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77 results for Violence:
Surveying Equipment
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1845-1855
Albert D. Searl used this equipment to survey Kansas Territory town sites in 1854. Lawrence was surveyed on Sept. 25th and Topeka on Dec. 20th. Searl's efforts to set town limits for free-staters in Lawrence were met with violence from pro-slavery forces nearby. Searl would later survey Manhattan, Osawatomie, Burlington, & El Dorado.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Skirmishing; Surveyors; Topeka, Kansas; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Walker Shotgun
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1854
Shotgun of Captain Samuel Walker, brought by him to Kansas in June, 1854, and used in the Battle of Fort Titus.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Guns; Objects; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns)


Pro-slavery Banner
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
This flag was created by pro-slavery Missourians who captured Free State supporter Reverend Pardee Butler of Atchison in April 1855. The pro-slavery men sent Butler adrift on a raft down the turbulent Missouri River with this flag flying from it. The Missourians wanted others to know that the minister had helped slaves escape. Although he was expected to drown, Butler survived.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Butler, Rev. Pardee; Butler, Rev. Pardee; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Flags and banners; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Missourians; Objects; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Slavery; Underground railroad; Violence


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: July 29, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote letters from several cities to his wife, Mary Holliday, after leaving their home at Meadville, Pennsylvania to return to business at Topeka, Kansas Territory. Once in Lawrence, K. T., he reported the political situation to his wife. Governor Andrew H. Reeder, who expected violence, and the fraudulently elected Territorial Legislature were at loggerheads. (Holliday had been elected to the Legislature in a reelection called by Governor Reeder during Holliday's absence, but the reelection results were rejected by the Legislature.) Holliday also mentioned the good corn crop and warm weather and expressed his love for his wife and daughter, Lillie, born March 18.

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence; Weather


Letter, E. Nute, Jr. to Rev. E. E. Hale
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: October 3, 1855
Ephraim Nute, a Unitarian minister writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Edward Everett Hale, described the natural environment, economic developments, politics, religious affairs, and daily life in Kansas Territory. Nute commented on the need for more saw mills, efforts to construct a church, prospects for "free-thinking Christianity," and the possibility of armed conflict in the territory.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Churches; Construction; Daily life; Economic development; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Houses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Sawmills; Timber; Unitarian churches; Violence


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Wife
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: November 31, 1855
Hiram Hill wrote from Lexi[ng]ton, Missouri to his wife in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts on his way to Lawrence, Kansas Territory. The low river had forced him and other steamboat passengers to come ashore 25 miles short of Lexington. Once there, he heard rumors of war, reporting that Missourians "all armed to the teeth" were entering the Territory. Hill was sick and wished to turn back, but fellow travelers Mr. Whitney and Judge Johnson planned to continue. Hill included a brief message for his adopted son, Arthur.

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Religion; Sickness (see Illness); Steamboats; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 6, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote briefly from Free State Headquarters in Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, describing the number and location of surrounding Proslavery forces and of Free State forces gathered in Lawrence. Cyrus had been working for peace, but was prepared to fight in a shortly expected attack.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 7, 1855
Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts en route to Kansas City and ultimately to Lawrence, Kansas Territory, wrote from Richmond, Missouri to his brother. He relayed the murder of an unnamed free state man (likely Charles W. Dow), the gathering of 1,100 free state and 800 proslavery men at Lawrence, and other Wakarusa War events. Hill, a free state supporter, felt that the information he received from Missourians was inaccurate or exaggerated. He doubted reports that 60 proslavery men had been killed at Lawrence, or of abolitionists driving proslavery settlers from their homes. Hill reported the arrests of free state men including Judge Johnson and General Pomeroy, who he heard had escaped.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Cannons; Dow, Charles W.; Free state perspective; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery perspective; Sharps rifles; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, [Hiram Hill] to Dear Wife
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 8, 1855 - December 9, 1855
Hiram Hill wrote from Westport, Missouri to his wife as he received new information concerning the Wakarusa War at Lawrence. Hill was frustrated by these reports, which conflicted and were from the proslavery perspective, and which concerned the number of free state and proslavery soldiers, the status of the war, and government action taken to prevent conflict. Hill was also troubled by shameless "traveling and drinking and swearing" and gunshots on the Sabbath. The last page of the letter expresses his relief at news of peace in Lawrence, where he would learn "the other syde of the story" upon arrival. The murder of Thomas W. Barber, who rode outside Lawrence and was shot by a proslavery supporter on December 6th, was mentioned. Hill also described an eventful stagecoach journey.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Cannons; Daily life; Free state militia; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery perspective; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Stagecoaches; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, S. C. P. [Samuel Clarke Pomeroy] to Dr. [Thomas H.] Webb
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: December 19, 1855
Samuel Pomeroy, writing from Boonville, Missouri, to Dr. Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, described a dinner he attended in Lexington, Missouri with pro-slavery Missourians who had participated in the Wakarusa War. Pomeroy expressed the opinion that the Missourians drank too much alcohol but he reported that he had been allowed to express his anti-slavery views to the group. Pomeroy indicated that the Missourians were particularly upset with Governor Wilson Shannon's intervention in the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Missouri; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery perspective; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Pamphlet, Miscellaneous State Legislative Resolutions
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855-1856
Includes Resolutions from various State Legislatures concerning the extension of slavery into Kansas Territory, disturbances in Kansas Territory, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the admission of Kansas into the Union as a state.

