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140 results for Topeka, Kansas Territory:
Concurrent Resolutions, Topeka Legislature, House and Senate [1858]
Authors: Free State Legislature
Date: no date
These handwritten copies of two, slightly different, concurrent resolutions were passed by the House and the Senate of the Topeka Free-State Legislature, probably in 1858. They established the legitimacy of the state government under the Topeka Constitution, and "respectfully urge[d] the Territorial Legislature, now in session, at Lawrence, to take immediate steps for removing the present forms of a territorial government, so that the legitimate government of the people may become the only government in Kansas."

Keywords: Free state government; Free state legislature; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Tom [Tho. Ewing, Jr.] to Dear Father [Hon. T. Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: 
Ewing, Jr., wrote from Leavenworth to inform his father about 915 acres of land, "near the Kaw river . . . three & a half miles north east of Topeka," that had just been purchased for him. "The land is beautiful & fertile--and is adjacent to fine bodies of timber in the Kansas Valley. The proximity of the land to Topeka (which will be the Capital, of the state) and to the rail road, which will undoubtedly be built in a few years is to be considered in estimating the value of the land." He also mentioned its proximity to the "great military road to Fort Riley."

Keywords: Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Military roads; Ozawkie, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Timber claim; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation


Surveying Equipment
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1845-1855
Albert D. Searl used this equipment to survey Kansas Territory town sites in 1854. Lawrence was surveyed on Sept. 25th and Topeka on Dec. 20th. Searl's efforts to set town limits for free-staters in Lawrence were met with violence from pro-slavery forces nearby. Searl would later survey Manhattan, Osawatomie, Burlington, & El Dorado.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Skirmishing; Surveyors; Topeka, Kansas; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Photograph, Cyrus Kurtz Holliday
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Between 1846 and 1851
Portrait of Cyrus Kurtz Holliday, Topeka, Kansas Territory. He came to Kansas Territory from Meadville, Pennsylvania. Cyrus Kurtz Holliday was the first president of the Topeka Town Association and was involved in founding and settling Topeka. He was an agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company. Holliday was very active in territorial political activities including the Topeka movement, and he was a delegate to the Topeka Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Daguerreotypes; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Association; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Cyrus Kurtz Holliday and Mary Holliday
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Between 1854 and 1857
Portrait of Cyrus Kurtz Holliday and Mary Holliday, Topeka, Kansas Territory. He came to Kansas Territory from Meadville, Pennsylvania. Cyrus Kurtz Holliday was the first president of the Topeka Town Association and was involved in founding and settling Topeka. He was an agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company. Holliday was very active in territorial political activities including the Topeka movement, and he was a delegate to the Topeka Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Daguerreotypes; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Association; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, [Cyrus Kurtz] Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 3, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, the founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He told her of his planned trip up the Kansas River, his pleasure in the people of Kansas Territory, and a Thanksgiving dinner he attended. Unwilling to return to Pennsylvania, Holliday expressed desire that Mary come to Kansas Territory and described the construction of a friend's sod-covered "mansion," one such as Clarina I. H. Nichols, a lecturer and writer, inhabited.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holidays; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Houses; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Thanksgiving Day; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 10, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from "Up the River," Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, describing the difficult living conditions for him and the other men at the future site of Topeka, where they had been visited by Governor Andrew H. Reeder. Holliday assured his wife of his health and requested that she explain to Mr. Drew Lowry and Mr. McFarland in Pennsylvania why he had not written. He praised the beauty of the country and expressed his vision of its future, ending with a request that she write to him.

Keywords: Food; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation; Town sites


Letter, [Cyrus Kurtz] Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 17, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, the founder of Topeka, wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, mentioning difficulties but emphasizing his love for her and his desire that they be reunited soon. He compared the local landscape to the Italian countryside. Uncertain as to the time of his return, he wrote that he must stay to oversee business.

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Landscape; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, [C. K. Holliday] to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 24, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. After three weeks at the future site of Topeka, Holliday was glad for city comforts. He mentioned the site's beauty, the prospect of building a house on his farm claim, and his personal success since leaving Meadville. On December 18, 1854, he had been unanimously elected President of the Topeka Town Association and appointed temporary agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. The bottom two-thirds of page 3 and 4 (which contained Holliday's signature) have been cut and removed.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Town Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town sites


Letter, [Cyrus Kurtz] Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 31, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He described living conditions in Topeka. Holliday expressed his intent to write to Mr. McFarland and his thanks for letters recently received. He mentioned Samuel Y. Lum, a Congregational minister, who was sleeping in his cabin. He also mentioned his presidency with the Topeka Town Association, agency with the New England Emigrant Aid Company, and his own business. Finally, Holliday expressed hopes of a sawmill and referred to the possibility of trouble with Missourians. A few lines have been cut and removed from the lower part of pages 7 and 8.

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lum, S. Y; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Religion; Sawmills; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Town Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, Mary [Holliday] to My Dear H [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Mary
Date: December 31, 1854
Mary Holliday wrote from Meadville, Pennsylvania to her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday at Topeka, Kansas Territory. A thoughtful review of the previous year, her letter gave thanks for protection from harm despite sorrows and calamities. Using Biblical allusions and paraphrases, she joyfully expressed hope that eternal bliss begins with a well lived life, and encouraged her husband to consider misspent time and to carry out good New Year's resolutions.

Keywords: Holidays; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; New Year; Religion; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Constitutional Convention 1855
Authors: Orr, J. W.
Date: 1855
Photograph of an illustration of the Topeka Constitutional Convention, Topeka, Kansas Territory, 1855 in session. Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 15, 1855.

Keywords: Free State Convention; Free state government; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, [Cyrus K. Holliday] to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: January 7, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. After a loving introduction, he described Kansas Territory's sunny, breezy climate. Holliday mentioned letters received from his brother and Mr. Thomas Willson, both named in previous letters, who also wanted to emigrate. He described the principle building in Topeka, which served as meeting hall, hotel, and church, and where he slept with Frye W. Giles, a free state supporter from Chicago. Holliday ended with concern for Lizzie, Mary Holliday's younger sister.

Keywords: Giles, Frye W.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Landscape; Marriage; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town settlement; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 11, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, where he had stopped on his way to visit Governor Andrew H. Reeder at the Shawnee Indian Mission. Holliday hoped to make the growing Topeka the capital of Kansas Territory. In Lawrence, a hotel keeper had died and George W. Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom, was ill. Despite mail-delaying winter storms further east, the weather continued mildly. Holliday described his financial investments and requested money for his trip to Meadville, more urgent as the birth of their first child approached.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Capitals (cities); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town settlement


Diary, Franklin L. Crane
Authors: Crane, Franklin L.
Date: February 23, 1855 - September 29, 1856
The entries pertaining to Kansas Territory began on page 18, with Franklin Crane leaving his home in Easton, Pennsylvania with his son, Franklin Jr. He described their journey to Kansas and their initial impressions and travels while in the territory. In June 1855, he returned to Easton to sell his property so he could then return to Kansas. The later entries began in September of 1856 and described tensions in Topeka with efforts to build a fort and rumors of armed Missourians in the area.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Davis County, Kansas Territory; Easton, Pennsylvania; Geary County, Kansas; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town shares; Travel; Updegraff, E.; Weather


Letter, Mary [Holliday] to My Dear H [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Mary
Date: February 26, [1855]
Mary Holliday wrote from Meadville, Pennsylvania to her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, Kansas Territory. Expecting their first child March 7 or 8, Mary delicately discussed her pregnancy. She assured C. K. Holliday of her willingness to live in rough housing with him. She hesitated to send money for his trip to Meadville, as mail delivery was slow and unreliable, and encouraged him to stay until she was able to travel if best for business and their future good. She also mentioned local mad-dog attacks.

Keywords: Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Marriage; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: March 18, 1855
Writing from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday in Meadville, Pennsylvania, Cyrus K. Holliday joyfully reported receiving a letter from her. He planned to return to Meadville by the middle of April. He encouraged their friend Mr. Ingram to consider returning to Kansas Territory, but cautioned that investing in property was like buying lottery tickets. Holliday described cold weather, with snow indoors and out, and also inquired after family members' health.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Houses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Property disputes; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, T. [Thomas] C. Wells to Dear Mother, [Sarah Elizabeth Clarke Wells]
Authors: Wells, Thomas Clarke
Date: April 1, 1855
Born and raised in Rhode Island, twenty-three-year-old Thomas C. Wells apparently was a reluctant Kansas immigrant; his initial ambivalence was reflected in his first letter from Providence, RI, March 12, 1855, where he wrote: "I may yet see it best to return [home from Boston] and not go [to Kansas] at all." This, Clarke's first letter from "the far famed Kanzas Territory," was written from Topeka, but describes the journey from the boarder via Lawrence and reported is intention to "start for Big Blue, where Mr. Goodnow is tomorrow." Part of the journey was made in the company of some well-armed Missourians "who were going to Lawrence to vote," presumably in the March 30 legislative election. All Clarke's extensive correspondence from KT (March 24, 1855 to October 19, 1860) was published in 1936 in the KHQ and is now available digitally at http://www.kshs.org/library/khq/1936/36_2_wells.htm.

