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59 results for United States. Congress:
Missouri Compromise
Authors: United States. Congress
Date: March 1, 1820
This legislation admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a non-slave state at the same time, so as not to upset the balance between slave and free states in the nation. It also outlawed slavery above the 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude line in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory. With the purchase of the Louisiana Territory and the application of Missouri for statehood, the long-standing balance between the number of slave states and the number of free states would be changed. Controversy arose within Congress over the issue of slavery. Congress adopted this legislation and admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a non-slave state at the same time, so that the balance between slave and free states in the nation would remain equal. The Missouri compromise also proposed that slavery be prohibited above the 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude line in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory. This provision held for 34 years, until it was repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The document featured here is the conference committee's report on the Missouri Compromise. Images, transcription, and document description courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration, Our Documents web site, http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=22.

Keywords: Kansas Nebraska Act; Missouri compromise; United States. Congress


Polling Book, delegate election, Wyandott nation, Nebraska Territory
Authors: Andrews, Benjamin ; Walker, William
Date: October 12, 1852
This three-page document represented the "return of votes polled at the election held in the Wyandott nation, Nebraska Territory, October 12th 1852, for a delegate to represent the aforesaid Territory in the thirty-second Congress of the United States. Abelard Guthrie, who is also on the voter roll, received all 35 votes cast. Guthrie, who married into the Wyandot tribe, was later involved in the development of Quindaro. With one or two exception--e.g.., Thomas Coon Hawk--the names on the roll appear to be Anglo-American in origin.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Congressional delegate; Election, Nebraska Territory, October 1852; Elections; Guthrie, Abelard; Native Americans; Nebraska Territory; United States. Congress; Walker, William; Wyandot Indians; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Kansas-Nebraska Act
Authors: United States. Congress
Date: May 30, 1854
Officially titled "An Act to Organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas," this act repealed the Missouri Compromise, which had outlawed slavery above the 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude in the Louisiana Territory and reopened the national struggle over slavery in the western territories. In January 1854, Senator Stephen Douglas introduced a bill that divided the land west of Missouri into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. He argued for popular sovereignty, which would allow the settlers of the new territories to decide if slavery would be legal there. Antislavery supporters were outraged because, under the terms of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, slavery would have been outlawed in both territories. After months of debate, the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed on May 30, 1854. Images and document description courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration, Our Documents web site, http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=28. Transcription courtesy of the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/avalon.htm.

Keywords: Kansas Nebraska Act; Missouri compromise; Slavery; United States. Congress; Westward expansion


Letter, J. [John] W. Whitfield to My Dear Sir [J. A. Halderman]
Authors: Whitfield, John W. (Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879
Date: February 25, 1855
John W. Whitfield was a proslave man from Tennessee who would subsequently move to Texas to fight for the Confederacy. He was a congressional delegate for Kansas Territory when he wrote this letter to J. A. Halderman from Washington, D.C., regarding pending legislation "regulating town sites." It had been difficult to build a consensus for this law, but Whitfield hoped it would pass the current session.

Keywords: Halderman, John Adams; Speculation; Town sites; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Proslavery Meeting
Authors: Tebbs, W. H.
Date: August 2, 1855
The documented summarized the proceedings of a meeting held by proslavery supporters to determine the proper time and place to hold a convention in which they would nominate a candidate to the U. S. Congress. They decided to have the convention on August 29, 1855 at the Shawnee Manual Labor School.

Keywords: Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Proslavery support; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Territorial politics; United States. Congress


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 26, 1856
Marcus Parrot wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus, on a political trip to discuss the 'Kansas Question" with members of the U.S. Congress, told him that the "dead-lock in the House has paralyzed [Washington] society" and that social engagements had been "quiet". He wrote Edwin of his surprise to hear an abolitionist speech as a Sunday sermon, and of his desire to speak with Tom Hendricks, Commissioner of the Land Office, regarding the prospective decline in availability of land warrants.

Keywords: Kansas question; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Real estate investment; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shoemaker, Tom C.; United States. Congress


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: February 11, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother Edwin Parrott in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus described his experiences mixing his social engagements with politics, having to navigate through discussions with members of different parties. He mentioned the distrust he had for certain acquaintances that were also active in the government, and seemed frustrated by his only modestly successful attempts to discuss the Kansas question with them.