Keywords: Iowa; Kansas Nebraska Act; Legal documents; Maine; Massachusetts; National politics; New Hampshire; Ohio; Rhode Island; Slavery; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Texas; Violence


Portrait, Andrew H. Reeder
Authors: Hall, Cyrenius
Date: 1855
Portrait of Andrew H. Reeder, first territorial governor. In 1855 Reeder was removed from office by President Pierce and was forced to leave Kansas when threatened by a pro-slavery grand jury. He escaped with the help of Thomas and Julia Stinson, who dressed him in women's clothing. Later, Reeder disguised himself as a woodcutter (as depicted in this painting) and escaped via a steamer on the Missouri River. Artist Cyrenius Hall painted this portrait in 1880.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Stinson, Julia; Stinson, Thomas N.; Violence


Manuscript Volume, Items of 1856
Authors: Hanway, James
Date: 1856
This little journal/ledger contained a five-page account of the May 24, 1856, killings on Pottawatomie Creek, apparently written by James Hanway shortly after the incident. He mentioned the five victims by name and wrote: "The settlement is plunged into a perfect commotion. A meeting of the settlers was held on the 26th and they mutually agreed to protect each other from foreign or internal foes. All men of real good sense, condemned these midnight assassinations and also the killing of men who are attending to their concerns". This was a somewhat different perspective of the situation than expressed by Hanway in his 1860 letter to James Redpath. Nevertheless, the responsibility for "all such blood tragedies" is with the pro-slave men.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Doyle, James P.; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Hanway, James; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Proslavery activities; Violence; Violent deaths; Wilkinson, Allen


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 26, 1856
Marcus Parrot wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus, on a political trip to discuss the 'Kansas Question" with members of the U.S. Congress, told him that the "dead-lock in the House has paralyzed [Washington] society" and that social engagements had been "quiet". He wrote Edwin of his surprise to hear an abolitionist speech as a Sunday sermon, and of his desire to speak with Tom Hendricks, Commissioner of the Land Office, regarding the prospective decline in availability of land warrants.

Keywords: Hendricks, Thomas A.; Kansas question; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Real estate investment; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shoemaker, Tom C.; Violence


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: February 9, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott. Marcus described the events of his ride home from a business meeting in Lawrence, where he encountered a funeral procession for his friend T. C. Shoemaker, who had been beaten to death for "abusing" Mayor William E. Murphy. Marcus equated this murder to the assault on William Phillips in May 1855, and anticipated that there would only be a "so-called" trial for the men responsible. He also told his brother to be prepared to come to Kansas Territory in April.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Land claim disputes; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Murphey, William E; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, [unknown] to Hiram Hill
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 30, 1856
The author of this letter, possibly C. A. Wright, wrote to Hiram Hill from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He discussed continuing speculation efforts in Lawrence, but particular ones were becoming rife with politics. Also mentioned is the recent completion of the Free State Hotel, which would help ease the recent emigration rush. The author described events surrounding the shooting of Sheriff Samuel Jones "by an unknown hand". The shooting followed the issuing of arrest warrants for George Deitzler, Gaius Jenkins, and others, for their failure to assist with the arrest of S. N. Wood, who was charged with aiding the rescue of a free state man from prison the past November.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Emigration and immigration; Free State Hotel; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Jenkins, Gaius; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Land speculation; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence; Warrants (Law); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: May 15, 1856
Expecting a clash between free state and proslavery forces at Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Cyrus K. Holliday wrote last instructions to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Despite the threat of violence, Mary was to travel to Topeka, K. T. with Mr. Nichols, where Cyrus had traded shares to Milton C. Dickey for a house. He told her of a debt to E. S. Dexter of Massachusetts and a share in Centropolis, established that year in Franklin County. While emphasizing business matters, Cyrus did not neglect to express his love.

Keywords: Centropolis, Kansas Territory; Dickey, Milton C.; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Senate Executive Documents, Reports from Colonel E.V. Sumner
Authors: Sumner, Edwin Vose
Date: May 16, 1856 - August 31, 1856
Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner, leader of a Kansas Territory cavalry regiment, corresponded primarily with Territorial Governer Wilson Shannon and the Secretary of War's Adjutant General regarding military action taken in response to the Sack of Lawrence and the subsequent retaliatory skirmishes between free state and proslavery men. Sumner maintained that safety in the Territory could not be guaranteed "unless the posse of the U.S. Marshal was dismissed" in favor of local troops. Fearing civil war, Sumner and his correspondents discussed the convening of the Topeka Legislature, which they dubbed "bogus".

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Skirmishing; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States marshals; Violence; Woodson, Daniel


"Southern Rights" flag
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 21, 1856
Pro-slavery forces carried this flag while attacking the anti-slavery stronghold of Lawrence. Sheriff Samuel Jones led the group in sacking the town on May 21, 1856. A group of South Carolinians known as the Palmetto Guards participated in the attack, and flew their "Southern Rights" flag over the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper offices and the Free State Hotel before destroying the buildings.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Flags and banners; Free State Hotel; Herald of Freedom; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Palmetto Guards; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; South Carolina; Violence


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: May 23, 1856
Written just two days after the sack of Lawrence, this letter contained Learnard's observations of and reflections on "the fearful disaster to which this unfortunate town has been subjected." The town's citizens, wrote Learnard, chose not to resist the authority of the U.S. marshal but were nevertheless brutalized by Sheriff Jones and a posse of Missourians. He also mentioned Governor Reeder, Governor Shannon and David R. Atchison, who "made a speech."