Keywords: Big Blue, Kansas Territory; Border ruffians; Elections; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Page's Hotel; Shawnee Indians; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wells, Thomas Clarke; Westport, Missouri


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: April 1, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He described the Territorial Legislature election of March 30, 1855, in which he was a Representative candidate for the Fourth District (in the third election district). Missourians had taken charge of the polls, and Holliday, along with other free state Kansas Territory citizens, did not vote. He assured his wife that Kansas would be a free state. Business in growing Topeka continued to delay his return to Meadville. Holliday also alluded to the recent birth of their child and mentioned his ragged clothing.

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Free state; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Missourians; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Town Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town building (see Town development)


Account Book for the Topeka Association
Authors: Crane, Franklin L.
Date: April 23, 1855 - December 1, 1857
Franklin L. Crane was elected chairman of the board of trustees of the Topeka Association in 1856. These pages contain the association's financial accounts as well as an ongoing narrative about town association business. It describes sales and trades of lots, efforts to start businesses and cultural institutions, and the names of people involved in Topeka's early history. Interspersed throughout these accounts of association business are brief mentions of Franklin Crane's personal affairs. Select pages have been chosen from this volume.

Keywords: Account books; Burgess, H. B.; Business; Business enterprises; Businessmen; Dickey, Milton C.; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Land speculation; Oakley, Walter; Railroads design and construction; Schools; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; St. Joseph, Missouri; Surveyors; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Association; Topeka bridge; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town associations; Town development; Town lots; Willits, Jacob; Zimmerman, Israel


Education, temperance, freedom, religion in Kanzas
Authors: Beecher, Lyman , 1775-1863
Date: July 2, 1855
This letter, written by Lyman Beecher, encouraged clergymen to become life members in New England Emigrant Aid Society and to make statements about the four topics of freedom, education, temperance, and religion, as mentioned in the title. He also asked for investments in the New England Emigrant Aid Company.

Keywords: Antislavery; Baptists; Beecher, Lyman, 1775-1863; Catholic Church Missions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: July 29, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote letters from several cities to his wife, Mary Holliday, after leaving their home at Meadville, Pennsylvania to return to business at Topeka, Kansas Territory. Once in Lawrence, K. T., he reported the political situation to his wife. Governor Andrew H. Reeder, who expected violence, and the fraudulently elected Territorial Legislature were at loggerheads. (Holliday had been elected to the Legislature in a reelection called by Governor Reeder during Holliday's absence, but the reelection results were rejected by the Legislature.) Holliday also mentioned the good corn crop and warm weather and expressed his love for his wife and daughter, Lillie, born March 18.

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: August 12, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania of his journey to Kansas City to obtain a land warrant for Topeka and to attend the Free State Convention. Two of his articles had been published in The Herald of Freedom, a Lawrence newspaper, and he sent copies. Mentioning political difficulties, Holliday suggested that his wife wait until fall to travel to Kansas. He rented out his cabin in Topeka for profit. A deadly cholera epidemic at Fort Riley had ended.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free State Convention; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather; Wyandot Float


Journal. Miscellaneous Records of the Free State Executive Committee
Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler
Date: 1855-1856
This journal, compiled by Joel K. Goodin, secretary of the Executive Committee of the Topeka free-state movement, began with a statement explaining the reason the Topeka Movement formed and the call for a Mass Meeting at Big Springs, August 15, 1855. It included notes of numerous meetings, proclamations, etc. These committee records were published in their entirety in the Kansas Historical Collections Vol. 13:125-158.

Keywords: Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Goodin, Joel Kishler; Journals; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: August 24, 1855
Amos A. Lawrence wrote from Boston to James Abbott in Hartford, Connecticut, wanting to confirm his receipt of a shipment of rifles. Lawrence advised Abbott that at least half of them should be redistributed to free state forces in Topeka.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Sharps rifles; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: September 10, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, in good health, though others in Topeka were ill. He wanted Mary to join him, but when and with whom were undecided. He foresaw accepting the editorship of The Kansas Freeman, founded by Edward C. K. Garvey, and acquiring a farm. To Cyrus' disappointment, not he but Governor Reeder was nominated as the Kansas Territory delegate to Congress. He closed by inquiring after Lizzie and friends in Meadville.

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Free State Convention; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Kansas Freeman; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: September 26, 1855 - September 30, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote twelve pages from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Anxious to have her and their young daughter, Lillie, with him, and unable to come for them himself, Cyrus gave detailed business and travel instructions. He suggested that I. H. Lenhart go to New York to exchange their bonds for gold or bills from the State Bank of Missouri. Mary was to keep the money close and beware of thieves. He also gave instructions concerning route, railroads and steamboats, tickets, baggage, and escorts. Cyrus suggested that Mary travel with F. R. Foster of Spring Corners, Pennsylvania or an agent of an Express Company. Her safety and ease during the nine day journey was his main concern. (Mary and Lillie did not join Cyrus in Topeka until March 1857.)

Keywords: Bonds; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Money; Railroads; Steamboats; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Transportation; Travel


Election, location of capitol of Kansas, Topeka Convention, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 23, 1855
The Free-State government held a constitutional convention in Topeka from October 23 through November 11, 1855, and one of its actions was to vote on the capital of Kansas. According to these tally sheets, Topeka defeated Lawrence on the second ballot, 20 to 16. Numerous other towns received votes from the convention delegates on the first ballot.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state government; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: October 7, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, advised his wife in Meadville, Pennsylvania concerning travel. He restated advice from his much longer letter of September 26th. He wrote of his nomination, yet to be confirmed by vote, as a delegate to the Topeka Constitutional Convention. Holliday decided to decline the editorship of The Kansas Freeman. He expressed sympathy for Lizzie Holliday, his wife's sister, and suggested boarding when Mary Holliday and their daughter Lillie arrived, as he had not yet built a house.

Keywords: Elections; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Kansas Freeman; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Transportation; Travel


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 24, 1855
According to a copy of the 1902 cover letter written by Samuel C. Smith of Lawrence, secretary/chief clerk for the convention, this incomplete "copy of the Journal of the Topeka Constitutional Convention" was made at Lawrence in November 1855. It began with the opening of the second day's session, October 24, 1855, and continued daily, except for Sunday, October 28 and November 4, through Saturday, November 10 (the convention officially adjourned, according to Wilder, "Annals," November 11 during the very early hours of that Sunday morning). The first few pages of the journal detailed organizational matters, including the election of James H. Lane as president of the convention and the creation of standing committees.

Keywords: Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 26, 1855
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 26, 1855
On Friday, October 26, 1855, the convention conducted some routine business but also entertained a motion by Mark W. Delahay of Leavenworth: "Resolved--That this Convention, approve the principles of non intervention in the local affairs of Kansas, as enunciated by the 'Nebraska, Kansas Act,' and that this Convention recommend to the people of Kansas a strict observance of the principles laid down in said act." In other words, he opposed the creation of a provisional government to rival the federally recognized territorial government--see Delahay's speech on this subject, as reported in "Kansas Freeman," November 14, 1855. The resolution was tabled.

Keywords: Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Nebraska Act; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 26, 1855
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 26, 1855
During the afternoon session on Friday, October 26, 1855, the convention returned to the issue raised by Delahay that morning, among other more mundane matters.

Keywords: Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Freeman; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 30, 1855
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 30, 1855
During this session of the constitutional convention, delegates dealt briefly with the question of "an immediate organization of a State Government," a highly controversial issue, and considered a report on the militia. Lively debate on the latter issue seems to have followed, although not much detail is given here, with Charles Robinson offering an amendment "striking out the word white--" This presumably would have had the effect of making African Americans and Indians eligible for service, but the amendment failed seven to twenty-four.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Suffrage; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 31, 1855
During the afternoon session of Wednesday, October 31, 1855, Jim Lane presented a "Resolution which was ordered to be entered upon the Journal of the convention--said Resolution being the instructions given by the people of the 2nd Representative District" at a Lawrence meeting of October 7. The "instructions" and Lane's resolution provided that "the question of excluding Free Negroes from the Territory" be submitted to a vote of the people on the day they voted on the constitution itself.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, Afternoon Session
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: November 9, 1855
During the course of the proceedings recorded for the afternoon of November 9, 1855, discussion turned to the effort by Jim Lane to first include a provision for the "removal" of all blacks and then all "slaves" from Kansas by July 4, 1860. Charles Robinson supported an amendment which changed the effective date to July 4, 1857. All other provisions were to take effect immediately upon the adoption of the constitution.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Topeka Constitution (as printed in D.W. Wilder's Annals of Kansas (1868)).
Authors: Topeka Constitutional Convention
Date: November 11, 1855
The Topeka Constitution, the first one written for Kansas Territory, was drafted by free state supporters in reaction to contested elections that gave the proslavery party initial control of Kansas' territorial government. Free-staters gathered in convention at Lawrence on August 14 and Big Spring on September 5, 1855 and delegates assembled at Topeka on October 23, 1855, to draft a constitution. The document was approved on December 15 by a vote of 1,731 to 46. The Topeka Constitution prohibited slavery and limited suffrage to white males and "every civilized male Indian who has adopted the habits of the white man." Congress rejected this constitution and the accompanying request for Kansas to be admitted to the Union. This version of the document was published December 26, 1855 in the Kickapoo Pioneer newspaper.

