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Certificate appointing James S. Emery as a Justice of the Peace for the First District, Kansas Territory.
November 8, 1854
Reeder made this appointment as the territorial governor. The boundaries of the First District were described in the document based on various geographic landmarks. The district included the town of Lawrence and ran along the south side of the Kansas River to the Missouri state line. Its southern boundary was the Santa Fe road.

Keywords: Certificates; Courts; Emery, James Stanley; Justices of the peace; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Santa Fe road

Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864

Document signed by Gov. Reeder affirming that James S. Emery was sworn in to serve as Justice of the Peace
November 9, 1854
This was a follow up document to James Emery's appointment as Justice of the Peace for the First District, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Courts; Emery, James Stanley; Justices of the peace; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864

Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Thaddeus Hyatt
May 18, 1857
This brief letter from Samuel Pomeroy to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee was dated May 18, [1857), from Boston, Massachusetts. Among other business matters, he reported the fact that the two men now owned "one half of the 'Squatter Sovereign' (Stringfellows organ)" and "[Robert] McBratney of Ohio owns the other half--We have hoisted a Free State Flag!"

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Boston, Massachusetts; Business enterprises; Free state; Freedom's Champion; Hyatt, Thaddeus; McBratney, Robert; Proslavery; Squatter Sovereign; Stringfellow, John H.

Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Dear Sir [perhaps, Thaddeus Hyatt]
March 10, 1858
On "Kaw Valley Bank" letterhead, Pomeroy wrote regarding the establishment of the bank in Atchison of which Pomeroy was president. The letter appears to be to Thaddeus Hyatt as he makes reference to New York City, which Pomeroy jokingly said was "too far from Kansas to make much of a town."

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Banks and banking; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kaw Valley Bank; New York; Specie (see Money)

Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to My dear good little man [Thaddeus Hyatt]
February 14, 1859
Responding to Hyatt's letter of February 2 in which he seems to have authorized the sale of the "Lightfoot," Pomeroy discussed that potential deal and others, regarding the growth and development of Atchison. Pomeroy also discussed making loans at up to 10 percent per month, informed Hyatt that "the Cars run through to St. Jo. To day for the first time," and painted a very optimistic picture of Atchison's prosperity and future prospects. The letter was signed, "Your 'fat belly' friend . . ."

Keywords: Atchison and St. Joseph Railroad; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Banks and banking; Lightfoot (steamboat); Loans; Missouri River; Pikes Peak gold rush; Railroads; St. Joseph, Missouri; Steamboats

Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891

Letter, John M. S. Williams to Theo. Hyatt, Esq.
November 22, 1859
Williams, an official of the Emigrant Aid Company, wrote to Theodore Hyatt of New York from the offices of Glidden & Williams (California Packet Office), Boston, regarding the payment of "$2500 for some lots . . ." which was to cover a note Williams had accepted from S. C. Pomeroy. But Williams also comments on KT politics: "I have been trying to raise $1000, to help Mr. Pomeroy in the Election (December 6?), his chance for the U S Senate, being very good; but he needs a little pecuniary assistance . . ." Pomeroy's election was critical because "he will have great influence on the course of the future Rail Road in Kansas . . . ."

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Election, State Officials, December 1859; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Railroads; Town lots; United States. Congress. Senate; Williams, John M. S.

Authors: Williams, John M.S.

Letter, T. [Thomas] C. Wells to Mother [Sarah Elizabeth Clarke Wells]
April 3, 1856
After spending part of much of the winter back East, Wells returned to KT in April 1856, beginning this letter home from aboard the steamer "James H. Lucas" and finishing it on April 13 at Juniata, near Fort Riley. He commented on the trip, by rail and boat, and on the fact that there were "Quite a number of people on board from South Carolina and Georgia going to Kansas." But they would not last long, and "The free state people must eventually conquer--the South cannot compete with the North in sending emigrants." Wells' plans upon his return were to sell his Juniata property and take one close to Manhattan, something he describes having done in a subsequent letter.

Keywords: Detroit, Michigan; Free state; Georgia; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Railroads; South Carolina; Southern emigrants; St. Louis, Missouri; Steamboats; Travel; Wells, Thomas Clarke

Authors: Wells, Thomas Clarke

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Dear Hyatt [Thaddeus Hyatt]
August 6, 1857
Pomeroy again reports to Hyatt from Atchison regarding various issues having to do with their investments in that town--"the Rail Road matter," which went "well," had led Pomeroy to make tentative plans, it seems, to found a town across the river from Atchison on land he already owned to tie to the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad. "If the Rail Road can be put through next season, we can sell [Atchison] lots enough to make such sinners as we are rich as sinners ought to be."

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Calhoun, John; Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Railroad promotion; Railroads finance; Town development

Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to My Dear [Thaddeus] Hyatt
January 17, 1859
In this letter from Atchison, Kansas Territory, Pomeroy updates his business partner on the progress of Missouri's railroads, which were about done to St. Joseph, and then proposes that they "put the Lightfoot [a river steamship owned by Hyatt] upon this River to run from Atchison to St. Joseph daily -- in connection with the cars." He said a fare of $2.50 could be charged for a "pleasant trip of not more than 3 hours down -- and 5 or 6 hours up."

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; St. Joseph, Missouri

Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Dear [Thaddeus] Hyatt
March 6, 1858
This letter from Pomeroy to Hyatt was written from the Planters House hotel in Leavenworth on March 6, 1858 (not 1859, as marked) and deals with a variety of subjects, financial and political. Pomeroy began with comments on banking, property, and railroad promotion, and ends with observations about Kansas politics and the Lecompton Constitution, which he believed was finished. "Kansas is as sure to freedom as Plymouth Rock." Even if the proslave constitution passed Congress, all it would do is re-ignite the forces of freedom: "Kansas is safe to the free state party. So don't spend any more time , strength or money about it. The victory is won! . . .The millennium for the free labor interests of the Country will begin in 1860!"