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Missourians; Proslavery support; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: June 1, 1856
Having long wished to be joined in Topeka, Kansas Territory by his wife, Mary Holliday, and daughter, Lillie, Cyrus K. Holliday instructed them not to leave Meadville, Pennsylvania, until he wrote again. Alarmed by recent killings, arrests, and home evictions of free state men, Cyrus, usually optimistic, foresaw continued unrest. He also mentioned receiving money Mary had sent. In a post script, he emphasized that their journey was necessarily, though undesirably, delayed.

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Violence


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: June 6, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, in the wake of the Sack of Lawrence. Simpson told Hill he would "not attempt to give any description of what we have gone through, and the state of affairs here. And again business is completely prostrated and nothing is doing ". He discussed briefly some of Hill's property affairs, and stated in his closure that "it is war and murder constantly", though he added in a postscript that "the free state cause never looked more promising."

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Skirmishing; Violence; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: June 6, 1856
From an embattled Lawrence, Learnard again wrote of near daily "occurrences of exciting interest," including skirmishes between the two "antagonistic parties" and actions of federal troops to "quell disturbances." The problem was with Missourians who had crossed over the border, not "actual settlers." Learnard claimed to be ready to do battle with them over the issue of "slavery or liberty in this country," and predicted that if things continued in this same direction, the entire country would soon be "embroiled in civil war."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Civil war; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Federal troops; Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Skirmishing; Slavery; Vermont; Violence


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: June 22, 1856
During a lull, Cyrus K. Holliday reported from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania that Colonel Edwin V. Sumner had forced proslavery troops back to Missouri and camped on the border. Two free state men from Wisconsin had killed proslavery supporters near Osawatomie. Governor Wilson Shannon had resigned. A "large mass convention" was planned for July 2nd and 3rd, with a meeting of the free state legislature on the 4th. Cyrus advised Mary and Mr. Nichols to wait until after the 4th to travel to the territory.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Holidays; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Daybook
Authors: Emery, James Stanley
Date: July 4, 1856 through June 19, 1857
Account book entries recorded Emery's loss of personal property as a result of July 1856 violence between free state and proslavery advocates. Emery also recorded his expenses for making repairs to his damaged law office.

Keywords: Account books; Arson; Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Fires; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lawyers; Violence


Letter, Peter Page to Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: Page, Peter
Date: July 6, 1856
Peter Page wrote from Chicago, Illinois to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, concerning the shipment of relief to free-state settlers in Kansas Territory and the emigration of settlers into Kansas. The author wrote a lengthy account of the committee's frustrated attempts to arrange suitable transportation into the territory, since the water route on the Missouri River was unsafe due to persistent harassment from border ruffians.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Chicago, Illinois; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lexington, Missouri; Missouri; Page, Peter; Violence


Speech, Gerritt Smith to the Kansas Convention
Authors: Smith, Gerrit
Date: July 10, 1856
This speech was made by Gerritt Smith to a meeting of the Kansas Convention in Buffalo, New York. In this speech, he argued in support of various resolutions related to border ruffianism in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Antislavery; Bogus legislature; Border ruffians; Kansas question; Missouri compromise; Missourians; Smith, Gerritt; Violence; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Letter, O.E. Learnard to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: July 23, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote his father, S.T. Learnard, that he was disappointed in the attitude of people in Vermont and throughout the North who continued to support the Pierce administration. If they did so because they were Democrats, they should learn from Andrew H. Reeder, J. H. Lane, William Y. Roberts, and others who had seen the light. Learnard admitted "a few cases" of free state retaliation "upon their oppressors," and then gave some "facts" about the "Patawotamie" incident, while not mentioning John Brown by name. Learnard believed that the reports about mangled bodies were untrue.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Northern Democrats; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Roberts, William Young; Vermont; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, E. S. Whitney to Dear Uncle Hiram [Hill]
Authors: Whitney, E.S.
Date: August 20, 1856
E. S. Whitney wrote from Sumner, Kansas Territory, to her uncle, Hiram Hill. Whitney apologized for the long delay in communicating with him, and explained that her husband, Thaddeus Whitney, had been very busy lately and was doing his best to complete Hill's home. She also described her experience watching the border ruffians invade Lawrence, and her friends' and neighbors' reactions to the situation. Despite the violence and uncertainty, she was "not sorry yet" that she had come to Kansas, and told Hill that her husband would write him shortly to discuss business matters.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Construction; Funerals; Hill, Hiram; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Skirmishing; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Violence; Whitney, E.S.; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Titus Sword
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Three months after the sack of Lawrence, the Free State Milita attacked the pro-slavery stronghold of Fort Titus. Free State forces were lead by Colonel James A. Harvey. Named after Colonel Henry T. Titus, a local pro-slavery commander, Fort Titus actually was a cabin located in Lecompton. After the Free State victory on August 16th, 1856, Colonel Titus surrendered this sword to Colonel Harvey.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Harvey, James A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Objects; Swords and daggers; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, [Orville] Chester [Brown] to My dear friend
Authors: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904
Date: September 2, 1856
This eloquent letter, presumably written by Orville Chester Brown, provides an example of the free state perspective on the events of 1856. It includes references to a number of key personalities and places that played a vital role during the struggle for Kansas. Brown writes that "Kansas is the scene of bloody strife," as "2000 armed men" from Missouri were rumored to have crossed into Kansas.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, Spencer; Free state perspective; Georgia; Missouri; Violence