Keywords: Constitutions; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Slavery; Smith, Samuel C.; Suffrage; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Topeka, Kansas Territory, 1856
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
An illustration showing Topeka, Kansas Territory, 1856. Constitution Hall is visible on the left side of the illustration.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Constitutions; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Constitution Hall, Topeka, Kansas Territory
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
An exterior view of Constitution Hall, Topeka, Kansas Territory. The Constitutional Convention met here in 1855 and the Topeka Legislature was dispersed from the building by Col. Edwin Vose Sumner in 1856.

Keywords: Illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Circular, Kansas Tribune Office
Authors: Speer & Ross
Date: January 1, 1856
This circular is an advertisement for the Kansas Tribune, a newspaper that was published in Topeka, Kansas Territory. The "sole and entire object has been the promotion of the Freedom of Kansas." The circular was inviting support from beyond Kansas and listed several reasons why such support was necessary. The publishers were apparently Speer and Ross of Topeka, Kansas. The subscription prices were listed for individuals as well as reduced prices for clubs.

Keywords: Advertisements; Community life; Free state support; Newspapers; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Speer & Ross; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: January 7, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday, reelected on the 6th for a third six-month term as president of the Topeka Town Association, wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He had been appointed to visit Washington by the Free State Executive Committee and nominated for territorial Secretary of State (losing in the January 15th election). Cyrus had received the money drafts Mary sent. He reported cold, stormy weather.

Keywords: Free state; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather


Map, Topeka Town Lots
Authors: Topeka Association
Date: c. January 1856
This hand drawn map of Topeka, Kansas was probably created by Franklin L. Crane on behalf of the Topeka Association. The accounts of the Topeka Association included elsewhere described how Crane numbered the lots to keep track of who owned which lots so the association could to sell unclaimed lots.

Keywords: Maps; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Streets; Topeka Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town lots; Town settlement


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 4, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from bitterly cold Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Fearing an attack by the Missourians on March 4th, the day the Free State Legislature was to meet in Topeka, he advised Mary to wait before traveling to K. T. with Lillie and Mrs. Nichols. Cyrus also requested northern newspapers.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Missourians; Newspapers; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 26, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday reported an uncertain peace from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. President Franklin Pierce's January 24th announcement had commanded assemblies organized against the constitutional territorial government to disperse, and whether Missourians would carry out a threatened attack at the March 4th meeting in Topeka was unknown. Cyrus hoped to visit Meadville and sent a message to Professor Hammett. He also told Mary of his commission as Brigadier General of the Free State military.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Missourians; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, House of Representatives, Topeka (1856)
Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler
Date: 1856-1857
This Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Kansas was, apparently, the original record of the Free State Provisional Government of Kansas, which was organized at the Big Springs Convention September 5, 1855. Joel K. Goodin was chief clerk of the House and felt the journal was "a flat contradiction of the pro-slavery inuendo, that we were all abolitionists from Boston, Massachusetts, and hired to come to Kansas by the Emigrant Aid Society." The first two pages of the original bound journal have been scanned. The original is oversized with the pages measuring 9.5 inches wide and 14 inches high. The journal, as published in its entirety in the Kansas Historical Collections volume 13 pages 166-249, follows the two pages from the original.

Keywords: Free State Party; Free state government; Free state legislature; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Prohibition; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States. Congress; United States. Congress. House


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: March 30, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote on a stormy day in Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Mary was finally to leave for K. T. on May 1st, provided Cyrus did not come to Meadville before she left. He suggested that she travel with Mr. Randolph, Mr. Thickstun, or Mrs. Nichols. He also requested money drafts drawn from well known banks to ease selling them.

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: May 15, 1856
Expecting a clash between free state and proslavery forces at Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Cyrus K. Holliday wrote last instructions to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Despite the threat of violence, Mary was to travel to Topeka, K. T. with Mr. Nichols, where Cyrus had traded shares to Milton C. Dickey for a house. He told her of a debt to E. S. Dexter of Massachusetts and a share in Centropolis, established that year in Franklin County. While emphasizing business matters, Cyrus did not neglect to express his love.

Keywords: Centropolis, Kansas Territory; Dickey, Milton C.; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Senate Executive Documents, Reports from Colonel E.V. Sumner
Authors: Sumner, Edwin Vose
Date: May 16, 1856 - August 31, 1856
Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner, leader of a Kansas Territory cavalry regiment, corresponded primarily with Territorial Governer Wilson Shannon and the Secretary of War's Adjutant General regarding military action taken in response to the Sack of Lawrence and the subsequent retaliatory skirmishes between free state and proslavery men. Sumner maintained that safety in the Territory could not be guaranteed "unless the posse of the U.S. Marshal was dismissed" in favor of local troops. Fearing civil war, Sumner and his correspondents discussed the convening of the Topeka Legislature, which they dubbed "bogus".

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Skirmishing; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States marshals; Violence; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, Mary Holliday to My Dear Husband [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: May 29, [1856]
Mary Holliday of Meadville, Pennsylvania assured her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, Kansas Territory, that although she had read in northern newspapers of the May 21st sack of Lawrence, she was willing to join him. If violence relented, she and Mr. Nichols planned to leave the following week. Previous to writing, Mary sent Cyrus all their money but what she would carry while traveling. Concerning their friends in Pennsylvania, she mentioned a death, an invitation, a sickness, and a success.

Keywords: Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: June 1, 1856
Having long wished to be joined in Topeka, Kansas Territory by his wife, Mary Holliday, and daughter, Lillie, Cyrus K. Holliday instructed them not to leave Meadville, Pennsylvania, until he wrote again. Alarmed by recent killings, arrests, and home evictions of free state men, Cyrus, usually optimistic, foresaw continued unrest. He also mentioned receiving money Mary had sent. In a post script, he emphasized that their journey was necessarily, though undesirably, delayed.

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Violence


Letter, Mr. [William B.] Hutchinson to Friend [Cyrus K.] Holliday
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: June 6, 1856
William B. Hutchinson of Lawrence, Kansas Territory wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, K. T., requesting support for a People's Mass Convention in Topeka on July 4. The gathering Free-Staters would be armed in case of opposition. Colonel Edwin V. Sumner had received orders on June 4th from K. T. Governor Wilson Shannon to disband unlawful military forces. The camp from which Hutchinson wrote had complied, but John W. Whitfield and his troops, camped at Bull Creek, refused. Hutchinson described northern enthusiasm to aid financially the free state cause. John H. Reeder and James H. Lane were speaking in northern states.

Keywords: Free State Convention; Free state support; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Circular, Grand Mass Convention
Authors: Topeka Council of Safety
Date: June 9, 1856
This printed circular called for a "grand mass convention" to be held by the Free State Party on July 3, 1856 to discuss the "perils of the times." It was signed by several Topekans and others involved in the free state cause.

Keywords: Burgess, H. B.; Circulars; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Farnsworth, Loring; Free State Party; Free state activities; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; McClure, W. M.; Nichols, H; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Ross, William Wallace, 1828-1889; Schuyler, Philip Church; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Thornton, Thomas G.; Topeka Council of Safety; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: June 9, 1856
Writing from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday in Meadville, Pennsylvania, Cyrus K. Holliday repeated his previous letter's instructions that neither she nor Mr. Nichols come to Kansas Territory until he wrote again. He mentioned turmoil in district courts and described the positions and numbers of Proslavery forces under General John W. Whitfield and Free-State forces. Colonel Edwin V. Sumner and his federal troops from Fort Leavenworth were attempting to maintain peace.

Keywords: Courts; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Letter, Mary Holliday to My Dear Husband [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Mary
Date: June 15, 1856
Mary Holliday wrote, deeply disappointed, from Meadville, Pennsylvania to her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday, in Topeka, Kansas Territory. Mary was prepared to leave when she received his report of continued hostilities and instructions to wait further. Mr. Nichols, Mary's would-be escort, considered leaving shortly despite the political strife in K. T. Mr. Johnson, optimistic about the Free State cause, had told Mary of Colonel Edwin V. Sumner's recent activities there. She mentioned an upcoming Mason's banquet (Cyrus had joined a lodge in Crawford, Pennsylvania on November 4, 1852) and the well-being of their daughter, Lillie.

