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Letter, R. A. Tovey to My Dear Wife
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: January 23, 1854
Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr., wrote to his wife, Eliza (Matthew) Tovey, at their home in Albany, New York. Tovey reported that, since the freezing of the Missouri River, mail was slow, and he had lost his job making stove fixings because of the inability to obtain materials from steamboat transport. Tovey also described his friend Swifts' problems maintaining ownership of his land claim, and the prospect that he himself may participate in a new town's development.

Keywords: Commerce; Labor; Land acquisition; Land claim disputes; Land claims; Missouri River; Religion; Squatters; Swift, J. Dedan; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Town development; Weather


Letter, Your Affectionate Husband [Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr.] to My Dear Wife [Eliza (Matthew) Tovey]
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: March 22, 1854
Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr., wrote to his wife, Eliza (Matthew) Tovey at their home in Albany, New York. Tovey mentioned his current task of finding a suitable land claim. He discussed the situations of his nearest neighbors as recent homesteaders and businessmen. Tovey also remarked on the "great deal of excitement" surrounding the prospect of forming a territorial legislature and anticipated "a smart fight" between proslavery and free state men.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land claims; Merchants; Swift, J. Dedan; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Town development; Weather


Letter, [Cyrus Kurtz] Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 31, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He described living conditions in Topeka. Holliday expressed his intent to write to Mr. McFarland and his thanks for letters recently received. He mentioned Samuel Y. Lum, a Congregational minister, who was sleeping in his cabin. He also mentioned his presidency with the Topeka Town Association, agency with the New England Emigrant Aid Company, and his own business. Finally, Holliday expressed hopes of a sawmill and referred to the possibility of trouble with Missourians. A few lines have been cut and removed from the lower part of pages 7 and 8.

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lum, S. Y; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Religion; Sawmills; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Town Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather


Circular, Plan of Operations of the Emigrant Aid Company
Authors: Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company
Date: 1854
This circular, written "for the purpose of answering numerous inquiries, concerning the plan of operation of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company, and the resources of the Kansas Territory", contains two sections. The first outlines the objectives and plans of the Aid Company; the second, longer portion, serves as a type of almanac about journeying to and settling in Kansas Territory. The Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company was the predecessor of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, which was formed in 1855.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Circulars; Crops; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Native Americans; Park, George S.; Smoky Hill Valley, Kansas Territory; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Transportation; Wakarusa River; Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Williams, John M. S.


Letter, [Cyrus K. Holliday] to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: January 7, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. After a loving introduction, he described Kansas Territory's sunny, breezy climate. Holliday mentioned letters received from his brother and Mr. Thomas Willson, both named in previous letters, who also wanted to emigrate. He described the principle building in Topeka, which served as meeting hall, hotel, and church, and where he slept with Frye W. Giles, a free state supporter from Chicago. Holliday ended with concern for Lizzie, Mary Holliday's younger sister.

Keywords: Giles, Frye W.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Landscape; Marriage; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town settlement; Weather


Letter, Mary [Holliday] to My Dear H [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Mary
Date: February 15, 1855
Mary Holliday wrote from Meadville, Pennsylvania to her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday in Kansas Territory. Lonely and worried, she expressed her eagerness at joining him after the birth of their first child. She mentioned receiving a package of papers from her husband which spoke well of him. She also mentioned his mother's desire to go to Kansas Territory with them and described the well-being of friends and relatives.

Keywords: Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Marriage; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Weather


Diary, Franklin L. Crane
Authors: Crane, Franklin L.
Date: February 23, 1855 - September 29, 1856
The entries pertaining to Kansas Territory began on page 18, with Franklin Crane leaving his home in Easton, Pennsylvania with his son, Franklin Jr. He described their journey to Kansas and their initial impressions and travels while in the territory. In June 1855, he returned to Easton to sell his property so he could then return to Kansas. The later entries began in September of 1856 and described tensions in Topeka with efforts to build a fort and rumors of armed Missourians in the area.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Davis County, Kansas Territory; Easton, Pennsylvania; Geary County, Kansas; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town shares; Travel; Updegraff, E.; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: March 18, 1855
Writing from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday in Meadville, Pennsylvania, Cyrus K. Holliday joyfully reported receiving a letter from her. He planned to return to Meadville by the middle of April. He encouraged their friend Mr. Ingram to consider returning to Kansas Territory, but cautioned that investing in property was like buying lottery tickets. Holliday described cold weather, with snow indoors and out, and also inquired after family members' health.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Houses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Property disputes; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, H. Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: May 13, 1855
After arriving in Kansas City by steamboat, Hiram Hill wrote to his brother. En route, four men had died of cholera while others continued to drink and play cards nearby. Disease fatalities were common, Hill reported. He speculated that the river water, which passengers drank, was contaminated with disease from the rich prairie soil. Hill described life at the Winedot [sic] Indian Reservation (beginning at the bottom of page 2) where he met the "prinsable chiefe" and saw the governor's sister. Hill related news concerning Mr. Putnam, Mr. Tomas, Mr. Gague, Mr. Jay, Mr. Partridge, Mr. Whitman, Mr. Pomeroy, Mr. Fuller and others. He was skeptical that these men would permanently settle in Kansas Territory. Hill also described Kansas City, which he thought would improve under "yankee," rather than "slave holder," management. (Hill's final destination was Lawrence, where he acquired town lots through quit claims not included in this online project.)