Keywords: Iverson, Alfred; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Medill, William; National politics; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shoemaker, Tom C.; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, M. W. Delahay to Genl. C. Robinson, Col. J. H. Lane & Others
Authors: Delahay, Mark W.
Date: February 16, 1856
From Washington, D.C., on February 16, 1856, Mark Delahay, the Free State Party's would be representative to the 34th Congress, wrote to his free state colleagues regarding President Franklin Pierce's directive to Governor Wilson Shannon. The latter was "to arrest and punish all who may take part in the making and putting inforce any law in oposition to the Territorial laws now upon the Statute Book." Delahay warned against "the organization of an independent State Government" and wrote "we are upon the brink of a crisis of serious import." (See D.W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas, 109-110.)

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Free state government; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Pierce administration; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Journal, House of Representatives, Topeka (1856)
Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler
Date: 1856-1857
This Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Kansas was, apparently, the original record of the Free State Provisional Government of Kansas, which was organized at the Big Springs Convention September 5, 1855. Joel K. Goodin was chief clerk of the House and felt the journal was "a flat contradiction of the pro-slavery inuendo, that we were all abolitionists from Boston, Massachusetts, and hired to come to Kansas by the Emigrant Aid Society." The first two pages of the original bound journal have been scanned. The original is oversized with the pages measuring 9.5 inches wide and 14 inches high. The journal, as published in its entirety in the Kansas Historical Collections volume 13 pages 166-249, follows the two pages from the original.

Keywords: Free State Party; Free state government; Free state legislature; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Prohibition; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States. Congress; United States. Congress. House


Minutes, Free State Legislature
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 6, 1856
The minutes of the Topeka free state legislature's meeting on March 6, 1856 was published in the Kansas Daily Tribune on the next day, March 7, 1856. The Senate primarily discussed admission to the Union and whether or not the decisions of the territorial legislature should supercede those of the United States Congress. The House of Representatives discussed the national government's stance on the murder of Thomas Barber and decided to draft a document listing the grievances of the people of Kansas. The speaker of the House also announced the members of the various standing committees. Lastly, the House resolved that all laws passed by this body would become effective once Kansas entered the Union.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Reese P.; Curtiss, John; Free state legislature; Minutes; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); United States. Congress


Letter, Owen Brown to Dear Son John [Brown]
Authors: Brown, Owen , 1771-1856
Date: March 27, 1856
Owen Brown, who died at age 85 on May 8, 1856, wrote his son, John Brown, about mundane family matters, his delight at the regular arrival of letters from his son, and his faith in God. He also mentioned correspondence with Congressman J. R. Giddings and the vote in Congress to send a committee "to Kansas to investigate the situation."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Owen, 1771-1856; Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed), 1795-1864; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Religion; United States. Congress


Letter, W. Y. Roberts [&] S. C. Pomeroy to C. K. Holliday, Esq
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Roberts, William Y.
Date: June 24, 1856
William Y. Roberts and Samuel C. Pomeroy reported their activates from Willard's, a hotel popular with wealthy congressmen in Washington, D. C., to Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, Kansas Territory. They described the legislators' and President Franklin Pierce's eagerness to resolve K. T. troubles. While approving the July 4th meeting of the free state legislature, they cautioned Holliday to promote peace.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Roberts, William Young; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Samuel Whitcomb to Respected & Dear Sir [Honorable G. Smith]
Authors: Whitcomb, Samuel
Date: August 30, 1856
This letter, written in Springfield by Samuel Whitcomb, is addressed to the Honorable G. Smith of Peterborg, New York. It is a passionate piece of correspondence that discusses slavery and liberty, demonstrating the conviction of this free-soil advocate. Whitcomb also expressed his frustration that the federal government was not more supportive of the free state cause in Kansas Territory, as well as his fear that the war was destined to spread out from Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Free state cause; National politics; Pierce administration; Sectionalism (United States); United States Government; United States. Army; United States. Congress; Whitcomb, Samuel


Newspaper article, Journal of Commerce
Authors: Journal of Commerce
Date: September 22, 1856
This clipping, enclosed in a letter from A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt dated September 22, 1856, argued that the emigration sponsored by New England emigrant aid societies was "indiscreet," although not illegal. The article placed the blame for the current troubles on the free-state settlers in Kansas, stating that Missouri settlers were only responding to the provocation of anti-slavery supporters.