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Banks and banking; Free State Party; Free labor; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Squatter Sovereign; Town lots

Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891

Letter, T. [Thomas] C. Wells to Dear Mother, [Sarah Elizabeth Clarke Wells]
April 1, 1855
Born and raised in Rhode Island, twenty-three-year-old Thomas C. Wells apparently was a reluctant Kansas immigrant; his initial ambivalence was reflected in his first letter from Providence, RI, March 12, 1855, where he wrote: "I may yet see it best to return [home from Boston] and not go [to Kansas] at all." This, Clarke's first letter from "the far famed Kanzas Territory," was written from Topeka, but describes the journey from the boarder via Lawrence and reported is intention to "start for Big Blue, where Mr. Goodnow is tomorrow." Part of the journey was made in the company of some well-armed Missourians "who were going to Lawrence to vote," presumably in the March 30 legislative election. All Clarke's extensive correspondence from KT (March 24, 1855 to October 19, 1860) was published in 1936 in the KHQ and is now available digitally at http://www.kshs.org/library/khq/1936/36_2_wells.htm.

Keywords: Big Blue, Kansas Territory; Border ruffians; Elections; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Page's Hotel; Shawnee Indians; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wells, Thomas Clarke; Westport, Missouri

Authors: Wells, Thomas Clarke

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Dear Hyatt [Thaddeus Hyatt]
August 17, 1857
In this letter, written from Atchison, Pomeroy covered a wide range of subjects pertaining to his correspondent and business partner, Thaddeus Hyatt. He explained issues having to do with the "grading" of lots on the levee owned by Theodore Hyatt and also matters pertaining to railroad subscriptions and German immigration to Atchison.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Businessmen; Emigration and immigration; Germans; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Hyatt, Theodore; Railroads design and construction; Town lots

Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891

Letter, [anonymous/unsigned] to General Samuel C. Pomeroy
May 14, 1855
The author of this length epistle, chose not to sign his name but offered his observations about Kansas affairs "which may or may not be of service to you." In essence the correspondent offers a free staters perspective--not an abolitionist one--on the "modus operandi" of the pro-slave party for KT. Slavery, or the slave system, meant "despotism" to this individual, and he believed "pro slavery men will use every means" to control the territory, which would soon go to free state "if the contest were a fair and even one." It was critical that Americans elect a president in 1856 who would "do right, a man who loves the Union the whole Union as it is . . . ."

Keywords: Despotism; Election, Presidential, 1856; Free state; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Proslavery; Slave power

Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891

Proclamation, To the people of Lawrence
July 15, 1857
This open letter from Gov. Walker concerned the differences between the city charter of Lawrence approved by legislature, and the charter approved by citizens of Lawrence.

Keywords: Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Town development; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Walker, Robert J. (John), 1801-1869

Charter of the City of Lawrence
c. 1857
This reports that a meeting was held to approve the charter of the city of Lawrence, Kansas Territory. The text of the charter was included. In addition, this report included a message from five citizens regarding reasons for establishing city government.

Keywords: Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Town development

Authors: Hutchinson, George W.

Letter, Joseph Walker to John Dougherty
November 28, 1857
This typed letter is from Joseph Walker, Platte City, Missouri, to John Dougherty, Liberty, Missouri. The letter urges Dougherty to vote in Kansas on the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Lecompton Constitution; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)

Authors: Walker, Joseph

Public Meeting! Opposing John Ritchey in his recent act of killing of Leonard Arms
April 28, 1860
This broadside calls for Lawrence citizens to attend a public meeting to express opposition to John Ritchey's killing of U.S. Marshal Leonard Arms. The broadside included a list of 140 citizens of Lawrence and vicinity who condemned Ritchey's actions.

Keywords: Arms, Leonard; Casualties; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John kills Leonard Arms; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Violence

Authors: Lawrence Citizens

Terrible Homicide
April 23, 1860
Account of the homicide of U.S. marshal Leonard Arms at the hands of John Ritchie. Extra of the newspaper.

Keywords: Arms, Leonard; Casualties; Ritchie, John kills Leonard Arms; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Violence

Authors: State Record

Proclamation. To the people of Kansas
October 19, 1857
Regards the examination of election returns, particularly Oxford Precinct, Johnson County.

Keywords: Elections; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Territorial politics

Authors: Walker, Robert J. (John), 1801-1869

Address to the people of Kansas
December 21, 1857
Initial address from Gov. Denver indicating his instructions from the president.

Keywords: Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Territorial politics and government

Authors: Denver, James William, 1817-1892

Letter, John A. Halderman to S. N. Wood
November 20, 1859
In this brief but cordial letter from Leavenworth, Halderman asked Wood to reprint an "enclosed" article from the Herald of Freedom in the Kansas Press; the piece "seems to have been written by a political opponent who is inclined to do me justice." He then mentions "the meeting of the squatters on the Kaw Reserve" and his sympathy for their plight.

Keywords: Halderman, John Adams; Herald of Freedom; Kansa Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Kansas Press; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Squatters

Authors: Halderman, John Adams

Clothing for Kanzas, Massachusetts State Kanzas Committee
November 28, 1856 - December 3, 1856
This printed document included three reports of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee, written by Samuel Cabot concerning the distribution of clothes and packages sent to Kansas. The first report deals with how they were sent and how they kept records of the packages. The report ends with table listing New England communities that sent packages to Kansas. The second report also deals with shipping of packages; it is followed by a brief expense report.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Cabot, Samuel; Clothing and dress; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Financial statements; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Relief

Authors: Massachusetts State Kansas Committee

Henry J. Raymond, New York, NY to William Hutchinson
September 18, 1857
Raymond, editor of the New York Times, denied Hutchinson's accusation that the Times did not actively support the Free State cause in Kansas because of his failure to publish all of Hutchinson's article submissions. Raymond requested that Hutchinson, who was a special correspondent for the Times, strive to produce unbiased articles about affairs in Kansas.

Keywords: Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; New York Daily Times; Raymond, Henry J.

Authors: Raymond, Henry J.

Henry J. Raymond, New York, NY to William Hutchinson
October 10, 1857
Raymond, editor of the New York Times, speculated that Kansas would become a free state because President Buchanan would pursue such a course out of political necessity. Raymond criticized the extremism of the Free State activists in Kansas and requested that Hutchinson, who was a New York Times special correspondent, seek to report on Kansas affairs in a more balanced manner.

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; New York Daily Times; Raymond, Henry J.

Authors: Raymond, Henry J.