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Burial; Diseases; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Kansas City, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Steamboats; Transportation; Travel; Weather; Wyandot Indians


Letter, Wm [Goodnow] to My Dear Wife [Harriet Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, William E.
Date: June 17, 1855
William Goodnow wrote from Shannon, Wild Cat Creek, Kansas Territory, to his wife in New England. Goodnow commented on the weather and crops of the Territory, contrasting them with his experiences back East. Recovering from an illness, he had observed that there had been much traffic of soldiers, teams, and equipment passing by on their way to Fort Riley, "12 miles above here." Goodnow also mentioned that the Territorial Legislature was slated to convene at Pawnee, only 2 miles from his settlement, during the next week, though he supposed that "its doings will be illegal & void."

Keywords: Crops; Daily life; Denison, Joseph; Diseases; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Goodnow, William E.; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: July 29, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote letters from several cities to his wife, Mary Holliday, after leaving their home at Meadville, Pennsylvania to return to business at Topeka, Kansas Territory. Once in Lawrence, K. T., he reported the political situation to his wife. Governor Andrew H. Reeder, who expected violence, and the fraudulently elected Territorial Legislature were at loggerheads. (Holliday had been elected to the Legislature in a reelection called by Governor Reeder during Holliday's absence, but the reelection results were rejected by the Legislature.) Holliday also mentioned the good corn crop and warm weather and expressed his love for his wife and daughter, Lillie, born March 18.

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: August 12, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania of his journey to Kansas City to obtain a land warrant for Topeka and to attend the Free State Convention. Two of his articles had been published in The Herald of Freedom, a Lawrence newspaper, and he sent copies. Mentioning political difficulties, Holliday suggested that his wife wait until fall to travel to Kansas. He rented out his cabin in Topeka for profit. A deadly cholera epidemic at Fort Riley had ended.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free State Convention; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather; Wyandot Float


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: October 13, 1855
One week after arriving at his sons' settlement ("Brownville") near Osawatomie, Brown wrote the family back east that although most were sick when he first arrived, they "appear now to be mending." The trip across Missouri was without incident, except for problems with a sick horse and their "heavy load." Brown then wrote briefly of the Adairs, the "most uncomfortable situation" in which he found his children upon his arrival, and other things including prairie fires and finally the political situation in the territory. In fact, at this early date, John Brown "believe[d] Missouri is fast becoming discouraged about making Kansas a Slave State & think the prospect of its becoming Free is brightening every day."

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Election, Topeka Constitution delegates to convention, October 1855; Free state; Free state settlers; Missouri; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Settlement; Weather


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: November 2, 1855
In this letter from "Brownsville, Kansas Territory," John Brown made some observations about the harshness of the weather, the health of his Kansas children, their general lack of preparedness for the winter, and the farm work that needed to be accomplished. His only comment about the political situation in the territory came in closing: "I feel more, & more confident that Slavery will soon die out here; & to God be the praise."

