.; Indian reserves; Iowa Indians; Native Americans; Preemption law United States; United States. General Land Office

Authors: Hendricks, Thomas A.

Certificate, Lecompton Town Company, one share
July 10, 1856
William L. Blair was issued this certificate for one share of stock in the Lecompton Town Company on July 10, 1856, signed by the company's secretary, Samuel J. Jones, notorious sheriff of Douglas County. The certificate was apparently transferred at some point to J. A. Halderman.

Keywords: Blair, William L.; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lecompton Town Company; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Town site speculation

Authors: Lecompton Town Company

Letter, Wilson Shannon to John A. Halderman
January 4, 1857
Wilson Shannon, an Ohio Democrat who preceded John W. Geary as governor of KT (August 1856--August 1857) and was considered a proslave partisan, wrote Halderman from Lecompton regarding some legal matters--specifically, "some land warrants" being sent to Halderman in Leavenworth. Obviously, Halderman the attorney was trusted and respected by men on both sides of the political imbroglio.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Land titles; Lawyers; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Ohio; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877

Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877

Letter, Rush Elmore to James Stallworth
January 11, 1858
From Lecompton, Rush Elmore, an associate justice of the territorial supreme court, a leading delegate at the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, and a slave holder, wrote this letter of introduction for Halderman to "hand" the Hon. James A. Stallworth, a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Elmore's home state of Alabama. Halderman was apparently making a trip to Washington, D.C., and Elmore asked the Congressman to show him every courtesy. Elmore called his "friend" Halderman "a gentleman of some prominence not only in his county but throughout the Territory," and wrote "You will be able to learn many important & interesting facts in relation to the Territory and its Political parties from him."

Keywords: Alabama; Democratic Party (U.S.); Elmore, Rush; Halderman, John Adams; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Stallworth, James A.; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.

Authors: Elmore, Rush

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856
1856
View of Massachusetts Street from Fort to Ave, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, March, 1856.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets

Authors: Elmore, Rush

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
c. 1858
A view of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, looking southeast from Mt. Oread, late 1850s or early 1860s. The photograph was taken by W. H. Lamon.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lamon, W. H.; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Stereographs

Authors: Lamon, W. H.

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
c. 1860
A view of Massachusetts Street looking north from Henry Street, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, early 1860s. The photograph was taken by W. H. Lamon.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Covered wagons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Horses; Lamon, W. H.; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Stereographs; Streets; Wagons

Authors: Lamon, W. H.

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas
c. 1863
A view of Massachusetts Street looking north , Lawrence, Kansas, 1863-1864. This carte-de-visite shows buildings constructed during the Kansas territorial period.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets

Authors: Lamon, W. H.

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas
c. 1865
A view of Massachusetts Street looking south, Lawrence, Kansas, 1865-1866. This carte-de-visite shows buildings constructed during the territorial period of Kansas history.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Horses; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets; Wagons

Authors: Lamon, W. H.

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, c. 1856
c. 1856
A photographic view of Massachusetts Street, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, c. 1856.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets

Authors: Lamon, W. H.

Daybook
July 4, 1856 through June 19, 1857
Account book entries recorded Emery's loss of personal property as a result of July 1856 violence between free state and proslavery advocates. Emery also recorded his expenses for making repairs to his damaged law office.

Keywords: Account books; Arson; Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Fires; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lawyers; Violence

Authors: Emery, James Stanley

Deed for Nathaniel S. Higgins
November 5, 1856
Nathaniel S. Higgins of Fair Haven, Massachusetts purchased half of an undivided lot (Number 30) and the stone or concrete building currently occupied by Emery on Massachusetts Street, Lawrence, from James S. Emery for $500. If Emery was able to acquire title to share number 97 of the town of Lawrence from the government, the sale of the half lot and the building would not take effect.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Higgins, Nathaniel S.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate transactions; Town shares

Authors: Emery, James Stanley

Receipt, James M. Arthur to Kansas State Central Committee
December 27, 1856
This receipt, dated Lawrence, December 27, 1856, read as follows: "Received . . . Of Kansas Central Committee six U S. Breach loading Rifles and two U S Muskets one Box U S Caps and six Bullet molds for Rifles Said arms to be returned on the order of said Kansas Central Committee."

Keywords: Ammunition; Blood, James; Free state militia; Guns; Kansas Central Committee; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Arthur, James M.

Receipt, Received of J. Blood for Boarding . . . Mary Jones
June 15, 1857
The Kansas State Central Committee/Blood receipt was to Mary Jones of Lawrence for "boarding and taking care of Mr. Leggs [Charles Legge?] destitute children." The total paid was $19.85.

Keywords: Blood, James; Children; Free state support; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Relief

Authors: Jones, Mary

Receipt Book, October - November 1856
October 30, 1856
This Kansas State Central Committee receipt book was one of several in which the committee recorded the various monies, provisions, clothing, etc., that were distributed throughout the territory. Many of the items of clothing were specifically listed for children (e.g., "1 girls calico dress" and "1 pair boys woolen pants"), and many items were received by individuals for distribution among the needy of their particular area.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Blood, James; Children; Clothing and dress; Free state settlers; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Kansas State Central Committee; Merchandise; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Relief; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Authors: Kansas State Central Committee

Record of Arms disbursed by the Kansas State Central Committee
September 24, 1858
Opening with an entry signed by James Montgomery, acknowledging receipt a Sharps rifle and a Colt revolver "to be used in defense of Kansas," this small leather-bound volume contains over 30 such entries for numerous weapons.

Keywords: Blood, James; Free state militia; Guns; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Kansas State Central Committee; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Kansas State Central Committee

Photograph, Edward Payson Fitch
c. 1860
Portrait of Edward Payson Fitch, a native of Massachusetts, who arrived in Kansas Territory in 1854. He was member of the third group of settlers sponsored by the New England Emigrant Aid Company. On August 21, 1863, he was killed in his house by one of Quantrill's raiders. The daguerreotype was made by Clark's Daguerreotype Rooms, No. 59 Court Street, Boston, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Daguerreotypes; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fassett's Gallery; Fitch, Edward Payson; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations

Authors: Clark's Daguerreotype Rooms, No. 59 Court Street, Boston.

Photograph, R. L. Williams house
1857
Stone house built by R. L. Williams in the summer of 1857, Franklin, Kansas Territory. The photograph was taken c. 1890.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin buildings; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Houses; Photographs and Illustrations; Williams, R. L.

Authors: Clark's Daguerreotype Rooms, No. 59 Court Street, Boston.

Photograph, Camp Saunders, Kansas Territory
1856
View of Camp Saunders, a Pro-Slavery stronghold, located 12 miles southwest of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Camp Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Fort Saunders); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery

Authors: Clark's Daguerreotype Rooms, No. 59 Court Street, Boston.

Photograph, Pioneers near Lawrence, Kansas Territory
1856
Unidentified pioneers near Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Pioneers

Authors: Clark's Daguerreotype Rooms, No. 59 Court Street, Boston.

Photograph, James Henry Lane
1857
Photograph of an illustration of James Henry Lane "shouting defiance into the convention's ears and the battery's muzzles at Constitution Hall," Lecompton, Kansas Territory. The illustration is copied from Life of General James H. Lane by John I. Speer.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Lecompton buildings; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations

Authors: Rohe, A.

Photograph, Lecompton, Kansas Territory, 1858
1858
Photograph of an illustration showing the city of Lecompton, the current territorial capital of Kansas, copied from Leslie's, December 25, 1858.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations

Authors: Beaulieu

Letter, S. [Sara Robinson] to "My own dear Husband" [Charles Robinson]
April 29, 1860
From Lawrence, Sara Robinson wrote a mostly personal letter to her husband upon her return from a visit to the KC area (Quindaro, etc.)--apparently to see Charles Robinson before his departure for the East.

Keywords: Kansas City, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911

Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911

Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My dear S [Sara Robinson]
January 11, 1861
From Lawrence, K.T., Robinson wrote his wife Sara, who was still in the East, concerning Jim Lane's efforts to destroy Robinson's influence. The governor was not too worried, however, and wrote that he could "by paying a little attention to the matter make him smell worse than ever. He and his friends are already beginning to falter in their course for fear that I will turn the tables on them which I can do with ease.

Keywords: Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Kansas Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lincoln administration; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; United States. Senate; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
Claim #240 was filed on behalf of Ann Hooper, who lived with her son John L. Hooper, near Lawrence. The items listed were destroyed or stolen in August and September, 1856, and included animals, crops and household items. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Crops; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hooper, Ann; Hooper, John L.; Horses; House furnishings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Livestock; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Women

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

General Lane's answer to the President's message
February 13, 1858
Address by General Lane in response to the President's message about Lane and Kansas. Lane rebukes the President's message about him and Kansas. Described the many elections that Kansas had gone through and the intrusion of Missourians into Kansas to rig the elections.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Antislavery; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature)

Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Letter, Will [James W. Denver] to My Dear Wife
January 4, 1858
James W. Denver, governor of Kansas Territory, wrote from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to his wife. Denver mentioned the January 4, 1858 election on the Lecompton Constitution. He described the tendency of Kansas Territory residents to exaggerate claims of violence, his general dislike of Kansas, and his desire to leave the territory as soon as possible.

Keywords: Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Denver, Louisa; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Propaganda

Authors: Denver, James William, 1817-1892

Militia Commission, issue by James H. Lane to Joel Grover
November 27, 1855
This printed document, headed with the name "James H. Lane," announced the election and certification of Joel Grover as colonel of the 6th Regiment, First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers, raised "to defend the City of Lawrence from threatened destruction by foreign invaders." It is dated November 27, 1855, and signed "J. H. Lane," general commanding.

Keywords: Border ruffians; First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers; Free state militia; Grover, Joel; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855

Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Account Book, 1856-57
December 1856 - April 1857
This cloth bound journal, identified as "Dr. Chas Robinson Account Book, 1856-1866," contains territorial entries for 1856 and 1857 only--entries such as, "S. W. Simpson To Joel Walker For Draft (for the purchase of land)" for $500 and "Notes Receivable // To Sales of Stock // For Thaddeus Hyatt's Note . . . The understanding is that Hyatt shall not receive his certificate for shares until he has put on the Kaw River a Steamboat of 40 tons buthen, worth $5000., and suitable to navigating the Kaw River."

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Financial statements; Grover, Joel; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Steamboats; Walker, Joel; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Robinson, Charles

List, List of individuals and clothing needed by them
1856
According to an attached note that cites the Herald of Freedom, November 15, 1856, this "list of individuals and clothing" was needed by a group of free-state prisoners being held at Lecompton. A note at the end is signed by A. Cutler (or Cutter) and addressed to Mr. J. Crocker. The list includes mostly shirts, shoes, socks, pants, hats, and blankets, but a Porterfield "needed" a "half pint brandy."

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Free state cause; Free state militia; Herald of Freedom; Lecompton, Kansas Territory

Authors: Cutler, A.

Letter, G. W. Smith, Jr., to Gentlemen of the Kansas Central Committee
July 17, 1857
George W. Smith, Jr., Lawrence, signed this letter, requesting a supply of "arms . . . for distribution among the Free State men who have formed themselves into Companies," Captain, "Munger Battalion, Free State Forces." Smith wrote that he led "a force of 32 mounted" men, most of whom were veterans of the "wars of Kansas," and requested the loan of "32 sabres [sic] and any revolvers that you may have to give them."

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Free state militia; Guns; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Smith, Jr., George W.

Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Friends
May 23, 1856
Written just two days after the sack of Lawrence, this letter contained Learnard's observations of and reflections on "the fearful disaster to which this unfortunate town has been subjected." The town's citizens, wrote Learnard, chose not to resist the authority of the U.S. marshal but were nevertheless brutalized by Sheriff Jones and a posse of Missourians. He also mentioned Governor Reeder, Governor Shannon and David R. Atchison, who "made a speech."

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Missourians; Proslavery support; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence

Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.

Letter, O.E. Learnard to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
July 23, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote his father, S.T. Learnard, that he was disappointed in the attitude of people in Vermont and throughout the North who continued to support the Pierce administration. If they did so because they were Democrats, they should learn from Andrew H. Reeder, J. H. Lane, William Y. Roberts, and others who had seen the light. Learnard admitted "a few cases" of free state retaliation "upon their oppressors," and then gave some "facts" about the "Patawotamie" incident, while not mentioning John Brown by name. Learnard believed that the reports about mangled bodies were untrue.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Northern Democrats; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Roberts, William Young; Vermont; Violence; Violent deaths

Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.

Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
September 9, 1856
From Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Oscar Learnard wrote briefly to some Vermont friends of his recent "military" experience as "Lieutenant Colonel of the 4th regiment (cavalry) of Kansas Volunteers." At the time, Learnard said "the whole Territory presents a scene of wide spread desolation," but he also claimed Kansas was a beautiful place full of opportunity for agriculturalists and real estate investors. At present, however, one should only come if well armed and via "the new road" [Lane Trail].

Keywords: Agriculture; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state regiment; Lane Trail; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Militia; Real estate investment; Vermont

Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.

Letter, G. W. Brown to Dear Sir & Brother
July 28, 1858
Writing on International Order of Oddfellows letterhead, George W. Brown of Lawrence informed his correspondent, apparently of White Cloud, Doniphan County, that he had enclosed an application for a subordinate lodge charter. The recipient of this letter might have been Sol Miller.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Clubs; Community life; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; Independent Order of Odd Fellows; International Order of Odd Fellows; Kansas Chief; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; White Cloud, Kansas Territory

Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915

Account Book, 1858-59
January 1858 - June 1859
This cloth bound journal, identified as "Account Book of Gov. Charles Robinson, January 1, 1858--June 15, 1872," began with an "Inventory of Property belonging to C. Robinson," land and shares, as well as a list of people to whom he owed money. The inventory referred to Lawrence property, a "Wyandotte Float," and shares in the towns of Topeka, Quindaro, etc.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Financial statements; Fitchburg, Massachusetts; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Wyandot Float; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Account Book, 1858-1872
March 1858
Charles Robinson's March 1858 "Account Book" entries included land deals involving James Blood and another with Alfred Gray of Quindaro.

Keywords: Account books; Blood, James; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Gray, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Account Book, 1858-1872
August - September 1858
Robinson's August and September 1858 "Account Book" entries included several for the "Quindaro Company," which was being actively promoted and developed at this time. Specific items included reference to the purchase of "2 yoke cattle" for $150, "expenses of C.R. at Washington," and an itemized list of supplies and services for the infant river town.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Financial statements; Gray, Alfred; Kansas Land Trust Company; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro Town Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Schools; Stevens, Robert S.; Town companies; Washington, D.C.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Legal Document, Abandonment of Land near Lawrence
October 15, 1855
This document dated October 15, 1855, and signed by Caleb S. Pratt, Levin B. Dennis, Joshia Smith, and R. T. Hooton, appeared to be their statement of abandonment for any claim to "lands situated in the vicinity of Lawrence" (640 acres) as defined within the agreement. It seemed that Charles Robinson was to locate "a Wyandotte Indian Float" on this same section of land.

Keywords: Dennis, Levin B.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hooten, R. T.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pratt, Caleb S.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Joshia; Updegraff, E.; Wyandot Float; Wyandot Indians

Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.; Updegraff, E.

Letter, G. [George] W. Brown to John Halderman
November 1, 1859
From Lawrence, the editor of the Herald of Freedom, George W. Brown, wrote Halderman concerning the next issue of the paper which was to be "an awful one for Conway--presumably Martin F. Conway, an active free state partisan who was to be elected the first U.S. congressman to represent Kansas on December 6, 1859. Obviously, the newspaper had less impact than Brown anticipated, as J. A. Halderman, the Democratic nominee, lost decisively to Conway, 7,674 to 5,567. Brown had believed that his forthcoming issue should be widely distributed and was seeking additional orders from Halderman.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Conway, Martin Franklin; Halderman, John Adams; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Herald of Freedom; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Newspapers; Partisan press; Topeka Tribune; United States. Congress

Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915

Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
September 30, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father, Thomas Parrott. In this letter, Marcus told his father about the events that had befallen him, his letters and possessions being seized by border ruffians. He added that a letter from his brother, Edwin, in which Edwin suggested the assassination of Judge Lecompte, was drawing attention to the two of them. Marcus describes Lawrence as a dangerous place for free state supporters at this time, stating that Governor Geary "has failed to accomplish anything" in his consideration of the uprisings between free state and proslavery men.

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas

Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879

Letter, R. J. Hinton to Rev. T. W. Higginson
November 6, 1856
This letter from R. J. Hinton was written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory and was addressed to Rev. Higginson, a radical abolitionist and agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee. The letter is filled with information about the struggle for Kansas. Hinton mentioned the trials of the free state prisoners at Lecompton and Governor Geary's order to arrest other free state figures. Colonel Titus was also threatening to help the U. S. troops arrest free state men. Apparently a Captain Homes [sic] from New York had become so frustrated that he had collected several followers and was determined to administer his own brand of justice. Hinton did not completely approve of such action, claiming that while it was understandable, it was "not generally beneficial to our cause." Hinton had experienced some personal troubles as well, when some thieves who claimed to be free state men carried off the belongings of his company, settled at Lexington. The letter concluded with updates about the various men in his company.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dunning, John; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Lexington Township, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Proslavery activities; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; White, Martin

Authors: Hinton, R. J.

Letter, John Doy to Friend [Thomas W.] Higginson
February 24, 1857
John Doy wrote from Lawrence to Thomas W. Higginson, relating the struggles of his family and other matters of interest in the territory. He had to sell the last of his corn crop and his pig just to make ends meet during the winter. He also briefly mentioned the Central Committee, stating that he did not ask them for relief funds or provisions, because recently they had acted improperly towards some ladies. He also informed Higginson of an altercation at Lecompton, where Missourians shot a storekeeper named Mr. Shepard, and "Sherrard their Bully late of Virginia was shot and died in a day or two." In addition, Doy spoke of the "bogus officers" and their work in the territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Casualties; Doy, John; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas Central Committee; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Relief; Violence

Authors: Doy, John

Expense Sheet, Edmund Jones to H. Hill Jr
November 8, 1855
This expense sheet, signed by Edmund Jones, was apparently written by Hiram Hill. It includes amounts received by Jones during his oversight of the construction of Hill's house in Lawrence, the amount paid to Jones and Mr. Johnson (the plasterer), and the balance. The last column shows Hill's total expense for materials, labor, and land.

Keywords: Construction; Cost and standard of living; Finance; Financial statements; Hill, Hiram; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Town development

Authors: Hill, Hiram ; Jones, Edmund

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
June 6, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, in the wake of the Sack of Lawrence. Simpson told Hill he would "not attempt to give any description of what we have gone through, and the state of affairs here. And again business is completely prostrated and nothing is doing ". He discussed briefly some of Hill's property affairs, and stated in his closure that "it is war and murder constantly", though he added in a postscript that "the free state cause never looked more promising."

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Skirmishing; Violence; Whitney, Thaddeus L.

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Letter, C. A. W. [Charles A. Wright] to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
June 16, 1856
Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Wright spoke passionately about the free state cause after the Sack of Lawrence and the Pottawatomie Massacre, imploring "eastern friends" for help. In Wright's words, "talk will do no good that time is past what we now need is men money and rifles". He added that southerners were "using every effort" to drive free staters from the Territory. U.S. Troops were attempting to disband the ruffians, though according to Wright they only dispersed and reorganized elsewhere.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state cause; Hill, Hiram; Skirmishing; United States. Army; Wright, Charles A.

Authors: Wright, Charles A.

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
June 17, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported the recent shooting death of a free state man by a proslavery Tennessee man. Despite this and other eruptions of violence, Simpson declared that " Lawrence as a city is yet in existence and from the character of the people I think we shall long exist" and that "slavery will cut her own life". He displayed little faith that the Territory's present government could produce and uphold a proslavery constitution. Simpson also mentioned Hill's property holdings, all full and paying rent.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Violent deaths; Whitney, Thaddeus L.

Authors: Wright, Charles A.

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr.
July 7, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported to Hill that the Topeka Legislature had recently been dispersed by U.S. Troops under order of President Pierce, and that southern emigrants were coming into Kansas Territory by "hundreds" while the northern emigrants found themselves forced out by proslavery supporters. Short on time, Simpson kept his report regarding Hill's properties short; Whitney had almost finished his home, offers had been made on various lots, Mr. Fuller continued to be a problem.

Keywords: Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
July 24, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill, reporting on the status of Hill's various real estate investments, "all doing well". Simpson was able to take possession of a town lot owned by tenant Fuller instead of a rent payment. The majority of the lots of West Lawrence were allotted to Simpson, who intended to build an avenue through it immediately. Simpson expressed for old times back in Massachusetts at the Hill's home, and predicted that the "dark times" in Kansas would pass by the next spring. Meanwhile, he said border ruffians still killed and robbed, only to seek the protection of U.S. Troops and escape punishment.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Skirmishing; Town development; Town lots

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Oddfellows Lodge of White Cloud, Kansas Territory
c. December 15, 1858
This document listed the names of those men who are becoming Charter members of the International Order of Odd Fellows' chapter in White Cloud, Kansas Territory. It also records which members have paid. According to the note on the bottom of the first page, the White Cloud Lodge was instituted on December 15, 1858.

Keywords: Clubs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; International Order of Odd Fellows; White Cloud, Kansas Territory

Authors: International Order of Odd Fellows

Letter, E. Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
July 26, 1855
Edmund Jones wrote to Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to report expenses, update Hill of construction progress, and request money. At this time, S. N. Simpson had returned east, and Jones oversaw the building of Hill's house in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Jones was in debt, unable to pay workers or buy supplies. Mr. Fuller, who seems to have rented another house owned by Hill (implied in S. N. Simpson's letter to Hill written September 4, 1855), refused to pay rent until the roof was repaired. Jones closed with concern for the security of lots in Lawrence.

