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Territorial Politics and Government > Territorial Politics > Free State
9 Topic Specific Items
Certificate of Agency, James Abbott as Agent of the Kansas Herald of Freedom
Author: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 10, 1855

This certificate granted James Abbott, now of Blanton, Kansas Territory, agency to sell subscriptions to the Kansas Herald of Freedom newspaper. The document was signed and sealed by George W. Brown, publisher and editor of the free state paper.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Business enterprises; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Herald of Freedom; Newspapers

Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Author: Miller, Josiah
Date: August 29, 1855

Josiah Miller, making arrangements for his parents' journey from South Carolina to Kansas Territory, wrote to his father and mother from his office at the Kansas Free State newspaper. He told them of his need to purchase personal arms for his own protection and described to them a recent situation of election fraud. Miller also wrote that his goal, as a newspaper editor, was to "move men to support the Free State ticket." He added that he was having a falling out with Robert Elliott, his business partner.

Keywords: Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state activities; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspapers; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.

Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Robert G. Elliott
Author: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: November 15, 1855

Quit-Claim Deed of Robert G. Elliott signing his share of ownership of lot #12 on Massachusetts Street over to his business partner, Josiah Miller. The two men founded and produced the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Miller, however, later preferred to buy out his partner, as Elliott "did not have enough money to contribute" to producing the newspaper.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Miller, Josiah; Newspaper buildings; Newspapers; Town lots

Letter, [Josiah Miller] to Dear Father and Mother
Author: Miller, Josiah
Date: Nov 11 1855

Josiah Miller, having recently bought out his business partner, Robert G. Elliott, from their jointly owned newspaper, the Kansas Free State, wrote to his parents in South Carolina about his recent business ventures. He stated that "papers don't pay" and expressed his interest in land claims and real estate, which would earn him more money. Miller also told his parents that he was continuing to search for a farm in Wyandotte County for them to settle on when they arrive in Kansas Territory. He hoped that Congress would approve the constitution that the Free State men had recently submitted.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Constitutions; Free state legislature; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Land acquisition; Land claim disputes; Miller, Josiah; Sawmills; Squatters; Topeka Constitution; Town development

Letter, G. W. Brown to Hiram Hill, Esq
Author: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: December 10, 1856

George W. Brown dictated this letter to Hiram Hill from the Herald of Freedom newspaper office in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Brown thanked Hill and his fellow citizens of Williamsburgh for the financial gift that they had sent to the newspaper, and also for their material support to the citizens of Kansas. He closed by reiterating the newspaper's commitment to the cause of freedom.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state support; Herald of Freedom; Hill, Hiram; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Money; Newspapers

Letter, G. W. Brown to My Dear Sir [Hiram Hill]
Author: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: January 10, 1857

George Brown, editor of the free state newspaper, Herald of Freedom, wrote to Hiram Hill thanking him for his Christmas donation to the newspaper. Brown enclosed with his letter several copies of the Herald and a new map of Kansas Territory. He also reported that the Herald was increasing circulation at an unparalleled rate, and that he appreciated the freedom and independence afforded him as a member of the press.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state support; Herald of Freedom; Hill, Hiram; Money; Newspapers

Page from the "Kansas Herald of Freedom"
Author: No authors specified.
Date: December 1857

A December 1857 page from the "Kansas Herald of Freedom" free state newspaper. George W. Brown served as the editor of the paper, which was an organ of the New England Emigrant Aid Company in the Territory.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state activities; Herald of Freedom; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers

Letter, G. [George] W. Brown to Friend [John A.] Halderman
Author: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: November 19, 1859

In a brief note, something of a follow up to his November 1 letter, G. W. Brown told Halderman that 150 copies of "to-days" (November 19) Herald of Freedom had been sent by "Express" and that another 150 would go out the next day. "I think your friends will be pleased with the present number," wrote the editor, "as it more than sustains all I have said in the past in regard to old John Brown, besides it gives some raps at Conway which will be difficult to overcome."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Herald of Freedom; Newspapers

Photograph, Josiah Miller and wife
Author: Adams in the Eldridge Hall
Date: c. 1850s

Portrait of Josiah Miller and his wife. Miller was the editor of the Kansas Free State newspaper, whose business building and printing operation was destroyed during the Sack of Lawrence in May 1856.