Keywords: Agriculture; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Crops; Farmers; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Houses; Slavery; Weather


Letter, H Hill to [Brother]
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 9, 1855
Hiram Hill wrote from Weston, Massachusetts to his brother, describing his stagecoach journey from Richmond. Although 47 miles from Lawrence, he had not received a trustworthy update concerning the Wakarusa War. Hill mentioned Thomas W. Barber's murder, numbers of men and weapons involved in the war, and his plans to briefly visit Lawrence. He vowed never to travel to Kansas Territory in winter again. Hill also showed concern for Russell, who tended his cattle in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Free state militia; Hill, Hiram; Proslavery perspective; Stagecoaches; Travel; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weather


Circular, Information for Kanzas Immigrants, 1855
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: 1855
Thomas Webb compiled the information in this circular not to "entice people to go to the Kanzas", but rather to "collect the best and most reliable information relative to the Territory, and furnish the same to those desiring it." The circular provides details about the logistics of the trip to Kansas: when and how it should be done, and what provisions to take, for example. It also includes information about subjects such as weather, farming, Indians, and employment, to name a few.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Circulars; Crops; Farmers; Freight and freightage; Land acquisition; Merchandise; Merchants; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Settlement; Timber; Transportation; Travel literature; Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Narrative," A Twelve Months Practical Life in Kansas Territory, written by an actual settler"
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: ca. 1855
Robert Atkins Tovey wrote these pages so that "those who are going forth with their wives & children, their property, yea their all on earth should have the information covering the country to which they are making a Pilgrimage" from someone who has recently made the same journey. Broken up into chapters by subject, Tovey gave advice about the journey and settlement, provisions, land claims, soil, and weather, in addition to providing commentary about the current political situation and his disgust at the "Mob law" being imposed by the Missourians.

Keywords: African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Election fraud; Free state perspective; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Missourians; Native Americans; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Slavery; Slaves; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Transportation; Travel; Weather


Pamphlet, History and Map of Kansas and Nebraska
Authors: Sloan, Walter B.
Date: 1855
The full title of this pamphlet is "History and Map of Kansas & Nebraska: describing Soil, Climate, Rivers, Prairies, Mounds, Forests, Minerals, Roads, Cities, Villages, Inhabitants, and such other subjects as Relates to that Region -- Politics Excepted." Information falling under these categories was compiled by the publisher, Walter B. Sloan. This example of the pamphlet is incomplete, lacking final pages.

Keywords: Agriculture; Cities and towns; Emigration and immigration; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Natural resources; Nebraska Territory; Roads; Settlement; Sloan, Walter B.; Timber; Weather


Daily Diaries, Isaac Goodnow
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: 1856 - 1860
These diaries, written by Isaac Goodnow, described his daily life and his community activities. He settled near Manhattan and was involved in promoting the town and in establishing and promoting Bluemont College, the predecessor to Kansas State University. Many of the entries are somewhat mundane, dealing with weather, illness, neighbors, etc. However, the entries also describe activities in Kansas aimed at making it a free state, as well as the land speculation involved with both towns and farm land.

Keywords: Bluemont Central College; Daily life; Diaries; Education; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Illness; Land speculation; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Town development; Universities and colleges; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: January 7, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday, reelected on the 6th for a third six-month term as president of the Topeka Town Association, wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He had been appointed to visit Washington by the Free State Executive Committee and nominated for territorial Secretary of State (losing in the January 15th election). Cyrus had received the money drafts Mary sent. He reported cold, stormy weather.

Keywords: Free state; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, Wm E. G. [William Goodnow] to My Dear Wife [Harriet Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, William E.
Date: January 12, 1856
William Goodnow wrote from his settlement near Wild Cat Creek, Kansas Territory, to his wife Harriet in New England. Goodnow related his wintertime experiences in the Midwest, which included descriptions of travel and hunting expeditions. He anticipated the prosperity of Manhattan, reporting that "claims that were taken here last spring are now fetching hundreds of dollars advance, & some will soon bring a thousand." Goodnow added that propositions of new bridges, roads, and ferry service would further improve the town.

Keywords: Bridges; Goodnow, Harriet; Goodnow, William E.; Hunting; Land claims; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Prices; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Town development; Weather


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every One
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: February 1, 1856
From Osawatomie, Brown wrote of the continued severe winter and "the fierce Winds of Kansas," as well as his desire to visit the family at North Elba, New York. But he also mentioned that they had "just learned of some new, & shocking outrages at Leavenworth; & that the Free State people there have fled to Lawrence." Although more conflict threatened, Brown expected little action until the weather improved.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Salmon; Free state supporters; Household activities; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; North Elba, New York; Proslavery activities; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 4, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from bitterly cold Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Fearing an attack by the Missourians on March 4th, the day the Free State Legislature was to meet in Topeka, he advised Mary to wait before traveling to K. T. with Lillie and Mrs. Nichols. Cyrus also requested northern newspapers.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Missourians; Newspapers; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: March 30, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote on a stormy day in Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Mary was finally to leave for K. T. on May 1st, provided Cyrus did not come to Meadville before she left. He suggested that she travel with Mr. Randolph, Mr. Thickstun, or Mrs. Nichols. He also requested money drafts drawn from well known banks to ease selling them.