Keywords: Bills, legislative; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state cause; Immigrants; Kansas Nebraska Act; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Missouri; Missouri compromise; Pierce administration; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery; Topeka Constitution; United States Government; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution


Letter, A. H. Reeder to My Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: December 23, 1856
This letter by Andrew Reeder, former governor of Kansas Territory, was written from Easton, Pennsylvania, where both Reeder and Crane had lived before coming to Kansas. Reeder enclosed payment for the taxes on his Topeka lots. He also reported that he had been in Washington, D. C. lobbying for the free state cause, informing Crane of various issues being discussed in the capitol.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Congressional delegate; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Easton, Pennsylvania; Lobbying; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Report of the Special Committee Appointed to Investigate the Troubles in Kansas; With the Views of the Minority of Said Committee. Report No. 200, 34th Congress, 1st Session, 1856.
Authors: United States. Congress
Date: 1856
An extensive report, giving majority and minority views of activities in Kansas during 1855 and 1856. The digitized version of the report is available at the University of Michigan Library's Making of America web site.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Congressional Report 200 (see also Howard Committee); Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); United States. Congress


Letter, Marcus J. Parrott to H. Miles Moore
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 12, 1857
Parrott, the representative of Kansas Territory to the U.S. Congress, wrote to Moore from Washington offering his assessment of the upcoming session of Congress. Parrott predicted that the Congress would reject the Lecompton Constitution. He also offered Moore, a Free State advocate recently elected to the Kansas Territorial House of Representatives, advice on activities to pursue in the Territorial Legislature.

Keywords: Constitutions; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; United States. Congress


Letter, J. [John] W. Whitfield to Dear [John A.] Halderman
Authors: Whitfield, John W. (Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879
Date: February 1, 1857
John W. Whitfield, the Kansas Territory's delegate to Congress to March 3, 1857, wrote to Halderman from "Washington City" regarding the "H__l of a fight" they had had "over Lecompte." (Samuel D. Lecompte, chief justice of the KT from December 1854 to March 1859; President Pierce had appointed James O. Harrison to replace Lecompte in December 1856, but Congress refused to confirm him.) Whitfield thought it likely that it would be left to "Old Buck" (President elect James Buchanan) to settle things. He also wrote concerning his own political prospects and what he was accomplishing for Kansas (e.g. railroad legislation).

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Chief justice; Harrison, James O.; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Pacific railroads; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Letter, M. [Martin] F. Conway to F. [Franklin] B. Sanborn
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: November 16, 1857
Shortly before he was to leave Washington, D.C., for a return trip to the territory, Conway wrote Sanborn in Concord, Mass., about his disappointment at again being separated from his wife and child, but he focused most of his comments on the Lecompton machinations and his continued belief that the Free State Party had be wrong to participate in the territorial election (thus giving that government legitimacy).

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Free State Party; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Slavery; United States. Congress


Letter, Geo. S. Boutwell to "My dear Sir" [Governor Salmon P. Chase]
Authors: Boutwell, George S.
Date: November 24, 1857
George Boutwell of Indianapolis, Indiana, wrote the governor of Ohio, Salmon P. Chase, regarding the forthcoming vote on the Lecompton Constitution--for the constitution with or without slavery. Boutwell explained why he believed the best alternative for Kansas free staters was to "abstain from voting." He asked Chase to encourage his Kansas friends to follow this course. (Chase likely forwarded this letter to Robinson.)

Keywords: Boutwell, George S.; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Columbus, Ohio; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Free state cause; Lecompton Constitution; Slavery; United States. Congress


Letter, [U. S. Senator] H. Wilson to "Dear [Charles] Robinson"
Authors: Wilson, Henry , 1812-1875
Date: November 26, 1857
U.S. Senator Henry Wilson (1812-1875), a Republican from Massachusetts who was to become vice president of the United States in 1873, wrote Robinson from his home in Natick, Mass., regarding the Lecompton controversy. Robinson apparently had written for "advise" and Wilson simply wrote "you must look well to the position of matters and act as seems to you best." He did not believe it could pass the Congress "but if it is adopted do not fail to elect your state officers under it. Get the power if you can. . . ."

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Lecompton Constitution; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; United States. Congress. Senate; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875


Letter, Gaius Jenkins to Gov. [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Jenkins, Gaius
Date: November 29, 1857
From Washington, D.C., Gaius Jenkins, the man who would be shot and killed by Jim Lane on June 3, 1858, wrote Robinson regarding an business/investment issue (apparently a Wyandotte Float, perhaps involving the Quindaro land investment) of theirs before Congress, but devoted most of his letter to "the Kansas question" and "that bogus [Lecompton] constitution. Former K.T. Governor Robert J. Walker, who Jenkins "called on" in D.C., branded it "the most damnable absurdity and rong [sic] that he had ever known committed in a Republican government. . . ."