Keywords: Construction; Cost and standard of living; Financial statements; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Town development; Town lots

Authors: Jones, Edmund

Letter, A. [Augustus] Wattles to Dear Sir [John Brown?]
August 21, 1857
Augustus Wattles wrote to John Brown from Lawrence, August 21, 1857, regarding several matters but focused again on problems within the Free State movement because of a loss of confidence in Charles Robinson's leadership. Robinson had openly criticized G. W. Brown and the Herald of Freedom and the factious party could accomplish little, but Wattles was confident that free staters would vote in and win the October election for territorial legislature.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Herald of Freedom; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Wattles, Augustus

Authors: Wattles, Augustus

Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
January 2, 1859
From Lawrence, K.T., where he went to lobby the territorial legislature on behalf of Sumner's city charter and a "Pikes Peak Express Company," John J. Ingalls wrote to tell his father about the journey that took him through Leavenworth. He made some interesting observations about the condition of the roads and the general discomfort involved in overland travel ("The coaches are constructed with special reference to safety in passing over corduroy roads, through sloughs and ravines, having no regard whatever to the comfort of the passengers."), as well as nice descriptions of both cities, Leavenworth and Lawrence.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Delaware Indians; Eldridge House; Ferries; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Legislature; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pikes Peak gold rush; Roads; Stagecoaches; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Territorial government; Transportation; Wakarusa River

Authors: Ingalls, John James

Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
January 26, 1859
From Lawrence, January 26, 1859, Ingalls began this letter with a description of the territory's pleasant weather, but focused on the activities of the legislature and the status of slavery in Kansas. He was serving as clerk of the "Senate," while looking after Sumner affairs.

Keywords: African Americans; Boundaries - Kansas Territory; Civil rights; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Territorial government; Weather

Authors: Ingalls, John James

Letter, John James Ingalls to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
February 11, 1859
In this brief letter from the Senate Chamber, Lawrence, Kansas, February 11, 1859, Ingalls writes about the bill abolishing slavery in Kansas Territory; it was passed too late to give the legislature a chance to override an almost certain veto by Governor Medary. The bill only passed after a "spirited and angry debate."

Keywords: Civil rights; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Weather

Authors: Ingalls, John James

Letter, E. [Ephraim] Nute to [Edward Everett] Hale
April 28, 1857
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute observed that Francis Serenbetz, a German Congregational minister, and his party of thirty German immigrants were in Lawrence and getting ready to head south to establish a colony on the Neosho River that they planned to name Humboldt. Nute was not optimistic that the Serenbetz party would succeed due to their lack of financial resources. Nute commented that immigration into Kansas continued to increase and estimated that nearly 1,000 people per day entered the territory. He stated that most of the new immigrants were from Western states and "of the right kind to stay." Nute also commented on the lack of saw and grist mills in the territory and blamed the New England Emigrant Aid Company for the deficiency.

Keywords: Collective settlement; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Germans; Gristmills; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Humboldt, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Religious communities; Sawmills; Serenbetz, Francis M.

Authors: Nute, Ephraim

Letter, E. [Ephraim] Nute to [Edward Everett] Hale
August 3, 1857
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute described efforts to establish a high school in Lawrence as well as a university in Kansas Territory. He also advised Hale to pay close attention to the activities of Francis Serenbetz, a German Congregational minister who was the leader of a group of German immigrants who settled in Humboldt, Kansas Territory. In Nute's opinion, Serenbetz was an "unmitigated humbug and nuisance" who came to Kansas for self-interested reasons. Nute urged Hale to stop sending settlers to Kansas who lacked financial resources or a willingness to work to support themselves.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Elections; Emigrant aid companies; Germans; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Schools; Serenbetz, Francis M.; Topeka Constitution; Universities and colleges

Authors: Nute, Ephraim

Letter, Chas. H. Branscomb to Sir [Martin Brimmer]
April 12, 1858
Charles H. Branscomb, a former general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory, wrote from Lawrence to Martin Brimmer, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company Executive Committee. Branscomb defended his performance as general agent for the company and expressed his surprise at having been asked to resign his position.

Keywords: Branscomb, Charles H.; Brimmer, Martin; Emigrant aid companies; New England Emigrant Aid Company

Authors: Branscomb, Charles H.

Letter, Thomas H. Webb to M. [Martin] F. Conway
April 30, 1858
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory. Webb provided Conway with a detailed description of the property owned by the company in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Webb was quite critical of Charles Branscomb's, the company's previous general agent, administration of company property in the town.

Keywords: Branscomb, Charles H.; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Real estate; Town development; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866

Letter, Thos. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
July 24, 1857
Agent Thomas Marsh, Mass. State Kansas Committee, wrote another of his frequent and detailed letters to George Stearns on July 24, 1857, describing the census and other preparations that were being made for the upcoming election (most importantly, the legislative election in October of that year). Of special interest were the activities of Jim Lane by the Free State Convention to organize militarily for "the protection of the Ballot Boxes."

Keywords: African Americans; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speculation; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.

Letter, [Cyrus Kurtz] Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
November 18, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. This letter was to be delivered by Mr. Ingrams, and Holliday expressed the possibilities of following shortly or of staying in Lawrence to make business arrangements and put up a building in the spring. He expressed his delight in the country of Kansas and the site of a new city (not named, but likely Topeka). A Pennsylvania company of emigrants, unprepared for the journey and now suffering, had settled in Lawrence and Council Grove.

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Morris County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900

Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
July 29, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote letters from several cities to his wife, Mary Holliday, after leaving their home at Meadville, Pennsylvania to return to business at Topeka, Kansas Territory. Once in Lawrence, K. T., he reported the political situation to his wife. Governor Andrew H. Reeder, who expected violence, and the fraudulently elected Territorial Legislature were at loggerheads. (Holliday had been elected to the Legislature in a reelection called by Governor Reeder during Holliday's absence, but the reelection results were rejected by the Legislature.) Holliday also mentioned the good corn crop and warm weather and expressed his love for his wife and daughter, Lillie, born March 18.

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence; Weather

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900

Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [Gov. [Charles Robinson]
February 3, 1858
Amos Lawrence wrote to Charles Robinson from Boston, communicating his dismay at the allegedly fraudulent election procedures taken in order to get the Lecompton Constitution adopted. Lawrence advised that an end to the "agitators' " operations be achieved at once, before the pro-slavery Senators could be put under the protection of the Federal Government.

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams

Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [Gov. Charles Robinson]
March 3, 1858
Amos Lawrence wrote from Boston to Charles Robinson in Kansas Territory, regarding questionable ratification of the Lecompton Constitution. Lawrence advised that the best course of action to take was to "rid the territory of all traitors to the popular right", though such action should take place only if it could "avoid open hostilities altogether."

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lecompton Constitution; National politics; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams

Circular, Lawrence University
ca. 1858
Advertisement for the development and opening of Lawrence University. Outlines Faculty members, subjects, and academic programs that will be available, as well as fee schedules.

Keywords: Bishop, William; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Landscape; Lawrence University; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Teachers

Authors: Bishop, William ; Board of Trustees of Lawrence University; Miner, Dr. C. E.

Quit-Claim Deed, Charles A. Wright to George W. Collamore
December 25, 1856
Quit Claim Deed for Charles Wright, signing ownership of land on New Hampshire and Rhode Island streets in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to George W. Collamore. Collamore would become mayor of Lawrence in 1863.

Keywords: Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Wright, Charles A.

Authors: Wright, Charles A.

Letter, Henry Campbell to Friend Colmore [George Collamore]
February 4, 1857
Henry Campbell wrote to his friend George Collamore, a future mayor of Lawrence, regarding recent trends in real estate sales. Campbell expressed disapproval of the "Bogus Legislature" and referred to a recent shooting in Tecumseh where Judge Rush Elmore, an associate justice of the Territorial Supreme Court, a leading delegate at the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, and a slave holder, was seriously wounded. Campbell also mentioned the upcoming sale of Wyandotte.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Campbell, Henry; Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town development; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory

Authors: Campbell, Henry

Testimony of Capt. Thomas Bickerton
December 5, 1856 - December 12, 1856
This testimony, taken down by Thaddeus Hyatt as part of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, is divided into two parts. It begins with descriptions of his life before he came to Kansas Territory and his efforts to set up a claim outside of Lawrence, including his technique for building his sod house. Thomas Bickerton was a well traveled individual and an influential commander of a free state artillery company. He was involved in skirmishes with border ruffians and in the attack on Franklin. Also, General James Lane sent him to Kansas City to obtain a brass howitzer (later known as the Abbott howitzer) for use against the proslavery forces.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Barber, Thomas W.; Bickerton, Thomas; Border disputes and warfare; Buffum, David C.; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Franklin buildings; Free state militia; Houses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Roberts, William Young; Sawmills; Skirmishing; Topliff, Charles W.

Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus

Certificate, Head Quarters Kansas Volunteers
December 12, 1855
This certificate, signed by Charles Robinson and James Lane, was issued by the Head Quarters of the Kansas Volunteers, a Free state militia group led by Robinson. It documented Robert Gilbert's service "in defending the City of Lawrence. . .from demolition by foreign invaders" during the Wakarusa War. Gilbert had arrived in Kansas Territory only weeks before, having traveled from his native England.

Keywords: Battles; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Free state regiment; Gilbert, Robert L.; Hunt, Morris; Immigrants; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wilder, Solomon

Authors: Kansas Volunteers

Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Josiah Miller
November 3, 1857
Josiah Miller's quit-claim deed for property in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, covered lots on Massachusetts, Kentucky, Connecticut, Ohio, and Rhode Island Streets. The property was signed over to a Robert H. Miller, his father. Miller's family had recently traveled from Chester, South Carolina, to Sparta, Illinois, where the deed was sent by post in order to obtain Robert's signature.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Legal documents; Miller, Josiah; Prouty, Salmon S.; Town lots

Authors: Pronty, Salmon S

Letter, Josiah Miller to Father and Mother
January 4, 1855
Josiah Miller, having arrived in Kansas Territory in August 1854, wrote to his father and mother in South Carolina about their impending journey to Kansas Territory. He offered them various suggestions on what provisions to bring and what routes to take, as they would be making the trip by wagon and not by railroad and boat. Miller also discussed his parents' options regarding land purchase and rent once they arrive in the new territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land claims; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Railroads; Squatters; Town lots; Travel; Wagon trains

Authors: Miller, Josiah

Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence
June 2 1855
Quit-Claim Deed of the Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, turning ownership of lot #12 of Massachusetts Street over to Josiah Miller and Robert G. Elliott, of Miller and Elliott, publishers of the Kansas Free State newspaper.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Grover, Joel; Hutchinson, George W.; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Lykins, William H. R.; Miller, Josiah; Snyder, Samuel S.; Town development

Authors: Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence: Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, et.al.

Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
August 29, 1855
Josiah Miller, making arrangements for his parents' journey from South Carolina to Kansas Territory, wrote to his father and mother from his office at the Kansas Free State newspaper. He told them of his need to purchase personal arms for his own protection and described to them a recent situation of election fraud. Miller also wrote that his goal, as a newspaper editor, was to "move men to support the Free State ticket." He added that he was having a falling out with Robert Elliott, his business partner.

Keywords: Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state activities; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspapers; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.

Authors: Miller, Josiah

Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
October 15, 1855
Josiah Miller, at his office at the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his Father and Mother in South Carolina regarding recent events. He supported Reeder in the October 9th election over the pro-slavery candidate, John W. Whitfield, and suspected that Reeder would be elected regardless of any fraudulently cast votes. Miller elaborated on his problems with Robert Elliott, his business partner, who had no money to invest further in their newspaper. He also mentioned that the most debated topic at the recently convened Nebraska Territorial Legislature was the location of their capital, not the slavery question.

Keywords: Contested elections; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Nebraska Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879

Authors: Miller, Josiah

Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Robert G. Elliott
November 15, 1855
Quit-Claim Deed of Robert G. Elliott signing his share of ownership of lot #12 on Massachusetts Street over to his business partner, Josiah Miller. The two men founded and produced the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Miller, however, later preferred to buy out his partner, as Elliott "did not have enough money to contribute" to producing the newspaper.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Miller, Josiah; Newspaper buildings; Newspapers; Town lots

Authors: Elliott, Robert G.

Letter, Richard McAllister to Mrs. Charles Robinson
January 9, 1857
Richard McAllister, Deputy Secretary to Governor Geary, wrote to Sara Robinson from Lecompton, enclosing an invitation to the Citizens' Ball on January 15th. McAllister had traveled to Washington with Governor Geary, and was with him when Geary's assassination was attempted. Geary's aim as governor was to put an end to political violence in Kansas by eliminating guerrilla warfare on the part of both free state and proslavery supporters.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; McAllister, Richard; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911

Authors: McAllister, Richard

Invitation, Mrs. Charles Robinson to the Citizens' Ball
January 15, 1857
This invitation was sent to Sara Robinson by Richard McAllister, Deputy Secretary to Governor Geary, enclosing it with a letter sent to her on January 9th. Governors Geary and Shannon were to be in attendance at the ball in Lecompton City, along with several other distinguished guests who supported the Territorial Legislature (considered "bogus" by free state supporters).

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; McAllister, Richard; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stevens, Robert S.; Woodson, Daniel

Authors: McAllister, Richard

Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Henry Campbell and H.M. Simpson to C. Robinson
13 February 1857
Quit-Claim Deed for Henry Campbell and H.M. Simpson, passing ownership of part of a lot on Massachusetts street on to Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Campbell, Henry; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Simpson, H.M

Authors: Campbell, Henry ; Simpson, H.M

Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Charles Robinson and S.C. Pomeroy
February 14, 1857
A. A. Lawrence, writing from Boston, sent a letter along with notes and stock valued at $12,696.14 to Charles Robinson and S.C. Pomeroy, who were acting as Trustees of Lawrence University. He instructed that the money be held in trust, with the intrest income to be used "for the advancement of religious and intellectual education of the young in Kansas." However, Lawrence added that he wanted the funds returned to him if Kansas should not become a free state after its acceptance into the Union.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Lawrence University; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Universities and colleges

Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams

Articles of agreement, Exchange of prisoners following battle of Black Jack
June 2, 1856
On June 2, 1856, John Brown, et al, signed this "article of agreement" with their defeated foe, Captain H. C. Pate and his lieutenant for the exchange of prisoners, including John Jr. and Jason Brown, at the home of John T. "Ottawa" Jones.

Keywords: Black Jack, Battle of; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Pate, Henry Clay; Prairie City, Kansas Territory; Shore, Samuel T.

Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859

List of participants and casualties at the battle of Black Jack
June 2, 1856
According to this document listing the participants and those "men wounded in the battle of Palmyra or Black Jack," son-in-law Henry Thompson was "dangerously wounded."

Keywords: Black Jack, Battle of; Black Jack, Kansas Territory; Bondi, August; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Oliver; Brown, Owen; Brown, Salmon; Carpenter, A.O.; Free state militia; Militia; Missourians; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`; Pate, Henry Clay; Proslavery supporters; Thompson, Henry; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859

Buffum Tombstone
Sept. 17, 1856
Tombstone of David C. Buffum, a free-stater from Massachusetts who was killed by the pro-slavery Kickapoo Rangers on Sept. 17, 1856. Buffum was plowing a field on his farm near Lawrence when the Rangers (including Henry Titus and Sheriff Samuel Jones) stole his horse and shot him. Before he died, Buffum was heard to express the sentiments chiseled on his tombstone: "I am willing to die for the cause of Freedom in Kansas."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buffum, David C.; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state perspective; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kickapoo Rangers (militia); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Proslavery activities; Titus, Henry Theodore; Tombstones; Violence; Violent deaths

Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859

Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to Capt. Bayne
February 3, 1858
James Abbott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Captain O. P. Bayne, explaining his delay in responding to Bayne's request for military aid. Abbott told him that his engagement with the committee investigating election fraud in the December 21 and January 4 elections had caused him to pass the request to General Phillips (possiblity William A. Phillips). Phillips, instead of responding directly, waited for Major General James Lane to return to town and approve the action. Abbott was apologetic, stating "if I had been at liberty I would have started at once. . .entirely independent of the Territorial Militia."

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Bayne, O. P.; Election fraud; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891

Authors: Abbott, James Burnett

James Lane Telescope
1855-1857
Spyglass used by James Lane and other free-state leaders of Lawrence in observing the movements of Missourians.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects

Authors: Abbott, James Burnett

Letter, [Josiah Miller] to Dear Father and Mother
Nov 11 1855
Josiah Miller, having recently bought out his business partner, Robert G. Elliott, from their jointly owned newspaper, the Kansas Free State, wrote to his parents in South Carolina about his recent business ventures. He stated that "papers don't pay" and expressed his interest in land claims and real estate, which would earn him more money. Miller also told his parents that he was continuing to search for a farm in Wyandotte County for them to settle on when they arrive in Kansas Territory. He hoped that Congress would approve the constitution that the Free State men had recently submitted.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Constitutions; Free state legislature; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Land acquisition; Land claim disputes; Miller, Josiah; Sawmills; Squatters; Topeka Constitution; Town development

Authors: Miller, Josiah

Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to James W. Denver
October 15, 1858
Hugh S. Walsh, Secretary under Governor Denver, now Acting Governor, wrote from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to James W. Denver in Wilmington, Ohio. Only days earlier Denver ended his term as governor of Kansas Territory. Walsh updated him on political events occurring in Kansas Territory. He also mentioned that a delegate convention planned to meet at Lawrence on November 10, and that he would do what he could to "clog" the convention until there is a "fair apportionment [of representatives] based on population" to avoid any independent actions taken on the part of free state supporters.

Keywords: Apportionment; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Newspapers; Proslavery support; Roberts, William Young; Walsh, Hugh Sleight

Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight

Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to Dear Governor [James Denver]
October 28, 1858
Hugh S. Walsh, Acting Governor of Kansas Territory, wrote to former Governor James Denver regarding recent political events. The first part relates incidents arising from the mishandling of prisoners by Marshals Robbins and Walker, who had arrested and imprisoned them, leaving them "without a bailiff or any charge whatever." The second part discusses political strategies for appeasing some free state party members in order to win their support. Among those, Walsh proposes that a Kentuckian man become the next governor and that during the Democratic Convention of November 25 they adopt the Cincinnati Platform, which would uphold popular sovereignty in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Cincinnati Platform; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Davis, Alson C.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Elmore, Rush; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sykes, T.B.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Walsh, Hugh Sleight

Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight

Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to Dear General [James Denver]
November 21, 1858
Hugh S. Walsh, Acting Governor of Kansas Territory, wrote from Lecompton to James W. Denver, recently resigned governor of Kansas Territory. Walsh updated Denver on various issues of Territorial governance, including Indian affairs, James Montgomery, land offices, postal service, and the Leavenworth Constitution. On several occasions he conveyed distrust of various men expressing interest in government positions, especially the newly appointed Governor Medary, though Walsh did concede that Medary had "tact."

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Indian agents; Land; Leavenworth Constitution; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Postal service; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Walsh, Hugh Sleight

Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight

Letter, [Governor] S. Medary to Dear Sir
January 20, 1859
Governor Medary wrote to an unknown recipient in Washington, D. C. regarding his frustration in governing Kansas Territory and soliciting support for his actions. Medary expressed dismay at the defense of southern Kansas having been turned over to the U. S. Marshall, while the Democrats believe him to be responsible for the arrival of U. S. troops. He added that he was trying his best to deal with the Republican legislature, but he was having a difficult time. Medary referred to James Montgomery's speech of January 19, in which he defended his actions in Linn and Bourbon counties. This speech, Medary claimed, would make it more difficult to bring punishment against him.

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brindle, William; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Military; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Skirmishing

Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864

Kansas Rifles Number 1 Military Festival
November 15, 1855
This document was an invitation to a military festival held on November 15, 1855, at 7:00 p.m. at the Free State Hotel in Lawrence, Kansas. The committee of arrangements consisted of Lieut> J. B. Conway, E. E. Lenhart, J. Mack, J. G. Crocker, and J. W. Colborn. The members of the committee of invitation were Theo. Clemens, Lieut. A. Cutler, and Geo. Earl (Earle?).

Keywords: Balls (parties); Clemens, Theo.; Colborn, J. W.; Conway, J. B.; Crocker, John G.; Cutler, A.; Earle, Geroge F.; Entertainment; Free State Hotel; Kansas Rifles Number 1; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lenhart, C. E.; Mack, J; Military

Authors: Kansas Rifles Number 1

Circular, Lawrence University
c. 1859
This circular was written by the Board of Trustees of Lawrence University to inform the people of Kansas of the establishment of a university in Lawrence. Included in the letter are courses of study for various departments, tuition costs, board and lodging costs, scholarship information, faculty, and description of the school. The Board of Trustees also emphasized the fact that Lawrence was a thriving city, and it was "already distinguished in the Territory for its superior educational advantages." For further information about the college, the circular referred readers to William Bishop, corresponding secretary, or to Dr. C. E. Miner, president of the Board of Trustees.

Keywords: Bishop, William; Blood, James; Circulars; Education; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence University; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; School buildings; Universities and colleges

Authors: Lawrence University

Letter, Samuel C. Smith to Dear Friend [Rev. T. W. Higginson]
November 26, 1856
This letter, written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory by Samuel Smith, was addressed to Rev. T. W. Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts. The letter began with several small matters regarding aid for Kansas, and then turned quickly to the most recent events in the struggle between proslavery and free state forces. Apparently, thirty two of the free state prisoners held by U. S. troops at Tecumseh had managed to escape, and Smith rather sarcastically commented that the troops had done a favor to "Uncle Sam" by relieving the government of the cost of supporting all those prisoners. The author also spoke of [Thaddeus] Hyatt's presence in the territory, and of George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom. He also informed Higginson that Col. Eldridge and Thomas Eldridge have had complaints filed against them, stating that "nature never designed them for distributions of charity." The letter concludes with information regarding land sales in Leavenworth, and the founding of a new city, Quindaro. In general, Smith's writing style is quite humorous, as well as informative.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Donalson, Israel B.; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Eldridge, Thomas B.; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Relief; Smith, Samuel C.; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Town development; United States. Army; Worcester, Massachusetts

Authors: Smith, Samuel C.

Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
August 20, 1857
In his August 20, 1857, report to Stearns, Marsh again asked for some clarification on a couple payment issues and described his role for the committee (Mass. State Kansas Committee) with regard to Jim Lane's efforts to organize protection for free state voters. For a short while, things looked good for the Free State cause, but Governor Walker's conduct to date had been disruptive and Judge Cato and friends began to issue arrest warrants.

Keywords: Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.

Territorial Census, 1855, District 2
January-February, 1855
This census was taken in order to determine eligible voters for elections to be held as proclaimed by Governor Andrew Reeder on November 10, 1854. The categories for information in the census were name, occupation, age, male, female, emigrated from, native of United States, naturalized citizen, declarant (intention to become a citizen), Negro, slave, and voter. Only white males over 21 were eligible to vote. The districts used for the census were the same as the election districts. A statistical summary of the census follows the enumeration pages. The enumerator indexed the census entries for this district and these pages appear before the census data. For District Two the place of election was the house of Paris Ellison, in Douglas City. The boundaries of each district were described in Governor Reeder's proclamation and it is difficult to determine what counties were in each district. The description of the Second District follows: "Commencing at the mouth of Big Spring Branch, on the south bank of the Kansas River; thence up said branch to its farthest source; thence by a southerly line, crossing the Wakarusa River on the east side of the house of Charles Mattingly, to the middle of the Santa Fe road; thence along the middle of said road to the line of the First District; thence by the same along the west side of the house of __Rolf to the head of the first tributary of the Kansas, above the Town of Lawrence; and thence by the said tributary to the Kansas River, and up the south bank of said river to the mouth of Big Spring Branch, the place of beginning." On the last page is a "List of settlers on the Kansas Half Breed lands opposite Douglas City." This is probably in Jefferson county, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Browne, O. H.; Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Browne, O. H.

Letter, R. Harding to Mr. [John] Bayless
January 22, 1859
R. Harding wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to John Bayless regarding the recent business discussed in the Territorial Legislature. Harding indicated that many members of the Legislature were intent on "Stealing Thunder", or receiving the glory for policies first introduced by others. He thought that, in light of recent difficulties with skirmishes in Linn and Bourbon Counties, Governor Medary would soon lose his. Harding seemed to support James Montgomery, who was responsible for many of those skirmishes, stating that "the provocation was evidently great and now he certainly has the sympathies of a large majority of the community best acquainted with the facts."

Keywords: Bayless, John; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Harding, R.; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871

Authors: Harding, R.

Letter, G. M. Beebe to John Bayless Esq.
September 20, 1860
George Beebe, Territorial Secretary, wrote from Lecompton, Kansas Territory, to John Bayless, responding to Bayless' previous solicitation for his opinion. Beebe referred to an act of 1860 which would abolish all county offices, including the office of Superintendent of Schools, in his opinion. John Bayless was the first Superintendent of Schools in Doniphan County.

Keywords: Bayless, John; Beebe, George Monroe; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Schools

Authors: Beebe, George M.

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
September 30, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, expressing his support for the election of John Fremont to the Presidency. Simpson also discussed the prospective purchase of Wyandot Indian lands, and told Hill he would invest in them if Hill wished. He added that he had received direction from Thomas Webb, Secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, to draw money from him; Simpson assumed this was the money sent by Hill.

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Indian lands; Land acquisition; Money; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Wyandot Indians

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
October 3, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill, reporting that he had done no business since the Battle of Franklin, early the past June, until the last few days. Hill's homes were all paying rent, and Simpson was taking steps to get a road built through West Lawrence. Simpson had received money sent by Hill and passed it on to Osawatomie to help them recover from the battle of the previous August. He continued to hope for the election of Fremont, and described conditions in the military camps.

Keywords: Election, Presidential, 1856; Franklin, Battle of; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Hill, Hiram; Military; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Titus, Henry Theodore; Town development; Voting

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Friend [Hiram] Hill
October 11, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, reporting that free staters were "still live" in Lawrence, and that most border ruffians had retreated for the time being. Simpson updated Hill on the status of his properties and new construction in the town. Thaddeus Whitney, he said, was "absent from town", however, and Missourians had stolen some valuable building materials. Simpson added that he had helped many destitute families with the monetary aid Hill had sent.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Account balance sheet, Hiram Hill in asc. with S.N. Simpson
October 15, 1856
This balance sheet lists amounts paid into and received from Hiram Hill's various real estate investments in Lawrence, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Account books; Construction; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Whitney, Thaddeus L.

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
October 30, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported that he had purchased Wyandotte lands, along with other investors, in hopes of having a town ready in time to receive a wave of emigrants the following spring. He told Hill that he would send him a map of the site, and reiterated his support for presidential candidate John Fremont. However, Simpson proclaimed that the outcome of the elections didn't matter, that the free state men "are bound to have this matter our own way -- and it if don't come one way it must another".

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state support; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Hill, Hiram; Indian lands; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Wyandot Indians

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Letter, R. J. Hinton to Gentlemen [National Kansas Committee]
October 10, 1856
R. J. Hinton wrote this letter from Lawrence to the members of the National Kansas Committee, offering his suggestions about how to sustain the struggling settlers of Kansas. He proposed the idea of bringing the manufacturing industry into the territory as a source of employment. He also mentioned that a flour mill would be greatly appreciated by Kansans.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Flour mills; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Guns; Hinton, Richard Josiah; House furnishings; Manufacturing; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Settlement; Sewing machines; Steam power; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Hinton, R. J.

Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
December 6, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote briefly from Free State Headquarters in Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, describing the number and location of surrounding Proslavery forces and of Free State forces gathered in Lawrence. Cyrus had been working for peace, but was prepared to fight in a shortly expected attack.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900

Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
December 13, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday, who had been appointed colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Kansas Troops, hoped that the Wakarusa War would be the last armed conflict in Kansas Territory. Writing from Free State Headquarters in Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, he described the preparations of troops in Lawrence during the War. He told Mary of his receipt of a draft and the sale of a bond, and assured her that the boats to Kansas were still running.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state regiment; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Proslavery activities; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900

Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
February 26, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday reported an uncertain peace from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. President Franklin Pierce's January 24th announcement had commanded assemblies organized against the constitutional territorial government to disperse, and whether Missourians would carry out a threatened attack at the March 4th meeting in Topeka was unknown. Cyrus hoped to visit Meadville and sent a message to Professor Hammett. He also told Mary of his commission as Brigadier General of the Free State military.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Missourians; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900

Letter, G. W. Brown to Hiram Hill, Esq
December 10, 1856
George W. Brown dictated this letter to Hiram Hill from the Herald of Freedom newspaper office in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Brown thanked Hill and his fellow citizens of Williamsburgh for the financial gift that they had sent to the newspaper, and also for their material support to the citizens of Kansas. He closed by reiterating the newspaper's commitment to the cause of freedom.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state support; Herald of Freedom; Hill, Hiram; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Money; Newspapers

Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915

Testimonies of Nathaniel Parker, Horace L. Dunnell, Hinton S. Dunnell, Alexander MacArthur, James Hall, Jerome Hazen, and Charles Henry Caulkins
December 5, 1856 - December 7, 1856
These testimonies, presumably taken down on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, include personal information about each settler, such as their age, occupation, etc., as well as their experiences in Kansas and their involvement in border warfare and skirmishes with pro-slavery settlers. Each account is descriptive and provides tremendous detail about their individual experiences. The testimonies of MacArthur, Hall, and Hazen are combined into one, with this group testimony split into two separate sections.

Keywords: Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Caulkins, Charles Henry; Cutter, Calvin M.; Dunnell, Hinton S.; Dunnell, Horace L.; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Guns; Hall, James; Harvey, James A.; Hazen, Jerome; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; MacArthur, Alexander; Missouri River; Parker, Nathaniel; Prisoners; Prisons; Proslavery activities; Skirmishing; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns); Weston, Missouri; Wounds and injuries

Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus

Photo album presented by Ladies of Lawrence
c. 1862
This photo album was presented to Edmund Gibson Ross, Commandant at Lawrence, by the Ladies of Lawrence for his action of closing the liquor shops in the town. Contains portraits of George Addison Crawford, Governor Samuel Johnson, John K. Rankin, Brinton Webb Woodward, among many other lesser known and unidentified subjects.

Keywords: Crawford, George Addison; Crawford, Samuel Johnson; DaLee, A.G.; Ladies of Lawrence; Rankin, John K.; Ross, Edmund G. (Edmund Gibson), 1826-1907; Temperance movement; Women; Woodward, Brinton Webb

Authors: Ladies of Lawrence

Photo, Business Street with Covered Wagons
Summer 1863
View West on 7th Street, Lawrence, KS.

Keywords: Business; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Town development; Wagons

Authors: Ladies of Lawrence

Illustration, Lawrence, Kansas, 1854-5
1854 - 1855
This sketch of Lawrence, Kansas, circa 1854-5 was made by J. E. Rice. It is a view of Massachusetts and Vermont Streets facing North towards the Kansas River; a ferry is landing on the pier on New Hampshire Street. The illustration includes several homes and establishments of Lawrence's noteworthy first settlers.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Brooks, Paul R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Ferries; Fry, Samuel; Herald of Freedom; Hoyt, David Starr; Illustrations; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Kimball, S. & F.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Miller, Josiah; Pioneer House; Rice, J.E.; Sampson, Turner; Sands, J.G.; Settlement; Simpson, Samuel Newell; St. Nicholas House; Stearns, Charles

Authors: Rice, J. E.

Letter, [Josiah Miller] to Dear Father and Mother
January 25, 1856
Josiah Miller, responding to his family's concerns about traveling West, wrote to his Father and Mother in South Carolina. He told them that they would be better off leaving the South, and that they should begin their travels west as soon as they were ready, in spite of any violent conflict that might be taking place in Kansas Territory. Miller referred to a specific incident occurring a few days earlier on January 17, when free state men, on their way home from an election of State officers under the Topeka Constitution, were attacked by a group of Missourians. Miller also communicated that, although he was a free state man, he did not like the "Yankees' " approach to the conflict with the proslavery supporters.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Reese P.; Emigration and immigration; Free state perspective; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; South Carolina; Southerners

Authors: Miller, Josiah

Legal document, Free Passage to Josiah Miller out of Kansas Territory
May 16, 1856
Josiah Miller, of the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence, was arrested for treason by South Carolina soldiers and was tried in a military tent near Lecompton. He was defended by James Christian and was acquitted. Governor Shannon and I. B. Donalson, U. S. Marshall of the Kansas Territory, issued him this pass on his way out of the territory so that he would not be arrested again by border ruffians.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Christian, James; Courts; Donalson, Israel B.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877

Authors: Donalson, I.B. ; Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877

Letter, [Orville] Chester [Brown] to My dear friend
September 2, 1856
This eloquent letter, presumably written by Orville Chester Brown, provides an example of the free state perspective on the events of 1856. It includes references to a number of key personalities and places that played a vital role during the struggle for Kansas. Brown writes that "Kansas is the scene of bloody strife," as "2000 armed men" from Missouri were rumored to have crossed into Kansas.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, Spencer; Free state perspective; Georgia; Missouri; Violence

Authors: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904

Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
July 20 [1857]
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother, recently settled in Illinois. He discussed with them family news, and attached a postscript regarding their land warrants in Kansas Territory. Miller also referred to the free state supporters' rejection of a charter put in place by the "bogus legislature" in Lecompton, and the subsequent meeting of the free state legislature in Topeka. A census had been taken by free state men in the largest pro-slavery localities. According to Miller, this census found that free state men outnumbered proslavery supporters by at least 1 to 7.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Miller, Josiah; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Miller, Josiah

Letter [transcript], Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
June 15, 1857
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother in Chester, South Carolina, before their departure for Kansas Territory. Miller informed them of banking practices and his new business enterprise-- raising stock. He also discussed the value of prairie land versus timbered land. Miller referred to the "bogus" election of the day before, which elected delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Lecompton. Free state men did not vote, and only 2,071 votes were polled. This clearly showing that, had the election been conducted fairly, the free state men would have won the majority.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Business enterprises; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Illinois; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )

Authors: Miller, Josiah

Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
December 2, 1857
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother, in Sparta, Illinois. Miller spoke of political unrest surrounding the existence of both the Lecompton Constitution and the Topeka Constitution. He demanded that judges in the territory have the power to arrest border ruffians, who "were responsible for everything to do with the Lecompton Constitution." Miller also expressed his concern over a letter he had received from a relative, concerning the manner in which he himself was handling the family's financial investments in the Territory.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Free State Party; Gold mines and mining; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Miller, Josiah

Letter, A. A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [Gov. Charles Robinson]
April 29, 1857
A. A. Lawrence wrote from Boston to Charles Robinson regarding various complaints and general "dissatisfaction" that he had heard of Robinson. Lawrence advised Robinson to avoid disagreement and controversy with the New England Emigrant Aid Company, as the company had great financial and moral power. However, he agreed with Robinson and Pomeroy's decisions regarding the promotion of education in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Lawrence also referred an upcoming election, where free state men would be forced to vote to avoid a split ticket.

Keywords: Education; Elections; Lawrence University; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sampson, Rev. W.H.; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams

Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [Gov. Charles Robinson]
May 16, 1857
A. A. Lawrence wrote to Charles Robinson in Kansas Territory from Green Bay, Wisconsin. Lawrence commented on the recently appointed Governor of Kansas Territory, Robert John Walker, and criticized his desire to split the free state party. He referred to disagreements within the New England Emigrant Aid Company, and mentioned that he had resigned his position as Treasurer. Lawrence also discussed the collapse of land speculation all over the West.

Keywords: Kansas Territory. Governor; Land sales; Land speculation; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams

Letter, [Ely Moore and William Brindle] Lecompton Land Office to Charles Robinson, Esq.
May 9, 1857
Ely Moore, Register, and William Brindle, Receiver of the Lecompton Land Office wrote to Charles Robinson regarding his ownership of a claim. Robert Robetaille, a Wyandotte Indian, had come forward to place his name on the same piece of land. Robinson was required to produce counter proof of ownership of the claim at the Lecompton Land Office. A. A. Lawrence, in a letter to Robinson dated April 29, 1857, referred to Robinson's attempt to obtain ownership papers of this "float" claim.

Keywords: Brindle, William; Land claim disputes; Lecompton Land Office; Moore, Ely; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robitaille, Robert; Wyandot Indians

Authors: Brindle, William ; Moore, Ely

Statement draft, Charles Robinson to the Register and Receiver for the Territory of Kansas
ca. 1857
In this unsigned draft, Charles Robinson presented the facts surrounding the circumstances of his ownership of a Quarter section of land, which had been contested by William H.R. Lykins, who had placed part of the Wyandotte reservation on the same section of land. Robinson stated that, at the time he came under ownership of the land, he filed the proper papers with the Surveyor General, and that at no time had he quit claim on this particular piece of land.

Keywords: Indian reserves; Land claim disputes; Lykins, William H. R.; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Surveyor General; Wyandot Float

Authors: Brindle, William ; Moore, Ely

Articles of Agreement, Hiram Hill and Thaddeus L. Whitney
January 6, 1855
Thaddeus L. Whitney of Lawrence, Kansas Territory agreed to build a house in Lawrence for Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. Dimensions and materials were described in detail. Construction was to be completed "in good workmanlike manner." The time and amount of payment also were established. The articles of agreement were signed by Whitney, Hill, and S. N. Simpson as witness.

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Houses; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Whitney, Thaddeus L.

Authors: Hill, Hiram ; Whitney, Thaddeus L.

Letter, Caleb S. Pratt to My Dear Sir [Rev. T. W. Higginson]
December 1, 1856
This letter was written by Caleb Pratt from Lawrence, Kansas, to Thomas W. Higginson in Worcester, Massachusetts. He thanked Higginson for the revolvers that he had furnished for Pratt's artillery company; Pratt truly appreciated "the high minded reflecting men of the north." Pratt also spoke of the uneasy peace, stating that the free state population were still prepared to fiercely resist any encroachment on their liberty, although they were at times discouraged and war-weary. He also mentioned the election of President Buchanan less than a month before. Pratt informed Higginson of the escape of the free state prisoners from Tecumseh, although he was sure that Higginson was already aware of the incident. Apparently, Pratt had hoped to help with their escape, but he was too late. Other prisoners had also effected an escape from the Lecompton prison.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state militia; Free state perspective; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pratt, Caleb S.; Prisoners; Stubbs militia company; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore

Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.

Letter, Edmund Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
July 29, 1855
Well before Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts could have received Edmund Jones' previous letter from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Jones received a bank draft from Hill. In this letter, Jones thanked him for the draft. He shortly expected two renters, Mrs. Herd and Mrs. Hall, to move into Hill's house in Lawrence. These renters wanted to build a house for their own borders on the lot behind. A store and an office were going up on either side of Hill's new house. James mentioned controversy over city lots but did not identify the source of this "new movement." He encouraged Hill to visit Lawrence a second time in early fall.

Keywords: Construction; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Town development; Town lots

Authors: Jones, Edmund

Letter, Edmund Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
August 21, 1855
Edmund Jones wrote briefly from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. He referred to the security of town lots and a previously sent newspaper. Mr. Fuller, a delinquent renter, was "selling liquor" in Hill's house. Jones suggested that Hill come soon.

Keywords: Construction; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Liquor (see Alcoholic beverages); Massachusetts

Authors: Jones, Edmund

Letter, S. Medary to My Dear Sir
January 12, 1859
Samuel Medary wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to an unknown recipient in Washington, D. C. Medary expressed his disapproval at the way the U. S. Marshall handled the "troubles" in Linn and Bourbon counties that were brought on by free-state radical James Montgomery and his men. He added that the legislature, newly in session, was difficult to work with, as there very few "reliable democrats" in it. Medary also described the legislature's debate over Montgomery's fate.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Danford, Addison; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Roberts, T.R.; Violence; Wright, John W.

Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864

Letter, E. [Edmund] Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
September 4, 1855
Edmund Jones oversaw the building of a house in Lawrence, Kansas Territory for Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. He wrote to update Hill on construction progress. Jones was frustrated with the plasterer, Mr. Johnson, who was sick and whose work was poor and rate too high. S. N. Simpson had returned to town. Jones mentioned the health of Mrs. Whitney and Mrs. Herd. Page 2 is primarily a list of expenses for materials and labor and a list of amounts received, including rent income.

Keywords: Construction; Cost and standard of living; Financial statements; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development

Authors: Jones, Edmund

Advertisement, Emigrant's Intelligence Office
June 15, 1856
This advertisement by Whitman and Searl, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, stated that they were proposing to open an Emigrant's Intelligence Office to "meet the urgent demands by emigrants, for accurate and reliable information in regard to the different sections of the Territory." Apparently, they had worked to create a map of Kansas, which made them qualified for this task. They also offered their services as general land agents and wrote that they "are also prepared to lay out town sites and to survey farm claims," to "negotiate the sale and transfer of town property," and to "investigate the validity of titles."

Keywords: Advertisements; Emigrants' Intelligence Office; Emigration and immigration; Land; Land acquisition; Land sales; Land surveys; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Settlement; Town sites; Whitman and Searl; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman and Searl

Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Wife
December 12, 1855
Hiram Hill arrived in Lawrence, Kansas Territory shortly after the end of the Wakarusa War. This letter to his wife reviewed the events of the war, made mention of women's assistance, described Hill's journey from Leavenworth with Mr. Conway, and gave an account of Thomas W. Barber's funeral, at which Charles Robinson and James Lane spoke. Barber was killed south of Lawrence on the 6th. Hill had met Mr. Whitney, Judge Johnson, Mr. Haskell, and Mr. Simpson, and planned to visit Charles Robinson. Hill also detailed Governor Shannon's settlement with free state leaders at Lawrence.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Funerals; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Town development; Travel; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Women

Authors: Hill, Hiram

Letter, Sam. F. Tappan to Dear friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
July 6, 1857
In this letter, Samuel Tappan wrote to Thomas W. Higginson to update him on the situation in Kansas. He discussed the "bogus" constitutional convention and Gov. Walker's actions against the free state cause. He mentioned that the proslavery forces "did all they could to have us 'partake' in the bogus election without success." Tappan still had confidence that the forces of "democracy" would triumph. In the postscript, he spoke briefly of a census taken by free state leaders.

Keywords: Census; Election, Lecompton Constitution delgates to convention, June 1857; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913

Letter, Sam. F. Tappan to Dr Gen [Thomas W. Higginson]
December 14, 1857
This letter, written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory by Samuel Tappan, began with small talk about his personal life. Tappan quickly moved on, however, to the political affairs of the area. Apparently, Charles Robinson and James Lane were encouraging the free state population to vote in the next election regarding the Lecompton Constitution. They were planning on holding a free state convention in a couple of weeks to decide if this was the best course of action. Tappan believed that if free state men voted in the upcoming election, it would be a tacit acceptance of slavery. He was also disappointed that the Topeka government had failed, blaming its collapse on the fact that it had been too concerned with weighing "the chances of success in Washington." The free state territorial legislature had just opened its session in Lecompton.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Constitutions; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Free state legislature; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)

Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913

Notice!! to the public!
July 14, 1857
In this poster, Richard Realf publicly declared that G. W. Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom, was a liar, slanderer, and coward. The context of the situation is necessary to determine the accuracy of this claim.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Newspaper publishing

Authors: Realf, Richard , 1834-1878

Letter, Jas Finley to Dear Sister
May 24, 1856
James A. Finley, a Lawrence resident at the time of the Sack of Lawrence, wrote to his sister recounting the events that had transpired only three days before. Concisely but vividly he described events as they unfolded from the morning of May 21st, when David Atchison "planted 2 cannon upon the hill above town." Finley, a more fortunate man than many in Lawrence that day, claimed to have suffered no losses in the incident.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Finley, James Agnew; Free state perspective; Guns; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Smith, George W.; United States marshals; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Finley, James Agnew

Directory, City Directory of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
1855
Early directory lists landowners and landholdings by street address and includes names of prominent political figures of Kansas' Territorial period. The settlement previously known as "Wakarusa" had only been known as Lawrence for less than a year.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement

Authors: Finley, James Agnew

Receipt, John D. Hicks to A. A. Lawrence
September 29, 1857
This receipt and accompanying sales contract documents the purchase of $7113.30 worth of hardware and household items by A.A. Lawrence from John D. Hicks. George Collamore signed the sales contract as witness to the deal. Ingle Barker, of the Mammoth Hardware and Stove Store, was named as the Executor and Administrator of the "goods and chattels" in the name of A.A. Lawrence, and would be responsible for the sale of these goods to settlers in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Barker, Ingle; Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hicks, John D.; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store; Merchandise; Merchants; Receipts; Retail businesses

Authors: Hicks, John D.