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Weather


Letter, Mary Holliday to My Dear Husband [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Mary
Date: October 23, 1856
Mary Holliday of Meadville, Pennsylvania, wrote to her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday, likely at Philadelphia. She had returned from a trip to Wooster, Ohio. She reported improved Kansas Territory conditions from one of William D. Paul's letters. Mary was eager to leave for K. T., especially since many Meadville children, including Lillie, were ill, and requested that Cyrus buy household articles. Mary reported that McFarland of Democrat James Buchanan's campaign had bribed voters. Could women vote, John C. Fremont would be elected, she declared. She enclosed a letter to free state governor William Y. Roberts and instructed him to visit Charley Ottinger.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Diseases; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Household equipment; Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Paul, William D.; Roberts, William Young; Weather; Women Suffrage


Kansas Experience of Charles E. Dewey
Authors: Dewey, Charles E.
Date: December 24, 1856
In this testimony, Charles E. Dewey described how his family and others in their party traveled to Kansas from Ohio. The group sought advice from S. C. Pomeroy about where to settle, and at his urging, they located on South Pottawatomie Creek, possibly in Anderson County. He included in this testimony the names and stories of people that he encountered on his journey and during his early years in the territory. One particularly interesting account was the conflict between a group of Germans and Dewey's party over possession of land claims. Dewey also included details of the difficulties for settlers in Kansas Territory during the years 1855 and 1856. Furthermore, within this testimony he states the experiences of the Winkly brothers who were boarding with him.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Claims (see Damage claims or Land claims); Crops; Dewey, Charles E.; Emigration and immigration; Germans; Health; Illness; Land claim disputes; Land claims; Livestock; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness); Transportation; Weather


Circular, Information for Kanzas Immigrants, 1856
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: 1856
Thomas Webb expanded the information in his previous version of this circular to produce a more current edition. Topics such as travel routes, preparation, and provisions are still discussed, while more information regarding town settlements, accommodations, and family life are new additions.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Brown, John Carter; Cities and towns; Crops; Farmers; Freight and freightage; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Merchandise; Merchants; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Settlement; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Timber; Town development; Transportation; Travel literature; Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to My Dear Cleaveland
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: January 4, 1857
This rather inspiring letter, written by Thaddeus Hyatt while traveling in Kansas, demonstrates Hyatt's commitment to the National Kansas Committee and his passion for the free state cause. Apparently there was some sort of conflict within the committee that threatened its ability to function, but nevertheless Hyatt was determined to aid the struggling free state settlers in Kansas. He spoke in great detail about some of his travels around the territory, including the inclement weather and his perspective on the pro-slavery and free state settlers that he encountered during his stay.

Keywords: Bickerton, Thomas; Food; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes River; National Kansas Committee; Proslavery settlers; Relief; Settlement; Weather


Letter, T. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 18, 1857
Thomas J. Marsh, who arrived in the Kansas Territory on July 11, 1857, made Lawrence his base of operation. He had made the journey as an agent for the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. His objective was to observe and financially support free state efforts to capture the legislature at the polls in early October (this included conducting a census). During his first week in Kansas Territory, Marsh attended the "entirely harmonious" Free State Party convention in Topeka and reported on initial efforts to organize the campaign. He also seemed very concerned about "petty, personal feuds" among the leadership in the territory. Marsh had personally discussed this issue with the men involved and believed the "discordant elements have been harmonized." Upon his return to Lawrence, Marsh found "U. S. Dragoons parading the streets" and Governor Walker threatening to make numerous arrests because of the unauthorized election of city officials the previous Monday.

Keywords: Blood, James; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dragoons; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Constitution; Travel; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: July 20, 1857
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his father, Thomas Parrott. Marcus began by telling him of new land sales near Paola, Kansas Territory, the extreme heat they had been having lately, and news about family friends. He spoke about a recent proclamation given by Governor Walker, who had set up camp near Lawrence, which condemned the municipal government in that city as unauthorized. Marcus added that the Free State Convention in Topeka had delegated him as their representative to Congress; he had accepted, despite worries that his private business would suffer because of the appointment.