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Jenkins, Gaius; Kansas question; Lecompton Constitution; Quindaro Town Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Washington, D.C.; Wyandot Float


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dr Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: December 10, 1857
Marcus Parrott wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother, Edwin Parrott, regarding recent dramatic political events. Marcus referred to Democrat Stephen Douglas' "breaking" with President Buchanan. Both men supported popular sovereignty in Kansas, as well as the solidarity of the Union. However, the President, unwilling to override the work of what he considered a legitimate Lecompton Constitutional Convention or to cancel a local election result, asked Congress to approve the Lecompton Constitution, make Kansas momentarily a slave state, and thus enable the people there to make any new constitution they wished. But Douglas, outraged by such a distortion of his vision of popular sovereignty , broke with Buchanan and joined with the Republicans to defeat the admission of Kansas.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; National politics; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; United States. Congress; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: December 20, 1857
Marcus Parrott wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio, regarding Congress' apparent lack of efficiency, acting as a "circumlocution office", in which little is accomplished in the way of policy-making towards resolution of the Kansas question. Marcus described his private interview with President Buchanan, who did not seem to impress him, and mentioned that the President's party [Democratic] seemed to be "thinning" in the South.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Davis, Jefferson; Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Rush Elmore to James Stallworth
Authors: Elmore, Rush
Date: January 11, 1858
From Lecompton, Rush Elmore, an associate justice of the territorial supreme court, a leading delegate at the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, and a slave holder, wrote this letter of introduction for Halderman to "hand" the Hon. James A. Stallworth, a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Elmore's home state of Alabama. Halderman was apparently making a trip to Washington, D.C., and Elmore asked the Congressman to show him every courtesy. Elmore called his "friend" Halderman "a gentleman of some prominence not only in his county but throughout the Territory," and wrote "You will be able to learn many important & interesting facts in relation to the Territory and its Political parties from him."

Keywords: Alabama; Democratic Party (U.S.); Elmore, Rush; Halderman, John Adams; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Stallworth, James A.; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My dear friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: January 16, 1858
E. B. Whitman wrote Sanborn this lengthy letter from Lawrence, describing the political events that had unfolded in the territory since the October 5, 1857, election. Among many other things, he mentioned the split that took the "National democrats" out of the movement over the issue of participation in the state elections under the Lecompton Constitution, January 1857. This "Free State ticket" was, according to Whitman, "a disgrace to the cause," but it attracted a good number of votes and won "a good working majority in both houses and so our people proclaim a victory." Whitman, who had long been a faithful supporter, was seemingly losing confidence in John Brown, as were "the people."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Education; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Elections; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Herald of Freedom; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Territorial government; United States. Congress; United States. Senate; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, John [Brown, Jr.] to Dear Father [John Brown]
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: February 13, 1858
From Lindenville, Ashtabula Co., Ohio, John Jr. wrote his father on February 13, 1858, to report that he was ready to travel to Washington, D.C., if Brown wanted him to and to enlist the assistance of Marcus Parrott if needed. (It is unclear what kind of legislative business he intended to pursue there.) John Jr. closes by making what appears to be a veiled reference to the Underground Railroad in Pennsylvania and by relating his plan to move soon to North Elba.

Keywords: Ashtabula County, Ohio; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; North Elba, New York; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Underground railroad; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Lucian J. Eastin to My Dear Sir [Gov. James Denver]
Authors: Eastin, Lucian J.
Date: February 20, 1858
Lucian J. Eastin, a proslavery supporter and editor of the Herald in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, wrote to Governor James Denver praising him for his efforts and congratulating him for his successes. Eastin told Denver that he feared the Lecompton Constitution would not pass, and he referred to recent incidents of election fraud. He also requested money from Denver so that he could print Denver's recent address and proclamation to the Kansas people.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Eastin, Lucian J.; Economic conditions; Election fraud; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Newspapers; Proslavery supporters; United States. Congress


Letter, H. J. Marshall to Governor [James] Denver
Authors: Marshall, H.J.
Date: March 15, 1858
H. J. Marshall wrote from Washington, D. C. to Governor Denver regarding recent Congressional proceedings. Marshall supposed that the Lecompton Constitution would be defeated, and that the election returns of the past January 4 would be thrown out due to fraudulent activities. He also expressed the majority support for Denver's proclamation of February 26, which denied James Lane's authority to organize the territorial militia, and "show[ed] the base conduct of the same and his party of out-laws."

