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Authors: South Carolina, House of Representatives
Date: February 12, 1849
This Resolution, approved by both the House and Senate of South Carolina in 1849, resolved that the principles of the Wilmot Proviso would not be applied to the recently acquired Mexican territory. The Wilmot Proviso, passed in the U. S. House of Representatives in 1846 and 1847, resolved that, upon the acquisition of the Mexican territory, "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted." The Wilmot Proviso was never passed in the U. S. Senate.
Keywords: Mexican territory; Mexico, Republic of; National politics; Proslavery; Slavery; South Carolina; Wilmot Proviso, 1846
Letter, [Josiah Miller] to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: January 25, 1856
Josiah Miller, responding to his family's concerns about traveling West, wrote to his Father and Mother in South Carolina. He told them that they would be better off leaving the South, and that they should begin their travels west as soon as they were ready, in spite of any violent conflict that might be taking place in Kansas Territory. Miller referred to a specific incident occurring a few days earlier on January 17, when free state men, on their way home from an election of State officers under the Topeka Constitution, were attacked by a group of Missourians. Miller also communicated that, although he was a free state man, he did not like the "Yankees' " approach to the conflict with the proslavery supporters.
Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Reese P.; Emigration and immigration; Free state perspective; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; South Carolina; Southerners
Letter, T. [Thomas] C. Wells to Mother [Sarah Elizabeth Clarke Wells]
Authors: Wells, Thomas Clarke
Date: April 3, 1856
After spending part of much of the winter back East, Wells returned to KT in April 1856, beginning this letter home from aboard the steamer "James H. Lucas" and finishing it on April 13 at Juniata, near Fort Riley. He commented on the trip, by rail and boat, and on the fact that there were "Quite a number of people on board from South Carolina and Georgia going to Kansas." But they would not last long, and "The free state people must eventually conquer--the South cannot compete with the North in sending emigrants." Wells' plans upon his return were to sell his Juniata property and take one close to Manhattan, something he describes having done in a subsequent letter.
Keywords: Detroit, Michigan; Free state; Georgia; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Railroads; South Carolina; Southern emigrants; St. Louis, Missouri; Steamboats; Travel; Wells, Thomas Clarke
"Southern Rights" flag
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 21, 1856
Pro-slavery forces carried this flag while attacking the anti-slavery stronghold of Lawrence. Sheriff Samuel Jones led the group in sacking the town on May 21, 1856. A group of South Carolinians known as the Palmetto Guards participated in the attack, and flew their "Southern Rights" flag over the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper offices and the Free State Hotel before destroying the buildings.
Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Flags and banners; Free State Hotel; Herald of Freedom; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Palmetto Guards; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; South Carolina; Violence
Painting, Battle of Hickory Point
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: September 13, 1856
Painting by Samuel Reader depicting the Battle of Hickory Point. Reader, an early settler of Shawnee County, was a member of a volunteer Free State company. On September 13, 1856, General James Lane heard that proslavery men were committing outrages in the town of Grasshopper Falls (Valley Falls). Lane marched to Ozawkie and recruited Free State settlers. Shortly thereafter, he heard that the proslavery forces were at Hickory Point, north of Oskaloosa, and so redirected his men there. The proslavery forces, which included about 40 South Carolinians, were under the command of Captain H. A. Lowe. According to Reader's accounts, only one Free State man was injured, but between 5-6 proslavery men were killed when these forces collided.
Keywords: Art; Artist; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Free state; Hickory Point, Battle of; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lowe, H. A.; Objects; Reader, Samuel James; South Carolina; Violence
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