Contract, Investment partnership of B.F. Dalton and Edward E. Ropes
April 5, 1860
Benjamin F. Dalton and Edward E. Ropes each agreed to divide interest in their assets (land, provisions, and equipment) in half in order to go into the gold mining business in western Nebraska and Kansas Territories. This contract outlines the details of the agreement, which was signed and witnesses by George Collamore and Charles Ingersoll.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Collamore, George W.; Dalton, Benjamin F.; Gold mines and mining; Ingersoll, Charles; Kansas Territory; Land claims; Legal documents; Merchandise; Nebraska Territory; Ropes, Edward E.

Authors: Dalton, Benjamin F. ; Ropes, Edward E.

Narrative," A Twelve Months Practical Life in Kansas Territory, written by an actual settler"
ca. 1855
Robert Atkins Tovey wrote these pages so that "those who are going forth with their wives & children, their property, yea their all on earth should have the information covering the country to which they are making a Pilgrimage" from someone who has recently made the same journey. Broken up into chapters by subject, Tovey gave advice about the journey and settlement, provisions, land claims, soil, and weather, in addition to providing commentary about the current political situation and his disgust at the "Mob law" being imposed by the Missourians.

Keywords: African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Election fraud; Free state perspective; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Missourians; Native Americans; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Slavery; Slaves; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Transportation; Travel; Weather

Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins

Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [T. W. Higginson]
August 27, 1855
This letter, written by free state governor Charles Robinson, was sent to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist. Robinson discussed in rather general terms the troubles facing Kansas, stating that he believed this struggle did not only involve Kansas, "but I regard it as one in which the whole nation is involved." Robinson also expressed doubts that the North would support the free state settlers in the territory, writing that they can only "hope" for reinforcements, not take them for granted. He asked Higginson to stir up Northerners against the bogus legislature, and made mention of ex-Governor Reeder and opposition to the bogus legislature. In general, this letter eloquently demonstrates the passion of this free state leader and his dedication to the cause of liberty.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Bogus legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee Manual Labor School

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Minutes, Democratic Convention
1857
These notes regarding the proceedings of a Democratic Convention name newly elected officers of the Kansas branch of the party, and other "preparatory business". In the following days, resolutions against Territorial Governor Walker and Secretary Stanton were drawn, for their "complicity with the enemies of the Democratic Party". F.J. Marshall was nominated as the Democratic candidate for governor, "to bear up the banner of our Party . . .against the Black Republicans".

Keywords: Black Republicans; Democratic Party (U.S.); Hereford, J.T.; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marshall, F.J.; Martin, Moses; Mathias, William G.; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Legal document, Survey of Lane and Chapman plots
January 1860
This document contains a certified survey by A. D. Searl, Deputy Surveyor of Douglas County, of the land plots disputed by James Lane and Gaius Jenkins. In this assessment, taken after the death of Jenkins at the hand of Lane in June 1858, Jenkins' property is shown as belonging to a man Chapman. A. N. Blackledge, clerk for the U.S. District Court, 2nd Judicial district, Douglas County, signed the document as a witness.

Keywords: Blackledge, A.N.; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Legal documents; Maps; Searl, Albert D.

Authors: Searl, Albert D.

Letter, Augustus Wattles to Jas. Smith Esq.
June 18, 1857
From Lawrence on June 18, 1857, Augustus Wattles wrote Jas. Smith (Is this a Brown alias?) regarding affairs in Kansas Territory, specifically referring to several of the Free State Party's leaders: "Holmes' is at Emporia plowing. Conway's here talking politics. Phillips is here trying to urge the free State men to galvanize the Topeka Constitution into life. . . ." and Robinson had "dispirited the Free State party" by his absence from the legislature last winter, making it "difficult to make them rally again under him." Although one hears "much against Brown" he is "as good as ever."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state legislature; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Herald of Freedom; Holmes, James H.; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, James; Topeka Constitution; Wattles, Augustus

Authors: Wattles, Augustus

Page from Harper's Weekly, "Famous Places in Kansas"
June 6, 1857
This page, taken from an issue of Harper's Weekly, features engraving illustrations of the Governor's Mansion in Lecompton, Kansas Territory, and James Lane's fort on Mount Oread, near Lawrence, Kansas Territory. A caption explains the history of each structure and the personalities who frequent them.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Mount Oread; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Wattles, Augustus

Page from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper
October 4, 1856
This front page of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper is half-filled with an illustration of the "Free State Prisoners": George W. Brown, John Brown, Jr., Judge G.W. Smith, Charles Robinson, Gaius Jenkins, Henry Williams, and George Deitzler, at their camp near Lecompton, Kansas Territory. All had been arrested during the past May, either for charges of treason or for bearing arms against the Government.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, Jr.; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Illustrations; Jenkins, Gaius; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Williams, Henry H.

Authors: Wattles, Augustus

Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
January 19, 1861
In Lawrence on January 19, 1861, attending the meeting of what proved to be the last territorial legislature, Ingalls wrote about everyone's interest in happenings outside the territory: namely, congressional action on the "Kansas Admission Bill" and the "Pacific Rail Road Bill," as well as "the condition of affairs of the South ['the secession movement']. Especially bad weather--"the snow is quite deep and the temperature below zero constantly"--had left Kansas somewhat isolated, and as they waited for news the legislature was "not doing much except discussing Union resolutions, endorsing Major [Robert] Anderson [commander of U.S. troops at Fort Sumter], and divorcing Every body that applies for rupture of the bonds of matrimony."

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Anderson, Major Robert; Divorce; Divorce law and legislation; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Secession; Sectionalism (United States)

Authors: Ingalls, John James

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
Taylor Stephens operated a liquor and tobacco store in the town of Franklin, Douglas County. His claim (#157) stated that in September, 1856, a large number of men commanded by John W. Reid either drank, destroyed, or carried off the various items he listed. It is not clear whether Stephens operated a store or a tavern but his claim gives a detailed listing of various alcoholic beverages. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Alcoholic beverages; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Reid, John W.; Retail businesses; Stephens, Taylor; Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Letter, John S. Brown to Rev. Mr. [Edward Everett] Hale
May 2, 1858
John S. Brown wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Brown informed Hale that he had substituted for Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, for the previous six months while Nute lectured in the East. Brown stated that he wanted to serve in Kansas as a missionary but lacked financial resources. He asked Hale for funds to support his missionary efforts.

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Unitarian churches

Authors: Brown, John S.

Letter, E. Nute to [Edward Everett] Hale
May 10, 1858
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute inquired about the possibility of Hale arranging a loan of $2000 at reasonable interest for the completion of the Unitarian Church in Lawrence. He reported on the high rates of interest being charged for loans in Kansas Territory and on the general effects of the panic of 1857 on the territorial economy. Nute also expressed his dissatisfaction with the Buchanan administration's handling of the Lecompton Constitution and his hope that a change in presidential administration in 1860 would result in Kansas' admission as a free state.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Blood, James; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Loans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Panic of 1857; Religion; Unitarian church buildings

Authors: Nute, Ephraim

Letter, [Cyrus Kurtz] Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
December 3, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, the founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He told her of his planned trip up the Kansas River, his pleasure in the people of Kansas Territory, and a Thanksgiving dinner he attended. Unwilling to return to Pennsylvania, Holliday expressed desire that Mary come to Kansas Territory and described the construction of a friend's sod-covered "mansion," one such as Clarina I. H. Nichols, a lecturer and writer, inhabited.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holidays; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Houses; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Thanksgiving Day; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900

Letter, [C. K. Holliday] to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
December 24, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. After three weeks at the future site of Topeka, Holliday was glad for city comforts. He mentioned the site's beauty, the prospect of building a house on his farm claim, and his personal success since leaving Meadville. On December 18, 1854, he had been unanimously elected President of the Topeka Town Association and appointed temporary agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. The bottom two-thirds of page 3 and 4 (which contained Holliday's signature) have been cut and removed.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Town Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town sites

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900

Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
August 12, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania of his journey to Kansas City to obtain a land warrant for Topeka and to attend the Free State Convention. Two of his articles had been published in The Herald of Freedom, a Lawrence newspaper, and he sent copies. Mentioning political difficulties, Holliday suggested that his wife wait until fall to travel to Kansas. He rented out his cabin in Topeka for profit. A deadly cholera epidemic at Fort Riley had ended.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free State Convention; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather; Wyandot Float

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900

Letter, William A. Phillips, State Marshall, to Joel Grover
June 24, 1859
William A. Phillips, Kansas State Marshall, wrote to Joel Grover, at the time a Douglas County Commissioner, appointing him to take the census in a township northwest of Lawrence. Grover had previously served in the Wakarusa War as captain of the first military company in Lawrence. Later, he became active in local government and held various positions until his death in 1879.

Keywords: Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Grover, Joel; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement

Authors: Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893

Statement of Lemuel Knapp
January 5, 1857
This testimony, recorded by the National Kansas Committee, describes the Kansas experience of Lemuel Knapp, a settler who emigrated to the area near Fort Riley, Kansas. His statement includes personal information as well as comments on the development of Pawnee City and the role that it played in the early years of Kansas Territory. It also relates an account of how the President ordered the destruction of Pawnee City because the newly drawn boundaries placed it on the Fort Riley Military Reserve.

Keywords: Cooke, Philip St. George; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Houses; Knapp, Lemuel; Montgomery, William R.; Ogden, Edmund Augustus; Ogden, Kansas Territory; Pawnee Town Association; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864

Authors: National Kansas Committee

Statement on the Central Committee
January 8, 1856
This document, signed by Kansas citizens from the Lawrence area, deplores the condition of the Central Committee's room and office. These citizens claim that they were mistreated and that the relief effort should be placed in more benevolent hands. They ask that the National Kansas Committee "remove the present incumbents and apoint persons Who have Some feeling for poor Suffering humanity." It concludes with a list of signatures.

Keywords: Central Relief Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief

Authors: Undersigned Citizens of Kansas Territory, John Stroup (first signature)

Public notice. Defense tactics in case of Hostile Demonstration
after 1863


Keywords: Central Relief Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief

Authors: Undersigned Citizens of Kansas Territory, John Stroup (first signature)

Circular, Defense Strategies for Lawrence
after 1863
This printed document, published by the Committee of Safety, outlines emergency procedures for the citizens of Lawrence in case of a "hostile demonstration." It also lists points of rendezvous within the city and suggests that a man always "take his side-arms with him."

Keywords: Bushwackers; Churches; Committee of Safety, Lawrence, Kansas; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Free state activities; Guns; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Skirmishing; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Committee of Safety, Lawrence, Kansas

Bill, Furnished the Freestate Party
May 15, 1856
This itemized list of items reportedly "furnished the freestate Party" was submitted by Napoleon B. Blanton of Douglas Co., who operated a toll bridge over the Wakarusa River south of Lawrence. The total bill was for $191.26, including provisions and tolls: "I have thrown my bridge open free for the freestate party from the 15th of May to the 20th of September. . ."

Keywords: Blanton, Napolean Bonaparte; Blantons Bridge; Blood, James; Food; Free State Party; Transportation; Wakarusa River

Authors: Blanton, Napoleon B.

Illustration, St. Nicholas Hotel, Lawrence, KS
November 15, 1857
An unknown artist drew this pencil sketch of St. Nicholas House, a wagon stop built in 1854 in Lawrence, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hotels; Illustrations; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; St. Nicholas House; Town development

Authors: Watson, B.I.

Illustration, Lawrence, Kansas in 1859
1859
A drawing of Lawrence, Kansas Territory as it appeared in 1859, looking northeast from Mount Oread. It specifically includes Eldridge House, Lawrence University, and various churches.

Keywords: Churches; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Illustrations; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mount Oread; Universities and colleges

Authors: Watson, B.I.

Photograph, First House in Lawrence
ca. 1855
This was the first house in Lawrence, a log cabin, belonging to Clark Stearns (also known as Charles Stearns). It was located at 620 Massachusetts Street.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Stearns, Charles; Town development

Authors: Watson, B.I.

Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
February 11, 1858
Josiah Miller, serving as Probate Judge for Douglas County, wrote to his Father and Mother in Illinois. He offered them more advice as to their financial investments in Kansas and their journey to the Territory. Miller commented that, even though the laws put in place by the bogus legislature had been repealed, it was "hard to tell whose laws are in force." He also voiced his support for a bill which would make accepting a position under the Lecompton Constitution a felony punishable by death.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Judges; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Miller, Josiah; Travel

Authors: Miller, Josiah

Certificate, Election proclamation for J.C. Bartlett
January 15, 1860
Certificate by the Board of [Kansas] State Canvassers proclaiming the election of J.C. Bartlett as a Representative of the Eighth District, which was comprised of Douglas, Johnson, and Wyandotte counties. Bartlett was elected during the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 29, 1860. The certificate is signed by the Governor, Samuel Medary.

Keywords: Bartlett, J.C.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Board of State Canvassers, State of Kansas

Deed of Caleb S. Pratt for Charles Robinson
October 13, 1853
This handwritten deed entitled Charles Robinson to the ownership of a house and farm claim south of the town of Lawrence, which was previously owned by Caleb Pratt.

Keywords: Emery, James Stanley; Emigration and immigration; Land acquisition; Legal documents; Lykins, William H. R.; Pratt, Caleb S.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement

Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.

Letter, Wm Phillips to Respected Madam [Sara Robinson]
May 26, 1856
William Phillips, after visiting Charles Robinson in jail, wrote to Sara Robinson updating her on her husband's situation. Phillips reported to her that Charles was being held on two counts: one for high treason and the other for usurping office. He also related to her the events of the sack of Lawrence and the resulting destruction of her home.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Phillips, William; Preston, Colonel; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877

Authors: Phillips, William

Letter, Wilson Shannon to Dr Sir [Orville C. Brown]
April 18, 1858
This letter, written by Wilson Shannon, former governor of Kansas Territory, was addressed to Orville C. Brown, one of the founders of Osawatomie. Shannon wrote from his office in Lecompton to reassure Brown that the problem with Osawatomie's town site would be addressed.

Keywords: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Town sites

Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877

Letter, S. Medary to My Dear Sir [presumably Orville C. Brown]
February 25, 1859
This letter, presumably addressed to Orville Brown, was written by Samuel Medary, the current governor of Kansas Territory. Governor Medary was pleased that the volatile situation during the border wars had calmed down, and he encouraged Brown to foster an environment focused on "peace and industry." The governor also hoped that, with things settling down, more emigrants would come into Kansas.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864

Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864

Certificate, Claim Debt of Kansas Territory
June 14, 1859
This certified that, due to his losses, Orville C. Brown was entitled to receive one thousand dollars from the Treasurer of the Territory of Kansas. This document, claim #273, was signed by H. J. Stricker, auditor. Apparently it was never paid, since the portion of the document pertaining to payment remained blank.

Keywords: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904; Damage claims; Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Expense Account, C. H. Branscomb to N. E. Emigrant Aid Co.
January 1, 1855 - May 1, 1856
A typical expense report submitted by Charles H. Branscomb, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory, detailing his expenditures for 1855 and part of 1856. Among the expenses Branscomb listed were travel, postage, paper, and telegraph costs.

Keywords: Account books; Branscomb, Charles H.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Financial statements; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Postal service

Authors: Branscomb, Charles H.

Letter, John S. [Stillman] Brown to Dear Son William
June 21, 1857
This letter, written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, is a tender, heartfelt piece of correspondence, speaking of the joys and triumphs of living in a new land. Brown enjoyed his time in Kansas, preaching at a local church and working on his claim. He outlined for his son, who was away at boarding school, his typical day to day activities, which included cooking, gardening, and housekeeping. He also spoke of the currently peaceful state of affairs in Kansas.

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Churches; Domestics; Household activities; Houses; Vegetables

Authors: Brown, John S.

Letter, L. [Leigh] R. Webber to Miss Brown [daughter of John Stillman Brown]
October 22, 1859
This letter, written by Leigh R. Webber from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, was addressed to Miss Brown, a daughter of John Stillman Brown. Webber wrote about sickness in the Brown family and about other personal matters, such as her father's work as a minister. He also kept her apprised of politics, both in Kansas and on the national scene, and spoke briefly of John Brown's "insane undertaking."

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fires; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Religion; Sickness (see Illness); Slave power; Webber, Leigh R.

Authors: Webber, L. R.

Letter, J. [John] S. [Stillman] Brown to Dear Willie
June 13, 1858
This letter, written from Lawrence by John Stillman Brown, was addressed to his son William, who was studying at Phillips Exeter Academy. The letter included information about their local church meetings and the talk surrounding the murder of Gaius Jenkins. Brown also mentioned a sermon he preached, which outlined the beliefs of the Unitarians. He admonished his son to immerse himself in the Scriptures, and to stop drinking tea and other stimulants. The letter concluded with a discussion of politics, particularly the Lecompton and Leavenworth Constitutions.

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Churches; Community life; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitution; Lecompton Constitution; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Unitarian churches; Weather

Authors: Brown, John S.

Letter, Mary [Brown] to Dear Brother Willie [Brown]
January 30, 1859
This letter, written by Mary Brown from Lawrence, was addressed to her brother William, who was studying at Phillip Exeter Academy. Mary and William were the children of John Stillman Brown, a Unitarian minister who lived west of Lawrence. The main focus of the letter is the story of how Dr. Doy was captured by Missourians while aiding fugitive slaves. Mary was convinced that someone had told the Missourians about the plan of escape. She also mentioned her father's religious work and "Old" John Brown's work to free Missouri slaves.

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy, John; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Fugitive slaves; Missourians

Authors: Brown, Mary Ann Day , 1816-1884

Letter, Sara [Robinson] to My Dear Sister
January 5, 1858
Sara Robinson wrote to her sister from Lawrence, describing her home and lifestyle. Robinson named many friends and guests who had visited and/or boarded at her home. She made reference to the election occurring the day before, which would determine whether or not the Lecompton Constitution was ratified, and reiterated her support for the Free State cause.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Free state perspective; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Weather

Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911

Financial Statements, M. F. Conway to N. E. Emigrant Aid Company
August 1, 1858 - January 1, 1859
These monthly financial statements, submitted by Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory, detailed company income and expenditures for a six month period between July and December 1858. Conway provided particularly full accounts of his traveling expenses during frequent trips around the territory.

Keywords: Account books; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Financial statements; Food; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Stagecoaches; Transportation; Travel

Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin

Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
September 19, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote to his brother, Edwin Parrott, from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Marcus described to his brother the situation in the area stemming from the Battle of Hickory Point, which occurred six days earlier. He said that the free state men involved in the battle were arrested and held in prison in Lecompton without examination, while the proslavery men met no consequence. Marcus mentioned other incidents that led him to believe crimes and schemes were taking place against free state supporters. He also brought up money and land investments again, requesting money.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Real estate investment; Town development

Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879

Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
September 29, 1856
Marcus Parrot wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, regarding the aftermath of the Battle of Hickory Point, which had occurred on September 13. Marcus told him that border ruffians had seized his personal letters, home, and furniture, and were questioning him about a phrase Edwin had written to him in a letter, which suggested the assassination of Judge Lecompte. Marcus stated that Governor Geary had done more damage to the Free State cause than all of his predecessors together, and feared that, if Fremont was defeated in the upcoming Presidential election, their cause would be completely lost.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brindle, William; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free soil; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879

Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879

Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
October 7, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his father, Thomas Parrott. Marcus told him of his preparation to defend the free state men accused of murder for their role in the recent skirmishes surrounding the Battle of Hickory Point; he was not optimistic of the outcome, calling his position "embarrassing". Marcus added news of the recent election of a new Territorial Legislature, and shared poll statistics that showed a vast majority of free state supporters in several voting areas. Though this was a positive turn, he stated again that the free state cause would be in the hands of the new President.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Proslavery activities

Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879

Photograph, Members of the first party from the New England Emigrant Aid Company to go to Lawrence, Kansas in 1854
ca. 1854
Portrait of four men, all members of the first party going to Lawrence, Kansas. The party left Boston, Massachusetts on July 17, 1854, and joined with Charles Robinson in St. Louis before arriving in Lawrence.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Fuller, Ferdinand; Goss, George W.; Harrington, Dr. S.C.; Massachusetts; Morgan, J.F.; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographers; Settlement

Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879

Photograph, Josiah Miller and wife
c. 1850s
Portrait of Josiah Miller and his wife. Miller was the editor of the Kansas Free State newspaper, whose business building and printing operation was destroyed during the Sack of Lawrence in May 1856.