Keywords: Miller, Josiah

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Shall Kansas be free?
Authors: Barker, Stephen
Date:  February 7, 1855
Letter written about the Kansas Herald Of Freedom newspaper, and how it supported Kansas' entrance into the Union as a free state. It attempted to persuade other Bostonians to support the newspaper and its work on behalf of the free state cause.

Keywords: Barker, Stephen; Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Newspapers - Free State


Speech, David R. Atchison to Pro-Slavery "Soldiers"
Authors: Atchison, David R.; Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date:  May 21, 1856
According to a note on the top of page one made later by R. J. Hinton, "this report was made for me [Hinton] by or under the direction of Lt. Gov. (Dr.) Root [Joseph Pomeroy Root, subsequently elected the state's first lieutenant governor under the Wyandotte Constitution], who was a prisoner, heard & reported the speech" made by David Atchison to the assembled proslave "Soldiers" camped two miles west of Lawrence before they marched on and sacked the town on May 21, 1856. The transcript is labeled "Hon. David R. Atchison's Speech . . ." and begins, "This is the most glorious day of my life! This day I am a border-ruffian!" Amidst "Yells" and "Cheers," Atchison rallied the "true sons of the noble South," encouraging them to "tear down their Free State Hotel" and "thow into the Kanzas their printing presses," and to bravely follow their "worthy . . . Leader, Col. [John H.] Stringfellow!"

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Beecher Bibles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free State Hotel; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers - Free State; Pierce administration; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Southerners; Stringfellow, John H.


Letter, J. K. [John Kagi] to My Dear Sisters
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date:  November 20, 1856
Killed during John Brown's Harpers Ferry raid in October 1859, John Henry Kagi, sometimes known as Brown's "Secretary of War," was "in prison at Lecompton" when he wrote this letter to his sister on November 20, 1856. Kagi, along with John Ritchie and several other free-state partisans, had been arrested by U.S. Marshal I.B. Donelson, supported by federal troops, on September 18 at Topeka and subsequently charged with "highway robbery." (See, Kansas Historical Collections, 4:561) Although "in prison," Kagi assured his sister that he was safe and could be rescued at anytime; "I hesitate only because we may get out some other way, and because a forcible rescue would bring on a terrible winter war, which I do not wish to see."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Donalson, Israel B.; Free state militia; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Newspapers - Free State; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Prospectus of the "White Cloud Chief."
Authors: Miller, Solomon
Date:  Spring 1857
Born at Lafayette, Indiana, on January 22, 1831, and raised in Ohio, Sol Miller "indentured" in the Germantown Gazette office in Germantown, Ohio, and in 1854 purchased half interest in that newspaper. Three years later he removed to White Cloud, Doniphan County and published the first issue of the White Cloud Kansas Chief on June 4, 1857. This printed "Prospectus" is signed by at least twenty "subscribers" who proposed "to commence the publication of paper bearing the above title [White Cloud Chief], early in the Spring of 1857" and describes the nature of the size, scope, etc., of the proposed newspaper to be edited and published by Miller.

Keywords: Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Chief; Miller, Solomon (Sol); Newspaper publishing; Newspapers; Newspapers - Free State; White Cloud, Kansas Territory


Letter, Richard Realf to Gentlemen [Geo. L. Stearns, Franklin B. Sanborn, et al.]
Authors: Realf, Richard , 1834-1878
Date:  May 29, 1858
Richard Realf, a native of England and John Brown lieutenant, wrote to Stearns, et al, after the "temporary postponement of a certain enterprise," to solicit their financial backing of a fund raising trip to England that Realf proposed to undertake during the months before operations resume. He was confident that $2,000 could be raised without revealing any details of future plans.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Canada; England; Finance; Free state supporters; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Newspapers - Free State; Nute, Ephraim; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Realf, Richard , 1834-1878; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Wattles, Augustus; Whitman, E. B.


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