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Election fraud; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Marshall, H.J.; United States. Congress


Remonstrance of the Constitution Convention against the passage of the Lecompton Constitution
Authors: Winchell, James M., 1823-1877
Date: March 30, 1858
Letter written to the United States Congress which points out many reasons why Congress should not accept the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Congress (See United States. Congress); Emery, James Stanley; Foster, Charles A.; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; United States. Congress; Walden, John Morgan; Winchell, J. M.


Letter, Brad. [A. J. Bradford] to [Governor James W.] Denver
Authors: Bradford, A. G.
Date: April 1, 1858
A. G. Bradford, writing from Washington, D.C. to Governor James W. Denver, reported upon the U.S. House of Representative's passage of the Crittenden-Montgomery resolution, which proposed to resubmit the Lecompton Constitution to a vote in Kansas Territory. Bradford predicted, however, that a House-Senate conference committee would endorse the Senate's version of the Lecompton Constitution bill, which proposed the admission of Kansas as a state under the Lecompton Constitution. Bradford added that he believed both houses of Congress would agree to admit Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Bradford, A. G.; California; Crittenden, John J. (John Jordan), 1787-1863; Lecompton Constitution; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); United States. Congress


Letter, Thos. A Hendricks to Dear Sir [Gov. James W. Denver]
Authors: Hendricks, Thomas A.
Date: April 3, 1858
Thomas Hendricks wrote from Washington D. C. to Governor James Denver in Lecompton, Kansas Territory, providing his reaction to news of recent events in Kansas Territory. Hendricks referred to James Lane's duel challenge to Denver, and advised Denver to "give him a thrashing" should he have trouble with Lane again. Hendricks expressed his wish that the "Kansas question" should be resolved as soon as possible, and he speculated on the outcome of the bill in Congress which proposed the recognition of the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Brindle, William; Crittenden Amendment; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Hendricks, Thomas A.; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; National politics; United States. Congress


Letter, R. S. Stevens to J. W. Denver
Authors: Stevens, Robert S.
Date: April 3, 1858
Robert S. Stevens, writing from Washington, D.C. to Governor James W. Denver, reported upon the U.S. House of Representative's passage of the Crittenden-Montgomery resolution, which proposed to resubmit the Lecompton Constitution to a vote in Kansas Territory. While Stevens, and by implication Denver, supported the Crittenden-Montgomery resolution, he contended that it was in the Democratic Party's best interests for Kansas to be admitted under the Lecompton Constitution. Stevens also commented on his efforts to get New York Indian lands in Kansas opened to preemption.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Land sales; Lecompton Constitution; Native Americans; New York Indian Reserve; Stevens, Robert S.; United States. Congress


Address of the Constitutional Convention to American Public
Authors: Address committee. John Morgan Walden, James Fletcher, et al
Date: April 3, 1858
A committee made up of John M. Walden, James Fletcher, Thomas Ewing, Jr., Isaac T. Goodnow, Henry J. Adams, T. Dwight Thacher, and Addison Danford prepared this eleven-page manuscript "address to accompany the instrument" adopted at the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. The statement essentially laid out the philosophical foundations and rationale for the new document. It argued that the facts showed the overwhelming majority of Kansans desired admission as a free state.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Danford, Addison; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Fletcher, James; Free State Party; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Proslavery activities; Slave power; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Walden, John Morgan


Letter, E. B. Whitman to George L. Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: April 13, 1858
Whitman wrote a rather lengthy update on the Kansas situation for Stearns, focusing on the political machinations of the previous few and the uncertain situation created by the Lecompton debate. Of territorial leadership, Whitman observed: "While Kansas is blessed with many of the truest men of the age, men who are fully up to the emergency, she is also cursed with some of the most unprincipled demagogues that ever afflicted any country." There was much confusion and disagreement about the best course of action for free state men to take, now that many acknowledge the death of the Topeka movement. He then turned to the work of the Minneola/Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March 1858.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, R. S. Stevens to My Dear Sir [Governor James W. Denver]
Authors: Stevens, Robert S.
Date: April 25, 1858
Robert S. Stevens, writing from Washington, D.C. to Governor James W. Denver, reported that Congress had passed the English Bill, which essentially resubmitted the Lecompton Constitution to a vote in Kansas Territory. Stevens predicted that Kansans would vote against it and that Kansas' admission as a state would be delayed until at least 1860. Stevens commented that legislators in Washington failed to understand "the real situation in Kansas," particularly the strength of the antislavery group in the territory.