Keywords: Free state activities; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Paola, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Railroads; Territorial politics; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Weather


Letter, [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: October 16, 1857
Joseph H. Trego wrote from his cabin in Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife Alice in Rock Island, Illinois, about his journey from Kansas City to Sugar Mound. His friends, Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell) and his brother Edwin (Ed), and himself were poorly prepared as they expected to stay in public houses during the journey, not camp outside as their wagon transportation preferred. As the road they took went right down the Missouri state line, Trego contrasted the well-established farms to the East with the "open, wild prairie" to the West. He and his brother, upon arriving at their cabin, found that they had "Hoosier" neighbors (from Indiana), who were pleasant but proslavery. Trego recounted the difficulty they had acquiring home furnishings and food, fighting adverse weather at every turn. He spoke at length of how he was comforted by writing to his wife, as he and his friends greatly missed their families.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Hunting; Kansas City, Missouri; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes River; Merchandise; Proslavery supporters; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Transportation; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Wagons; Weather


Letter, J. [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: October 25, 1857
Joseph Trego wrote from his log cabin near Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego described the beauty of the fall foliage and his plans to build a new home for his family, whom he greatly missed. He worried that he had heard from Alice only once in seven weeks, while he had written every week. Trego showed that he was well connected to current events in the Territory and the county, as he and his friends took several newspapers, including two from Lawrence.

Keywords: Free state perspective; Houses; Hunting; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Weather


Circular, Information for Kanzas Immigrants, 1857
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: 1857
Thomas Webb compiled this more comprehensive version of his earlier circulars by the same name. Containing much of the same information as the previous versions, such as details about the logistics of the trip to Kansas and subjects such as weather, farming, Indians, and employment, it features a large section that describes individual town settlements. This circular also addresses the proslavery and free state conflict, though in a nonpartisan manner, considering the interests of both groups.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Books; Brown, John Carter; Circulars; Crops; Diseases; Education; Food; Guns; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Libraries; Merchandise; Merchants; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers; Religion; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Town settlement; Transportation; Travel literature; Weapons (see also Guns); Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Sara [Robinson] to My Dear Sister
Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: January 5, 1858
Sara Robinson wrote to her sister from Lawrence, describing her home and lifestyle. Robinson named many friends and guests who had visited and/or boarded at her home. She made reference to the election occurring the day before, which would determine whether or not the Lecompton Constitution was ratified, and reiterated her support for the Free State cause.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Free state perspective; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Weather


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: January 14, 1858
S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, VT, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. The author mentioned various friends and relatives, several of whom had traveled to and settled in Kansas Territory. He reiterated his desire to move his family to Kansas Territory as well. S.T. also communicated his disgust with the Democrats, who "are chained to the car of slavery and are ready to do any dirty work the slave power wish them to do."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Daily life; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Emigration and immigration; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; National politics; Vermont; Weather


Letter, Your devoted Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: January 24, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego described how, since the shelter being built around the mill equipment was not yet complete, the wind and rain interfered with their ability to work. Though the work was hard, he favored the milling business over other means toward income. Trego responded to a newspaper article from the Rock Island Advertiser that his wife had sent him, deeming their coverage of the Kansas troubles "sensational." He expected that Fort Scott would soon be destroyed by free state militiamen, as "Bourbon County Bandits" (proslavery supporters) had been harassing extensively free state supporters in the area. Despite all this disorder, the development prospects of Mound City, in Linn County, appeared favorable.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Business enterprises; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Neosho, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Postal service; Proslavery activities; Railroads; Rock Island Advertiser; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Telegraph; Town development; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Weather


Letter, Albert C. Morton to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Morton, Albert C.
Date: January 1858
Albert Morton wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, describing at length the efforts of Quindaro's citizens to grade a large Avenue through the town. Morton added that Quindaro was about to establish a city charter, which, if approved by the Legislature, would require the taxation of the citizens. He also mentioned a shooting the night before of a proslavery man who had lost his seat to freestatesman Charles Chadwick in a recent election under the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Chadwick, Charles; Hill, Hiram; Lecompton Constitution; Morton, Albert C.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Roads; Town development; Weather; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Your aff. husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: February 13, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego further expressed his disappointment that his wife did not plan to travel to the Territory with him that spring. The change in plans did not seem to disrupt those of the Smith brothers, Trego's companions, as they planned to gather their own families. Trego supposed he would stay behind and conduct business at the mill and perhaps enter the market for land sales. The mill's shelter had successfully been erected the day before, so their production would not not be so dependent on the weather conditions.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Land sales; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Missouri River; Real estate investment; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Weather; Women