Keywords: Miller, Josiah

Authors: Adams in the Eldridge Hall

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
September 4, 1855
S. N. Simpson of Lawrence, Kansas Territory wrote to Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts concerning the improvement of the town and Hill's property. He alluded to "outsiders" who had made "a little stir." Simpson had demanded rent payment from Mr. Fuller, who agreed to pay part. Hill's distance from the situation had encouraged Fuller's delinquency. Simpson planned to attend the free state convention on the 5th. On page 2, written after the convention, Simpson reported that Governor Reeder was living in Hill's new house. He also mentioned that one of Simpson's Sabbath schools had stopped meeting.

Keywords: Free State Convention; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Letter, R. G. Elliott to Dear Sister
February 15, 1858
Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his sister from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, regarding his financial investments. Elliott told her that he was a person who had had both good and bad fortune and, though he was not immediately wealthy and might have to wait to build a house, he had many shares in town properties that should be worth at least $3000-4000.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Elliott, Robert G.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Travel

Authors: Elliott, Robert G.

Letter, R. G. Elliott to Dear Sister
January 24, 1860
Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his sister from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Elliott told her that the Territorial legislature had just began its session, and he explained how it came to be held in Lawrence. He updated his sister on his current occupation as a Deputy at the Treasurer's office and cleared up a rumor that he had received $40,000 compensation for damages during the sack of Lawrence. He had only received $4,000, and he had immediately invested it in Territorial land warrants.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Pikes Peak gold rush; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Telegraph

Authors: Elliott, Robert G.

Letter, [Samuel] Tappan to Gen. T. W. Higginson
March 15, 1858
In this letter, written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Samuel Tappan informed Thomas W. Higginson of the state of affairs in Kansas. He began the letter by mentioning the constitutional convention that would soon meet at Minneola, and the hope that the free state side will be triumphant. Tappan also mentioned the recent election for mayor of Lawrence, stating that Carmi Babcock won over James Blood. The last page, tacked on as if it were a separate note, gave a brief summary of where influential leaders were currently located, so Higginson would know of their whereabouts.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Blood, James; Branscomb, Charles H.; Constitutional conventions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state perspective; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Roberts, William Young; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913

Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913

Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Dear Friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
April 7, 1858
Samuel F. Tappan of Lawrence wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson, informing him that the last letter he received from Higginson was lost in the Kansas River while Tappan was crossing it on horseback. Tappan also told Higginson that he had been elected secretary of the Leavenworth constitutional convention meeting that month. He discussed in detail the turn out of the votes concerning negro suffrage and women's suffrage, and mentioned the joyful reaction to the defeat of a Senate bill. According to Tappan, the border warfare had ceased and "it is almost impossible to excite a war spirit in Kanzas," further stating that "we rely wholly upon numbers now, and not upon Sharp's rifles." He expressed interest in having more women emigrate to Kansas, writing that "the fact is, women are scarce in Kansas and unmarried men numerous."

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutional conventions; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Slaves; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Women Suffrage

Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913

Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Dear Friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
April 17, 1859
In this letter, Samuel Tappan continued to keep Thomas Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts apprised of the current situation in Kansas Territory. He mentioned such topics as the Pike's Peak gold rush and the affairs of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, stating his belief that Robinson and Pomeroy were innocent of any charges of speculation. He praised John Brown's work to free slaves and the work of the Doy family in that same endeavor. However, he did not agree with Charles Robinson, who too readily looked to the interests of the Republican Party instead of supporting John Brown's work in the territory. Tappan appreciated the Atlantic Monthly magazine and Higginson's contributions to it.

Keywords: African Americans; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy, John; Free state perspective; Fugitive slaves; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas City, Kansas Territory; Land speculation; Pikes Peak gold rush; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913

Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913

Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Rev. T. W. Higginson
June 27, 1859
The main focus of this letter, written from Lawrence by Samuel F. Tappan, is the case of Dr. John Doy, who had just been convicted of abducting slaves from Missouri. Doy had been sentenced to five years imprisonment, but his lawyers got a two month suspension so they could file an appeal with the state Supreme Court. Tappan outlined the evidence against Doy, which he said rested on the testimony of one proslavery man. He also reiterated the story behind the Doy kidnapping in case the recipient, Thomas Higginson, was not aware of all the details. The letter ended by mentioning the strength of the Democratic Party in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: African Americans; Courts; Democratic Party (U.S.); Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawyers; Missouri; Slaves; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913

Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913

Letter, Ms. Maria Felt to Dear Mr. [Thomas W.] Higginson
June 25, 1858
Miss Felt wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson, telling of her journey from Clinton, Massachusetts to Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Apparently, she was emigrating to Kansas in order to teach school. Miss Felt and her party traveled by train until they reached Alton, Illinois, where they took a steamer along the Mississippi to St. Louis. From there they traveled to Jefferson City and finally reached Leavenworth, Kansas Territory. At that point they traveled to Lawrence by stagecoach and Indian canoe. Once she had arrived in Lawrence, which she found to be a pretty town, she became acquainted with James Redpath, R. J. Hinton, Samuel Tappan, and George Stearns. She also called on Ephraim Nute, but she disliked both him and his wife, writing that they "sat up like two icicles." This letter appears to have been edited at some later date.

Keywords: Felt, Maria; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Railroads; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Schools; St. Louis, Missouri; Stagecoaches; Steamboats; Transportation; Travel; Water transportation; Weather; Women

Authors: Felt, Maria

Photograph, Charles Robinson and Deputy
May 1856
Portrait of Charles Robinson, free state leader, under arrest by a Deputy, in May 1856. Robinson was arrested in Lexington, Missouri, with his wife, Sarah, as they traveled East. He was taken to Westport, the proslavery camp near Lawrence, back to Kansas City, to Leavenworth, and then to Lecompton. Robinson was arrested on charges of treason, and was held prisoner four months before being released on bail.

Keywords: Free state activities; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Felt, Maria

Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for the Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence
July 7, 1855
This Quit-Claim Deed and Bond documented the investment of $1.00 made by Josiah Miller and Robert G. Elliot, publishers of the Kansas Free State newspaper, into Lawrence town shares.

Keywords: Allen, N.; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins, William H. R.; Miller, Josiah; Real estate investment; Snyder, Samuel S.; Town shares; Wood, John P.

Authors: Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence: Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, et.al.

Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Samuel I. Jones to Josiah Miller
April 30, 1857
This quit-claim deed, executed by Samuel I. Jones as administrator for Thomas Connelly [deceased?], turned ownership of lots 62 and 64 on Rhode Island street to Josiah Miller.

Keywords: Blord, S.H.; Connelly, Thomas; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jones, Samuel I.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Real estate transactions; Sampson, Turner

Authors: Jones, Samuel I.

Territorial Census, 1855, District 1
January-February, 1855
This census was taken in order to determine eligible voters for elections to be held as proclaimed by Governor Andrew Reeder on November 10, 1854. The categories for information in the census were name, occupation, age, male, female, emigrated from, native of United States, naturalized citizen, declarant (intention to become a citizen), Negro, slave, and voter. Only white males over 21 were eligible to vote. The districts used for the census were the same as the election districts. A statistical summary of the census follows the enumeration pages. For District 1, the place of election was the office of Dr. Charles Robinson in Lawrence. The boundaries of each district were described in Governor Reeder's proclamation and it is difficult to determine what counties were in each district. The description of the First District follows: "Commencing at the Missouri State line, on the south bank of the Kansas River; thence along the south bank of said river to the first tributary or watered ravine running into the Kansas above the town of Lawrence, thence up that tributary to the head thereof; thence in a direct line to the west side of __Rolf's house; thence, by a due south line, to the Santa Fe Road; thence by the middle of said road to the Missouri State line; and thence by said State line to the place of beginning."

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Babcock, Carmi William

Letter, [E. B. Whitman?] to [Franklin B.] Sanborn
May 10, 1857
E. B. Whitman (letter not signed, but author's identity is pretty clear), an agent in Lawrence for the National Kansas Committee, wrote Franklin Sanborn in Massachusetts regarding his disappointment with the lack of support being given by "our professed friends" in the East. To their discredit, according to Whitman, Massachusetts "supporters" had refused to provide assistance which was desperately needed for the Kansas settlers who had just endured a very "severe winter." He believed false information was being circulated for political purposes by individuals within the Free State movement: "Kansas, bleeding Kansas, is of value to them only so far as it subserves their selfish ends."

Keywords: Dred Scott decision; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Settlement; Vermont; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
October 1, 1855
S. N. Simpson wrote concerning his attempts to collect rent from Mr. Fuller, who had not yet paid up, to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. The undefined "outside movement" was at rest. Lawrence property values were rising; Hill had bought several lots and a house for the price of a single lot on Massachusetts Street at the current rate.

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Town lots

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Ledger, Accounts Paid
January 1856
This informal ledger documents expenses paid and monies lent by Hiram Hill during a visit to Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Included on his provisions list are prices for buffalo skins and overshoes.

Keywords: Account books; Debt; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Money; Prices

Authors: Hill, Hiram

Ledger, Cost of House Bill at Lawrence, Kansas
January 1856
This informal ledger provides a list of amounts Hiram Hill paid for home building materials and one year of insurance for his new home in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Hill immigrated to the Territory from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment

Authors: Hill, Hiram

Bill of Plastering, Hiram Hill to B. Johnson
January 5, 1856
This handwritten bill charged Hiram Hill for plastering work (presumably in his new home in Lawrence, Kansas Territory) done by B. Johnson. Johnson initialed the document, and noted his receipt of Hill's payment in full.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Labor; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment

Authors: Hill, Hiram

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr.
April 9, 1856
Samuel N. Simpson wrote to Hiram Hill from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, updating him on the status of Hill's rents and outlining the rental agreements he had arranged with the various tenants. Simpson mentioned he had raised the $5000 for the church, as promised, and that Hill's money could not be invested in Wyandotte lands until they were properly surveyed. He added that he had recently brought firearms to Kansas Territory, stating " I think our trouble in Kansas has only begun -- but let the war and even dissolution come -- the quicker the better."

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Letter, C. A. Wright to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
April 14, 1856
Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Wright described his recent experiences buying and selling cattle obtained from Missouri counties. He also mentioned his purchase of town shares in Manhattan, Kansas Territory, and commented on the recent emigration rush, which was increasing demand for land, filling hotels, and causing rent to increase. Wright felt optimistic about the future of peace in Kansas, having heard a story about Governor Reeder's feeling for the same.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Livestock; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town development; Town shares; Wright, Charles A.

Authors: Wright, Charles A.

Letter, [unknown] to Hiram Hill
April 30, 1856
The author of this letter, possibly C. A. Wright, wrote to Hiram Hill from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He discussed continuing speculation efforts in Lawrence, but particular ones were becoming rife with politics. Also mentioned is the recent completion of the Free State Hotel, which would help ease the recent emigration rush. The author described events surrounding the shooting of Sheriff Samuel Jones "by an unknown hand". The shooting followed the issuing of arrest warrants for George Deitzler, Gaius Jenkins, and others, for their failure to assist with the arrest of S. N. Wood, who was charged with aiding the rescue of a free state man from prison the past November.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Emigration and immigration; Free State Hotel; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Jenkins, Gaius; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Land speculation; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence; Warrants (Law); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Authors: Wright, Charles A.

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
April 30, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, regarding recent land propositions and "excitement": U.S. Troops had been in and out of Lawrence daily, looking to arrest various citizens. Simpson also described his attempts to negotiate land ownership with others who were interested in developing West Lawrence, and sought the approval of Hill in the matter.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Military; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; United States. Army

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Letter, C. A. Wright to Mr Hill
January 4, 1857
Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, having recently recovered from an extended illness. Wright told him that "peace and quietness seam [sic] to reign throughout the Territory" and anticipated that Kansas would become a free state without too much more trouble from the border ruffians. He added that two new hotels were being built in town, one by Thaddeus Whitney, in order to accommodate the spring emigration rush. Wright directed Hill to write him in New York, as he would be traveling East for the next two months.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Whitney, Thaddeus L.; Wright, Charles A.

Authors: Wright, Charles A.

Letter, G. W. Brown to My Dear Sir [Hiram Hill]
January 10, 1857
George Brown, editor of the free state newspaper, Herald of Freedom, wrote to Hiram Hill thanking him for his Christmas donation to the newspaper. Brown enclosed with his letter several copies of the Herald and a new map of Kansas Territory. He also reported that the Herald was increasing circulation at an unparalleled rate, and that he appreciated the freedom and independence afforded him as a member of the press.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state support; Herald of Freedom; Hill, Hiram; Money; Newspapers

Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915

Letter, H. M. Simpson to Hiram Hill
January 16, 1857
H. M. Simpson wrote for his brother, Samuel N. Simpson, who was in Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. H.M. confirmed that his brother had purchased land for Hill in Quindaro, and that a map of West Lawrence was in production and would be sent to Hill as soon as possible. H. M. also reported that Hill's land investments were up nearly 50% in value, and he anticipated that, without a war, they would rise even higher. He described the development of the city and roads of Quindaro. The city was expected to experience a lot of traffic with the spring emigration.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, H.M; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Simpson, H.M

Letter, H. M. Simpson to Hiram Hill
January 18, 1857
H. M. Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported that, since two new hotels were being built in addition to the Emigrant Aid Hotel, Hill's fellow investors in the Cincinnati House (hotel), may want to discontinue its use as a hotel. He suggested that the building might better serve as a store or shop.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Retail businesses; Simpson, H.M; Simpson, Samuel Newell

Authors: Simpson, H.M

Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
February 11, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, where he had stopped on his way to visit Governor Andrew H. Reeder at the Shawnee Indian Mission. Holliday hoped to make the growing Topeka the capital of Kansas Territory. In Lawrence, a hotel keeper had died and George W. Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom, was ill. Despite mail-delaying winter storms further east, the weather continued mildly. Holliday described his financial investments and requested money for his trip to Meadville, more urgent as the birth of their first child approached.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Capitals (cities); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town settlement

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900

Letter, Mr. [William B.] Hutchinson to Friend [Cyrus K.] Holliday
June 6, 1856
William B. Hutchinson of Lawrence, Kansas Territory wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, K. T., requesting support for a People's Mass Convention in Topeka on July 4. The gathering Free-Staters would be armed in case of opposition. Colonel Edwin V. Sumner had received orders on June 4th from K. T. Governor Wilson Shannon to disband unlawful military forces. The camp from which Hutchinson wrote had complied, but John W. Whitfield and his troops, camped at Bull Creek, refused. Hutchinson described northern enthusiasm to aid financially the free state cause. John H. Reeder and James H. Lane were speaking in northern states.

Keywords: Free State Convention; Free state support; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879

Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904

Extract of Letter, by Mrs. Holmes
March 4, 1861
This moving letter, presumably written by Mrs. Holmes, related the daily experiences of her family during 1861. They were struggling to make ends met, and her father did not want to seek help from back East. They had lived in Lawrence for five years, and she briefly mentioned their sickness and suffering during 1856. She applauded the work of Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, and his willingness to obtain provisions and assistance for the impoverished settlers in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Daily life; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Poor; Poverty; Relief

Authors: Holmes, Mrs.

Stereograph, Eldridge Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas
c. 1860s
Photo images featuring the Eldridge Hotel, located "323 miles West of St. Louis, Missouri". The Eldridge House (or Hotel) was built in Lawrence, Kansas Territory by the New England Emigrant Aid Society. It was something of a headquarters for the free state movement and as such it was targeted for destruction by Sheriff Jones' proslavery posse, which sacked Lawrence on May 21, 1856.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stereographs

Authors: Holmes, Mrs.

Ambrotype [Photograph], Charles Robinson
c. 1850s
Ambrotype portrait of free-state leader Charles Robinson. Robinson also became the first governor of the state of Kansas.

Keywords: Ambrotypes; Free state supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Holmes, Mrs.

Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [John Calhoun, Esq.]
December 3, 1856
Charles Robinson wrote to John Calhoun, the Surveyor General in Lecompton, about the paperwork that he himself had filed the last year regarding a "float" ownership in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Robinson had found that the ownership notice was not on file with the government, and was sending Calhoun proof of ownership in an attempt to correct the problem. John Calhoun was an avid pro-slavery supporter, having once said that he was "too lazy to work" and "wanted the negroes to do it for him".

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land claim disputes; Land surveys; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Tennery, William M.; Wyandot Float

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Mary [Holliday]
January 30, 1859
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, who, accompanied by Mrs. Edward C. K. Garvey, had returned to Meadville, Pennsylvania to give birth to her second child. Meanwhile, Cyrus Holliday (who was Vice President of the upper territorial legislative body, the Council) had passed four bills, including one establishing Topeka as the Shawnee county seat. He bought new clothes for the session, since Lawrence had become more refined, with a new hotel. Holliday mentioned emigration to Pikes Peak, the Topeka bridge, trouble in L[i]nn county, and meeting three women, Mrs. Smith, Mrs. [Robert] Morrow, and Mrs. O'Donell (possibly Mrs. William O'Donnall) in Lawrence. He proposed that Liz, Mary Holliday's younger sister, return with her.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; County seats; Garvey, Edward C. K.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Hoogland, Edward; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka bridge

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900

Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Mary [Holliday]
February 6, 1859
Cyrus K. Holliday, soon to return to Topeka after a productive territorial legislative session in Lawrence, wrote to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He wrote about a festival held at the Eldridge House, and reported on several other incidents of note: the arrest of John W. Doy, captured by Missourians while helping former slaves travel to Iowa; John Brown's avoidance of capture by [John P.] Woods (at the Battle of the Spurs on January 31, 1859); and Charles Fischer's escape after being twice arrested as "a fugitive slave." Holliday also wrote that the legislature had passed and Governor Samuel Medary would approve a bill granting Josephine Branscomb a divorce. Despite Holliday's efforts, the constitutional convention would be held at Wyandotte in July. He had refused [Alfred L.] Winans' request for a recommendation.

Keywords: Branscomb, Josephine; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Divorce; Doy, John; Fisher, Charley; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Spurs, Battle of the; Winans, A. L.; Wood, John P.; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900

Letter, S. C. S. [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [Charles Robinson]
January 6, 1859
Samuel Smith wrote to Dr. Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, regarding the latest election events within the Kansas Territorial Legislature. The positions of Speaker and Clerk were not secured by William Roberts and himself, as had been expected, but had been filled by Alfred Larzalere and Byron P. Ayres as a consequence of some questionable internal party politics, so described by Smith. Smith also wrote Robinson of George Deitzler's desire to resume correspondence with him, and of a recent incident in which James Lane's portrait was defaced.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Ayres, Byron P.; Babcock, Carmi William; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Branscomb, Charles H.; Deitzler, George W.; Delahay, Mark W.; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elder, P.P.; Elections; Free State Party; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Hutchinson, George W.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); McLane, George W.; Methodist Church; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion; Wright, John W.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Smith, Samuel C.

Letter, J. P. Root to Hon. Charles Robinson
January 17, 1859
Joseph Root wrote to Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, informing him of a development that was splitting the Republican (anti-slavery) Party. Root mentioned that a large majority of the free state House members had begun to call themselves "Radicals," or extreme Republicans. He stated that he would leave the party if, in order to be a Republican, he had to be a member of the "Jim Lane Montgomery Men." Root also informed Robinson that a court had been established in Lawrence in order to try violent offenders from Linn, Lykins, and Bourbon counties.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Smith, Samuel C.

Authors: Root, Joseph Pomeroy

Certificate, Funded Debt of Kansas Territory
July 12, 1859
This certificate documented Charles Robinson's investment of $500 in Kansas Territorial Bonds. Signed by H.J. Strickler, Auditor, and S. Medary, Kansas Territorial Governor.

Keywords: Bonds; Finance; Kansas Territory. Auditor; Kansas Territory. Governor; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Authors: Kansas Territory, Legislature

Letter, Wm. Leamer to F. G. Adams, Sec., State Hist. So.
July 13, 1895
Writing from Lecompton, William Leamer described several families who had slaves when he arrived in Kansas Territory in 1856. The information is very brief. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), 1824-1899; African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Leamer, William; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory

Authors: Leamer, William

Reminiscences of Mrs. J. B. Abbott, De Soto, Sept. 1, 1895
September 1, 1895
This reminiscence, apparently, was based on an interview by Miss Zu Adams with Mrs. J. B. Abbott in 1895 and typed from notes she had taken during the visit. Mrs. Abbott states that their home was one of the Underground Railway stations. She described the escape of a young male slave who came to the house while her husband was absent. Miss Adams was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett; African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad; Women

Authors: Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett

Leslie's Illustrated, Panoramic View of Lecompton
December 25, 1858
Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper depicting panoramic view of Lecompton. Scene includes steamboats on the Kansas River and immigrant wagons. Captioned, "City of Lecompton, Territorial Capital of Kansas."

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Immigration and early settlement; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Objects; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement

Authors: Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett

Letter, E. B. Whitman to Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
December 14, 1858
After returning to Lawrence from a trip east, Whitman wrote Franklin B. Sanborn a mostly personal letter regarding the preparations for the winter and need to extend the loan owed to Sanborn--he had crops enough for subsistence but little cash. Near the end, Whitman commented briefly on the political situation, which was "quiet" at present, but "the difficulties in Linn & Bourbon Counties are renewed" and "J. B. is on the ground and engaged in 'Regulating.'"

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Crops; Farmers; Free state legislature; Insurance; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, M. F. Conway to Dear Sir [John Brown]
January 23, 1859
Martin F. Conway of Lawrence wrote to Brown on January 23, 1859, to explain that he (Conway) had not seen E. B. Whitman, but Conway did not think Brown could depend on Whitman, who was "dissatisfied with your proceedings in Lawrence," for any more financial support. Conway offered his full support ("I am at your service"), but he was rather pressed for cash at that time.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin

Letter, E. Nute to F. B. Sanborn Esq.
March 22, 1859
Ephraim Nute's efforts on behalf of "4 more fugitives," including Charley Fisher of Leavenworth, and the activities of "manhunters" in and around Lawrence are the main focus of this letter to F. B. Sanborn, but Nute also mentions the continuing need for money to pay for Doy's defense. The trial was to begin at St. Joseph the next day.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, John; Fisher, Charley; Fugitive slaves; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad

Authors: Nute, Ephraim

Letter, H. B. Hurd to E. B. Whitman Esq.
October 26, 1859
H. B. Hurd, the secretary of the National Kansas Committee, Chicago, Illinois, wrote to assure Whitman that he (Whitman) had "full authority to act in reference to said notes & accounts," not Capt. John Brown.