Keywords: Denver, James William, 1817-1892; English Bill; Lecompton Constitution; Popular sovereignty; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stevens, Robert S.; United States. Congress


Letter, Galusha A. Grow to Gov. C. Robinson
Authors: Grow, Galusha Aaron
Date: May 5, 1858
Congressman Galusha Aaron Grow, a Pennsylvania Republican, wrote Robinson regarding the Lecompton debate and the need to get a large free state vote against that proposed constitution. If it were "the dough faces will be exterminated next fall."

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, August 1858; English Bill; Grow, Galusha Aaron; Lecompton Constitution; Proslavery supporters; United States. Congress


Letter, [C. Robinson] to "My Dear Sir" [Henry Wilson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: May 12, 1858
This important document is reportedly a copy of a letter from Charles Robinson, Lawrence, May 12, 1858, to Massachusetts Senator Henry Wilson in which the Kansas governor expresses confidence that the Lecompton Constitution will be overwhelmingly defeated in the upcoming election and makes numerous observations about the state of politics--present and future--in Kansas. Robinson believed that half the Democrats would oppose the Lecompton instrument because they knew that freestaters would dominate any state government that would be admitted under it and subsequently "the Constitution would be changed in the 'twinkling of an eye.'" Thus, he predicted no Kansas admission until at least December 1859, and in the meantime expected Democrats to "take the lead in aiding in developing the resources of Kansas, & [the Democratic Party] will claim to be the special friends of our infant State."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, August 1858; Election, Lecompton Constitution, August 1857; English Bill; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state supporters; Journals; Lecompton Constitution; Partisan press; Press and politics; Press and propaganda; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875


Pamphlet, Report of the Committee on Federal Relations Relative to the Admission of Kansas Into the Federal Union
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1858
This pamphlet includes the Resolutions proposed by the Texas Legislature's "Committee on Federal Relations relative to the Admission of Kansas into the Federal Union", produced in response to the Congressional debate whether or not to adopt Kansas into the Union under the Lecompton Constitution. This document proposed that Kansas be adopted into statehood under the Lecompton Constitution as it was, supporting slavery or not, and have Kansans amend the document later as necessary. The intention of the Texas Legislature was to remove the Kansas question from the national platform, for they feared that Congressmen from Northern States, acting in their own interests, would never vote to adopt another proslavery territory into statehood.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Kansas question; Lecompton Constitution; National politics; Popular sovereignty; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Texas; United States. Congress; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Statement, U.S. Constitution and Slavery . . .
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 9, 1859
Letter Press Book #3 began with an alphabetical, name index to the letters that follow, but the first document therein was a statement dated April 9, 1859, composed of three principles regarding the U.S. Constitution, governance, and slavery in the territories: "1st. We hold that the constitution of the U. States does not carry slavery into the Territories . . ." The second and third points asserted the rights of the people of the territories to govern themselves.

Keywords: Popular sovereignty; Slavery; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution


Letter, H. [Henry] Wilson to Dear [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Wilson, Henry , 1812-1875
Date: August 15, 1859
The senator from Natick, Mass., wrote to express to Robinson in Lawrence his and his friend's anxiety "about your new state." Wilson believed it a mistake for Kansas to have organized the Republican Party before gaining admission to the Union, but now that that had been done, "Don't for God's sake let the Democrats carry it."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875


Letter, G. [George] W. Brown to John Halderman
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: November 1, 1859
From Lawrence, the editor of the Herald of Freedom, George W. Brown, wrote Halderman concerning the next issue of the paper which was to be "an awful one for Conway--presumably Martin F. Conway, an active free state partisan who was to be elected the first U.S. congressman to represent Kansas on December 6, 1859. Obviously, the newspaper had less impact than Brown anticipated, as J. A. Halderman, the Democratic nominee, lost decisively to Conway, 7,674 to 5,567. Brown had believed that his forthcoming issue should be widely distributed and was seeking additional orders from Halderman.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Conway, Martin Franklin; Halderman, John Adams; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Herald of Freedom; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Newspapers; Partisan press; Topeka Tribune; United States. Congress


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [Hon. John Sherman]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: December 16, 1859
Ewing wrote Republican Congressman John Sherman in Washington, D.C., to implore him not to support the appointment of William Montgomery (D., Pa.) to the Committee on Public Lands. The Pennsylvania congressman was heavily invested in Atchison and could be expected to continue to support an inequitable Public Land bill.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Land acquisition; Land speculation; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, William; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Sherman, John, 1823-1900; United States. Congress; United States. Congress. House. Committee on Public Lands; Washington, D.C.