Keywords: Free state cause; Freemasons; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Proslavery activities; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: June 16, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday of Topeka, Kansas Territory advised his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, to read northern papers for new of Kansas. He repeated that she wait to come. Troops from Fort Riley and Fort Leavenworth led by Colonel Edwin V. Sumner gathered to battle proslavery forces led by General John W. Whitfield. Cyrus also mentioned a house and crops, receiving Mary's money and, despite difficulties, he praised Kansas as a home for settlers.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Crops; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Newspapers; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: June 22, 1856
During a lull, Cyrus K. Holliday reported from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania that Colonel Edwin V. Sumner had forced proslavery troops back to Missouri and camped on the border. Two free state men from Wisconsin had killed proslavery supporters near Osawatomie. Governor Wilson Shannon had resigned. A "large mass convention" was planned for July 2nd and 3rd, with a meeting of the free state legislature on the 4th. Cyrus advised Mary and Mr. Nichols to wait until after the 4th to travel to the territory.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Holidays; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Letter, W. Y. Roberts [&] S. C. Pomeroy to C. K. Holliday, Esq
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Roberts, William Y.
Date: June 24, 1856
William Y. Roberts and Samuel C. Pomeroy reported their activates from Willard's, a hotel popular with wealthy congressmen in Washington, D. C., to Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, Kansas Territory. They described the legislators' and President Franklin Pierce's eagerness to resolve K. T. troubles. While approving the July 4th meeting of the free state legislature, they cautioned Holliday to promote peace.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Roberts, William Young; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Geo. W. Smith, et al to the Friends of Law and Order convened at Topeka
Authors: Brown, Jr., John ; Deitzler, George W.; Jenkins, Gaius ; Robinson, Charles ; Smith, George W.; Williams, Henry H.
Date: July 1, 1856
From a "camp near Lecompton," George W. Smith and the other Free State captives, including Charles Robinson and John Brown, Jr., wrote to state their views on issues facing the Topeka legislature as it convened. First, Smith and company argued that the freestaters had a "right to meet as a Legislature, complete the State organization and pass all laws necessary to the successful administration of Justice," but the assembly should not resist "Federal officer in the service of the legal process" unless they threaten the state organization. Smith, et al, believe success of the cause depended on "a right position and, second upon calm, and unflinching firmness."

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, John, Jr.; Deitzler, George W.; Federal troops; Free state cause; Free state government; Jenkins, Gaius; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States Government; Williams, Henry H.


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: July 2, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory, where hundreds of free state supporters were gathering for a Mass Convention on the 3rd and meeting of the free state legislature on the 4th, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Cyrus reported that U. S. dragoons from Fort Leavenworth and Fort Riley were camped around Topeka, since difficulty was expected. [In fact, U. S. and proslavery troops dispersed the free state legislature on the 4th.) Two companies of northern immigrants had been turned back at the Missouri River. Cyrus seemed skeptical that effective action would be taken against this outrage.

Keywords: Dragoons; Emigration and immigration; Federal troops; Free state legislature; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Constitution Hall, Topeka, Kansas Territory
Authors: Unknown
Date: 1856
Exterior view of Constitution Hall with Col. Edwin Vose Sumner dispersing the Free-State Legislature, Topeka, Kansas Territory, July 4, 1856. Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 26, 1856.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States. Army


Letter, Nelson Rusk to Wm. Barnes
Authors: Rusk, Nelson
Date: July 13, 1856
Nelson Rusk, writing from Topeka, described for William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, economic conditions and political events in Kansas. Rusk commented on the high cost of living and described in negative terms Col. Edwin V. Sumner's dispersal of the free state legislature on July 4, 1856.

Keywords: Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Cost and standard of living; Economic conditions; Free state legislature; Prices; Rusk, Nelson; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Receipt, D. A. Clayton, Jr. to G. W. Hutchinson and William Hutchinson
Authors: Clayton, D. A., Jr.
Date: July 25, 1856
D. A. Clayton, Jr., of Topeka had received and promised to deliver to G. W. and William Hutchinson of Lawrence $134.95 worth of articles: sugar, candles, pepper, mustard, cinnamon, and flour. Under Clayton's signature is a note indicating that the provisions were supplied to "Company B.," which was under the command of H. A. Burgess.

Keywords: Free state cause; Free state militia; Hutchinson, George W.; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Receipts; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, [I. Sabin] to Chad Kellogg
Authors: Sabin, I.
Date: August 8, 1856
I. Sabin wrote to Chad Kellogg regarding real-estate transactions and troubles along the Missouri-Kansas border. Sabin, the commander of a 40-man company against pro-slavery forces, described the amount of firearms needed by each fighting man and his lack of money with which to purchase them. The letter is written on a printed circular "Appeal of Kansas to the Voters of the Free States," which enumerates various offenses done to free state men, focusing particularly on the contested election of 1856.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Frederick; Buford, Jefferson; Free state perspective; Guns; Kellogg, Chad; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Popular sovereignty; Sabin, I.; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, H. [Harris] Stratton to Mr. Brown [John Brown]
Authors: Stratton, Harris
Date: August 12, 1856
In this brief note from Topeka, Harris Stratton told John Brown that "Gen Joe Cook" (Jim Lane) wanted Brown to come to Lawrence as they were expecting "a fight on Washington Creek."

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stratton, Harris; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory


Letter, Wm Morris Davis to My dear Sir [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Davis, William Morris
Date: August 29, 1856
William Morris Davis wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, Kansas Territory, although Holliday was speaking in Pennsylvania in support of Republican presidential candidate John C. Fremont. Davis praised Holliday's efforts, for he saw both Fremont's election to the presidency and the free statehood of Kansas as steps toward the end of slavery. Williard Filmore, Know-Nothing candidate, had hopeless prospects, and Democrat James Buchanan would be rejected by the masses protesting the current administration, Davis claimed. This letter uses exalted, militant, and religious language to describe territorial and national conflict. Davis also mentioned William Y. Robers (lieutenant governor under the Topeka Constitution), Burlingame, and Cobb.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Davis, William Morris; Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Philadelpia, Pennsylvania; Roberts, William Young; Slavery; Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "Dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: September 4, 1856
From Topeka, Kagi wrote his father about his (Kagi's) personal situation and more generally about the civil war in Kansas. Several thousand "armed Missourians" had been committing outrages against free state citizens with the support of proslave leaders--Wilson Shannon, Samuel Lecompte, and Daniel Woodson. Freestaters, according to Kagi, were just then mounting an effective defense of both Lawrence and Topeka, both primary targets of the proslavery forces--"the enemy are determined to 'wipe out', as they say, both these towns."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Militia; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Sirs [Alfred and Edgar Huidekoper]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: September 20, 1858
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder and prominent citizen of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote to Alfred Huidekoper and Edgar Huidekoper, old associates from Meadville, Pennsylvania, to tell them of investment opportunities. He described rural claims, Town Act investments, and loans. He gave examples of large returns, including those gained by former governor Andrew H. Reeder. The time was ripe since Kansas' free statehood seemed certain, the land was titled, securities were assured, and financial difficulties had left some land and property owners with no option but to sell sacrificially. Holliday also confirmed the discovery of gold in western Kansas Territory (now Colorado).

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Land claims; Land titles; Loans; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town lots


Receipt and memorandum concerning weapons and ammunition
Authors: Miller, Joseph C.
Date: September 27, 1856
This receipt, which provides a detailed listing of revolvers, knives, cartridges, and other weapons and ammunition, declared that these weapons were "received of Chas. Robinson." The following page is a memorandum by Preston Plumb, who writes that he received the weapons and ammunition listed on the receipt in Iowa City, Iowa "on or about the 4th of September 1856." The weapons were to be delivered to J. M. Winchell in Kansas but were to be used for the "defense of Kanzas." Several hundred weapons were involved.

Keywords: Ammunition; Border disputes and warfare; Guns; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Receipts; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns); Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Letter, R. L. Mitchell to Col. [Cyrus K.] Holliday
Authors: Mitchell, Robert L.
Date: October 12, 1856
Robert L. Mitchell wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to Cyrus K. Holliday, president of the Topeka Town Association, who was in Pennsylvania. Holliday had returned to his home state, nicknamed "Key stone," to speak on behalf of the free state cause and John C. Fremont. Mitchell requested Beecher Bibles and reported arrests of free state men, including [Carmi William] Babcock, the Lawrence postmaster. Mitchell withheld details since Holliday's name had gained notoriety in Missouri. A post script mentioned the October 6th election and discussed the upcoming trial of John Rich[ie] and Charles A. Sexton.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Beecher Bibles; Elections; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Law and Order Party; Pennsylvania; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Report of a trip to Kansas by W. F. M. Arny
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 20, 1856
William F. M. Arny was the general agent of the National Kansas Committee. He submitted this report describing the "wants and sufferings" of settlers in Kansas Territory. It included references to border ruffians, land sales, and the suffering in various districts of Kansas. He requested that aid be sent to the Kansas Central Committee.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blood, James; Border ruffians; Chicago, Illinois; Clothing and dress; Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Food; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Illness; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Martin, Samuel E. (Dr.); National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: October 27, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, having recently arrived there to participate in a Constitutional Convention. Marcus instructed him to watch the newspapers for current developments as the New York Tribune, as well as other regional papers, had reporters on site. He again suggested to his brother to come to Kansas and experience the "matchless magnificence" of his home, the proslavery faction having been conquered "finally and forever", by Marcus's words.