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Chicago, Illinois; Doy, John; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Hurd, H. B.; National Kansas Committee; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Hurd, H. B.

Stock Certificate, New England Emigrant Aid Company
January 15, 1856
Dated January 15, 1856, this certificate of stock--one share--in the New England Emigrant Aid Company was issued to "John Brown Lawrence K.T."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Stock certificates; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Authors: New England Emigrant Aid Company

Anniversary Ball
May 20, 1859
The citizens of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, were giving this ball to benefit the fire department but the event was to be held on the anniversary of the destruction of the Free State Hotel on May 20, 1856. The event was to be held at the Eldridge House and music was provided by the Lawrence Quadrille Band.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Community life; Daily life; Dance parties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Free State Hotel; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parties

Authors: New England Emigrant Aid Company

Letter, [E. Nute] to [Unidentified recipient]
February 14, 1859
Ephraim Nute wrote from Lawrence on February 14, 1859, regarding "the disaster that befel the last expedition from this place with fugitives." The party, led by Dr. John Doy, was in route to Oskaloosa when captured and taken to Missouri, where "the colored people, both free and slaves, have been shipped for the New Orleans market." Doy and his son had been jailed at Platte City, Missouri, and were to be tried for "stealing a slave from Weston." Nute was quite sure this operation had been betrayed from within, as "Great rewards were offered, spies sent out & men hired in this place to watch & aid in recovering the run away property."

Keywords: African Americans; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Holton, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Nute, Ephraim; Oskaloosa, Kansas Territory; Spurs, Battle of the; Underground railroad; United States marshals; United States. Army

Authors: Nute, Ephraim

Letter, E. N. [Ephraim Nute] to Unidentified recipient
February 24, 1859
Ephaim Nute of Lawrence provides an interesting description of the plight of one of the Doy party's fugitive slaves, captured and jailed at Platte City until his escape and dangerous flight back to Lawrence. "We have him now hid & are to day making arrangements to have him set forward tomorrow 30 miles to another depot. I think they (there are 2 others to go) will not be taken again without bloodshed." Nute also mentioned his involvement in the "Charley Fisher affair in Leavenworth." Fisher, a black fugitive, had actually come to Nute's house "disguised in female attire."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Canada; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, John; Fisher, Charley; Free state cause; Fugitive slaves; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Nute, Ephraim; Platte City, Missouri; Proslavery settlers; Underground railroad

Authors: Nute, Ephraim

Letter, E. B. Whitman to Friend [Franklin] Sanborn
February 26, 1859
National Kansas Committee agent Whitman wrote to Sanborn from Lawrence with disturbing news about "John Brown's proceedings." Brown had been accused by Democrats during the previous legislative session of "subsisting upon the proceeds of notes given for seeds and clothing," and initially Whitman defended Brown against these charges--to Whitman's dismay, he later found them to be true. Whitman seemed sincere in his desire not to believe the worst about the man he had aided for several years, but he was at a loss for an adequate explanation for Brown's action under the guise of an agent of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Smith, Gerritt; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, E. B. Whitman to Geo. L. Stearns Esq.
March 1859
Here Whitman wrote about his support on behalf of the National Kansas Committee of several activities: Dr. Doy's defense, John Brown (despite the fact that he had obtained additional funds "under false pretences"), and the organization of the Republican Party which was to be undertaken at convention in Osawatomie later that spring. Whitman feared that without some effort "the genuine standard Republicans" would fail to control the movement. He also mentioned an "unfortunate" altercation between Martin Conway and Charles Robinson on the streets of Lawrence.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Factionalism; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie convention; Railroad land grants; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, R.C. Brant to Hiram Hill
January 5, 1858
R.C. Brant, a Baptist missionary who had settled in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, wrote to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, regarding the use of Hill's land. Brant owned a town lot next to Hill's, and wished to make improvements to his land, which would require that he use Hill's lot. Brant explained that he had many visitors coming and going who would see the beauty of the area and might be inclined to settle in the area if he be allowed to improve his own lot. A note at the end of the letter supports Brant's credibility as a permanent citizen of Lawrence who had already made improvements to the town.

Keywords: Baptists; Brant, R.C.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missionaries; Real estate investment; Town development

Authors: Brant, R.C.

Advertisement calendar produced of O. Wilmath Books and Stationery
1860
O. Wilmarth's business was located in the Eldridge House, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. This advertisement calendar for 1860 indicated that Wilmarth was a wholesale and retail dealer in books and stationery. He also sold newspapers, magazines, and periodicals as well as wall paper and window shades.

Keywords: Advertisements; Books; Business; Business enterprises; Commerce; Community life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Retail businesses

Authors: Wilmarth, O.

Titus Sword
1856
Three months after the sack of Lawrence, the Free State Milita attacked the pro-slavery stronghold of Fort Titus. Free State forces were lead by Colonel James A. Harvey. Named after Colonel Henry T. Titus, a local pro-slavery commander, Fort Titus actually was a cabin located in Lecompton. After the Free State victory on August 16th, 1856, Colonel Titus surrendered this sword to Colonel Harvey.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Harvey, James A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Objects; Swords and daggers; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Wilmarth, O.

Surveying Equipment
1845-1855
Albert D. Searl used this equipment to survey Kansas Territory town sites in 1854. Lawrence was surveyed on Sept. 25th and Topeka on Dec. 20th. Searl's efforts to set town limits for free-staters in Lawrence were met with violence from pro-slavery forces nearby. Searl would later survey Manhattan, Osawatomie, Burlington, & El Dorado.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Skirmishing; Surveyors; Topeka, Kansas; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence

Authors: Wilmarth, O.

Quilt, New England Emigrant Aid Company
1855
Fragment of comforter made by women from the Boston-based New England Emigrant Aid Society. The comforter was sold at a charity raffle in Lawrence in 1855. Proceeds were given to free-state settlers. The fabric is believed to have been taken from Revolutionary War uniforms. Dr. Sylvester B. Prentiss purchased the comforter, which was later divided into sections and distributed among his family members.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Emigrant aid companies; Free state; Free state cause; House furnishings; Immigration and early settlement; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Objects; Prentiss, S.B.

Authors: Wilmarth, O.

Letter, Henry Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
March 16, 1857
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, soliciting his approval for the sale of a town lot in West Lawrence to Mr. Nathan Starks. Parker added that Lykins, the previous owner of the lot, had also sold his mill, and wished to settle his business immediately. He also asked Hill if he would be willing to invest in the construction of a court house for Douglas County.

Keywords: Courthouses; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Parker, Henry F.; Starks, Nathan; Town lots

Authors: Parker, Henry F.

Letter, Nathan Starks to Messrs. [Owners of the West Lawrence Town Site]
April 21, 1857
Nathan Starks wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to the "Owners of that portion of the Town Site known as West Lawrence", regarding his previous requests to make town lot purchases from the Town Company. Starks found it difficult to conduct this business transaction since the various owners of the town site, including Hiram Hill were not based locally. Ultimately, Starks hoped to acquire enough land to build housing for his machinery, with housing for his employees adjacent to his business.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Starks, Nathan; Town development; Town lots; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Starks, Nathan

Report of Accounts Received, S.N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
April 27, 1857
Samuel Simpson prepared this list of rents and monies from business transactions he had collected in the name of Hiram Hill since the previous summer.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
February 3, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported that money had been scarce that season, that the float of West Lawrence was still being investigated by Washington, and discussed town lot values related to the "float" status of the land. Parker also updated Hill on recent political events; the Legislature had convened and was discussing moving the Territorial capital. More significantly, a box of votes from the recent Lecompton Constitution election had been discovered under a woodpile, and the Legislature was busy making "stringent" laws to curb future acts of election fraud.

Keywords: Capitals (cities); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Hill, Hiram; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate investment; Temperance movement; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Parker, Henry F.

Letter, Nathan Starks to Hiram Hill Esq
March 8, 1858
Nathan Starks wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, asking for Hill's assistance in securing his old homestead in Massachusetts. Starks described his situation: he had moved to K.T. seeking better health and business, but had been disappointed in both of those, the social scene, and the lawlessness of the land. He hoped to return to his old homestead in Massachusetts after a year of life in Kansas Territory, provided that it had not been sold.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Mills and mill-work; Real estate investment; Starks, Nathan

Authors: Starks, Nathan

Letter, H.J. Parker to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
May 2, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker included a list of accounts paid and received on the first page. He looked forward to Hill's visit to K.T. in the fall, but was afraid he would be disappointed as "everybody has the blues"; the scarcity of money was taking its toll on the community. However, Parker said many new houses were being built, though the builders themselves were paid in town lots or lumber instead of money.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Prices; Real estate investment; Rent

Authors: Parker, Henry F.

Directory, City of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
1855
This transcript of the 1855 City of Lawrence Directory not only lists landowners and landholdings by street address, but also includes an index of landholdings by last name of the landowner.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement

Authors: Parker, Henry F.

Broadside, Cowardly assassination: Lecompton Union Extra!
1857
This broadside, a special report of the Weekly Lecompton Union newspaper, recounted the assassination of William T. Sherrard, which had occurred earlier that same day. Sherrard had been appointed Sheriff of Douglas County by the County Board of Commissoners after the resignation of Samuel J. Jones. Sherrard's appointment was not supported by Governor Geary, who allegedly made slanderous remarks on Sherrard's character. The broadside report supposed, since Sherrard was decidely a proslavery man, that free state Legislators, among other freestateman, had plotted against him on behalf of Geary, which lead to Sherrard's death at the hand of J.A.W. Jones.

Keywords: Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, J.A.W.; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; McAllister, Richard; Newspapers; Proslavery support; Sherrard, William T.; Violent deaths; Woodson, Daniel

Authors: Parker, Henry F.

The Lykins or Robitaille Float
May 14, 1857
This printed form was sent to the agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Company to inform him of a land claim by Robert Robitaille, a Wyandot Indian, to a portion of the city of Lawrence. It was sent by the General Land Office in Lecompton, Kansas Territory, and was signed by Ely Moore, register and William Brindle, receiver. William Lykins and Achilles Ward are mentioned in the description of the property being disputed.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Brindle, William; Immigration and early settlement; Land claim disputes; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Lykins, William H. R.; Moore, Ely; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robitaille, Robert; United States. General Land Office; Wade, Achilles B.; Wyandot Indians

Authors: Moore, Ely

Diary
December 10, 1854 - January 5, 1860
Julia Louisa Hardy Lovejoy and her husband Charles came to Kansas Territory in March 1855. Julia described the trip and their first months in Kansas Territory. However, Julia's diary entries were fairly sporadic so there were significant gaps in her account of life in Kansas Territory. Her writing was very emotional when describing the illness and death of their daughter Edith, when referring to the conflict in the territory, and when writing about her religious beliefs. The diary also contained some detail about daily life. The Lovejoys had two older children (Charles J. and Juliette) and a five year old daughter Edith when they came to Kansas Territory. Their son Charles may have come to Kansas before the rest of the family. Edith died in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, on May 3, 1855. Julia was pregnant at the time and a son Irving was born September 17, 1855. Juliette married Dr. Samuel Whitehorn from Hudson, Michigan, on March 9, 1856, in Manhattan, Kansas Territory. Juliette died November 20, 1860, at Manhattan, Kansas, at the age of 21. See the biographical sketch in the "Personalities" section for more detail on the Lovejoys.

Keywords: Baldwin, Kansas Territory; Daily life; Diaries; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lovejoy, Julia Hardy, 1812-1882; Lovejoy, Julia Louisa (see Lovejoy, Julia Hardy); Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Methodists; Religion; Riley County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Lovejoy, Julia Louisa

John Speer's Reminiscences of Jas. Skaggs, formerly a slave owner near Lecompton
July 13, 1895
Mr. Speer described his knowledge of the slaves owned by James Skaggs. Mr. Skaggs lived on Kaw half-breed lands about a mile from Lecompton. Speer also described an encounter he had in 1870 or 1871 with a former slave of Mr. Skaggs who owned property near Parker in Montgomery County. The former slave apparently rented a house and some farm land to his former owner Mr. Skaggs. Speer also described slaves owned by Judge Rush Elmore. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Skaggs, James; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speer, John, 1817-1906

Authors: Speer, John

Reminiscences of Slave Days in Kansas
circa 1895
John Armstrong assisted a slave named Ann Clarke, owned by G. W. Clarke, to escape into Iowa. He described the event in detail, including how she escaped, was captured, and escaped again. He also described slaves owned by a Mr. Bowen who lived on Washington Creek in Douglas. Armstrong lived on Washington Creek and later in Topeka. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: African Americans; Armstrong, John; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad

Authors: Armstrong, John

Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
September 20, 1856
From Lawrence Charles Robinson writes to update his wife on developments in and around Lawrence since her departure. Governor John W. Geary had arrived and promised to see that the Missouri militia then threatening Lawrence "were disbanded." Robinson goes on to describe a very tense few days in September, beginning on Friday the 12th, involving militia of both sides and the governor. After a brief skirmish on the prairie east of Lawrence, Geary and some U.S. troops arrived and "the Missourians agreed to go home. It was all a farce. . . ."

Keywords: Buffum, David C.; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stubbs militia company; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; Westport, Missouri

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Map, Palmyra, Kansas Territory
1857
Palmyra, Kansas Territory was a small town settled on 320 acres in Douglas County south of Lawrence, and served primarily as a service station to settlers traveling West on the Santa Fe Trail. In 1858, the town purchased land to the South, and donated it to establish Baker University and the city of Baldwin, both of which have survived to the present day.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Maps; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Page from the "Kansas Herald of Freedom"
December 1857
A December 1857 page from the "Kansas Herald of Freedom" free state newspaper. George W. Brown served as the editor of the paper, which was an organ of the New England Emigrant Aid Company in the Territory.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state activities; Herald of Freedom; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, Chas. Robinson (on behalf of the citizens of Lawrence) to Hon. F. P. Stanton
1857
This letter by Charles Robinson, free state leader and future Governor of the state of Kansas, appears here in published form. Robinson wrote to F. P. Stanton, the acting governor of Kansas Territory, expressing his opinion that the people of the Territory were not getting their fair say in electing officers or administrating territorial laws. He referred to the upcoming Lecompton Constitutional Convention, which would take place in September 1857, and outlined some procedural guidelines by which the Convention should be run if the free state men were to participate.

Keywords: Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Leslie's Illustrated, Panoramic view of Lawrence.
December 25, 1858
Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 25, 1858, showing a panoramic view of Lawrence. The scene includes businesses, homes, and cattle and sheep grazing on a hill overlooking Lawrence. The illustration is captioned, "City of Lawrence, Kansas Territory."

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Town settlement

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Mr. [Amos Adams] Lawrence
September 22, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Samuel Pomeroy wrote from a settlement, which would come to be called Lawrence, in Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Lawrence was an investor who sponsored the emigrant group who would settle the town of Lawrence. Pomeroy reported that Charles Robinson had been elected President of the Lawrence Association, the first governing body of the town. He was enthusiastic about the abundance of timber resources in the area, which, once secured from the Indians, would make for a good business enterprise. Emigrants were arriving in droves, filling the hotels and increasing demand for land claims. Though he remained positive, Pomeroy warned "Don't make yourselves believe that the slave holders have given up Kansas!" and anticipated a political battle during the upcoming Territorial Legislature election.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Branscomb, Charles H.; Business enterprises; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Hotels; Illness; Indian lands; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Timber; Town development

Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891

Brief for Applicant in the matter of the "Wyandott Robitaille Float."
Circa 1856
William Weer served as legal counsel for the Wyandotte Reserve and presented this brief on behalf of William Lykins and Robert Robitaille apparently to the Commissioner of the Land Office at Lecompton, Kansas Territory. Lykins and Robitaille were attempting to receive a patent for land that was also claimed by the Lawrence Association, Gaius Jenkins, Charles Robinson, S. J. Livingston, George G. Mathews, and William Savage. The brief contained a short history of the Wyandot tribes removal west and various treaties involving land. The claim involved parts of the city of Lawrence. The brief cited various cases and laws upon which Mr. Weer based his arguments.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Indian floats; Indian lands; Jenkins, Gaius; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Livingston, S. J.; Lykins, William H. R.; Mathews, George G.; Native Americans; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robitaille, Robert; Savage, William; United States. General Land Office; Weer, William; Wyandot Float; Wyandot Indians

Authors: Weer, William

Letter, C. Robinson to A. A. Lawrence Esq.
December 18, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Charles Robinson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Robinson thanked Lawrence for his unfailing support of the enterprise of the Territory and claimed his devotion to work done in his interest. He discussed Lawrence's development, having secured the offices of three free state newspapers, but expressed anxiety about the upcoming territorial election. However, Robinson vowed that his men would not resort to fraudulent voting to win the majority over proslavery supporters.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Business enterprises; Election fraud; Elections; Elliott, Robert G.; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspapers; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sawmills; Speer, John, 1817-1906; Town development

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, Ephm. Nute to Dear Fr. [Amos A. Lawrence]
January 5, 1857
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts, regarding the subject of a college. A well-attended town meeting had been held in which the idea had been discussed, though all seemed only "a castle in the air" but for Lawrence's "liberal offer" (presumably of funding) which was the "first step toward the realization of his project." The general opinion of the people was that the college should be constructed outside the town limits "on the high prairie or table land." Nute also mentioned the steps being taken to establish free public schools in the city, of upper and lower grades.

Keywords: Education; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; School buildings; Teachers; Town development; Universities and colleges

Authors: Nute, Ephraim

Letter, C. Robinson to My Dear L [Amos A. Lawrence]
May 9, 1859
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Charles Robinson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Robinson described the complicated political situation which had arisen from the development of Quindaro. Personal disagreements between Abelard Guthrie, S.N. Simpson, Joel Walker, and himself were making progress difficult. Robinson hoped that, upon their resolution, they could move forward with securing a contract with the Parkville & Grand River Railroad, as well as plans for a college. Two church groups had expressed interest in opening up their own institutions, or working with Robinson to found one. Robinson included a plat map for a prospective site, to which he did not entirely give his support; he added comments regarding the admission of women to the college, and thanked Lawrence again for his support of their enterprises.

Keywords: Churches; Divorce; Emery, James Stanley; Guthrie, Abelard; Land claim disputes; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Parkville & Grand River Railroad; Railroad companies; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Universities and colleges; Walker, Joel; Women; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Authors: Robinson, Charles

"Southern Rights" flag
May 21, 1856
Pro-slavery forces carried this flag while attacking the anti-slavery stronghold of Lawrence. Sheriff Samuel Jones led the group in sacking the town on May 21, 1856. A group of South Carolinians known as the Palmetto Guards participated in the attack, and flew their "Southern Rights" flag over the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper offices and the Free State Hotel before destroying the buildings.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Flags and banners; Free State Hotel; Herald of Freedom; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Palmetto Guards; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; South Carolina; Violence

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Photograph, Gaius Jenkins

Gaius Jenkins was born in New York state in 1812. He and his wife came to Kansas City, Missouri in 1853. He moved to Lawrence, Kansas Territory, in 1854 and was active in the free state cause, serving as a Colonel in the Free State Militia. He was taken prisoner along with John Brown, Jr.; Charles Robinson and several others and held near Lecompton. He was killed in Lawrence on June 3, 1858, by James Lane over a land dispute.

Keywords: Ambrotypes; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Prisoners

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Doy Rifle
1859
Dr. John Doy used this Sharps rifle fighting border disputes in Franklin County and at Ft. Titus. In Jan. 1859, Doy was captured near Lawrence by pro-slavery Missouri forces and charged with aiding in the abduction of fugitive slaves. For six months Doy was held in a St. Joseph, MO, jail. Doy was rescued by ten of his free-state friends, lead by Major James Abbott. Engraved in the rifle's stock is the phase, "Successful Agent of the Irrepressible Conflict."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Antislavery; Border disputes and warfare; Doy, John; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Objects; Sharps rifles; St. Joseph, Missouri; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Leslie's Illustrated, Lecompton and Lawrence
Dec. 25th, 1858
Brief descriptions of territorial towns Lawrence and Lecompton, published in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly Newspaper in 1858. The article mentions constuction of a state capital in Lecompton and the destruction of the Free State Hotel in Lawrence.

Keywords: Free State Hotel; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Objects; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Abbott Sword
1855
Major James B. Abbott acquired this Model 1840 Noncommissioned Officer's sword in 1855. He carried it through the territorial period.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Militia; Objects; Swords and daggers; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Abbott Howitzer
1856
Major James Burnett Abbott traveled east to raise funds and purchase arms for the free-state cause. In New York Abbott met Frederick Law Olmsted, who assisted in raising funds for the howitzer from the Ames Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts. The howitzer was taken to Lawrence, where it was captured by proslavery forces on May 21, 1856. It was recaptured at Fort Titus on August 16, 1856. Afterwards the howitzer was used in Linn County and by James H. Lane's brigade during the Civil War.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Ames Manufacturing Company; Border disputes and warfare; Cannons; Civil war; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Walker Shotgun
1854
Shotgun of Captain Samuel Walker, brought by him to Kansas in June, 1854, and used in the Battle of Fort Titus.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Guns; Objects; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, E. B. Whitman to My dear [Franklin B.] Sanborn
May 18, 1857
In his May 18 report to Franklin Sanborn, agent Whitman of Lawrence again cast shame on Massachusetts for its failure to provided needed financial support for the cause in Kansas but focused on his efforts to provide aid for "the school project." Whitman claimed credit for establishing both an elementary school and a high school, the latter of which "is fast becoming a Model," and he hoped his financing would not disappear. He also comments on the political situation, especially the fact that Charles Robinson had "to a large extent" lost the "confidence" of the people.