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: January 20, 1860
Charles Robinson wrote several letters to his wife in Lawrence as he traveled East in January 1860. From the Astor House, New York, on January 20, he wrote that Congress was not yet in session and that everyone expected the Democrats to oppose Kansas admission. It was possible that Robinson could "be sent for as a witness in Harpers Ferry affair" (Congressional investigation/hearings).

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; New York; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); United States. Congress


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to A. J. Isacks
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: March 22, 1860
Ewing addressed a number of issues in this letter to former territorial Kansas attorney general Andrew J. Isacks (1854-1857), who was in Washington, D.C. presumably lobbying Congress on behalf of Kansas admission, etc., but closed with some interesting comments on Leavenworth's interest in the promotion and development of the Smoky Hill route to the Pikes Peak region. Isacks was one of Ewing's principle partners in the Leavenworth, Pawnee, & Western Railroad venture and was undoubtedly busy lobbying for a railroad land grant from Congress.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Colorado City, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Homestead law; Isacks, Andrew Jackson; Land grants; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western Railroad Company; Pikes Peak gold rush; Railroads; Smoky Hill Trail, Kansas Territory; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, M. J. Parrott to S. N. Wood
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: March 28, 1860
From Washington, D.C., the territory's delegate to Congress, Marcus J. Parrott wrote Wood about several issues, including the establishment of mail routes and railroad matters. Regarding the latter, he briefly discusses pending legislation and possible outcomes.

Keywords: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Postal service; Railroad legislation; Railroads; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Gov'r [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: March 30, 1860
In response to a letter of March 27 from Charles Robinson, Lawrence, Ewing wrote regarding the governor's forthcoming trip to Washington. Ewing mentioned several issues but was mainly concerned about the lobbying effort for the railroad bill and the future state's federal land grant.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Deitzler, George W.; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Land grants; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Times; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Railroad promotion; Railroads; Railroads finance; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Vaughan, John C.; Washington, D.C.


Resolution, Quindaro Common Council
Authors: Quindaro Common Council
Date: March 13, 1860
Date March 13, 1860, this "preamble and resolutions" discussed the current situation with regard to railroad developments and appointed Thaddeus Hyatt and Charles Robinson agents for the city to secure a land grant from the Congress to facilitate railroad construction through their town and beyond.

Keywords: Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Land grants; Missouri River; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad companies; Railroad land grants; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to S. N. Wood
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: April 17, 1860
From Washington, D.C., Pomeroy wrote to express his concern for the Woods who had just lost their "'House & Effect'" in a fire. But as consolation Pomeroy informed Wood that Kansas was "going to be admitted 'into the family of States,' this season." Then, making reference to the 1856 dispersal of the Topeka free state legislature, Pomeroy wrote: "I wonder if our State Legislature could not be called together at Topeka upon the 4th of July, to commemorate the day of our being 'dispersed' by the United States Soldiers!!" Although optimistic, Pomeroy conceded politics might still hold up admission, if the anti-Seward forces thought Kansas votes might influence the decision of the upcoming Chicago convention.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Atchison, Kansas Territory; Deitzler, George W.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Fires; Free state legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; United States. Congress


Letter, Emma Millard to Gov. [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Millard, Emma
Date: March 22, 1860
Emma Millard [the annotation of "Willard" on the document is in error] of Troy, Kansas Territory was updating her "American histories down to the present time," and wanted the governor's take on some "historical" issues. She seems to have been especially concerned with some criticism Robinson had received recently regarding some of his own congressional testimony.

Keywords: Kansas history; Millard, Emma; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress


Letter, Joseph Denison to Br. [Isaac] Goodnow
Authors: Denison, Joseph
Date: May 21, 1860
Joseph Denison wrote from Powhattan, Brown County, K.T., to Isaac Goodnow regarding issues of management of the church and college they had recently constructed. Denison had discovered that, due to the state of their treasury, some property needed to be sold in order to pay the taxes on the church lots. He also worried about the state of Bluemont College, as it had thus far only attracted 20 students.