Keywords: Constitutional conventions; Newspapers; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Receipt Book, October - November 1856
Authors: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: October 30, 1856
This Kansas State Central Committee receipt book was one of several in which the committee recorded the various monies, provisions, clothing, etc., that were distributed throughout the territory. Many of the items of clothing were specifically listed for children (e.g., "1 girls calico dress" and "1 pair boys woolen pants"), and many items were received by individuals for distribution among the needy of their particular area.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Blood, James; Children; Clothing and dress; Free state settlers; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Kansas State Central Committee; Merchandise; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Relief; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Receipt, Lawrence, KT
Authors: Ketcham, Justus G.
Date: November 12, 1856
Itemized listing of clothing, food, and other provisions issued by the Kansas Central Committee to Dr. Samuel E. Martin for distribution "in Topeka and vicinity among the destitute."

Keywords: Kansas Central Committee; Ketcham, Justus G.; Martin, Samuel E. (Dr.); Receipts; Relief; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. K. [John Kagi] to My Dear Sisters
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: November 20, 1856
Killed during John Brown's Harpers Ferry raid in October 1859, John Henry Kagi, sometimes known as Brown's "Secretary of War," was "in prison at Lecompton" when he wrote this letter to his sister on November 20, 1856. Kagi, along with John Ritchie and several other free-state partisans, had been arrested by U.S. Marshal I.B. Donelson, supported by federal troops, on September 18 at Topeka and subsequently charged with "highway robbery." (See, Kansas Historical Collections, 4:561) Although "in prison," Kagi assured his sister that he was safe and could be rescued at anytime; "I hesitate only because we may get out some other way, and because a forcible rescue would bring on a terrible winter war, which I do not wish to see."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Donalson, Israel B.; Free state militia; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Newspapers - Free State; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Dr.
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 28, 1856
Writing from Meadville, Pennsylvania, Cyrus Holliday wrote to Franklin Crane concerning the need to make a lithograph of Topeka that could help attract emigrants during the upcoming season. He also felt that Crane was an important asset for the Topeka Association. The rest of the letter dealt with other association business.

Keywords: Bridges; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Emigration and immigration; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Migration, internal; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Association; Topeka bridge; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town promotion


Printed Letter, Lewis Bodwell to Sir and Brethren
Authors: Bodwell, Lewis
Date: 1856
Lewis Bodwell was a Congregational minister located in Topeka, Kansas Territory. He reported that his activities to organize a Congregational Church in Topeka had resulted in 24 members. Apparently, he was working under the auspices of the Home Missionary Church. He wrote that he only held one service a month in a "public hall," as it was also used by three or four other denominations. He indicated that he had preached "in the open air, in ball-rooms and bar-rooms and kitchens." He implied that there was a great need to form a permanent church to aid the congregation by having its own center of activitiy but also to take the financial burden off the Home Missionary Society. This item is undated and the years 1856 and 1860 are both written on it in pencil.

Keywords: Bodwell, Lewis; Churches; Community life; Congregational churches; Congregationalists; Missionaries; Religion; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Pile Bridge, Topeka, Kansas Territory
Authors: Worrall, Henry
Date: c. 1858
A copy of a painting showing a pile bridge in Topeka, Kansas Territory, 1857-60. Henry Worrall was the artist.

Keywords: Bridges; Bridges, pile; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Worrall, Henry


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sister"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: January 4, 185[7]
From Topeka, shortly after the end of his imprisonment, John Kagi wrote his sister in Bristol, Ohio, a mostly personal letter to say he was eager to return for a short visit, but, he wrote, "I love Kansas [???] than ever, and feel more like laboring with my whole soul's strength for the triumph of her rights."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas question; Ohio; Topeka Tribune; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Report of the Treasurer, Kansas State Central Committee
Authors: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: January 6, 1857
Dated Topeka, January 6, 1857, this document claimed to be a "report of Money & goods received and Paid out, by Treasurer." Its initial entry was for July 24, 1856, and the last October 29, 1856, and it includes the names of Charles Robinson, W. F. M. Arny, and S. W. Eldridge.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Horses; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Dr. [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: January 18, 1857
Cyrus Holliday wrote from Meadville, Pennsylvania to Franklin Crane, a prominent citizen in Topeka, Kansas Territory. Holliday discussed his efforts in Washington, D. C., as well as elections, railroads, and the Topeka Bridge. He stated that it was important for the next Kansas delegate to Congress to be from Topeka. This would not only promote the interests of the Topeka community, but it would also improve the status of Crane and Holliday's investments in Topeka.

Keywords: Bridges; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Elections; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Railroads; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka bridge; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town development


The Prairie Star: A paper edited by the ladies of the Philomathic Literary Society, Volume 1st, Number 1st
Authors: Kansas Philomathic Institute
Date: January 24, 1857


Keywords: Community life; Kansas Philomathic Institute; Literature societies; Martin, Maria M. (Mrs. Samuel E.); Philomatic Literary Society; Poetry; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Women


The Prairie Star: A paper edited by the ladies of the Philomathic Literary Society, Volume 1st, Number 2nd
Authors: Kansas Philomathic Institute
Date: January 31, 1857
A weekly handwritten literary publication produced from January through April 1857 by the Topeka-based Kansas Philomathic Institute (also known as the Philomathic Literary Society). The literary club, which included male and female members, met weekly to read aloud essays and poems, which then were collected, recopied, and published as The Prairie Star. Maria M. Martin, wife of Dr. Samuel E. Martin, edited the paper.

Keywords: Community life; Kansas Philomathic Institute; Literature societies; Martin, Maria M. (Mrs. Samuel E.); Philomatic Literary Society; Poetry; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Women


An Act to incorporate the City of Topeka
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: February 14, 1857 & April 22, 1857
This act, handwritten by Cyrus K. Holliday, was passed by the territorial legislature at Lecompton on February 14th, 1857. Its three sections established the city limits of Topeka, designated a board of trustees, and secured the city's rights. Fred P. Stanton, Secretary of the Territory of Kansas, certified this copy of the act.

Keywords: Cleveland, L. G.; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Dickey, Milton C.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Thornton, Thomas G.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Walkley, I.


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: March 3, 1857
Once again, from Topeka, Kagi wrote his father that his long planned trip to Nebraska City had to be delayed, this time because of high water on the "Kaw river" that "prohibited my crossing" and the state convention, which started in one week. On the positive side, he was still bothered by "the jarring of my head" (the blow inflicted by Elmore with his cane), his wound (gun shot) had nearly healed.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Kagi, John Henry; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


The Prairie Star: A paper edited by the ladies of the Philomathic Literary Society, Volume 1st, Number 7th
Authors: Kansas Philomathic Institute
Date: March 7, 1857
A weekly handwritten literary publication produced from January through April 1857 by the Topeka-based Kansas Philomathic Institute (also known as the Philomathic Literary Society). The literary club, which included male and female members, met weekly to read aloud essays and poems, which then were collected, recopied, and published as The Prairie Star. Maria M. Martin, wife of Dr. Samuel E. Martin, edited the paper.

Keywords: Community life; Kansas Philomathic Institute; Literature societies; Martin, Maria M. (Mrs. Samuel E.); Philomatic Literary Society; Poetry; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Women


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: April 14, 1857
Having finally made and returned from his long-delayed trip to Nebraska City, Kagi wrote his father from Lawrence, where he had gone almost immediately "on business." Although he can't discuss the particulars for fear of "bribed P.M. [post master?] spies," Kagi makes some interesting observations about freestate "prospects" throughout the territory, which "look much more hopeful now than when I left." Kagi mentions some land investment opportunities and the expected arrival of Governor Robert Walker, who would not last long if he tried to enforce the "bogus laws."

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Land speculation; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Postal service; Stringfellow, John H.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Finance Committee's Schedule of Kanzas Property owned by the N. E. Em. Aid Co.
Authors: New England Emigrant Aid Company Finance Committee
Date: May 26, 1857
A summary listing of the real property owned by the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas. The report lists the estimated value of each property, with the total value being $112, 400.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Burlington, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Financial statements; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company Finance Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town shares; Wabaunsee, Kansas Territory


Articles of Agreement and Specifications, Topeka School House Construction
Authors: New England Emigrant Aid Company
Date: June 9, 1857
Charles H. Branscomb, acting on behalf of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, contracted with Abner Doane to construct a school house on Harrison St. in Topeka. Detailed construction specifications for the school house were included as part of the agreement.