Jacob Collamer, Washington, D.C. to William Hutchinson
December 17, 1857
Collamer, a U.S. senator from Vermont, cautioned Hutchinson against an attempt to establish a Kansas state government under the Topeka Constitution without the consent of Congress.

Keywords: Collamer, Jacob; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lecompton Constitution; Topeka Constitution

Authors: Collamer, Jacob

Henry J. Raymond, New York, NY to William Hutchinson
December 18, 1857
Raymond, editor of the New York Times, enclosed a statement itemizing Hutchinson's columns published in the New York Times newspaper in the fall of 1857. Raymond expressed his support for the free state cause in the "Lecompton swindle" but cautioned Hutchinson against any violence.

Keywords: Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; New York Daily Times; Raymond, Henry J.; Violence

Authors: Raymond, Henry J.

Letter, William Hutchinson to Jacob Collamer
March 5, 1858
Hutchinson sought assistance from Collamer, a U.S. senator from Vermont, on a plan to speculate in land on the Delaware Indian reservation in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Collamer, Jacob; Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Indian lands; Indian reserves; Land speculation; Native Americans; Wyandot Indians

Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904

Jacob Collamer, Washington, D. C. to William Hutchinson
March 23, 1858
Collamer, a U. S. senator from Vermont, responded to a request from Hutchinson for assistance in a plan to speculate in land on the Delaware Indian reservation in Kansas Territory. Collamer informed Hutchinson that it did not appear that the anticipated treaty with the Delaware would be negotiated during the current session of Congress.

Keywords: Collamer, Jacob; Delaware Indians; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Land speculation; Lecompton Constitution

Authors: Collamer, Jacob

Augustus Wattles, Fort Scott, Kansas Territory to William Hutchinson
April 28, 1858
Wattles described violence in the southern portion of Kansas Territory shortly before the Marais des Cygnes massacre.

Keywords: Free state activities; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Marmaton, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Proslavery activities; Wattles, Augustus

Authors: Wattles, Augustus

Charles Robinson, Washington, D.C. to William Hutchinson
December 31, 1858
Robinson speculated about the prospects for financing and building a railroad in the Kansas River valley. He contended that government land grants would be necessary for the successful construction and operation of a railroad. Robinson also defended himself against charges that he was not working hard enough to convince the U.S. Congress to support a railroad in the Kansas River valley.

Keywords: Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Railroad land grants; Railroads; Railroads finance; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Statement related to the Quindaro Town Company
November 22, 1858
Charles Robinson gave his consent as an individual member of the Quindaro Town Company that the Board of Trade could use the town company's printing press and type free of charge if they agreed to publish the Quindaro Chindowan on a weekly basis for three months beginning in December, 1858. The document also included Robinson's consent to pay Mrs. Nichols the $125 due her.

Keywords: Newspapers; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Quindaro Chindowan; Quindaro Town Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Town development; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Authors: Robinson, Charles

Document by Jacob Hooper authorizing Alfred Gray as his true and lawful attornery.
October 30, 1858
Hooper was a member of the Wyandot tribe and authorized Alfred Gray to accept his annuity money from the United States government. He also gave Gray authority to do whatever was needed on his behalf. Hooper made his signature with an X and the document was executed in the presence of Abelard Guthrie.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Gray, Alfred; Guthrie, Abelard; Hooper, Jacob; Native Americans; Wyandot Indians

Authors: Hooper, Jacob

Letter, A. J. Beach to S. N. Wood
April 22, 1860
Writing from Beach Valley (Rice Co.), K.T., A. J. Beach sought Wood's legal advice with regard to his options in a bridge dispute. It seemed that Beach had received a charter to build a toll bridge [over Cow Creek], and another party (William Edwards, et al) put up a "temporary" one before his was finished. They were now diverting traffic away from Beach's completed bridge. "I wish to know if anything can be done with them at law . . ."

Keywords: Beach Valley, Kansas Territory; Beach, A. J.; Lawsuits; Lawyers; Rice County, Kansas Territory; Toll bridges; Transportation; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Authors: Beach, A. J.

Joseph Pomeroy Root, Wyandotte City, KT to William Hutchinson
November 17, 1857
Root described seeing Governor Robert J. Walker on a steamer as he left Kansas Territory for Washington. He speculated that Walker's administration was in jeopardy. Root made other comments that reflected the negative view of Free State party members towards pro-slavery Democrats in Kansas.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Free State Party; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Root, Joseph Pomeroy

Letter, Henry J. Adams to William Hutchinson
June 4, 1860
Henry Adams was in Washington D. C. as a special agent of Kansas Territory attempting to convince the U. S. Congress to pay claims for damages suffered by Kansas citizens during episodes of violence in the territory. Adams complained of not receiving enough financial support from Kansas to meet his expenses.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Damage claims; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; United States. Congress; Violence

Authors: Adams, Henry J.

Letter, Nelson Rusk to Mr. [William] Barnes
April 26, 1856
Nelson Rusk, writing from Kansas City, Missouri, described for William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, some of the difficulties he experienced during his journey to Kansas with a party of settlers from New York. Rusk also offered his opinion that the New York party would fail in its effort to establish a cohesive colony in Kansas due to ineffective leadership and selfishness among the settlers.

Keywords: Albany Colony; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Emigration and immigration; Kansas City, Missouri; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Rusk, Nelson

Authors: Rusk, Nelson

Letter, Noah Cameron to Bradford R. Wood
April 30, 1856
Noah Cameron, writing from Lawrence, expressed his views on the economic prospects for persons interested in migrating to Kansas. He advised Bradford Wood, a New York State Kansas Committee representative, to emphasize the economic opportunities in Kansas while also being realistic about the hardships that settlers would face in Kansas.

Keywords: Cameron, Noah; Economic conditions; Economic development; Emigration and immigration; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Wood, Bradford R.

Authors: Cameron, Noah

Letter, I. L. Wilde to C. P. Williams
May 12, 1856
Isaac L. Wilde, writing from New York City, described to C. P. Williams, chairman of the New York State Kansas Committee, the difficulties he was experiencing in recruiting individuals to emigrate to Kansas.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; New York, New York; Wilde, Isaac L.; Williams, C. P.

Authors: Wilde, Isaac L.