Letter, John Vansickle and John Peters to Dear Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: March 3, 1858
John Vansickle and John Peters wrote from Bourbon County regarding their recent experiences in Kansas Territory. Vansickle discussed the "Kansas trubels" [sic] and described the chaotic situation of the area, full of armed free state and proslavery men acting in the name of politics but stealing horses and robbing homes. He added that men were not safe at home, though he intended to stay in K.T. until forced out. Vansickle also referred to a coming March 9 election which would select delegated to the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Militia; Skirmishing; Vansickle, John H.; Weather


Letter, J. [John] S. [Stillman] Brown to Dear Willie
Authors: Brown, John S.
Date: June 13, 1858
This letter, written from Lawrence by John Stillman Brown, was addressed to his son William, who was studying at Phillips Exeter Academy. The letter included information about their local church meetings and the talk surrounding the murder of Gaius Jenkins. Brown also mentioned a sermon he preached, which outlined the beliefs of the Unitarians. He admonished his son to immerse himself in the Scriptures, and to stop drinking tea and other stimulants. The letter concluded with a discussion of politics, particularly the Lecompton and Leavenworth Constitutions.

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Churches; Community life; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitution; Lecompton Constitution; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Unitarian churches; Weather


Letter, Ms. Maria Felt to Dear Mr. [Thomas W.] Higginson
Authors: Felt, Maria
Date: June 25, 1858
Miss Felt wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson, telling of her journey from Clinton, Massachusetts to Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Apparently, she was emigrating to Kansas in order to teach school. Miss Felt and her party traveled by train until they reached Alton, Illinois, where they took a steamer along the Mississippi to St. Louis. From there they traveled to Jefferson City and finally reached Leavenworth, Kansas Territory. At that point they traveled to Lawrence by stagecoach and Indian canoe. Once she had arrived in Lawrence, which she found to be a pretty town, she became acquainted with James Redpath, R. J. Hinton, Samuel Tappan, and George Stearns. She also called on Ephraim Nute, but she disliked both him and his wife, writing that they "sat up like two icicles." This letter appears to have been edited at some later date.

Keywords: Felt, Maria; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Railroads; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Schools; St. Louis, Missouri; Stagecoaches; Steamboats; Transportation; Travel; Water transportation; Weather; Women


Letter, Ellen D. Goodnow to My Dear Husband [Isaac Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, Ellen
Date: July 25, 1858
Ellen Goodnow wrote from Manhattan, Kansas Territory, to her husband, Isaac, while he was traveling. She included news of recent heavy rains, which had washed out bridges and roads, slowing travel and mail delivery. However, the crops were prospering as a result. Goodnow also described much illness and fever in the area, herself included. She closed the letter with a recipe for shaving soap.

Keywords: Crops; Daily life; Domestics; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Illness; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Recipes; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, Chas. Chadwick to Mr. H Hill
Authors: Chadwick, Charles
Date: August 24, 1858
Charles Chadwick wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, regarding economic conditions in town. Chadwick asked that Hill promptly pay his debt to Abelard Guthrie, a fellow Quindaro investor, who was on the brink of bankruptcy. He added that Clinton County, Missouri, had voted not to invest in the Parkville and Grand River Railroad that fall, which had damaged the possibility for a boom in economic activity for the coming fall. Chadwick reported that heavy rains had hindered transportation on local rivers, but was optimistic that October might bring some money to the town through land sales. No news had been heard from Causin, the Washington attorney who was assisting Hill to retain some disputed lands.