Keywords: Chicago, Illinois; Education; Free state support; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; National Kansas Committee; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, [Thomas J.] Marsh to Dear Sir [George L. Stearns]
August 29, 1857
From Lawrence, K.T., Thomas J. Marsh wrote to George Stearns on August 29, 1857, to describe the political situation in the territory and the results of the Grasshopper Falls Convention which had taken place three days before. Those favoring participation in the October legislative election carried the day (see Annals of Kansas, 176) and subsequently "a Grand Ratification meeting" endorse the conventions action, including the nomination of Marcus J. Parrott for delegate to Congress.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Music; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Schuyler, Philip Church; Smith, George W.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.

Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
September 12, 1857
To George Stearns on September 12, 1857, Thomas Marsh wrote that he was leaving Lawrence on a trip to "the Southern part of Kansas" for several days. He believed the "Free State men were getting into good shape for the election," which would go well if there was no "invasion" or "fraud." He also talked about some Democratic activity and mentioned the adjournment of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Marsh, Thomas J.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.

Letter, W. B. Edmonds [E. B. Whitman?] to Hawkins [John Brown]
October 5, 1857
From Lawrence, October 5, 1857 (election day), "W. B. Edmonds" (appears to have been assumed name of E. B. Whitman) wrote to tell Brown that he hoped to see Brown in Kansas "soon," but he was unable to fulfill all Brown's requests, for funds and teams--the latter being especially hard to come by.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Edmonds, W. B.; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Finance; Free state prospects; Hawkins, N.; Horses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Panic of 1857; Sickness (see Illness); Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Edmonds, W. B.; Whitman, E. B.

Letter, E. B. Whitman to My dear friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
January 16, 1858
E. B. Whitman wrote Sanborn this lengthy letter from Lawrence, describing the political events that had unfolded in the territory since the October 5, 1857, election. Among many other things, he mentioned the split that took the "National democrats" out of the movement over the issue of participation in the state elections under the Lecompton Constitution, January 1857. This "Free State ticket" was, according to Whitman, "a disgrace to the cause," but it attracted a good number of votes and won "a good working majority in both houses and so our people proclaim a victory." Whitman, who had long been a faithful supporter, was seemingly losing confidence in John Brown, as were "the people."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Education; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Elections; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Herald of Freedom; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Territorial government; United States. Congress; United States. Senate; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Friend [F. B. Sanborn ?]
February 18, 1858
As a follow up to his more lengthy report of January 16, Whitman wrote from Lawrence on February 18, 1858, about the turbulent course of Kansas politics during the last month. Again, he attacked Robinson's efforts to compromise with the forces behind the "Lecompton Swindle," and described the other factions plan of action should Congress adopt the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Constitutional conventions; Election, Leavenworth Constitution delegates to convention, March 1858; Free State Party; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Stubbs Militia Company Constitution, By-laws, and Charter
April 16, 1855
The Stubbs militia company was organized on April 16, 1855, to protect Lawrence and the people of Kansas Territory. The constitution limited membership to 64 "rank and file" members and listed the duties of the various officers. The by-laws called for weekly drills, public parades once each three months, and indicated that prospective members had to be voted upon as well as paying ten dollars. Other expectations for members were detailed in the by-laws. The charter was the draft of a bill to be passed by the territorial legislature and listed the following as the incorporators of the Stubbs, a volunteer military company: Joseph Cracklin, A. Cutler, George F. Earle, John G. Crocker, Caleb S. Pratt, A. Gunther, and A. D. Searl. Although the document included the date of April 16, 1855, a date of 1858 was penciled above the title Constitution.

Keywords: Cracklin, Joseph; Crocker, John G.; Cutler, A.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Earle, Geroge F.; Free state activities; Gunther, A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Pratt, Caleb S.; Searl, Albert D.; Stubbs militia company

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, unknown [H. F. Parker?] to Mr. H. Hill
April 27, 1858
The author of this letter, most likely Henry F. Parker, wrote to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, communicating to Hill roughly the amount of property taxes he owed and seeking confirmation of the specific lot numbers Hill owned.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate investment; Taxation; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Photograph, Martin Franklin Conway
Between 1857 and 1861
Portrait of Martin Franklin Conway, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, a free state activist and political leader. He was a agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company and the Executive Committee of Kansas Territory. Conway was a delegate to several constitutional conventions and the Republican National Convention. He was the first Kansan elected to Congress.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Constitutional conventions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Leonard; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographs and Illustrations; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Public letter with Interrogatories
May 8, 1856
Edmund A. Whitman and Albert D. Searl established an Emigrants' Intelligence Office in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. They stressed the importance of finding out information about the country before making a decision about acquiring land in a particular area. This printed letter outlines several issues to be considered and also presents a series of twenty-two questions that they recommend be answered when considering where to settle. While a few of the questions relate to the slave versus free state controversy, most are general concerns to be considered in selecting a place to live. Whitman and Searl produced at least one early Kansas map.

Keywords: Business; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrants' Intelligence Office; Emigration and immigration; Immigrants; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Immigration and early settlement; Land acquisition; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Settlement; Whitman and Searl; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman and Searl

Letter, Ladd [Erastus] & Prentiss to H. Hill Esq.
June 27 & 29, 1857
Erastus Ladd wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, who had returned from the Territory to Massachusetts. Ladd explained that the delay in Hill's receiving a map of West Lawrence was on account of the sinking of the steamboat on which the maps were shipped. He also asked Hill for his confirmation of the maintenance agreement several of Hill's renters claimed were in place. Ladd told Hill that new businesses had rented space in his Cincinnati House (previously a boarding house).

Keywords: District Court (see United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Maps; Prentiss, S.B.; Real estate investment; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Ladd, Erastus D

Letter, E.D. Ladd to Hiram Hill Esq.
July 14, 1857
Erastus Ladd wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, in Massachusetts. Ladd enclosed with this note a map of Lawrence along with a list of Hill's properties in West Lawrence. He also alluded to a "town site question", which may refer to questionable business practices on the part of Samuel N. Simpson, during the development of Quindaro, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Maps; Real estate investment; Town development; Town lots; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Ladd, Erastus D

Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
August 25, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker described the situation in K.T. as "dull. . .every man you se [sic] here Looks blue and no Business and allmost [sic] Every Family are Sick". He told Hill that the Cincinnati House was the only property of his that was occupied, all other of Hill's homes and buildings were vacant; many people were selling their property. Parker closed his letter with a mention of the recent election to ratify the Lecompton Constitution under the English bill.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; English Bill; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.

Authors: Parker, Henry F.

Kansas Free!! Gov. Reeder For Congress!!
September 8, 1855
This broadside invites the "Freeman on the Wakarusa" to attend a meeting to endorse the proceeding of the Big Spring Convention, which was organized by free state supporters as part of the actions leading up to the drafting of the Topeka Constitution. The meeting was to be held at Blanton on September 13, 1855. The document indicated that the "FREE STATE PLATFORM and the Proceedings of the CONVENTION" would be read and that the best "Orators of the Country" would be there.

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Wakarusa River

Authors: Parker, Henry F.

Pamphlet, Rules for the Government of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Kansas
January 4, 1858
This pamphlet outlines procedures for conducting business in the Territorial Legislature. This document was officially adopted by the Third Session of the Territorial Legislature held at Lecompton, and includes lists and directory information of members and officers in both the House of Representatives and the Council, as well as "Rules and Orders" for both of those groups.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Territorial government

Authors: Kansas Territory, Legislature

Excerpt from letter, I. T. G [Isaac Goodnow] to [unknown]
January/February 1856
In the wake of the Wakarusa War, Isaac Goodnow wrote to an unknown recipient regarding recent skirmishes and negotiations between proslavery and free state supporters. According to Goodnow, Governor Shannon had demanded that the free state men surrender their Sharp's rifles and obey the laws of the "bogus" legislature. Governor Robinson had responded, telling his men to "keep the rifles, but surrender their contents." Goodnow also commented on the "determined heroism" of the free state women, and recounted the incident of voter fraud which occurred in the Delegate to Congress election between former Governor Reeder and J. W. Whitfield.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Election fraud; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879; Women

Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894

Narrative, the Murder of Charles Dow, by Isaac Goodnow
1856
This written account reports on the incidents surrounding the murder of Charles Dow, including various skirmishes and military action which followed, leading up to the Wakarusa War. Dow was a free state supporter and was murdered by Franklin Coleman, who, according to Goodnow, had turned proslavery only after coming to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dow, Charles W.; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Skirmishing; Violence; Violent deaths

Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894

Letter, C. Robinson to E. Thayer
April 2, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts, described voting irregularities in the March 30, 1855 election of members to the territorial legislature. Robinson maintained that the election was "controlled entirely by Missourians" who came to the territory, took over the polling places, and cast illegal ballots to ensure that proslavery supporters were elected to the legislature. Robinson also reported that free staters in Lawrence had formed themselves into four military companies, and urged Thayer to send Sharps rifles and cannons for these forces.

Keywords: Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Free state perspective; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, G. W. Brown to Eli Thayer, Esq.
June 4, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. G. W. Brown described the sack of Lawrence and the destruction of his printing press, commented upon the harshness of his prison conditions, and asked Eli Thayer to do anything in his power to help secure his release.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Herald of Freedom; Journalism; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Press; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Slave power; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Treason

Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915

Statement, Rev. W. R. Davis for Bluemont College
May 20, 1860
W. R. Davis, President of Baker University in Baldwin City, Kansas Territory, composed this statement, which declared that Bluemont College, founded by Isaac Goodnow, would "not interfere with the legitimate work of Baker University." Davis too believed that the College fulfilled a "great want" in the new Territory.

Keywords: Baker University; Bluemont Central College; Davis, W. R.; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Universities and colleges

Authors: Davis, W.R.

Letter, H. [Harris] Stratton to Mr. Brown [John Brown]
August 12, 1856
In this brief note from Topeka, Harris Stratton told John Brown that "Gen Joe Cook" (Jim Lane) wanted Brown to come to Lawrence as they were expecting "a fight on Washington Creek."

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stratton, Harris; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory

Authors: Stratton, Harris

Letter, [John Brown, Jr.] to [John Brown]
August 14, 1856
Although this document is unsigned, it is almost certainly a letter from John Brown, Jr., to his father. The former was at a "camp" near Lecompton, still in the custody of territorial officials, and he wanted his father to come for a visit. John, Jr. provides instructions on how this might be done safely; he believed it could be, but warned, "don't let them get you."

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners

Authors: Brown, Jr., John

Letter, [John Brown, Jr.?] to [John Brown?]
August 16, 1856
Two days after encouraging his father to visit him at the prisoners' "camp" near Lecompton, John Brown, Jr., wrote to say "I had not better try to meet you just now." He thought things looked "favorable" for the free state prisoners and wrote of what he had heard of the Battle of Fort Titus, which took place that very day, August 16, 1856.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sackett, Delos B.; Titus, Henry Theodore

Authors: Brown, Jr., John

Letter, Your Affectionate Son & brother [John Brown, Jr.?] to Dear Father [John Brown] & Brother
September 8, 1856
Still in the custody of territorial officials, John Brown, Jr., wrote to express his remorse upon learning of the death of his brother Frederick--at least he was relieved to learn that his father and Jason were safe, as early reports had them dead or missing. "Poor Frederick has perished in a good cause!" wrote John, Jr., "the success of which cause I trust will yet bring joy to millions." He then wrote of his forthcoming trial and possible plan to "escape in case it should appear best."

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Wealthy; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Sickness (see Illness); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)

Authors: Brown, Jr., John

Letter, James H. Holmes to My dear friend [John] Brown
April 30, 1857
From Lawrence, on April 30, 1857, Holmes wrote to urge Brown to contact him directly regarding the ominous state of affairs in the territory at that time. Acting governor Frederick Stanton had announced that the "Bogus" laws would be enforced and "The people shout--Never!" Stanton promised "war to the knife and the knife to the hilt."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Holmes, James H.; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Taxation; Wattles, Augustus

Authors: Holmes, James H.

Letter, William A. Phillips to My Dear Friend [John Brown]
June 24, 1857
To "Jas. Smith" (that is, John Brown), William A. Phillips wrote from Lawrence that he would likely not be able to meet Brown en route to KT at Tabor, Iowa, but would arrange for a few others to do so. Phillips believed Brown "should come into Kansas" if he wanted to but "there is no necessity for active military preparations now."

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Census; Free State Party; Free state militia; Holmes, James H.; Land claims; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Smith, James

Authors: Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893

Letter, John Brown, Jr. to My Dear General [E. B.] Whitman
February 26, 1858
To his Kansas friend "General Whitman," John Brown Jr. wrote from his farm in Ashtabula, Ohio, regarding his continued commitment to the cause of Kansas and the state of his health. Brown wanted Whitman to know the reason for his sudden departure in October 1856: "the symptoms of mental abberation were again manifest to myself at least, and I knew that I must change scenes & circumstances, or again loose my balance entirely." But despite the hardships endured and the resulting illness, "Kansas is deguerotyped upon my heart, a stormy yet glorious picture."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Illness; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Topeka; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slavery; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Brown, Jr., John

Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
April 30, 1858
Among other things, Whitman wrote to Sanborn from Lawrence on April 30, 1858, regarding increased activity on the region's U.G.R.R. due in part to the fact that proslavery men in Missouri knew they had lost the battle for Kansas and "large gangs of slaves are already made up for Texas and the Extreme South, in case Lecompton fails to pass. Political harmony had, for the most part, returned to the Free State Party and "we have broken the back bone of the Slave power."

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Jefferson City, Missouri; Missouri; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Slave power; Slaveholders; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Underground railroad; United States. Army; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, M. F. Conway to My dear Sir [George L. Stearns]
June 13, 1858
Somewhat disturbed that Stearns of Boston had published his (Conway's) letter regarding "money for the Leavenworth Constitution," Martin F. Conway, Lawrence, wrote to say that there was nothing "improper or dishonorable in this transaction" and went on to reflect on the nature of the Free State Party/movement at that time. Charles Robinson was "at work to destroy the influence of the Republican wing of the Free State Party," but people back East should not conclude "that the bottom is going to fall out of Kansas because there is division in the Free State Party." Conway expected both Robinson and James H. Lane to fall from prominence because of changing circumstances in Kansas.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867

Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin

Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [Amos A. Lawrence]
November 15, 1860
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Charles Robinson wrote from a town of Medford, presumably in New England, to Amos A. Lawrence in Boston regarding relief efforts for Kansas. Robinson discussed the formation of a committee at Lawrence, which would "ascertain the objects of charity & minister to their necessities." He also described other relief efforts being carried out at the local level, which Robinson believed to be more effective than using nonresident disbursing agents or traveling solicitors.

Keywords: Cordley, Richard; Deitzler, George W.; Kansas Relief Committee; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Relief; Reynolds, Charles; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Photograph, Josiah Miller

Although born in South Carolina, Josiah Miller was a free state supporter. He attended college in Indiana and law school in New York. He came to Kansas in 1854 and on January 5, 1855, established the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence. The newspaper office was destroyed by order of the territorial government on May 21, 1856 because is was deemed a nuisance. He was capturned by Buford's proslavery forces and was tried for treason against the state of South Carolina. He supported John C. Fremont. In 1857, he was elected probate judge of Douglas County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state supporters; Journalists; Judges; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspaper publishing; Photographs and Illustrations

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, Knox & Kellogg, Attys to Jas. B. Abbott, Esq.
July 17, 1858
St. Louis attorneys Knox & Kellogg responded to an inquiry from James Abbott, informing him that they had been in communication with M. F. Conway, by request of Samuel Cabot, and had told him that, once received, they would hold the rifles subject to Cabot's order. The attorneys stated they had done all they could since they had not heard word further from Cabot nor could they predict when they themselves would receive the rifle shipment. Cabot had made several attempts to recover rifles that were stolen from him by Missouri "Highwaymen" in the spring of 1857.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Cabot, Samuel; Conway, Martin Franklin; Guns; Knox & Kellogg, Attorneys; Lawsuits; St. Louis, Missouri

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, Wm. R. Griffith to Col. [James] Abbott
April 26, 1858
William R. Griffith wrote to James Abbott, Colonel in the Kansas free state militia, informing him that General Eldrige had 40 carbines in his possession. Eldrige was willing to give them to the free state forces, as long as delivery charges were paid by the recipient. Griffith offered to receive the carbines and pay the charges if Abbott himself would retrieve them from Griffith in Little Osage.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state cause; Free state militia; Griffith, William Riley; Guns; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory

Authors: Griffith, William Riley

Annual Message of Governor Medary
January 3, 1860
Governor Medary addressed his annual message to the Council and House of Representatives of Kansas Territory from the executive office in Lecompton, Kansas Territory on January 3, 1860. At this point, the Wyandotte Constitution had been approved and was awaiting action by Congress. Medary outlined a number of issues that the legislature needed to resolve. These included the organization of counties and townships, setting interest rates, public schools, procedures for selling public lands, bank charters, a penitentiary, a territorial library, and railroads. He indicated that he believed a law passed by the last session of the legislature deprived many citizens of the right to vote that that law needed to be changed.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Laws; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Prisons; Railroads; Schools; Voting

Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864

Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Capt. [John] Brown
September 13, 1856
Charles Robinson wrote to John Brown from Lawrence on September 13, 1856, a short note encouraging Brown to give Governor Geary, who "talks of letting the past be forgotten," a chance and to come to town to "see us." A note from John Brown, Jr., on the bottom of the page, however, advised caution, as he had "no doubt an attempt will be made to arrest you as well as Lane."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, E. B. Whitman to Geo. L. Stearns Esq.
April 30, 1858
Whitman's April 30, 1858, letter to Stearns described the harmonious work conducted by the "State Convention" and its nomination of state officers under the Leavenworth Constitution. That movement, he told Stearns, would probably not "amount to much if the Lecompton Constitution is rejected. He also mentioned continued tension in Bourbon County and the route of U.S. troops by "the free State boys" of Fort Scott.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Convention; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Territorial government; United States. Army; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Receipts, John Brown to M. F. Conway
October 18, 1858
This document consists of a four-page itemized listing (individuals' name and amount due) of the "notes" received by Martin F. Conway from "Captain John Brown." Conway endorsed the document at Lawrence, K.T., on October 18, 1858, and wrote, in part, "the said Notes to be safely kept or collected by me, as may, in my discretion, seem best."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Finance; Free state settlers; Free state support; Relief funds

Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin

Letter, H. F. Parker to Hiram Hill Esq
November 15, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported that currently he was only able to collect $33.33 in rent from Hill's tenants, a small fraction of what was owed. He added that many settlers were leaving for California and hopes for gold mining in the West; many homes and businesses were vacated. Parker closed by stating "I am sick of Kansas if Business is to go as it has the Last year".

Keywords: California; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Gold mines and mining; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate business

Authors: Parker, Henry F.

Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
April 10, 1859
Hiram Hill wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his brother. Hill traveled to Lawrence to settle various business matters, but found himself preoccupied with repairing rat damage to the foundation of one of his homes. He had found renters for all of his buildings himself, as he was not inclined to trust anyone to do the business for him since "they are a promising set of cutthroats". Hill would not travel to Manhattan or Topeka but would stop in Quindaro before heading back to Massachusetts.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Whitney, Thaddeus L.

Authors: Hill, Hiram

Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
January 5, 1859
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported the amount of city, country, township, institutional, and school taxes that Hill would owe. He told Hill he would pay the city tax for now, and wait to hear from him regarding the others. Parker observed that current sales of lots were slow, but that he had received an offer on one of Hill's lots.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Starks, Nathan; Taxation; Town lots

Authors: Parker, Henry F.

Broadside, Mass Convention!
July 25, 1857
J. B. Abbott as secretary of the 10th district committee of the Free State party prepared this broadside to advertise a meeting to nominate 2 Senators and 7Representatives for the Legislature. Abbott wrote that the district invluded the following precincts: "Fish's Hotel, Palmyra, Blanton, Willow Springs, Franklin, Lawrence, and Benicia. The meeting was to be held in Lawrence on July 25, 1857. Note: The broadside did not include a time for the meeting.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Benicia Precinct, Kansas Territory; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Broadsides; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Kansas Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`; Willow Springs, Kansas Territory

Authors: Abbott, James Burnett

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
Charles Robinson presented this claim (# 61) for losses suffered at the hands of the "territorial militia and marshal's posse" on May 21, 1856. His list of losses included a frame house, barn, medical library and surgical instruments. He also claimed $10,000 for false imprisonment that was not approved. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Guns; Medicine; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Reminiscence of John Sedgwick Freeland
1895
Mr. Freeland gave a detailed account of the slaves owned by Judge Rush Elmore and his wife. The reminiscence contained some stereotypical views and phrases concerning African Americans. This account was prepared by either F. G. or Zu Adams after an interview with Mr. Freeland. They contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society.

Keywords: African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Freeland, John Sedgwick; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Shawnee Mission; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory

Authors: Freeland, John Sedgwick

Letter, J. Henry Muzzy to Dear Sir [Eli Thayer]
March 3, 1857
J. Henry Muzzy wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts. Muzzy informed Thayer that free state supporters in Kansas were not, as Thayer had predicted, discouraged by James Buchanan's election as president in November 1856. He observed that the territory had been quiet during the winter of 1856-1857, but warned that the "ruffians" likely would engage in efforts during the spring of 1857 to discourage eastern emigration to Kansas. Muzzy also commented on the dilemma that free staters faced in deciding whether to pay the taxes levied by the proslavery "bogus legislature." He and his fellow free state supporters were not inclined to pay taxes imposed by a "foreign power," but they also realized that if Governor Geary called in U.S. troops to enforce the law they would have no choice but to pay. Muzzy concluded by stating that he was thankful for the end of the "reign of Frank Pierce," contending that "any change at Washington can hardly be for the worse."