Record of Immigrants for Kansas
May 16, 1856
Brief biographical and character sketches of eight families who joined the second party of Kansas emigrants sponsored by the New York State Kansas Committee.

Keywords: Beach, Charles; Cunningham, William; Emigration and immigration; Green, Louise; Griswold, Daniel; Hawley, John H.; Hebbard, Russell; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Page, John; Spaulding, Silas W.; Syracuse, New York; Wilbur, George W.

Authors: Wilde, Isaac L.

Letter, T. W. Carter to George L. Stearns
May 1, 1857
This is the first of three letters from T. W. Carter, agent for the Massachusetts Arms Company, Chicopee Falls, to George Luther Stearns, president of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee and major personal backer of John Brown, regarding the shipment of 200 revolvers to Capt. Brown.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Carter, T. W.; Firearms; Massachusetts Arms Company; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867

Authors: Carter, T. W.

Henry J. Adams, Washington, D.C. to William Hutchinson
November 14, 1860
Adams was in Washington as a special agent of Kansas Territory attempting to convince the U.S. Congress to pay claims for damages suffered by Kansas citizens during episodes of violence in the territory. Adams reported on the prospects of getting the claims paid during the upcoming session of Congress as well as on his concerns about being compensated for his lobbying efforts. He expressed particular concern that Charles Robinson intended to cheat him out of his pay. Adams also commented on Abraham Lincoln's election as president and the possible secession of Southern states in response to the election results.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Claims (see Damage claims or Land claims); Damage claims; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Authors: Adams, Henry J.

Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Wm. Barnes
June 14, 1856
Thomas Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, wrote from Boston to encourage the New York State Kansas Committee to continue its efforts to support the free state cause in Kansas. Webb expressed his opinion that all Northerners and Westerners needed to join together to defeat proslavery supporters in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Boston, Massachusetts; Free state support; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New York State Kansas Committee; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866

Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [G. W. Brown]
April 13, 1859
With regard to the formation of the Republican Party at the forthcoming Osawatomie convention, Ewing told George W. Brown, editor of Lawrence's Herald of Freedom, why he believed this was the right course for the "opposition" to take at this time. The Free State Party had, in his opinion, accomplished its objectives, and the Democratic Party contained a proslave faction and was affiliated with the administration. Ewing's objective was "to secure an organization of the Republican or opposition party at Osawattomie [sic], on a just and rational platform, and led by honest & conservative men."

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie convention; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Proslavery; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )

Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896

Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [E. Peabody]
June 9, 1859
To E. Peabody of St. Joseph, Ewing, Jr. wrote with regard to the construction of the railroad from that city to Leavenworth. "I think that by the time you & Maj Osborn come down, we shall be able to satisfy you that whatever is then promised on the part of this City & County will be done--bonds."

Keywords: Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Railroads; St. Joseph, Missouri

Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896

Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Leandre Martin]
July 2, 1859
In his reply to a June 25 letter from Leandre Martin, Osawatomie, Ewing, Jr. agreed there was little doubt that "several hundred illegal & fraudulent votes" for the Democrats impacted Leavenworth's early June election for delegates to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention. (Democrats captured all ten spots in the county's delegation.) The problem was establishing proof for individual cases of fraud totaling 450, the Democratic majority in the county.

Keywords: Contested elections; Democratic Party (U.S.); Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859

Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896

Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Gentlemen [J. B. Abbott, et al]
October 24, 1859
In response to an October 17 letter from "the Seward Club of Lawrence," Ewing said that he was not prepared "to say whether or no" he intended to support James H. Lane for the U.S. Senate. This was a decision best left to the first legislature, which he hoped would contain "our best men," chosen "without regard to their preferences for United States Senators."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Kansas. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Seward Club; United States. Congress. Senate

Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896

Letter, B. Darrach to Rev. S. L. Adair
November 27, 1856
Dr. Darrach had returned to New York Hospital after being in Kansas. He wrote that he felt the prospects for Kansas are not very favorable. He was concerned that some do not want a "revolution" to result or that Buchanan will not support "freedom," He felt it would take a large emigration of settlers to Kansas to make it a free state. He was sending clothing, cloth and blankets.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Darrach, Barstow; Free state perspective; New York; Relief

Authors: Darrach, Barstow

Letter, Harvey Jones to Rev. S. L. Adair
December 14, 1859
Jones, who lived in Wabaunsee, K.T., wrote to Rev. Adair after John Brown's attack at Harper's Ferry. Jones asked Adair to write to him about John Brown's character and whether he was associated with a church. Jones, like Adair, was a Congregational minister.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Jones, Harvey; Wabaunsee County, Kansas Territory; Wabaunsee, Kansas Territory

Authors: Jones, Harvey

Letter, C. G. Dick to Brother Samuel Adair
April 21, 1857
Dick was Adair's brother-in-law and wrote from his home in Marshall, Highland County, Ohio. He wrote that he supported the American Missionary Association as it promoted Christianity but he was pessimistic about the chances for Kansas entering the Union as a free state. He wrote that the Democratic party was controlled by the south. He asked Adair to inform him if free state men intended to vote in the elections called by the Bogus Legislature.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; American Missionary Association; Bogus legislature; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state supporters; Marshall, Ohio; Ohio

Authors: Dick, Campbell Graham

Moneka Woman's Rights Association, Secretary's book
1858--1860
The secretary's book contains the minutes of the Moneka Woman's Rights association. It also contains the organization's preamble, constitution, and list of members. Members were both male and female. Officers were elected quarterly. Most meetings consisted of an address and also discussion of a question, both related to women's rights issues. They also addressed letters to territorial constitutional conventions and to the Kansas Legislature. They also support the work of C. I. H. Nichols.