Painting, Battle of Hickory Point
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: September 13, 1856
Painting by Samuel Reader depicting the Battle of Hickory Point. Reader, an early settler of Shawnee County, was a member of a volunteer Free State company. On September 13, 1856, General James Lane heard that proslavery men were committing outrages in the town of Grasshopper Falls (Valley Falls). Lane marched to Ozawkie and recruited Free State settlers. Shortly thereafter, he heard that the proslavery forces were at Hickory Point, north of Oskaloosa, and so redirected his men there. The proslavery forces, which included about 40 South Carolinians, were under the command of Captain H. A. Lowe. According to Reader's accounts, only one Free State man was injured, but between 5-6 proslavery men were killed when these forces collided.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Free state; Hickory Point, Battle of; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lowe, H. A.; Objects; Reader, Samuel James; South Carolina; Violence


Buffum Tombstone
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Sept. 17, 1856
Tombstone of David C. Buffum, a free-stater from Massachusetts who was killed by the pro-slavery Kickapoo Rangers on Sept. 17, 1856. Buffum was plowing a field on his farm near Lawrence when the Rangers (including Henry Titus and Sheriff Samuel Jones) stole his horse and shot him. Before he died, Buffum was heard to express the sentiments chiseled on his tombstone: "I am willing to die for the cause of Freedom in Kansas."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buffum, David C.; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state perspective; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kickapoo Rangers (militia); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Proslavery activities; Titus, Henry Theodore; Tombstones; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, J. A. Davies to Dear Friend [Thomas Wentworth] Higginson
Authors: Davies, J. A.
Date: September 27, 1856
This letter was written by a Kansas settler named J. A. Davies who was originally from Massachusetts. It was addressed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, an agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee and an ardent Northern abolitionist. The main topic of the letter was the Leavenworth municipal election on September 1, 1856 and the other "outrages" witnessed by Davies. On the date of that election, border ruffians had crossed the border and hampered the legal voters of the territory from casting their votes. The mob violence was so terrible that virtually every free state settler was driven from the town, and Mr. Hops was murdered by Mr. Fugent. Davies and his family fled to St. Louis and then left for Alton, Illinois, but he hopes to return to the territory.

Keywords: Alton, Illinois; Border ruffians; Davies, J. A.; Election fraud; Elections; Free state perspective; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; St. Louis, Missouri; Violence


Letter, W. F. M. Arny to Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 23, 1856
W. F. M. Arny, an agent of the National Kansas Committee, wrote this letter to Thaddeus Hyatt while traveling on the Missouri River. The main focus of this letter revolved around committee business and the state of affairs in Kansas. During this visit to Kansas, Arny had reorganized the Kansas Central Committee in order to increase its efficiency, and he included in this letter a revised list of its officers and members. He also wrote about his conversation with Governor Geary concerning the various volunteer companies created by free state men. The letter ends with a brief description of the suffering of the settlers, their meager diet, and their desperate need for more provisions.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Chicago, Illinois; Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Election, Presidential, 1856; Firearms; Food; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Illness; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Money; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Relief funds; Sickness (see Illness); Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John R. Everett to Kansas Central Committee
Authors: Everett, John R.
Date: November 5, 1856
This letter, written by John Everett from Osawatomie, described the wounds suffered by George Cutter the day before the battle of Osawatomie. Everett and his family had cared for Mr. Cutter for about ten weeks and desired some monetary compensation for their efforts. An annotation added in 1895 by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, demonstrated Hyatt's annoyance that this letter presented a $60 bill for services rendered. There is also another annotation from 1895 referring to Hyatt's travels in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Cutter, George; Everett, John R.; Free state militia; Herald of Freedom; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; Medicine; Money; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Sears, W. A.; Violence; Wattles, Augustus; Wounds and injuries


Complaint about seizure of Briscoe Davis's house and family in Linn County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November 18, 1856
According to an explanation written by Edward Hoogland on the outside of the document, Briscoe Davis' sister (unnamed) wrote this complaint describing the October 24, 1856 looting of Mr. Davis' house in Linn County by free state supporters led by a Captain Holmes (likely James R. Holmes, a Free State Militia captain). The seizure of Davis' home took place shortly after Governor John Geary's October 1856 visit to southeastern Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Davis, Briscoe; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Holmes, James H.; Hoogland, Edward; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery perspective; Violence


Testimonies of Nathaniel Parker, Horace L. Dunnell, Hinton S. Dunnell, Alexander MacArthur, James Hall, Jerome Hazen, and Charles Henry Caulkins
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 7, 1856
These testimonies, presumably taken down on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, include personal information about each settler, such as their age, occupation, etc., as well as their experiences in Kansas and their involvement in border warfare and skirmishes with pro-slavery settlers. Each account is descriptive and provides tremendous detail about their individual experiences. The testimonies of MacArthur, Hall, and Hazen are combined into one, with this group testimony split into two separate sections.