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Muzzy, J. Henry; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Relief; Taxation; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899

Authors: Muzzy, J. Henry

Letter, Thos. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
August 5, 1857
Again from Lawrence, Marsh wrote Stearns on August 5 to ask for clarification about an order he had received from Amos Lawrence to pay John Brown $335. Brown was not in Kansas at that time and could "not be of much service if he is away from the Territory."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cheyenne Indians; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Honl. Amos A. Lawrence
December 22, 1860
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Samuel N. Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts regarding the poverty in which Gaius Jenkins' family found themselves. James Lane had killed Jenkins in 1858 over a land claim, and it appeared that he was now taking measures to "keep her [Mrs. Jenkins] poor as long as possible." Simpson reminded Lawrence of his request to pay Jenkins fifty dollars as compensation for his imprisonment by federal troops at Camp Sackett, near Lecompton, in 1856. Jenkins had declined the payment at the time, but Simpson now solicited it on behalf of his widow and family.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, Jr.; Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Deitzler, George W.; Economic conditions; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Relief; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Smith, George W.

Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell

Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
1859
Absalom White filed claim #246 for the loss of an arm as a result of being struck by a bullet at a battle with southerners near the H. T. Titus [probably Hency C.] home in Douglas County. The arm was subsequently amputated. The claim was not allowed on the grounds that White was "engaged in rebellion and making unwarranted attack on the person and property of a private citizen." Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Titus, Battle of; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; White, Absalom

Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson

Letter, J. H. Lane & C. K. Holliday to General Assembly of Kansas member
February 25, 1856
This printed letter, addressed to all newly-elected members of the General Assembly, accompanied James Abbott's certificate of election to his seat. The Executive Committee of the General Assembly, which included James Lane and Cyrus Holliday, urged the newly elected representatives to "promptly and early" attend their next meeting at Topeka on March 4.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Elections; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Topeka; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Lane Lithograph
1861
Lithograph of James Henry Lane, probably done shortly after he became a United States Senator.

Keywords: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Objects; Photographs and Illustrations

Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Sir [John Brown]
September 7, 1857
James H. Lane, whose extant correspondence is scarce, here wrote from Lawrence to John Brown regarding his (Lane's) efforts "in perfecting an organization for the protection of the ballot box at the October Election," and Lane encouraged Brown to come "with all the materials you have." Lane was confident Brown could enter the territory safely but offered all required assistance--protection, transport, etc.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Letter, James [H. Holmes] to Dear friend [John] Brown
April 30, 1857
On April 30 after he had received correspondence from Brown (still in Springfield, Mass.), Holmes wrote again in reply and to further explain the state of affairs in Kansas. He is critical of Charles Robinson's willingness to compromise with the proslavery leaders and is confident that "the free-state men wont do it." A friend, Archibal Kandell, had been recently "kidnapped" (or "abducted into Missouri") from his claim near Osawatomie.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Holmes, James H.; Missouri; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Holmes, James H.

Letter, E. Nute to Unidentified recipient [F. B. Sanborn?]
ca. February 1859
Ephraim Nute wrote of just receiving work that "Doct. [Samuel Gridley?] Howe" was "about to sail from New York" on account of his health; but whether or not it was restored, "he has lived already to a glorious result." Nute also mentions continued preparations for the trial of Dr. Doy, still "in that wretched Platte City jail."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Concord, Massachusetts; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, John; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Nute, Ephraim; Platte City, Missouri; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Tabor, Iowa

Authors: Nute, Ephraim

Letter, M. F. Conway to My dear friend [George L. Stearns]
March 16, 1859
Most of this letter from Conway to George Stearns, Boston, was directed at the securing of a loan for a seemingly unstated investment opportunity, but Conway mentioned in closing that "We are about to organize a square Republican Party in Kansas."

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Finance; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Nute, Ephraim; Osawatomie convention; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin

Letter, E. B. Whitman to Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
November 15, 1860
In this typically long letter/report to Franklin Sanborn in Boston, Whitman wrote from Lawrence on November 15, 1860, regarding the difficult situation facing Kansas settlers/farmers as another winter approached--as "the stock of old corn is exhausted and the grass fails, the prospect is dreary enough and without aid from abroad in some form to supply bread stuffs many of our people must suffer severely for want of food."

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Droughts; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Relief; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Whitman, E. B.

Letter, C. Robinson to A. A. Lawrence Esq.
October 16, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society.Charles Robinson wrote from Kansas Territory to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Robinson recounted to Lawrence the recent discussion of the new settlement's name, believing "Wakarusa" to be inappropriate and rejecting the names of Eastern cities already in existence. There appeared to be unanimous support for the name "Lawrence", which had fallen into common use, though it had not been officially adopted. Robinson advised Lawrence that a naming committee would be in contact with him soon to give him formal notice of the adoption of "Lawrence" as the settlement's official name.

Keywords: Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Town development

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, E. Nute to Mr. [Amos Adams] Lawrence
March 4, 1857
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. In a letter marked "private", Ephraim Nute wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Nute responded to Lawrence's suggestion that the college sit on the "broad table land on Mt. Oread or Capitol hill"; he supported the idea but feared that issues surrounding the land title would compromise the plan. Nute agreed with Lawrence about the importance of establishing schools, but he also concerned that the current political situation was not conducive to it, as the Territorial government was in the hands of "usurpers". He felt that "only one life now stands between us and the reopening of the civil war."

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Land claims; Land titles; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Mount Oread; Nute, Ephraim; Proslavery supporters

Authors: Nute, Ephraim

Letter, C. Robinson to My Dear Sir [Amos A. Lawrence]
November 12, 1859
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Charles Robinson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts, expressing his concern that Lawrence's name was not included on a college proposal submitted by S.N. Simpson, which indicated he was not among the supporters of the enterprise. Robinson mentioned the upcoming election for Territorial delegate to Congress, in which Marcus Parrott, a Republican, was a favorite. He also sought advice from Lawrence about a complicated financial matter.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Elections; Finance; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pikes Peak, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Universities and colleges

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Veto Message of Governor Medary, on the Bill Prohibiting Slavery in Kansas.
February 20, 1860
Samuel Medary presented a very detailed message about why he was vetoring a bill prohibiting slavery in Kansas that had been passed by the territorial House of Representatives. This printed document contained a long discussion about the sovereignty (or lack thereof) by the federal government, territories and states and how that applied to the institution of slavery. He ultimately argued that the law passed contained no means of enforcement but only enacted the "declaratory" statement about slavery contained in the Wyandotte Constitution.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Slavery

Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864

Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to [John Brown?]
ca. 1857
On the bottom of an incomplete listing of weapons distributed (e.g., Navy Revolvers), William Hutchinson wrote regarding his "earnes effort for you [John Brown?] in this place.

Keywords: Bassett, O. A. (Owen Abbot); Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Guns; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kagi, John Henry; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.

Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904

George Clarke Desk
1856
Desk brought to the Kansas Territory in 1855 by George Clarke, who was a Pottwatomie Indian agent and slave holder. Clarke was a notorious proslavery leader during the border war period. He was suspected of killing a free state man, Thomas W. Barber of Lawrence in 1855. While Clarke was sitting at this desk in his Lecompton home in 1856, a shot was fired at him. He was uninjured, but the bullet put a hole in his desk. Clarke was driven out of the territory in 1858.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Clarke, George W.; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; House furnishings; Objects; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855

Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904

Governor's Annual Message
January 10, 1861
George Beebe assumed the title of Acting Governor of Kansas Territory upon the resignation of Samuel Medary. In this printed message from the Executive Office, Kansas Territory (Lecompton) to the territorial legislature, Beebe commented on Medary and other issues relating to Kansas Territory. He included information from the auditor about the amount of taxes that had been collected. He also referenced the pending dissolution of the Union and the "gloom" that brought to all.

Keywords: Beebe, George Monroe; Kansas Territory. Auditor; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton, Kansas Territory

Authors: Beebe, George M.

Constitution, By-Laws, and Rules of Tecumseh Lodge, No. 3, of the Independent Order of Good Templars of Kansas.
1858
This lodge was located in the city of Tecumseh, Douglas County, Kansas Territory. Male and female members were allowed. The primary purpose of the organization was to oppose the manufacture, sale, purchase, or use of alcoholic beverages.

Keywords: Clubs; Community life; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Independent Order of Good Templars; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Temperance; Women

Authors: Independent Order of Good Templars

By-Laws of Tecumseh Lodge No. 15, A. F. and A. M., Tecumseh, K. T.
1859
The various types of freemasons groups are part of a secret international society. This lodge was located in Tecumseh, Douglas County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Clubs; Community life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; Freemasons; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory

Authors: Tecumseh Lodge No. 15, A. F. and A. M.

Washington Birth-Day Ball by the Kansas Rifles No. One.
February 22, 1856
The Kansas Rifles No. One sponsored this ball to be held at the Free State Hotel in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, "in honor of the Day which gave birth to th Immortal Washington." The committee of arrangements consisted of J. W. Colburn, James H. Lane, A. Cutler, A. D. Searl, W. L. Brigden, Chas. Robinson, John G. Cropsker, James R. White, E. Emmerson, and B. F. Swift. Tickets to the event were $2.00.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Community life; Cutler, George A.; Daily life; Dance parties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parties; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Searl, Albert D.

Authors: Kansas Rifles No. One

Shooting of Gaius Jenkins
July 24, 1858
Newspaper clipping from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 24, 1858, describing the shooting of Gauis Jenkins by Jim Lane. The two men were claiming rights to the same portion of land. Lane shot Jenkins when he tried to get water from the well on this contested property.

Keywords: Jenkins, Gaius; Land acquisition; Land claim disputes; Land speculation; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Violence

Authors: Kansas Rifles No. One

Financial Statement, Mssrs Simpson Brothers to H. Hill
August 1859
This document, prepared by the Simpson brothers (possibly Samuel Newell, H.M., and/or W.A.) for Hiram Hill, shows the amount of rent collected for each of Hill's tenants from May 1858 to March 1859. Hill owned several properties in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, which he rented to people and businesses.

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell

Authors: Kansas Rifles No. One

Letter, Simpson Brothers to Hiram Hill Esq.
October 7, 1859
W.A. Simpson wrote for the Simpson Brothers from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Simpson reported that the Lawrence City Council had passed a sidewalk ordinance, and had received a reasonable estimate for the work and materials to place them on Hill's properties.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, W.A.; Town development

Authors: Simpson, W.A.

Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My dear S [Sara Robinson]
January 19, 1861
Charles Robinson wrote his wife Sara again on January 19, 1861, from Lawrence, confident that things still looked good from him in Washington. Robinson mentioned numerous men of political influence who he believed would be supportive and thus insure his appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

Keywords: Eldridge House; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lincoln administration; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Muster Roll of Captain Samuel Walker, Company D, Second Regiment, 1st Brigade, Kansas Volunteeers
December 12, 1855
This muster roll listed men who served in the Wakarusa War from November 27 to December 12, 1855. The second regiment was commanded by Col. C. K. Holliday. This company was recruited from the area around Bloomington, Kansas Territory. The information provided included name, title if an officer, and age. This muster roll also included annotations about the value of property such as saddles, clothes, horses, etc. taken or destroyed by the "enemy." Officers, in addition to Captain Samuel Walker, were A. Curliss, George Umbarger, (?) Miller, T. W. Wolverton, D. C. Buffum, A. I. Smith, A. Jones, R. Dunn, R. Hasseltine, R. Miller, and J. C. Dunn. Ages of the company ranged from 17 to 50 years old.

Keywords: Bloomington, Kansas Territory; Buffum, David C.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Volunteers; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Walker, Samuel Douglas

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Letter, E. D. Ladd to Mr. H. [Hiram] Hill
September 3, 1857
Erastus Ladd wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Ladd asked for Hill's suggestion as to what to do about a delinquent renter. He updated Hill regarding the status of various land investments, and included a note about Samuel Simpson's sale of half of his investment in West Lawrence. Ladd anticipated a free state election, and the development of a railroad line between Lawrence and the Delaware lands.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Ladd, Erastus D

Quit Claim Deed, Hiram Hill to S.N. Simpson
November 2, 1857
Hiram Hill sold and quit-claimed one-half of his interest in the development of West Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Samuel N. Simpson for $10,000. This amount of land was equivalent to one-seventh of the total shares invested in the land designated the "Joel Walker float", also known as West Lawrence. Joel Walker was affiliated with the Quindaro Town Company and was a fellow free state supporter.

Keywords: Chadwick, Charles; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town lots; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Hill, Hiram

Wakarusa Treaty
December 8, 1855
A draft of an agreement between Governor Wilson Shannon, representing the territorial government, and Charles Robinson and James Lane, representing the free state movement, settling the dispute that resulted in the Wakarusa War. In essence, Robinson and Lane pledged to "aid in the execution of any legal process" against individuals involved in rescuing free state supporter Jacob Branson provided that these individuals received a hearing before a U.S. District Court judge. This compromise ended the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855

Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles ; Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877

Invitation to Washington's Birth-day Ball
February 1856
A printed invitation to a Washington's birthday ball hosted by the Kansas Rifles No. 1 at the Free State Hotel on February 22, 1856.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Entertainment; Free State Hotel; Invitation; Kansas Rifles Number 1; Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Authors: Kansas Rifles Number 1

Letter, E. S. Whitney to Uncle Hiram
November 24, 1859
E. S. Whitney, niece of Hiram Hill, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to her uncle in Massachusetts. Whitney reported that money was scarce; the family was living in a hotel in town and they had begun renting their house. Her husband, Thaddeus Whitney, was unable to collect debts owed to him in order to travel to Pikes Peak. They all had recently suffered from an illness, but Thaddeus had begun building a new home on New Hampshire street.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Hill, Hiram; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pikes Peak gold rush; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Whitney, E.S.; Whitney, Thaddeus L.; Women

Authors: Whitney, E.S.

Certificate of Agency, James Abbott as Agent of the Kansas Herald of Freedom
July 10, 1855
This certificate granted James Abbott, now of Blanton, Kansas Territory, agency to sell subscriptions to the Kansas Herald of Freedom newspaper. The document was signed and sealed by George W. Brown, publisher and editor of the free state paper.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Business enterprises; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Herald of Freedom; Newspapers

Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915

Letter, Henry Saunders, certifying James Abbott as a militia member
July 25, 1855
Henry Saunders, Captain of the Wakarusa Liberty Guards, a free state militia group, wrote this letter certifying James Abbott as 2nd Lieutenant of that unit. Saunders added that Abbott was also officially employed in the task of procuring arms for the free state cause.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Saunders, Henry F.; Weapons (see also Guns)

Authors: Saunders, Henry F.

Recollections of 1854
June 23, 1870 - September 29, 1870
Originally published as an almost weekly column in the Western Home Journal, Lawrence, Kansas, beginning June 23, 1870, "Recollections of 1854" were written by Joseph Savage. Savage was born in Hartford, Vermont, on July 28, 1823, and came to Kansas Territory with the New England Emigrant Aid Company's second party. The "Recollections" provide a detailed and personal account of Savage's journey from Boston to Kansas Territory, and the first few months of settlement in Lawrence. The original Savage narrative, which appeared in twelve installments (June 23, 30, July 7, 14, 21, 28, August 4, 11, 18, September 8, 22, 29, 1870), has been faithfully transcribe in its entirety by Shelley Hickman Clark, University of Kansas Law School. The text version provides the content of these newspaper columns but images of the original newspaper columns are not available. See also 'Lawrence in 1854: Recollections of Joseph Savage," Kansas History 27 (Spring-Summer 2004), http://www.kshs.org/publicat/history/2004spring_clark.pdf.

Keywords: Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Savage, Joseph; Travel

Authors: Savage, Joseph

Benefit Ball
May 21, 1858
This invitation was to a ball to be held on the anniversary of the destruction of the Free State Hotel. It was to celebrate the opening of the Eldridge House, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Tickets cost $5.00 and the proceeds were to be used for furnshing the new hotel. Thirty nine men from 17 different communities were listed on the invitation.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Community life; Daily life; Dance parties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Free State Hotel; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parties

Authors: Savage, Joseph

Names of prisoners in custody at Lecompton
November 12, 1856
A list of free state prisoners in custody at Lecompton, Kansas Territory. Most of the prisoners had been captured at the Battle of Hickory Point on September 13, 1856. The list records each prisoner's name, previous state of residence, and reason for imprisonment. The last page of the document lists prisoners who had been released. The list was prepared by Edward Hoogland by order of Governor John Geary.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoogland, Edward; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners

Authors: Hoogland, Edward

Statement of votes polled and tally sheet for election of officers under the Topeka Constitution, Lawrence precinct
August 3, 1857
An official statement and accompanying tally sheet detaling the results of the "State Election" held under the authority of the Topeka Constitution. This document was from the Lawrence precinct and was certified by election judges W. I. R. Blackman, A. H. Mallory, and Alfred Robinson. Election participants were primarily free state supporters who cast votes for state officials, representatives to the U.S. Congress, and U.S. senators; they also indicated whether they were for or against the Topeka Constitution.

Keywords: Blackman, William I. R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Elections; Free state constitutions; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mallory, Anson H.; Robinson, Alfred; Topeka Constitution

Authors: Blackman, William I. R.; Mallory, A. H.; Robinson, Alfred

Lecompton Constitution (as printed in D.W. Wilder's Annals of Kansas (1868)).
November 7, 1857
The Lecompton Constitution, the second constitution drafted for Kansas Territory, was written by proslavery supporters. The document permitted slavery (Article VII), excluded free blacks from living in Kansas, and allowed only male citizens of the United States to vote. There were three separate votes on the Lecompton Constitution: December 21, 1857, January 4, 1858, and August 2, 1858. In the final vote, residents of Kansas Territory rejected the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery; Slavery

Authors: Lecompton Constitutional Convention

Letter, J. K. [John Kagi] to My Dear Sisters
November 20, 1856
Killed during John Brown's Harpers Ferry raid in October 1859, John Henry Kagi, sometimes known as Brown's "Secretary of War," was "in prison at Lecompton" when he wrote this letter to his sister on November 20, 1856. Kagi, along with John Ritchie and several other free-state partisans, had been arrested by U.S. Marshal I.B. Donelson, supported by federal troops, on September 18 at Topeka and subsequently charged with "highway robbery." (See, Kansas Historical Collections, 4:561) Although "in prison," Kagi assured his sister that he was safe and could be rescued at anytime; "I hesitate only because we may get out some other way, and because a forcible rescue would bring on a terrible winter war, which I do not wish to see."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Donalson, Israel B.; Free state militia; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Newspapers - Free State; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Authors: Kagi, John Henry

Speech, David R. Atchison to Pro-Slavery "Soldiers"
May 21, 1856
According to a note on the top of page one made later by R. J. Hinton, "this report was made for me [Hinton] by or under the direction of Lt. Gov. (Dr.) Root [Joseph Pomeroy Root, subsequently elected the state's first lieutenant governor under the Wyandotte Constitution], who was a prisoner, heard & reported the speech" made by David Atchison to the assembled proslave "Soldiers" camped two miles west of Lawrence before they marched on and sacked the town on May 21, 1856. The transcript is labeled "Hon. David R. Atchison's Speech . . ." and begins, "This is the most glorious day of my life! This day I am a border-ruffian!" Amidst "Yells" and "Cheers," Atchison rallied the "true sons of the noble South," encouraging them to "tear down their Free State Hotel" and "thow into the Kanzas their printing presses," and to bravely follow their "worthy . . . Leader, Col. [John H.] Stringfellow!"

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Beecher Bibles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free State Hotel; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers - Free State; Pierce administration; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Southerners; Stringfellow, John H.

Authors: Atchison, David R.; Root, Joseph Pomeroy

Lecompton Constitution (manuscript version)
November 7, 1857
The Lecompton Constitution, the second constitution drafted for Kansas Territory, was written by proslavery supporters. The document permitted slavery (Article VII), excluded free blacks from living in Kansas, and allowed only male citizens of the United States to vote. There were three separate votes on the Lecompton Constitution: December 21, 1857, January 4, 1858, and August 2, 1858. In the final vote, residents of Kansas Territory rejected the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Constitutional conventions; Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery; Slavery

Authors: Lecompton Constitutional Convention

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear Father"
April 14, 1857
Having finally made and returned from his long-delayed trip to Nebraska City, Kagi wrote his father from Lawrence, where he had gone almost immediately "on business." Although he can't discuss the particulars for fear of "bribed P.M. [post master?] spies," Kagi makes some interesting observations about freestate "prospects" throughout the territory, which "look much more hopeful now than when I left." Kagi mentions some land investment opportunities and the expected arrival of Governor Robert Walker, who would not last long if he tried to enforce the "bogus laws."

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Land speculation; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Postal service; Stringfellow, John H.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Kagi, John Henry

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sister"
May 20, 1857
On May 20, 1857, Kagi wrote his sister from Lawrence, explaining that he had been sick with the measles for some time but was now just busy writing for the newspaper and "preparing laws for the Free State Legislature," which was scheduled to convene in June. "We shall try hard to put the State Government into operation."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state legislature; Illness; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness)

Authors: Kagi, John Henry

Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister, and Father"
September 23, 1858
From Lawrence, Kagi wrote that he had spent several weeks at Osawatomie caring for "Old B." [John Brown], who had "now quite recovered." Things were hard right then, but Kagi was confident that "better times [were] dawning" and that his reward would certainly come "in the end," since "the success of [their] great cause" was "drawing very near." "Few of my age have toiled harder or suffered more in this cause than I, and yet I regret nothing that I have done; nor am I in any discouraged at the future."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Health; Kagi, John Henry; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness); Trading Post, Kansas Territory; Wattles, Augustus

Authors: Kagi, John Henry

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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