Keywords: Denison, Elizabeth S.; Doy, Pamelia; Equal rights; Linn County, Kansas Territory; McGrath, Mollie A.; Moneka Womans Rights Association; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Snyder, Mary I. T.; Suffrage; Wattles, Esther; Wattles, J. O.; Wattles, Sarah G.; Wattles, Susan E.; Women; Womens rights

Authors: Moneka Woman's Rights Association

Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [R. B. Mitchell]
December 15, 1858
In this letter to Robert B. Mitchell of Paris in Linn County, Ewing commented on the summer and fall "disturbances in Linn & Bourbon" counties, and he predicted that many of the "scoundrels" responsible--presumably men on both sides of the slavery issue--would one day end up in the as yet to be established "penitentiary." Ewing wrote Mitchell, at that time a member of the territorial legislature, about the organization of the Democratic Party in Leavenworth and reported on several "of our free state friends" who had joined with the "Democracy." (Subsequently, despite Ewing's plea that moderates not take this action but "just bide their time," Mitchell joined the Democrats in 1859 and accepted their nomination for congressman.)

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free State Party; Free state perspective; Fuller, Perry; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mitchell, Robert Byington; Paris, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Smith, Samuel C.

Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896

Letter, James Hanway to My dear Sir [James Redpath]
March 12, 1860
From Shermansville, Franklin County, K.T., James Hanway, a friend and follower of John Brown during the Kansas troubles, wrote to an associate, presumably James Redpath, about a book entitled The Public Life of John Brown. Redpath was not named in document, but he wrote this book on John Brown, which was published by "Thayer & Eldridge" in 1860. Hanway enjoyed the book, thought it was, "on the whole," "a correct life of the old man," but offered to author "the facts," especially as regards the Pottawatomie massacre of May 1856. In this lengthy, detailed letter, Hanway, who was with John Jr., and some others who were not on Pottawatomie Creek when the killings took place, argued that the action was fully justified under the circumstances and that Brown gave the orders, even though he personally killed none of the victims.

Keywords: Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Hanway, James; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Massacres; Ottawa Creek, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Thompson, Henry

Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896

Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Wm. Barnes
June 18, 1856
Thomas Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston to inform Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, that the New England company would send a delegation to a Kansas aid convention to be held in Cleveland. Webb also commented on the strong reaction of Boston residents to recent events in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Boston, Massachusetts; Free state support; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New York State Kansas Committee; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866

Letter, Eli Thayer to Mr. [William] Barnes
June 20, 1856
Eli Thayer, writing from Worcester, Massachusetts to William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, offered recommendations on how to organize a national Kansas aid organization.

Keywords: Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Free state support; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New York State Kansas Committee; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Worcester, Massachusetts

Authors: Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899

Letter, Nelson Rusk to Wm. Barnes
July 13, 1856
Nelson Rusk, writing from Topeka, described for William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, economic conditions and political events in Kansas. Rusk commented on the high cost of living and described in negative terms Col. Edwin V. Sumner's dispersal of the free state legislature on July 4, 1856.

Keywords: Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Cost and standard of living; Economic conditions; Free state legislature; Prices; Rusk, Nelson; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Authors: Rusk, Nelson

Letter, W.F.M. Arny to William Barnes
July 24, 1856
William F. M. Arny, general agent of the National Kansas Committee, wrote from Chicago, Illinois to thank William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, for sending funds. He also wrote to solicit additional funds to support the free state cause in Kansas. The letter includes a printed form letter describing the National Kansas Aid Committee as well as the handwritten letter to Barnes.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Chicago, Illinois; Free state support; National Kansas Committee; New York State Kansas Committee

Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881

Letter, Eli Thayer to Mr. [William] Barnes
August 1, 1856
Eli Thayer, writing from Worcester, Massachusetts to William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, commented on his recent appointment as general agent for the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Free state support; National Kansas Committee; New York State Kansas Committee; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899

Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881

Circular, To the Friends of Free Kansas
July 4, 1856
This printed circular, written at Iowa City, Iowa, described an alternative migration route to Kansas that traveled through Iowa. This route would allow antislavery emigrants to avoid traveling through Missouri. The circular also appealed to emigrant aid committees in the East to provide funds to send Iowans to Kansas.

Keywords: Circulars; Clark, W. Penn; Downey, H. D.; Emigration and immigration; Hobart, C. W.; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Kansas Central Committee of Iowa; Transportation; Travel

Authors: Kansas Central Committee of Iowa

Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to Wm. Barnes
September 14, 1856
Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to urge William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, to do everything in his power to provide aid to Kansas as quickly as possible.

Keywords: Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Election, Presidential, 1856; Free state support; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; New York State Kansas Committee

Authors: Kansas Central Committee of Iowa

Letter, Olin Thurston to Friend [John A.] Halderman
December 30, 1859
Olin Thurston of Humbolt, Kansas, wrote J. A. Halderman to comment on the past election for state offices, to thank him for "your gallant fight in behalf of the Democracy, and to assure him that "we of southern Kansas are always ready to co-operate with our friends in Leavenworth."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Humboldt, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Thurston, Olin

Authors: Thurston, Olin

Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Samuel Pomeroy
June 2, 1855
This Quit-Claim deed documented Samuel C. Pomeroy's purchase of property in Lawrence, K.T., including lots on Vermont, Tennessee, Rhode Island, and several other streets, from the Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence, comprised of Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, John P. Wood, William H. R. Lykins, and George W. Hutchinson (S.N. Wood's name is printed on the document but crossed out by hand and Hutchinson's name written in).

Keywords: Grover, Joel; Hutchinson, George W.; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins, William H. R.; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Snyder, Samuel S.; Town lots; Wood, John P.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Authors: Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence: Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, et.al.

Agreement, between Pomeroy and Theodore Hyatt
June 29, 1857
"This agreement made this 29th day of June 1857 Between Samuel C. Pomeroy of the City of Atchison Kansas Territory. . .and Theodore Hyatt of the City of New York" addressed the conveyance of certain portions of city lots in Atchison and other land to the latter, as well as "one half of said Pomeroy's interest in the Squatter Sovereign," etc. In exchange Pomeroy received several thousand dollars.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Hyatt, Theodore; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Speculation; Squatter Sovereign; Town lots

Authors: Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence: Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, et.al.