Keywords: Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Caulkins, Charles Henry; Cutter, Calvin M.; Dunnell, Hinton S.; Dunnell, Horace L.; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Guns; Hall, James; Harvey, James A.; Hazen, Jerome; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; MacArthur, Alexander; Missouri River; Parker, Nathaniel; Prisoners; Prisons; Proslavery activities; Skirmishing; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns); Weston, Missouri; Wounds and injuries


Experiences of R. S. Griffithe, N. W. Spicer, and J. A. Harvey
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 6, 1856
These testimonies, collected by the National Kansas Committee, record the experiences of these three settlers during the turbulent times of Bleeding Kansas. These testimonies focus on each settler's involvement in free state activities and their interaction with border ruffians. Griffithe and Spicer both served in the free state militia, and Harvey, who had commanded an emigrant train from Chicago, was the commander of a free state company.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Griffithe, R. S.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Spicer, N.W.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Topeka, Kansas; Violence


Testimony of James H. Holmes
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 8, 1856
This testimony of James Holmes is a portion of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, a collection of personal stories recorded by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Mr. Holmes had studied agricultural chemistry before entering Kansas Territory, and his initial reason for emigrating was his desire to undertake agricultural experiments. He had also intended to join with Clubbs Vegetarian Settlement, which was located on the Neosho River near the north line of the Osage Reserve. He goes into detail about the Neosho valley and its vegetation, mineral deposits, etc. The rest of his account deals with his involvement in the free state militia and his role in defending Osawatomie.

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cline, Captain; Emigration and immigration; Free state militia; Harvey, James A.; Holmes, James H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Violence


Testimonies of Samuel Nickel and Miles Morris
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 30, 1856
These testimonies, taken down by the National Kansas Committee, related the Kansas experiences of Samuel Nickel and Miles Morris, including their personal backgrounds. Nickel's claim was burned to the ground by Missourians, and he was forced to hide in the woods for fear they would take his life. The testimony of Miles Morris described his settlement on Pottawatomie Creek.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Grain; Morris, Miles; Nickel, Samuel; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Violence


Pamphlet, Defence of Kansas
Authors: Beecher, Henry Ward
Date: 1856
This pamphlet, written by an impassioned Henry Ward Beecher, spoke vehemently against permitting slavery in Kansas Territory. Beecher excerpted the "Act to punish offenses against slave property", written by the first session of the Territorial Legislature, to the free state supporter the "Bogus Legislature", citing the Act as among " the laws of armed scoundrels".

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Beecher, Henry Ward; Bogus legislature; Free state support; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Popular sovereignty; Violence


Settlers on Little Sugar Creek
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856 or 1857
This listing of the settlers along Little Sugar Creek includes information about each settler, the resources in the area, and local buildings. It also includes an account of an attack by the Missouri ruffians in which a number of men were carried off to Westport, Missouri. It was most likely compiled by John E. Stewart at the request of Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border ruffians; Churches; Free state settlers; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Missouri; Ohio; Proslavery settlers; Schools; Settlement; Timber; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; Westport, Missouri


George Clarke Desk
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Desk brought to the Kansas Territory in 1855 by George Clarke, who was a Pottwatomie Indian agent and slave holder. Clarke was a notorious proslavery leader during the border war period. He was suspected of killing a free state man, Thomas W. Barber of Lawrence in 1855. While Clarke was sitting at this desk in his Lecompton home in 1856, a shot was fired at him. He was uninjured, but the bullet put a hole in his desk. Clarke was driven out of the territory in 1858.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Clarke, George W.; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; House furnishings; Objects; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Abbott Howitzer
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Major James Burnett Abbott traveled east to raise funds and purchase arms for the free-state cause. In New York Abbott met Frederick Law Olmsted, who assisted in raising funds for the howitzer from the Ames Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts. The howitzer was taken to Lawrence, where it was captured by proslavery forces on May 21, 1856. It was recaptured at Fort Titus on August 16, 1856. Afterwards the howitzer was used in Linn County and by James H. Lane's brigade during the Civil War.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Ames Manufacturing Company; Border disputes and warfare; Cannons; Civil war; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Narrative, the Murder of Charles Dow, by Isaac Goodnow
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: 1856
This written account reports on the incidents surrounding the murder of Charles Dow, including various skirmishes and military action which followed, leading up to the Wakarusa War. Dow was a free state supporter and was murdered by Franklin Coleman, who, according to Goodnow, had turned proslavery only after coming to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dow, Charles W.; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Skirmishing; Violence; Violent deaths


Kansas Experience of George Cutter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: January 1, 1857
This reminiscence is presumably from the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, which was compiled by the National Kansas Committee under the leadership of Thaddeus Hyatt. George Cutter was with Frederick Brown shortly before the Battle of Osawatomie, and like Brown, he was wounded during an altercation with border ruffians. While he was not directly involved in this battle, this reminiscence is still a rather fascinating account.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Cutter, George; Darrach, Barstow; Everett, John R.; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Gillpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reid, John W.; Sears, W. A.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns); White, Martin; Wounds and injuries


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "Dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: January 30, 1857
From the Tribune office in Topeka, Kagi wrote his father on January 30 that he planned to leave for Ohio via Nebraska City (the safest route and also where his father resided at that time) soon, perhaps by February 15; but, apparently before he could mail that letter, on February 1 (note on back on first letter) he wrote that he would be delayed--Kagi was "shot" on Saturday, January 31, in an "affray" with Judge Rush Elmore in Tecumseh (see, Kansas Tribune, Topeka, February 2, 1857).