Keywords: Branscomb, Charles H.; Construction; Doane, Abner; Education; New England Emigrant Aid Company; School buildings; Schools; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Message of Charles Robinson, Governor of Kanzas, Delivered at Topeka, June 11, 1857
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: June 11, 1857
Charles Robinson addressed his remarks to the Senate and House of Representatives that met as the extra legal free state legislature during 1856 and 1857. He reviewed the violence that had occurred since the legislature first convened in March, 1856. He also indicated that since their terms would soon expire, the legislature needed to pass an election law and make provisions for a census, otherwise the free state government would no longer exist if it had not formal procedures for continuing. The address included several statements about how the officially recognized government was usurping its powers.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Ed Russell to Dr. [Franklin] Crane
Authors: Russell, Ed
Date: July 2, 1857
The letter was a follow up to Crane's presentation in St. Joseph, Missouri, about efforts to build the St. Joseph and Topeka Railroad. Crane had made a commitment to raise money for building the railroad and Russell was inquiring about his progress. Russell lived in Elwood, Doniphan County, and was lobbying for the railroad to go through that community.

Keywords: Crane, Franklin Loomis; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Elwood, Kansas Territory; Railroads design and construction; Russell, Edward; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; St. Joseph and Topeka Railroad; St. Joseph, Missouri; Topeka, Kansas Territory


General Order No. 1, Headquarters of Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: July 18, 1857
This printed document was issued by James H. Lane and indicated that Lane had been authorized by the Free State government in Topeka to organize militia companies in order to protect ballot boxes on election day. It included instructions on how to organize the companies.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting; Whitman, E. B.


General Order No. 2, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: July 20, 1857
General Order No. 2 established divisions and brigades which were to protect the ballot box in Topeka. It lists the divisions, brigades, and the superintendents of the divisions and brigades. James Lane was organizing the Kansas Volunteers and Martin Conway was the Adjutant General for the K.V.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Stewart, John E.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting; Williams, Henry H.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Tho. Ewing, Jr., to Dear Hamp [H. B. Denman]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: July 25, 1857
From Leavenworth, Ewing wrote to a law and business partner, Hamp Denman, who was working on some possible land acquisitions in the Osaukee (Ozawkie?) vicinity. Ewing provided some specific instruction regarding a number of potential deals, including the "fraction . . . Adjoining the Kaw land directly opposite Topeka. My sole object in buying would be to have a RR [railroad] depot on the land, & lay out a town."

Keywords: Business enterprises; Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Kansa Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Kansa Indians; Land speculation; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ozawkie, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation


Stock Certificate, Saint Joseph and Topeka Railroad Company
Authors: St. Joseph and Topeka Railroad Company
Date: August 4, 1857
One share of stock (No. 50) was issued to Sevest Swendson. The certificate indicated it was a temporary one, and new certificates would be issued when the company organized permanently. The certificate was signed by W. Broadus Thompson, president, and Alex A. Jameson, secretary.

Keywords: Certificates; Jameson, Alex A.; Railroad promotion; Railroads; Railroads finance; St. Joseph and Topeka Railroad; Stock certificates; Swendson, Sevest; Thompson, W. Broadus; Topeka and St. Joseph Railroad Company; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: December 18, 1857
Upon his return to the East (Boston), Marsh wrote to Stearns on December 18, 1857, to provide a relatively brief outline of his experience and accomplishments since leaving for Kansas Territory on committee business the previous June. He said others could be the judge of the success of the "mission," but "a Free State Legislature was secured by the election" and Governor Charles Robinson had been "quite complimentary" of Marsh in a letter to Amos A. Lawrence.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Cato, Sterling G.; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Steamboats; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Territorial politics and government; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Walter Oakley, et al, to Charles Robinson
Authors: Oakley, Walter ; Ritchie, John , 1817-1887; Ross, William Wallace
Date: December 26, 1857
Walter Oakley, W. W. Ross, and John Richey wrote from Topeka to invited Robinson to attend and address the "Mass Meeting" to be held in their city on Monday, December 28, for the purpose of endorsing "the action of the Convention at Lawrence. These men and the community held Robinson in the highest "esteem" but they differed with him "upon the question of voting for state officers under the Lecompton Constitution."

Keywords: Free State Convention; Free State Party; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Oakley, Walter; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Ross, William Wallace, 1828-1889; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Plan of the Topeka Bridge
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1858
This bridge, the first bridge over the Kansas River from Topeka, was built in 1857 through the efforts of the Topeka Association. It was destroyed by wind in 1858 and took several months to rebuild. The diagram is undated.

Keywords: Bridges; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Association; Topeka bridge; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Transportation


Account Book, 1858-59
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: January 1858 - June 1859
This cloth bound journal, identified as "Account Book of Gov. Charles Robinson, January 1, 1858--June 15, 1872," began with an "Inventory of Property belonging to C. Robinson," land and shares, as well as a list of people to whom he owed money. The inventory referred to Lawrence property, a "Wyandotte Float," and shares in the towns of Topeka, Quindaro, etc.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Financial statements; Fitchburg, Massachusetts; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Wyandot Float; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Quit Claim Document donating land to the Topeka Mill Company
Authors: Topeka Association
Date: March 20, 1858
The trustees of the Topeka Association agreed to donate to the Topeka Mill Company the entire block on which the mill was located (north of First Avenue between Kansas and Jackson).

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cleveland, L. G.; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Dickey, Milton C.; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Thornton, Thomas G.; Topeka Association; Topeka Mill Company; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town associations


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, April 2, 1858
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 2, 1858
After considering a few other issues, such as the selection of Topeka as "the temporary seat of Government," the convention took up the motion from the previous day on the elective franchise, with T. D. Thacher explaining that his select committee had considered the insertion of the word "white" and "unanimously report against its insertion." After some debate over procedure, Thacher offered an amendment that instructed the first legislature to put "the question of universal suffrage to the people at the general elections." The amendment passed, 50 to 29.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Capitals (cities); Constitutions; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Roberts, William Young; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Minutes of the Third Session of the Kansas and Nebraska Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church
Authors: Kansas and Nebraska Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church
Date: April 15-19, 1858
The annual conference was held in Topeka, Kansas Territory from April 15 through 19, 1858. The minutes included the names of those attending as well as the business conducted. It listed the various ministerial appointments in Kansas and Nebraska as well as the membership of the committees. The minutes reported on educational efforts at Baker University and Blue Mount Central College. It contained information on the church's stand on slavery and temperance. The constitution of the Kansas and Nebraska Conference Missionary Society was included in the report as were statistics for the various churches.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Baker University; Baldwin, Kansas Territory; Big Springs, Kansas Territory; Bluemont Central College; Burlingame, Kansas Territory; Churches; Community life; Denison, Joseph; Dennis, Levin B.; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Holton, Kansas Territory; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Methodist Church; Methodists; Oskaloosa, Kansas Territory; Paddock, G. W.; Palermo, Kansas Territory; Prairie City, Kansas Territory; Religion; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Temperance; Topeka, Kansas Territory; White Cloud, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Stockholders in the Topeka Bridge Company
Authors: Topeka Bridge Company
Date: July 21, 1858
This document lists the various individuals who provided support to rebuild the Topeka Bridge, which was destroyed by wind in 1858, shortly after being completed.

Keywords: Bridges; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Dickey, Milton C.; Farnsworth, Loring; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Bridge Company; Topeka bridge; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Transportation


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to M. F. Conway
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: August 28, 1858
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory. Webb gave instructions to Conway on several New England Emigrant Aid Company business matters including the potential sale of the mill in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Webb comments on the decline in real estate values in Kansas Territory in the aftermath of the Panic of 1857.

Keywords: Batcheller, Kansas Territory; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Real estate; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town lots; Wabaunsee County, Kansas Territory; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: September 1, 1858
Andrew Reeder, former governor of Kansas Territory, wrote from Easton, Pennsylvania, to inform Franklin Crane of the eastern response to elections in Kansas and the prospects for the Leavenworth Constitution. He also discussed the value of Topeka lots and a request to donate one for a church.

Keywords: Crane, Franklin Loomis; Easton, Pennsylvania; Elections; Leavenworth Constitution; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town development; Town promotion


Photograph, Topeka, Kansas Territory, 1858
Authors: Unknown
Date: 1858
A panoramic view of Topeka, Kansas Territory, December 25, 1858, copied from Leslie's Weekly, December 25, 1858.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Cityscapes; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Leslie's Illustrated, Panoramic View of Topeka.
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 25, 1858
Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 25, 1858, showing a panoramic view of Topeka. The scene includes businesses, homes, and a bridge crossing the Kansas River. The illustration is captioned "City of Topeka, Kansas Territory."