Pre-emption Certificate, issued to Jack H. Martin
November 10, 1859
The U.S. government, Kickapoo land office, issued this printed "Pre-emption Certificate" to Jack Martin over President James Buchanan's signature on November 10, 1859, for 180 acres in Atchison County.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Certificates; Kickapoo Indians; Preemption law United States; United States Government; United States. General Land Office

Authors: United States Government

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Very Dear Sir, Thaddeus Hyatt
July 24, 1857
Writing from Atchison, Pomeroy reported to Hyatt on matters to do with land investments and/or transactions in Atchison and Quindaro and elsewhere. He also commented on the progress of their railroad project and General Calhoun's interest in the same.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Calhoun, John; Doniphan, Kansas Territory; Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891

Letter, W.F.M. Arny to Wm. Barnes
October 25, 1856
Arny, general agent of the National Kansas Committee, wrote from a steamboat traveling on the Missouri River to inform William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, about conditions in Kansas. Arny reported on the state of the Kansas State Central Committee, the efforts by free state supporters in Kansas to prepare for possible proslavery attacks if Buchanan won the 1856 presidential election, and the relief needs of free state settlers in Kansas.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Border ruffians; Food; Free state support; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kansas State Central Committee; National Kansas Committee; New York State Kansas Committee; Relief

Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881

$200 Reward!
June 7, 1860
Wanted poster of two slaves from Saline County, Missouri. Includes the names and descriptions of the two slaves. Poster is on display in the Kansas Museum of History, Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: African Americans; Broadsides; Fugitive slaves; Missouri; Money; Slavery; Slaves

Authors: Williams, G. D.

Members and Officers, First Legislative Assembly of Kansas Territory
July 2, 1855
This catalogue lists members and officers of the council and both houses of the first legislative assembly in Kansas Territory. It includes demographic information including how long each settler was in the territory, their political affiliations (most were pro slavery), and other remarks.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Proslavery settlers

Authors: Williams, G. D.

Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Father [Thomas Ewing, Sr.]
April 21, 1860
Three days after he argued for the defense in a fugitive slave case, Ewing, Jr., reported to his father (Thomas Ewing, Sr., Ohio) that his "argument on the motion [i.e., to quash the indictment against one of the nine Leavenworth citizens, including D.R. Anthony, charged with the violation] added greatly to my stature as a lawyer in the public view." This opportunity arose in connection with the so-called "Charley Fisher rescue cases." (See coverage in the Daily Times, Leavenworth, April 19, 1860, and April 24, 1860.)

Keywords: Anthony, Daniel R.; Courts; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Fisher, Charley; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pettit, John; Territorial Supreme Court (see Kansas Territory. Supreme Court); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory); Vaughan, Champion

Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896

Letter, J. [Jeremiah] R. Brown to Brother and Sister Adair [Samuel and Florella]
November 1, 1856
Jeremiah Brown wrote from Hudson, Ohio, to the Adairs in Osawatomie. He had been raising funds to send to Kansas and mentioned other efforts to aid people in Kansas Territory. He wrote about helping various Brown family members. He also wrote about his concerns about the "aggression of the slave power."

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, Jason; Brown, Jeremiah; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Hudson, Ohio; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Ohio; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief funds; Slave power

Authors: Brown, Jeremiah Root

Letter, Jason Brown to Rev. S. L.. Adair
April 4, 1859
Jason Brown wrote to Samuel Adair from Akron, Ohio. Evidently, Adair had written him concerning placing a claim for property lost while in Kansas. Brown wrote that he doesn't think any radical anti-slavery supporters would receive any funds from Congress in the near future. He believed that if he had been on the pro-slavery side his claim would be paid. He also inquired about marking the grave of his son.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Akron, Ohio; Antislavery; Brown, Jason; Damage claims; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Ohio; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery; Tombstones

Authors: Brown, Jason

Information for emigrants to Kansas
February 16, 1857
This printed promotional literature from the National Kansas Committee was a typical example of settlement information that described soil, water, manufacturing, and other conditions in Kansas.

Keywords: Immigration and early settlement; National Kansas Committee; Settlement

Authors: National Kansas Committee

Letter, E. Hoogland to Thos. N. Stinson, Esq.
July 6, 1856
Edward Hoogland, a resident of Tecumseh, KT who was visiting his family in New York, described a meeting with Governor Wilson Shannon in St. Louis concerning territorial politics. Hoogland displayed a pro-slavery perspective in his comments on Kansas affairs. He described efforts to encourage settlement in Kansas Territory, especially Tecumseh, and to promote economic development in the territory. He mentioned an acquaintance who hoped to establish a sawmill and a gristmill in the territory.

Keywords: Economic development; Gristmills; Hoogland, Edward; Law and Order Party; Mills and mill-work; Sawmills; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stinson, Thomas N.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town building (see Town development); Town development

Authors: Hoogland, Edward

Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to the New York Tribune (Copy No. 1)
August 24, 1860
This copy was titled "Thaddeus Hyatt's Letters from Kansas, The fact of the Drougth. Introduction of the facts, an appeal and an apology!" Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, was trying to dispel information coming from Leavenworth that reported that conditions in Kansas were being exaggerated. He felt efforts to deny "the present deplorable condition of things" were motivated by economic concerns. Hyatt wrote that they suffered because of the drought, not their own actions, and that the free North should aid them. The letter was well written and contained a great deal of emotional rhetoric. The letter was copied (by hand) by W. F. M. Arny. The last page of the letter elaborated on its origins.

Keywords: Droughts; Economic conditions; Famines; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Herald; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; National politics; New York Tribune; Newspapers; Relief; Relief funds

Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus

Court document conveying property to James S. Emery
July 16, 1861
This document settled a court case from the Second District Court of the Territory of Kansas, decided in November 1860. Emery was successful in getting a judgment against the Delaware Town Company of Lawrence which resulted in his acquiring property in Leavenworth County. Repine was the sheriff of Leavenworth County when the land was conveyed to Emery.

Keywords: Courts; Delaware Town Company of Lawrence; Emery, James Stanley; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Repine, Alexander; Town companies

Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus

Letter, [Jim] Lane to [M. W.] Delahay
December 18, 1860
Writing on "Christian & Lane" attorneys letterhead, Jim Lane (at least it certainly appeared to be Lane) informed Delahay in a "Strictly confidential" letter of his plan to help John Speer, Lawrence editor and "faithful friend," take control of the Republican, another Lawrence newspaper. To do so he needed to raise $500, but the political payoff would be worth the effort." Lane felt control of the Republican, Times [Leavenworth] & Record [Topeka] would lead to success for the free state cause.