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Elmore, Rush; Kagi, John Henry; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; St. Louis, Missouri; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Tribune; Violence


Letter, John Doy to Friend [Thomas W.] Higginson
Authors: Doy, John
Date: February 24, 1857
John Doy wrote from Lawrence to Thomas W. Higginson, relating the struggles of his family and other matters of interest in the territory. He had to sell the last of his corn crop and his pig just to make ends meet during the winter. He also briefly mentioned the Central Committee, stating that he did not ask them for relief funds or provisions, because recently they had acted improperly towards some ladies. He also informed Higginson of an altercation at Lecompton, where Missourians shot a storekeeper named Mr. Shepard, and "Sherrard their Bully late of Virginia was shot and died in a day or two." In addition, Doy spoke of the "bogus officers" and their work in the territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Casualties; Doy, John; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas Central Committee; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Relief; Violence


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: March 3, 1857
Once again, from Topeka, Kagi wrote his father that his long planned trip to Nebraska City had to be delayed, this time because of high water on the "Kaw river" that "prohibited my crossing" and the state convention, which started in one week. On the positive side, he was still bothered by "the jarring of my head" (the blow inflicted by Elmore with his cane), his wound (gun shot) had nearly healed.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Kagi, John Henry; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Letter, Ellen Goodnow to My Dear Husband [Isaac Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, Ellen
Date: August 8, 1857
Ellen Goodnow wrote from Shannon, Kansas Territory, to her husband Isaac, who was traveling on the East Coast. In this letter, which is largely personal, Ellen Goodnow describes a frightening conflict between white settlers in the area and members of the Cheyenne Indian tribe. A neighbor had awakened her in the middle of the night to enlist men to fight alongside members of the Delaware Indians, who had also been attacked by the Cheyennes. Isaac's brother, William, had lead her to safety in Mahattan.

Keywords: Cheyenne Indians; Delaware Indians; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, William E.; Native Americans; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory; Skirmishing; Violence; Violent deaths


Henry J. Raymond, New York, NY to William Hutchinson
Authors: Raymond, Henry J.
Date: December 18, 1857
Raymond, editor of the New York Times, enclosed a statement itemizing Hutchinson's columns published in the New York Times newspaper in the fall of 1857. Raymond expressed his support for the free state cause in the "Lecompton swindle" but cautioned Hutchinson against any violence.

Keywords: Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; New York Daily Times; Raymond, Henry J.; Violence


Photograph, Marais des Cygnes Massacre
Authors: Chapin, John R.
Date: 1858
An illustration of the Marais des Cygnes Massacre in Linn County, Kansas Territory, copied from Beyond the Mississippi by Albert. D. Richardson, 1867. In May 1858, Missourians crossed the border and murdered five Free-State men. This massacre was generally viewed as the last major violent occurrence during the territorial period. The site of the massacre is now one of the Kansas State Historical Society's historic properties.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Firearms; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Massacres; Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery activities; Violence; Violent deaths


Concurrent Resolutions, New York State Senate, Relative to a Constitution for Kansas
Authors: New York State Senate
Date: January 6, 1858
This resolution proposed to support the creation, by peaceful and just electoral means, of a state constitution in the Kansas Territory. The resolution also suggested that if a constitution could be approved by the voters of the Kansas Territory, that the U. S. Congress accept the territory as a state.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Constitutions; Elections; National politics; New York; New York State Senate; Popular sovereignty; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Violence


Letter, H. P. A. Smith to General [James W. Denver]
Authors: Smith, H. P. A.
Date: May 16, 1858
H. P. A. Smith, writing from Fort Scott, Kansas Territory to Governor James W. Denver, reported that conditions were peaceful in the southeast section of the territory. Smith stated that he had accompanied a group of dragoons on an unsuccessful mission to find and arrest James Montgomery and other free state supporters who allegedly had engaged in violent activities in the area. Smith commented that in his view the "ultra Pro Slavery party" was partly responsible for the unrest in southeast Kansas Territory, but he also believed that "moderate free state" supporters should act to stop the violence.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Jayhawkers; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Proslavery perspective; Proslavery supporters; Smith, H. P. A.; United States. Army; Violence


Letter, J. Williams to Governor [James W.] Denver
Authors: Williams, J.
Date: May 16, 1858
Williams, writing from Fort Scott, Kansas Territory to Governor James W. Denver, complained about the activities of James Montgomery and "his murderers & robbers" in Bourbon County. Williams, who displayed moderate views, condemned both proslavery and free state violence and maintained that the citizens of Bourbon County simply wanted to live in peace.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Griffith, William Riley; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Proslavery perspective; Violence; Williams, J.