Keywords: Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town settlement


Announcement, Grand Opening Ball at the Eldridge House, New Year's Eve
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 31, 1858
This announcement advertises a Grand Opening Ball held at the Eldridge House in Lawrence, Kansas on December 31, 1858. It lists committee of arrangement and floor managers.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Balls (parties); Blood, James; Branscomb, Charles H.; Davis, Alson C.; Deitzler, George W.; Eldridge House; Entertainment; Farnsworth, Loring; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Pratt, Caleb S.; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Stinson, Thomas N.; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Leslie's Illustrated, Stories of Kansas Cities
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1858
Article from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 25, 1858. Entitled "The Cities of Kansas," it includes accounts of Lawrence, Leavenworth, Lecompton, and Topeka.

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Objects; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: March 31, 1859
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, who had returned to Meadville, Pennsylvania to give birth to their second child, Charles. Cyrus had been joined in Kansas Territory by his mother and two brothers, James T. and George K. Holliday. Cyrus sadly told of his mother's death at George's home in Wakarusa, Kansas Territory. He suggested that Mary wait to return to Topeka until May 1st, when Alfred Huidekoper of Meadville would issue him a loan. Cyrus also mentioned his political aspirations and two upcoming elections, the first at the Osawatomie Republican Convention, the second for delegates to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Loans; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: April 10, 1859
Hiram Hill wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his brother. Hill traveled to Lawrence to settle various business matters, but found himself preoccupied with repairing rat damage to the foundation of one of his homes. He had found renters for all of his buildings himself, as he was not inclined to trust anyone to do the business for him since "they are a promising set of cutthroats". Hill would not travel to Manhattan or Topeka but would stop in Quindaro before heading back to Massachusetts.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Letter, Ed Russell to Friend [Franklin] Crane
Authors: Russell, Ed
Date: June 1, 1859
This letter, sent by Ed Russell to Franklin Crane, a prominent Topeka citizen, concerned the proposed St. Joseph and Topeka Railroad. Russell was convinced that the people of Topeka had not acted in "good faith" by choosing to route the railroad through Doniphan rather than Elwood. Russell wanted the railroad to go through his hometown of Elwood, which had been the initial plan. This letter illustrates how various communities competed for railroads, even if these railroads were never built.

Keywords: Crane, Franklin Loomis; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Doniphan, Kansas Territory; Elwood, Kansas Territory; Palermo, Kansas Territory; Railroad promotion; Railroads; Russell, Edward; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; St. Joseph and Topeka Railroad; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. S. G. [James Griffing] to Mr. Editor [William Smyth]
Authors: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: July 27, 1859
James Sayre Griffing wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to William Smyth, editor of the Owego (New York) Times. Griffing described in some detail his family's overland journey to Kansas Territory in a "double waggon." He commented upon the quantity and nature of provisions to take on an overland journey, methods for crossing streams and rivers, and the advantages of a good "fowling piece" for hunting wild game. Griffing also observed that the amount of travel in and through Kansas Territory had increased during 1859, due in part to the Pike's Peak gold rush.

Keywords: Ferries; Griffing, James Sayre; Hunting; Owego, New York; Pikes Peak gold rush; Roads; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smyth, William; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Wagons


Letter, James [Griffing] to [J. Augusta Goodrich Griffing]
Authors: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: July 28, 1859
James Griffing wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife J. Augusta (Goodrich) Griffing. Mrs. Griffing was visiting her family in New York for the first time since her arrival in Kansas in 1855. James Griffing described his efforts to perform household chores in his wife's absence including cooking, milking the cow, churning butter, laundry, butchering chickens, and gardening.

Keywords: Agriculture; Daily life; Food; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Household activities; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, James [Griffing] to Dear Cuttie [J. Augusta Goodrich Griffing]
Authors: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: August 7, 1859
James Griffing wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife J. Augusta (Goodrich) Griffing. Mrs. Griffing was visiting her family in New York for the first time since her arrival in Kansas in 1855. James Griffing described his daily activities including his efforts to protect his chickens from "polecats," to gather wild grapes, and to prepare his own meals.

Keywords: Animals; Daily life; Food; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, James [Griffing] to My Dear [J. Augusta Goodrich Griffing]
Authors: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: August 9, 1859
James Griffing wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife J. Augusta (Goodrich) Griffing. Mrs. Griffing was visiting her family in New York for the first time since her arrival in Kansas in 1855. Mr. Griffing gave his wife instructions on fruit seeds (plum, cherry, and peach) and cuttings (gooseberry and blackberry) to collect and transport back to Kansas. He also described his plan to purchase pine flooring in Leavenworth.

Keywords: Food; Fruit; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Lumber; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: October 13, 1859
Marcus Parrott wrote from Manhattan, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott. Marcus had been traveling around Fort Riley and prepared for a trip from Manhattan to Topeka. He asked his brother how his election went, and contrasted what must be Edwin's election experience with his own, over which the "fear of a fraudulent defeat" always hovered. Despite this fear of fraud, Marcus stated that his Black Republican friends would support him, "ready to correct any errors".

Keywords: Black Republicans; Election fraud; Elections; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Hunting; Junction City, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Mormon Church; Ohio; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: November 28, 1859
Andrew Reeder, former governor of Kansas Territory, wrote from Easton, Pennsylvania to Dr. Franklin Crane of Topeka. The letter discussed business interests in Kansas and prospects for Kansas's admission to the union. Reeder also suggested that it might be beneficial to replace place names established by the bogus legislature, which had pro slavery connections.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Bogus legislature; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, William F. Creitz to "Col. James Redpath"
Authors: Creitz, William F.
Date: December 17, 1859
William F. Creitz of Holton, who had served under Aaron Stevens as captain of a Kansas militia company, wrote Redpath regarding "the particulars of 'Old John Brown's' final departure from this territory." Brown and company, which included "eleven fugitives," reached Holton on January 27, 1859, and Creitz described the events that followed, to which he was an "eyewitness" and participant, including the Battle of the Spurs. Creitz's "article" was prepared "to assist you [Redpath] in your praiseworthy undertaking that of publishing the lives of those heroic men." Redpath published "Echoes of Harper's Ferry" in 1860, and Richard J. Hinton used this material in his "John Brown and His Men (1894).

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Battles; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Holton, Kansas Territory; Jackson County, Kansas Territory (see also Calhoun County, Kansas Territory); Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Militia; Nebraska Territory; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Slave power; Spurs, Battle of the; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Underground railroad; United States marshals


Letter, L. F. Parsons to "Dear Friends Redpath & Hinton"
Authors: Parsons, Luke F.
Date: December 1859
Parsons, "a soldier under John Brown" in Kansas, who fought in the battles of Black Jack and Osawatomie (see, Twenty-fifth Biennial Report, KSHS, 135-136), wrote this letter from Osawatomie to James Redpath and Richard J. Hinton in response to their "notice in the Republican in regard to publishing the life of John Brown & associates at Harpers Ferry & your request for information." In addition to his Kansas activities, Parsons was with Brown and company in Iowa during the winter of 1857-58 and mentions, as did Kagi and others, the "Lyceums" conducted by Brown around their evening campfires and the "thorough course of military instruction under Col. Whipple as Drillmaster." Parsons, who was obviously proud of his association with Brown, apparently just missed being in on the Harpers Ferry raid--he had returned to KT during the long wait and was not recalled.

Keywords: Black Jack, Battle of; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Owen; Cleveland, Ohio; Cook, John E.; Coppoc, Barclay; Coppoc, Edwin; Forbes, Hugh; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Fugitive slaves; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas City Metropolitan; Kansas City, Missouri; Leeman, William H.; Moffett, Charles; Osawatomie, Battle of; Parsons, Luke F.; Pate, Henry Clay; Quakers (see Society of Friends); Realf, Richard , 1834-1878; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Rice, Benjamin; Springdale, Iowa; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Tabor, Iowa; Tidd, C. P.; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Kansas Avenue, Topeka, Kansas
Authors: W. P. Bliss, Photographic Car
Date: c. 1860
A view looking south from Sixth Street on Kansas Avenue, Topeka, Kansas, early 1860s. The Topeka Drug Store was located at 607 Kansas Avenue. Many of the buildings shown in the photograph were built during the Kansas territorial period. The photograph was taken by W. P. Bliss, Photographic Car.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Drugstores; F. W. Giles & Co.; Groceries; Grocery trade; Horses; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Drug Store; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wagons


Photograph, East side of Kansas Avenue, Topeka, Kansas
Authors: W. P. Bliss, Photographic Car
Date: c. 1860
A view of the east side of Kansas Avenue from slightly north of Sixth Street, Topeka, Kansas, early 1860s. Many of the buildings shown in the photograph were built during the Kansas territorial period. The photograph was taken by W. P. Bliss, Photographic Car.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Butcher shops; Capitol Meat Market; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Covered wagons; Feed stores; J. F. Osenburg Saddle and Harness Manufacturer; Photographs and Illustrations; Provision Feed Seed Store; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Meat Market; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Fourth Street and Kansas Avenue, Topeka, Kansas
Authors: W. P. Bliss, Photographic Car
Date: c. 1860
A view showing the corner of Fourth Street and Kansas Avenue, Topeka, Kansas, early 1860s. The buildings were located north of the Gordon House. Many of them were built during the Kansas territorial period. The photograph was taken by W. P. Bliss, Photographic Car.