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Free state cause; Kansas State Record; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Leavenworth Times; Newspapers; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Speer, John, 1817-1906

Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Invoice of Central Committee goods
No date
Itemized inventory of goods maintained by the Kansas Central Committee for distribution to Free State citizens in need of relief. The goods on the inventory consisted primarily of clothing and fabric.

Keywords: Free state; Kansas State Central Committee; Relief

Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Letter, G. W. Deitzler to Bradford R. Wood
April 7, 1856
Deitzler, writing from Lawrence, offered recommendations to Wood, a New York State Kansas Committee representative, on the best emigration route to Kansas. Deitzler suggested that New York emigrants consider settling on Shawnee Reserve land in Kansas as soon as it was opened to settlement. He also requested monetary aid from the New York State Kansas Committee for free state settlers already in Kansas.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Wood, Bradford R.

Authors: Deitzler, George W.

Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to A. H. Shurtleff
ca. 1856
William Hutchinson, secretary of the Kansas Central Committee, wrote from Lawrence to A. Havington Shurtleff, agent for the New York State Kansas Committee. Hutchinson was responding to Shutleff's request for an assessment of the efforts to send emigrant parties and relief to Kansas Territory. Overall, Hutchinson offered a fairly negative view of the efforts of the eastern emigrant aid societies to send relief and emigrants to the territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Relief; Shurtleff, A. Havington

Authors: Deitzler, George W.

Circular, New York State Kansas Aid Society
1857
The circular describes the procedures for emigrating to Kansas with a company sponsored by the New York State Kansas Aid Society.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Aid Society; New York State Kansas Committee; Shurtleff, A. Havington

Authors: Shurtleff, A. Havington

Advertisement, Three Steamboats on the Kansas River
1857
F. A. Hunt & Co., steamboat and land agents, advertised steamboat travel on the Kansas River between Wyandott and Manhattan.

Keywords: Advertisements; F. A. Hunt & Co.; Steamboats; Transportation

Authors: F. A. Hunt and Company

Advertisement, Wyandott City, The Gateway Into Kansas Territory
1857
F. A. Hunt & Co., steamboat and land agents, promoted Wyandott City as a destination for potential emigrants to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Advertisements; Emigration and immigration; F. A. Hunt & Co.; Migration, internal; Town promotion; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory

Authors: F. A. Hunt and Company

Letter, F. A. Hunt to Wm. Barnes
April 18, 1857
F. A. Hunt, owner of a steamboat and land agent company, wrote from Wyandotte to William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee. Hunt promoted Wyandotte as a destination for potential emigrants to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Advertisements; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Emigration and immigration; F. A. Hunt & Co.; Hunt, F. A.; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Town promotion; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory

Authors: Hunt, F. A.

Correspondence, Champion Vaughan to S.O. Thacher, et al
July 7, 1859
Vaughan, editor of the Leavenworth Times, wrote this letter soon after the convention convened to introduce and lend his support to three "Delegates elect from Southern Nebraska to the Kansas Convention." They had convinced Vaughan that efforts toward annexation were not just more Democratic politics.

Keywords: Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Times; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Thacher, Solon O. (Solon Otis), 1830-1895; Vaughan, Champion; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859

Authors: Vaughan, Champion

Secret sign, password, and obligations
ca. 1855
A description of the secret sign, password, and obligations for members of a Free State vigilance club. The club was headquartered in Lawrence.

Keywords: Free state; Vigilance committees

Authors: Vigilance Club

List of persons composing the second regular party sent out by the New England Aid Company
March 20, 1855
A listing of the names, residence, and former occupation of the members of the second party sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Company to Kansas Territory. They were under the charge of J. L. Farwell of Fitchburg, Massachusetts.

Keywords: New England Emigrant Aid Company

Authors: Unknown

Letter, Joseph Pomeroy Root to William Hutchinson
July 26, 1856
Root, writing from Topeka, KT, requested $100 from the Kansas Central Committee to fund information gathering activities in northeastern Kansas Territory. Root also speculated on the potential for military action in the territory in the late summer of 1856.

Keywords: Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Military; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885

Authors: Root, Joseph Pomeroy

Letter, W. W. Updegraff to William Hutchinson
August 5, 1856
W. W. Updegraff, writing from Osawatomie, KT, described pro-slavery forces stealing horses from free state supporters, the need of free state settlers in the Osawatomie area for financial assistance, and his views on the potential for war in the event of John C. Fremont's election as president in the November 1856 election.

Keywords: Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Horse stealing; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery; Relief; Updegraff, W. W.

Authors: Updegraff, W. W.

Charles Robinson to Messrs. Allen, Blood, Hutchinson and others
August 16, 1856
Charles Robinson was writing from Camp Sackett, near Lecompton, Kansas Territory, where he was being held prisoner on treason charges. He wrote to encourage free state supporters to negotiate with pro-slavery forces in order to defuse tensions in northeast Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Antislavery; Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Treason

Authors: Robinson, Charles

George Washington Brown to Friends
ca. August 1856
Unsigned letter, probably written by George Washington Brown while he was being held prisoner at a camp near Lecompton on treason charges, offering military advice to free state leaders and commenting on events in the Lecompton area.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Military

Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915

Andrew H. Reeder, Easton, PA to William Hutchinson
August 25, 1856
Reeder described his efforts to raise money for the Free State cause in his travels through the northern states.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; National Kansas Committee; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )

Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864

Letter, A. Curtis to William Hutchinson
December 21, 1856
Curtis reported on the conflict between the Kansas Central Committee and W. F. M. Arny, general agent for the National Kansas Committee, over the distribution of supplies. Curtis claimed that Arny issued supplies to individuals who were engaged in speculative ventures and who were not in need of relief. Curtis attached to the letter an itemized list of the supplies that he believed were inappropriately issued by Arny.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Curtis, A; Economic conditions; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas Central Committee; National Kansas Committee

Authors: Curtis, A.

An appeal from the merchants of Lawrence, Kansas territory, to the Chamber of Commerce, St. Louis, Mo.
1856
Lawrence merchants appealed to the St. Louis business community to take steps to prevent Missourians from invading Kansas Territory. They based their request on the negative impact that the invasions would have on commerce between Missouri and Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Commerce; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Merchants; St. Louis, Missouri

Authors: Merchants of Lawrence

Head Quarters of the Second Brigade of Northern Division of Kansas Militia, Leavenworth City
November 28, 1855
This document is a printed notice to the Militia of the Second Brigade requesting them to meet at Leavenworth on Dec. 1, 1855.