Letter, Geo. W. Clarke to Saml. J. Jones
Authors: Clarke, George W.
Date: June 2, 1858
George W. Clarke, writing from Fort Scott, Kansas Territory to Samuel J. Jones (Sheriff Jones), described a May 30, 1858 incident in which Deputy U.S. Marshal Samuel D. Walker attempted to arrest him as a suspect in the Marais des Cygnes Massacre. Clarke declared that he was innocent of the charges and viewed Walker's arrest warrant as a "bogus writ." Clarke initially resisted arrest but claimed that he agreed to surrender to Lieutenant Shinn of the U.S. Army to prevent violence between Fort Scott residents and Walker's men. Clarke also described the unsuccessful efforts of angry Fort Scott residents to convince Walker to arrest James Montgomery.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Clarke, George W.; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Hamelton, Charles A.; Jayhawkers; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Massacres; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Proslavery; Proslavery perspective; Proslavery supporters; United States. Army; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas


Letter, P. R. Brooks, Lawrence, K. T. to his father
Authors: Brooks, P. R.
Date: June 6, 1858
This letter described the land claim dispute between James Lane and Gaius Jenkins, which ended with Lane killing Jenkins. Brooks wrote that Jenkins was well respected, mentioned his widow and children and indicated that his funeral was well attended. He also made passing reference to the "Linn county tragedy."

Keywords: Brooks, Paul R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to Lewis Cass, Secretary of State
Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight
Date: November 19, 1858
Acting Governor Hugh S. Walsh wrote from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to Secretary of State Lewis Cass. Walsh requested permission to use $3000 remaining from funds appropriated for the August 1858 election as a means to offer rewards for the capture of James Montgomery, John Brown, and other Free State supporters allegedly engaged in violence in southeastern Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cass, Lewis, 1782-1866; Jayhawkers; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Proslavery perspective; Violence; Walsh, Hugh Sleight


Shooting of Gaius Jenkins
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 24, 1858
Newspaper clipping from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 24, 1858, describing the shooting of Gauis Jenkins by Jim Lane. The two men were claiming rights to the same portion of land. Lane shot Jenkins when he tried to get water from the well on this contested property.

Keywords: Jenkins, Gaius; Land acquisition; Land claim disputes; Land speculation; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Violence


Letter, Sene Campbell to [Capt. James] Montgomery
Authors: Campbell, Sene
Date: January 4, 1859
Sene Campbell, writing from Fort Scott, K. T. to Capt. James Montgomery, expressed her anger at Montgomery for his roll in the killing of John Little. Little was killed on December 16, 1858, at Fort Scott by a group of free state supporters led by Montgomery who had entered the town to free Benjamin Rice, a free state advocate being held prisoner. Campbell was Little's fiance.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Campbell, Sene; Casualties; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Jayhawkers; Jayhawking; Little, J. H.; Little, John; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Violence; Violent deaths; Women


Letter, S. Medary to My Dear Sir
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: January 12, 1859
Samuel Medary wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to an unknown recipient in Washington, D. C. Medary expressed his disapproval at the way the U. S. Marshall handled the "troubles" in Linn and Bourbon counties that were brought on by free-state radical James Montgomery and his men. He added that the legislature, newly in session, was difficult to work with, as there very few "reliable democrats" in it. Medary also described the legislature's debate over Montgomery's fate.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Danford, Addison; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Roberts, T.R.; Violence; Wright, John W.


Letter, [Governor] S. [Samuel] Medary to My Dear Sir [former governor James W. Denver]
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: January 13, 1859
Governor Samuel Medary, writing from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to former governor James W. Denver, reported on his successful effort to convince the Territorial House of Representatives to pass a bill establishing a special court to try James Montgomery and other free state supporters allegedly engaged in violence in southeast Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Jayhawkers; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Violence


John Brown pike
Authors: Collins and Company
Date: October 18, 1859
Pike used by slaves at the insurrection planned by John Brown at the U.S. arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia, October 18, 1859. Armed with pikes and guns, Brown's army, primarily slaves, took hostages from the community and took over the arsenal. Brown's army was overwhelmed by U.S. troops led by Colonel Robert E. Lee. Brown was tried and hanged for treason on December 2, 1859.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Collinsville, Connecticut; Courts; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Swords and daggers; United States Government; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns)


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Absalom White filed claim #246 for the loss of an arm as a result of being struck by a bullet at a battle with southerners near the H. T. Titus [probably Hency C.] home in Douglas County. The arm was subsequently amputated. The claim was not allowed on the grounds that White was "engaged in rebellion and making unwarranted attack on the person and property of a private citizen." Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Titus, Battle of; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; White, Absalom


Letter, Paul Shepherd to James Redpath
Authors: Shepherd, Paul
Date: January 3, 1860
From Dover, Michigan, Paul Shepherd--formerly of Kansas Territory--wrote Redpath to pass along "some useful information, in repect to John H. Kagi." Of most interest, perhaps is Shepherd's account of the "shoot out" at Tecumseh between Kagi and Judge Rush Elmore, who Kagi had accused of "being a prime mover in the murderous attack upon him" at Lecompton in mid-January 1857.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Border ruffians; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Moffett, Charles; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery perspective; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka boys; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Essay, Sketch of J. H. Kagi by E. R. Moffet
Authors: Moffet, E. R.
Date: March 4, 1860
Apparently written for Redpath and Hinton on March 4, 1860, this handwritten sketch of John H. Kagi is the reflection of long-time acquaintance E. R. Moffet, then of Davenport, Iowa. Moffet knew Kagi from the time the latter was two years old and became reacquainted with him in Kansas Territory. They spent time in "prison" together in October 1856, and in this somewhat odd manuscript, Moffet recreates some "Prison Scenesor Dialogue" and subsequently includes some correspondence from Kagi. Moffet recounts Kagi's second arrest, bail, and March 1857 altercation with Rush Elmore at Tecumseh.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery activities; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Tribune; Violence


Terrible Homicide
Authors: State Record
Date: April 23, 1860
Account of the homicide of U.S. marshal Leonard Arms at the hands of John Ritchie. Extra of the newspaper.