Keywords: Bliss, W. P.; Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Merchants Union Express Company; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Kansas Avenue, Topeka, Kansas
Authors: J. Lee Knight, The New River Side Gallery, Kansas Avenue, Topeka, KS
Date: c. 1860
A view of Kansas Avenue, Topeka, Kansas, early 1860s. Many of the buildings shown in the photograph were built during the Kansas territorial period. The photograph was taken by J. Lee Knight, The New River Side Gallery, Kansas Avenue, Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Knight, J. Lee; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Streets; The New River Side Gallery; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Methodist Church, Topeka, Kansas
Authors: W. P. Bliss, Photographic Car
Date: c. 1860
The Methodist Church, 523 Quincy Street, Topeka, Kansas. The photograph was taken by W. P. Bliss, Photographic Car.

Keywords: Bliss, W. P.; Cartes de visite; Churches; Methodist Church; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Streets; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, First Congregational Church, Topeka, Kansas
Authors: W. P. Bliss, Photographic Car
Date: c. 1860
The First Congregational Church, Topeka, Kansas, as it appeared in the 1860s. The photograph was taken by W. P. Bliss, Photographic Car.

Keywords: Bliss, W. P.; Cartes de visite; Churches; Congregational churches; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Streets; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Paul Shepherd to James Redpath
Authors: Shepherd, Paul
Date: January 3, 1860
From Dover, Michigan, Paul Shepherd--formerly of Kansas Territory--wrote Redpath to pass along "some useful information, in repect to John H. Kagi." Of most interest, perhaps is Shepherd's account of the "shoot out" at Tecumseh between Kagi and Judge Rush Elmore, who Kagi had accused of "being a prime mover in the murderous attack upon him" at Lecompton in mid-January 1857.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Border ruffians; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Moffett, Charles; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery perspective; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka boys; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: January 28, 1861
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from La Porte, Indiana to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Topeka, Kansas Territory. On his way to Washington, D. C. he planned to collect a debt. A friend had given him railway passes to Pittsburgh. The contrast between the quality of life in the northern states and Kansas Territory saddened Cyrus, who quoted a verse. He gave instructions to Mary concerning the livestock and farmland. In a postscript, he emphasized that she save the eyes of potatoes.

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Livestock; Poetry; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel


Letter, R. A. Randlett to Ely Thayer
Authors: Randlett, Reuben A.
Date: February 25, 1860
With regard to clothing sent from New England to "the poor of Kansas in 1856," R. A. Randlett of Topeka sought to find out if Thayer's Emigrant Aid Company was involved and if officials had intended that the clothing be sold or given away. The clothing was sold during the summer of 1857 "on a years time," according to Randlett, and now some men were trying to collect for it.

Keywords: Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New Hampshire; Randlett, Reuben A.; Relief fraud; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, John Ritchey to "Friend Stevens" [A.D. Stevens]
Authors: Ritchie, John , 1817-1887
Date: March 7, 1860
Topeka's "John Ritchey" [Ritchie] wrote this letter dated March 7, 1860, to A. D. Stevens from Franklin, Indiana, where he had "been spending the winter with his family." Although Ritchey mentioned John Brown and his own fervent views in opposition to "Slavery," the focus of his brief comments to his former Kansas comrade, who was scheduled to die on the Charlestown gallows on March 17, were an expression of concern for Steven's eternal soul: "I can see but one way left for me to be of any service to you and that is to direct your mind to the Savior. 'Ye must be born again.'"

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Religion; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Slavery; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka boys; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to S. N. Wood
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: September 19, 1860
Dated Sept. 19, 1860, from Topeka, Kansas, this brief letter from AT&SF founder C. K. Holiday urged Wood to garner support and signatures to influence to the course of a proposed "R.R. [railroad] from the Mo. River via Topeka toward your place. . . . Now is the time to act and act promptly."

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Missouri River; Railroads; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, Sherman Bodwell to Rev. Peter McVicar
Authors: Bodwell, Sherman
Date: November 7, 1860
Peter McVicar, a native of Eastport, Maine, and a graduate of Andover Theological Seminary, moved to Kansas Territory in 1860 to become pastor of Topeka's Congregational Church. This letter from church clerk Sherman Bodwell of Topeka pertained to McVicar's pastoral call and requested that the American Home Missionary Society continue to provide partial support for the minister.

Keywords: American Home Missionary Society; Andover Theological Seminary; Bodwell, Sherman; Churches; Congregational churches; Maine; McVicar, Peter; Religion; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


First Thanksgiving Sermon
Authors: McVicar, Peter
Date: November 29, 1860
Apparently pretty typical of the Rev. Peter McVicar's sermons, this one is entitled "First Thanksgiving Sermon." It was delivered in Topeka on November 29, 1860, just weeks after he assumed the pastorate of the Congregational Church. McVicar focused on the concept that God's blessings were not to be measured by the accumulation of money or property, making specific comments about Kansas. He suggested, for example, that citizens of Kansas Territory who gathered together on that day should be especially thankful for the hardships endured by "early" settlers in order to establish freedom from slavery.

Keywords: Churches; Congregational churches; McVicar, Peter; Religion; Sermons; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Thanksgiving Day; Topeka, Kansas Territory


First Semi-Annual Catalogue of Topeka Academy, For 1859-'60
Authors: Topeka Academy
Date: 1860
This catalog for the Topeka Academy listed the teachers, the committee of examination, the students (gentlemen and ladies were listed separately), information about the academy including costs and textbooks used. Two of the teachers were women.

Keywords: Community life; Daily life; Education; Schools; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Teachers; Topeka Academy; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Women


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: January 27, 1861
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote to Mary from Chicago, Illinois, one stop along his journey to Washington, D. C. where he would lobby Congress for assistance with the Atchison and Topeka Railroad. He gave details of his journey and mentioned several people he had or planned to visit en route to Washington. Kansas Territory was suffering an especially severe winter.

Keywords: Chicago, Illinois; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Washington, D.C.; Weather


Photograph, John Ritchie
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Between 1870 and 1887
Portrait of John Ritchie, Topeka, Kansas Territory, active in the anti-slavery movement. He helped runaway slaves as they passed through Topeka. Ritchie was a delegate to the Leavenworth and Wyandotte Constitutional Conventions.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Photographs and Illustrations; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Underground railroad


Memoranda, Records of Reeder's Stock in Towns
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: [1855]
This document was an undated "Mem. Of Stock in Towns," which appeared to have been written in longhand by Reeder himself and included the number of shares he had purchased (and how they were acquired) in fifteen different towns: Leavenworth, Pawnee, Tecumseh, Marysville, Lecompton, Montgomery (Dickinson Co.), Reeder (Dickinson Co.), Richmond, Whitfield (Shawnee Co.), Topeka, Douglas, Omaha City, Chetolah (Davis/Geary Co.), Grasshopper Falls, and Easton. Interestingly, he held thirty-four shares in Pawnee, his most famous (or infamous) investment venture, but he had thirty-six shares in Montgomery, twenty in Douglas and there appears to be a good number in Omaha City.

Keywords: Chetolah, Kansas Territory; Douglas, Kansas Territory; Easton, Kansas Territory; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marysville, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, Kansas Territory; Omaha City, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Reeder, Kansas Territory; Richmond, Kansas Territory; Speculation; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Town shares; Town site speculation; Whitfield, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Edmund Gibson Ross
Authors: Cobb
Date: 
Edmund Gibson Ross was active in Kansas territorial politics and served as a delegate to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention. He and his brother William W. were editors of the Kansas Tribune in Topeka, Shawnee County, Kansas Territory. He later served as the U. S. Senator from Kansas from 1866 to 1871,

Keywords: Card photographs; Journalism; Journalists; Newspaper publishing; Photographs and Illustrations; Ross, Edmund G. (Edmund Gibson), 1826-1907; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte Constitution


Photograph, Henry Worrall
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Henry Worrall was an early Kansas artist who lived in Topeka, Shawnee County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Artist; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Worrall, Henry


Photograph, J. Lee Knight
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
J. Lee Knight was a photographer. He owned the New River Side Galley in Topeka, Kansas Territory and took some of the photographs of Topeka included in this project.

Keywords: Knight, J. Lee; Photographers; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Cyrus Kurtz Holliday
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Cyrus Kurtz Holliday came to Kansas Territory from Meadville, Pennsylvania. He was the first president of the Topeka Town Association and was involved in founding and settling Topeka. He was an agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company. He was very active in territorial political activities including the Topeka movement. He was a delegate to the Topeka Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Association; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Peter McVicar
Authors: Snyder, Photographer
Date: 
Peter McVicar came to Kansas in 1860 from Maine. He was the first pastor of the Topeka Congregational Church. He later served as president of Washburn College

Keywords: Congregationalists; McVicar, Peter; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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