Keywords: Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Militia

Authors: Eastin, Lucian J.

Free State Convention! All persons who are favorable to a union of effort, and a permanent organization of all the Free State elements of Kansas Territory. . . .
Summer, 1855
Notice of elections on August 25, 1855 for delegates to a free state convention at Big Springs on Sept. 5, 1855.

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Free State Convention; Goodin, Joel Kishler

Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler; Robinson, Charles

Ho! For Kansas! Eldridge Brothers' Express & Daily Post Coach Line
Unknown date
This printed notice for the Eldridge Brothers' coach line advertises the fare to Lawrence as $3.50. They had routes from Kansas City to Lecompton, Lawrence to Osawatomie, and Lawrence to Leavenworth City. The notice includes information about the coaches, food, and changes of horses.

Keywords: Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Stagecoaches; Transportation

Authors: Eldridge Brothers

Sheet Music, Ho! For The Kansas Plains
1855
Sheet music for a song about making Kansas a free state.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Clark, James G.; Music; Songs

Authors: Clark, James G.

Sheet Music, The Kansas Call
1855
This sheet music was for a song about the struggle in Kansas. Lucy Larcon wrote the words and E. Ives, Jr. composed the music.

Keywords: Entertainment; Ives, E., Jr.; Larcom, Lucy; Lyrics; Music; Songs

Authors: Ives, Jr., E. ; Larcom, Lucy

Certificate. Legislative Assembly, Territory of Kansas
January 1860
According to this document, signed by the speaker of the Kansas House of Representatives, the assembly owed $68 ("mileage and per diem") to Mark W. Delahay for "services rendered" as chief clerk from January 2 to January 18, 1860. It was simply specified that Delahay was to receive $4 per day for 17 days.

Keywords: Certificates; Colton, Gustavus A.; Delahay, Mark W.; Kansas Legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature

Authors: Colton, Gustavus A.

Letter, Platt Potter to C. P. Williams, H. H. Van Dyck, B. R. Wood, Deodalus Wright
March 12, 1856
Potter, writing from Schenectedy, New York, expressed his antislavery opinions to members of the New York State Kansas Committee. He was critical of the Franklin Pierce administration's handling of the Kansas issue. Potter believed that antislavery settlers in Kansas should defend themselves against proslavery violence in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; New York State Kansas Committee; Potter, Platt; Schenectedy, New York; Sharps rifles

Authors: Colton, Gustavus A.

Letter, Jonathan Finch to Mr. [William] Barnes
April 2, 1856
Finch, writing from Coveville, New York, to William Barnes, secretary of the New York Kansas Committee, expressed his desire to settle in Kansas to take part in the "struggle for Liberty." Finch indicated that participation in the antislavery cause was his primary reason for his interest in emigrating to Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Coveville, New York; Emigration and immigration; Finch, Jonathan; Migration, internal

Authors: Colton, Gustavus A.

Agreement concerning the Missouri River and Rocky Mountain Rail Road and the Delaware Nation of Indians
August 3, 1858
This agreement offered property to John G. Pratt if he was successful in assisting in the adoption of a treaty between the U. S. government and the Delaware's to make lands in the Delaware Reserve available to the Missouri River and Rocky Mountain Rail Road. Pratt was to receive the equivalent of two sections of land--one near the Delaware Mission and one of timber land, a total of 1280 acres, and $5,000 if the treaty was ratified.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Delaware Indians; Economic development; Land acquisition; Land sales; Missouri River and Rocky Mountain Railroad; Native Americans; Pratt, J. G. (John Gill), 1814-1900; Railroads; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Simpson, Samuel Newell

Authors: Pratt, J. G. J. G. (John Gill), 1814-1900; Robinson, Charles ; Simpson, Samuel Newell

Kansas Experience of Charles E. Dewey
December 24, 1856
In this testimony, Charles E. Dewey described how his family and others in their party traveled to Kansas from Ohio. The group sought advice from S. C. Pomeroy about where to settle, and at his urging, they located on South Pottawatomie Creek, possibly in Anderson County. He included in this testimony the names and stories of people that he encountered on his journey and during his early years in the territory. One particularly interesting account was the conflict between a group of Germans and Dewey's party over possession of land claims. Dewey also included details of the difficulties for settlers in Kansas Territory during the years 1855 and 1856. Furthermore, within this testimony he states the experiences of the Winkly brothers who were boarding with him.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Claims (see Damage claims or Land claims); Crops; Dewey, Charles E.; Emigration and immigration; Germans; Health; Illness; Land claim disputes; Land claims; Livestock; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness); Transportation; Weather

Authors: Dewey, Charles E.

Kansas Experiences of A.R. Scolen, William Reap, Ephraim Coy, and Capt. Samuel Anderson
December 21, 1856 - December 23, 1856
These testimonies were collected from a number of free state settlers along Pottawatomie Creek, presumably by an associate of the National Kansas Committee. Each account includes personal information about the settler (their origins, family, crops, etc.) and also testimonies of their involvement in the free state militia.

Keywords: Agriculture; Anderson, Samuel; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Casualties; Cline, Captain; Clothing and dress; Coy, Ephraim; Crops; Food; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Illness; Livestock; Militia; Missourians; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Reap, William; Scolen, A.R.; Shore, Samuel T.; Sickness (see Illness); Skirmishing; Travel; Wounds and injuries

Authors: Dewey, Charles E.

Letters, by Thaddeus Hyatt (No. 3 and No. 4, incomplete)
1856
These two excerpts of letters written by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, described the early workings of this committee and its work for the free state cause. Copy No. 3 discussed the "Tabernacle Committee" and the appropriation of side arms and Sharps rifles. Copy No. 4 referred to J.M. Winchell, authorizing him to make a withdrawal from the New York Kansas Fund. [The first page of the letters which is included in the text version was not scanned.]

Keywords: Firearms; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Sharps rifles; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877

Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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This file was last modified September 12 2013 04:09:26 PM.