Keywords: Causin, Nathanial Pope; Chadwick, Charles; Economic conditions; Hill, Hiram; Land sales; Money; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad companies; Railroads economic aspects; Railroads finance; Real estate investment; Water transportation; Weather; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. J. I. [John J. Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: October 24, 1858
After nearly two weeks in the territory, Ingalls was somewhat more optimistic about his prospects, and in this letter to his father, Elias Ingalls, John Ingalls wrote of the gold rush and his legal business, which "opens very well." but he was still weary of "social conditions," as there were no churches in Sumner and "a total disregard of the Sabbath." Atchison, where he had gone in a futile search for an Episcopal Church, was little better in this regard.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Churches; Community life; Courts; Free state settlers; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Lawsuits; Pikes Peak gold rush; Religion; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, W. T. Sherman to H. E. Ring
Authors: Sherman, William T. ((William Tecumseh), 1820-1891
Date: November 1, 1858
Thomas Ewing, Jr.'s law partner and brother-in-law, W.T. Sherman, who would gain military fame and glory as a general during the Civil War, wrote from Leavenworth to H.E. Ring in Dover, Tenn., regarding land and other prospects in Kansas. "Near this city now containing 1000 people," wrote Sherman, that land prices were high ranging about $100 an acre down to $4 or $5." Sherman offered to help this "old school mate" locate in Kansas if he so desired, but he advised that he would not do so unless his health was good and if he were prospering back home, "as there are many here seeking places. The climate too is not so genial as that of Tennessee."

Keywords: Dover, Tennessee; Land acquisition; Land sales; Land speculation; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ring, H. E.; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; Tennessee; Weather


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: November 21, 1858
Much of this interesting letter, dated November 21, 1858, from Sumner, describes the Ingalls law practice and the nature of a "frontier" court proceedings that often attracted "nearly all the population." According to Ingalls, "the chief difficulty arising [in the courts came] from the conflict of the two Codes, adopted by two hostile legislatures, each of which had adherents who call the other 'bogus.'" Ingalls also discussed the business of land sales, as something many successfully combine with the practice of law.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Coal; Courts; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Land sales; Lawyers; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Pikes Peak gold rush; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Thanksgiving Day; Weather


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: December 2, 1858
Ingalls opened this letter with comments on the weather ("the fine days are so beautiful as to compensate for a large amount of ambiguous weather"), problems with shipping freight, and mention of various items of clothing he had received from the family, but he gave considerable attention to the city of Atchison, its newspaper (Freedom's Champion) and its growth. Sumner compared favorably, as to future prospects, in Ingalls's estimation, with the location of future railroads the key to success. He also encouraged his father to make a spring visit so he could assess for himself "the opportunities for business and the prospects of progress" in this "most important party of the continent."

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Business enterprises; Clothing and dress; Freedom's Champion; Freight and freightage; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Newspapers - Free State; Newspapers - Pro-slavery; Railroads; Squatter Sovereign; Weather


Letter, John James Ingalls to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: December 10, 1858
On the letter head of the "Sumner Company," Ingalls wrote of the activities of the town company, including its "large distribution of lots," the "drafting" of a city charter, and efforts to make Sumner the starting point for "the Salt Lake Mails and Govt. Trains."

Keywords: Freight and freightage; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Town companies; Town development; Town lots; Town site speculation; Weather


Letter, John Vansickle to Dear Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: December 11, 1858
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County regarding his business selling goods, which was "on the gaining hand" since he was the only merchant from the "river clear to the state line." There had been three inches of snow, he said, but the temperature had not yet reached zero. Vansickle again invited the recipient of this letter to visit him in the spring.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Business enterprises; Merchandise; Merchants; Prices; Vansickle, John H.; Weather; Xenia, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: January 26, 1859
From Lawrence, January 26, 1859, Ingalls began this letter with a description of the territory's pleasant weather, but focused on the activities of the legislature and the status of slavery in Kansas. He was serving as clerk of the "Senate," while looking after Sumner affairs.

Keywords: African Americans; Boundaries - Kansas Territory; Civil rights; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Territorial government; Weather


Letter, John James Ingalls to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: February 11, 1859
In this brief letter from the Senate Chamber, Lawrence, Kansas, February 11, 1859, Ingalls writes about the bill abolishing slavery in Kansas Territory; it was passed too late to give the legislature a chance to override an almost certain veto by Governor Medary. The bill only passed after a "spirited and angry debate."

Keywords: Civil rights; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: June 8, 1859
From Cleveland, Ohio, Kagi jokingly wrote his sister that in the absence of any letters from the family, he had feared they had set off for "Pikes Peak, and had died of suffering on the route, as others have." Kagi expected to leave in order to take up his "business in earnest" shortly--that is, to implement Brown's plan and move on Harpers Ferry.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Crops; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Kagi, John Henry; Pikes Peak gold rush; Weather


Book, Gunn's Map and Handbook of Kansas and the Gold Mines
Authors: Gunn, O.B. (Otis Berthoude, 1828-1901)
Date: 1859
This book by O.B. Gunn, a civil engineer in Wyandotte, provides basic information about Kansas Territory and the living conditions there. The first half outlines statistics about the population, climate, crops, telegraph access, etc. for the use of potential settlers. The second half describes routes to gold mines in Western Kansas Territory and advises the best travel seasons and provisions necessary to make the journey. Includes more than 20 pages of business and trade advertisements, including Gunn's own advertisement on p. 57.