Keywords: Bills, legislative; Bluemont Central College; Business enterprises; Churches; Denison, Joseph; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Taxation; United States. Congress; Universities and colleges; de Vivaldi, Charles F.


Letter, Henry J. Adams to William Hutchinson
Authors: Adams, Henry J.
Date: June 4, 1860
Henry Adams was in Washington D. C. as a special agent of Kansas Territory attempting to convince the U. S. Congress to pay claims for damages suffered by Kansas citizens during episodes of violence in the territory. Adams complained of not receiving enough financial support from Kansas to meet his expenses.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Damage claims; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; United States. Congress; Violence


John A. Halderman to Eds. of the Constitution
Authors: Halderman, John Adams
Date: June 6, 1860
While in Washington, D. C., Halderman followed the congressional debate regarding Kansas admission and informed the "Constitution" that Senator [Louis T.] Wigfall, a Texas firebrand, had reportedly "assailed the character of the people of Kansas Territory". Halderman regretted that, since he was not "privileged" to take the floor of either house, he could not officially denounce these "unwarranted accusations" and feared if he and others were silent they might be accepted as truth.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Halderman, John Adams; Texas; United States. Congress; United States. Congress. Senate; Washington, D.C.; Wigfall, Louis T. (Louis Trezevant), 1816-1874


Letter, R. S. Stevens to S. N. Wood
Authors: Stevens, Robert S.
Date: August 6, 1860
Writing from Lecompton, R. S. Stevens addressed an issue of grave concern to the people of Council Grove--"the Kaw Treaty," which had been taken up "the last day of the Extra or called Executive session & then ratified with certain amendments." He then explained the provisions and discussed the land survey to come.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Droughts; Huffaker, T. S.; Kansa Indians treaty; Land surveys; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Stevens, Robert S.; United States. Congress; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Parrott [Marcus J. Parrott]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: September 27, 1860
In late September 1860, Ewing wrote Marcus J. Parrott, the territory's delegate to Congress (Washington, D.C.) regarding prospective railroad legislation. Ewing thought it was time Parrott made himself "heard on this momentous question"--specifically, the focus was then on the "Vandiver bill" in Congress and the influence the Topeka (Railroad) Convention might have on congressional action.

Keywords: Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pawnee and Western Railroad; Railroad conventions; Railroads; United States. Congress


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: December 7, 1860
From Washington, D.C., December 7, 1860, Charles Robinson wrote his wife regarding the likelihood of secession and the government's response should this happen. He expected Kansas to be admitted to the Union, perhaps as soon as some of the Southern states withdrew their members from the Senate, and also believe the chances were good that Congress would authorize payment of Kansas' claims against the government for damages--such payments would provide some help for those presently in need of relief assistance.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Railroad land grants; Relief; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Secession; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; United States. Congress


Letter, Marcus J. Parrott to Isaac Goodnow
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: December 30, 1860
Marcus Parrott, Kansas Territory's delegate to Congress, wrote from Washington D.C. to Isaac Goodnow, confirming with him that he could safely count on the passage of his "College Bill" this legislative session. Goodnow, along with the other members of the Board of Trustees of Bluemont College in Manhattan, Kansas Territory, had submitted a bill to the legislature that would grant them legal title to the College and the land it occupied.

Keywords: Bills, legislative; Bluemont Central College; Business enterprises; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; United States. Congress


To the Honorable, the Senate, and House of Representatives of the United States of America
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1860
This unsigned statement was written to protest "the practice of taxing the people of the Territories for the support of a Government in which they are not represented." The residents of Kansas Territory complained that they had had no voice in how these tax dollars were appropriated, and they asked this "honorable body" to remit to them these taxes. Since this was during the drought of 1860, they declared that they would use these funds for famine relief.

Keywords: Famines; Taxation; United States. Congress


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 26, 1861
Marcus Parrott wrote from Washington, D.C. to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Ohio. Marcus began his letter berating his brother for his inconsistent correspondence; he himself, though very busy, managed to write Edwin regularly. Marcus also voiced his frustration with Congress, declaring this to be his last week as a Delegate, and predicted that both Republicans' and Democrats' stubbornness would cause the country to permanently divide. Kansas would become a state on January 29, only three days later.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Blair, Frank; Brown, Thomas; Democratic Party (U.S.); National politics; Ohio; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Secession; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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