Keywords: Arms, Leonard; Casualties; Ritchie, John kills Leonard Arms; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Violence


Public Meeting! Opposing John Ritchey in his recent act of killing of Leonard Arms
Authors: Lawrence Citizens
Date: April 28, 1860
This broadside calls for Lawrence citizens to attend a public meeting to express opposition to John Ritchey's killing of U.S. Marshal Leonard Arms. The broadside included a list of 140 citizens of Lawrence and vicinity who condemned Ritchey's actions.

Keywords: Arms, Leonard; Casualties; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John kills Leonard Arms; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Violence


Letter, Henry J. Adams to William Hutchinson
Authors: Adams, Henry J.
Date: June 4, 1860
Henry Adams was in Washington D. C. as a special agent of Kansas Territory attempting to convince the U. S. Congress to pay claims for damages suffered by Kansas citizens during episodes of violence in the territory. Adams complained of not receiving enough financial support from Kansas to meet his expenses.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Damage claims; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; United States. Congress; Violence


Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Rev Thomas W Higginson
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: June 24, 1860
Samuel Tappan wrote this letter from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Thomas Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts. Tappan was leaving for Colorado in a week or two, presumably to meet some family members working the gold fields. He also mentioned Theodore Parker, a supporter of John Brown who had a terminal illness and passed away while in Italy. The Leavenworth Times had also mentioned his death, albeit briefly. Tappan also spoke of James Redpath's biography of John Brown, including a portion of the book that discussed a mail coach robbery in the summer of 1856.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Colorado; Crime; Gold mines and mining; Higginson, Charles J.; Pikes Peak gold rush; Postal service; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Violence


Letter, J. B. Hodgin to S. N. Wood
Authors: Hodgin, J. B.
Date: August 25, 1860
From Cottonwood Falls, Hodgin wrote Wood concerning the Kaws and whiskey that reportedly "supplied" to them at the Falls on August 23 and "As is generally the result, a big fight occurred" among the Indians and several were killed. Hodgin was calling for an investigation into the incident.

Keywords: Alcoholic beverages; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Cottonwood Falls, Kansas Territory; Hodgin, J. B.; Kansa Indians; Native Americans; Violence; Whiskey; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [W. R. Griffith]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: December 18, 1860
With regard to the "difficulties in Linn and Bourbon Counties," Ewing wrote William Riley Griffith of Marmaton, Bourbon County, regarding their shared belief that the Republican Party should not condone the violence perpetrated by James Montgomery and company. Ewing was hopeful that if Kansas was admitted soon, order would be restored.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state activities; Griffith, William Riley; Lincoln administration; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marmaton, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Violence


Photograph, Charles Ransford Jennison
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Probably 1861
Charles Jennison was born in New York state in 1834 and settled in Osawatomie, Kansas Territory in 1857. He was active in the free state cause and was active in free state militia company. He was credited with several raids into Bates County, Missouri, and was part of a group that captured and hanged a proslavey supporter named Russell Hinds. He was an associate of James Montgomery. During the Civil War, he was a Colonel in the 7th Kansas Cavalry.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state militia; Hinds, Russell; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Violence


Bowie Knife
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1861
Knife made in a blacksmith shop operated by James Howell near Clay, Arkansas, for the purpose of fighting Kansans. Manufactured in 1861, it was used in the Civil War battles of Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove in Arkansas, and Wilson's Creek and Price's Raid in Missouri. Abolitionists and freestaters stereotyped pro-slavery defenders as always carrying Bowie knives. Indeed, Benjamin Stringfellow advised fellow slavery supporters in 1855 to "enter every election district in Kansas . . . and vote at the point of the bowie knife and the revolver.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border disputes and warfare; Bowie knife; Civil war; Howell, James; Missouri; Objects; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Swords and daggers; Violence


Narrative, Account of the Life of Fredrick Brown
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: c. 1857
In this undated document, Samuel Adair related significant events in the life of Frederick Brown, one of John Brown's five sons. Frederick, alongside his father, participated in the Pottawatomie Massacre and other raids against proslavery supporters in Kansas Territory until his roadside murder by Martin White in August of 1856. This document also contains part of a letter to the Rev. S. S. Jocelyn recounting the winter's hardships.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state constitutions; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Violence; Violent deaths; Weather; White, Martin


Doy Rifle
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1859
Dr. John Doy used this Sharps rifle fighting border disputes in Franklin County and at Ft. Titus. In Jan. 1859, Doy was captured near Lawrence by pro-slavery Missouri forces and charged with aiding in the abduction of fugitive slaves. For six months Doy was held in a St. Joseph, MO, jail. Doy was rescued by ten of his free-state friends, lead by Major James Abbott. Engraved in the rifle's stock is the phase, "Successful Agent of the Irrepressible Conflict."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Antislavery; Border disputes and warfare; Doy, John; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Objects; Sharps rifles; St. Joseph, Missouri; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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This file was last modified September 12 2013 04:09:26 PM.