Keywords: Crops; Daily life; Gold mines and mining; Gunn, O.B. (Otis Berthoude, 1828-1901); Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land claims; Mining; Native Americans; Pikes Peak gold rush; Railroads; Settlement; Telegraph; Weather; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. H. Vansickle to Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: August 17, 1860
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County regarding the dry weather and economic conditions that were causing a mass emigration out of Kansas Territory. Settlers in Kansas during 1860 were suffering during a particularly severe drought.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Droughts; Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Vansickle, John H.; Weather; Xenia, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: August 21, 1860
The biggest share of this 8-page letter is devoted to comments on the weather and the environment, in and around Atchison, where Ingalls now had a law practice (for a time, he continued to live in Sumner). He missed some aspects of "Massachusetts weather," but overall he thought Kansas superior: "I have not had a cold in six months and but one or two since I came here . . . [and] The attacks of melancholy and despondency to which I was once a prey have also almost entirely disappeared." Ingalls also wrote of two arson fires--"a large grocery house" and "the steamer Hesperian," and the expected fate of the suspect then in custody.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Fires; Health; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Judicial system (see Courts); Lynch, Judge; Massachusetts; Steamboats; Vigilance committees; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: January 27, 1861
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote to Mary from Chicago, Illinois, one stop along his journey to Washington, D. C. where he would lobby Congress for assistance with the Atchison and Topeka Railroad. He gave details of his journey and mentioned several people he had or planned to visit en route to Washington. Kansas Territory was suffering an especially severe winter.

Keywords: Chicago, Illinois; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Washington, D.C.; Weather


Letter, [Mary Holliday] to Dear H [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Mary
Date: February 2, 1861
Mary Holliday wrote from Topeka to her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday, in Washington, D. C. She described farm and financial difficulties, especially her frustration with John, an incompetent hired hand. She also considered releasing her "girl" to save money and taking in Sister Tite as an unpaid but potentially helpful guest. Mary requested instructions concerning lumber, asked for seeds and carpets, and mentioned local happenings. She hoped that the statehood of Kansas would encourage Cyrus to return quickly. The letter has no signature.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Household activities; Livestock; Servants; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Topeka, Kansas; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 8, 1861
Cyrus K. Holliday, president of the Atchison and Topeka Rail Road Company, visited Washington D. C. in February of 1861 for the purpose of obtaining a land grant from Congress. Cyrus wrote to his wife, Mary Holliday, who remained in Topeka, Kansas (Kansas Territory became a state shortly after he left, on January 29) with their two children, Lillie and Charlie. He described the weather and mentioned hearing Maryland congressman Henry Winter Davis speak. He expressed concern about financial difficulties, famine, and harsh weather in Kansas.

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Kansas Legislature; Railroad land grants; Topeka, Kansas; Washington, D.C.; Weather


Pamphlet," A Colony for an Indian Reserve in Kansas"
Authors: Hutchinson, Clinton Carter
Date: 1863
This pamphlet, written by Clinton Carter Hutchinson, U.S. Indian Agent of Ottawa Creek, Franklin County, Kansas, contains a brief history of the Ottawa Indian tribe (after contact with white settlers) and describes the land allotted to them in a treaty of June 24, 1862, which opened a portion of their land reserve to public sales. The remainder of the pamphlet serves as a type of almanac, advising potential settlers of the Kansas frontier lifestyle, what provisions are available or recommended, and what types of people and professions are desirable.

Keywords: Daily life; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Indian agents; Land acquisition; Land grants; Native Americans; Natural resources; Ottawa Indians; Timber; Treaties; Weather


Narrative, Account of the Life of Fredrick Brown
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: c. 1857
In this undated document, Samuel Adair related significant events in the life of Frederick Brown, one of John Brown's five sons. Frederick, alongside his father, participated in the Pottawatomie Massacre and other raids against proslavery supporters in Kansas Territory until his roadside murder by Martin White in August of 1856. This document also contains part of a letter to the Rev. S. S. Jocelyn recounting the winter's hardships.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state constitutions; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Violence; Violent deaths; Weather; White, Martin


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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