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80 results for Slavery:
Resolutions, Legislature of South Carolina, House and Senate [1849]
Authors: South Carolina, House of Representatives
Date: February 12, 1849
This Resolution, approved by both the House and Senate of South Carolina in 1849, resolved that the principles of the Wilmot Proviso would not be applied to the recently acquired Mexican territory. The Wilmot Proviso, passed in the U. S. House of Representatives in 1846 and 1847, resolved that, upon the acquisition of the Mexican territory, "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted." The Wilmot Proviso was never passed in the U. S. Senate.

Keywords: Mexican territory; Mexico, Republic of; National politics; Proslavery; Slavery; South Carolina; Wilmot Proviso, 1846


Slave bills of Sale, Cowherd family slave trade
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1852-1859
These three handwritten bills of sale outline the terms and conditions of the sale of three different slaves, in transactions taking place from 1852-1859.

Keywords: African Americans; Bills of sale; Cowherd family; Cowherd, David; Proslavery activities; Slave bills of sale; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves


Lyrics, The Freeman's Song and The Kansas Emigrant Song
Authors: Whittier, John Greenleaf
Date: c. 1854
These printed lyric sheets provided the words to "The Freeman's Song," which displayed an anti-slavery message, and to "The Kansas Emigrant Song" which spoke about the need for free state emigrants to populate the West.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Emigration and immigration; Lyrics; Music; Poetry; Slavery; Songs; Whittier, John Greenleaf


Kansas-Nebraska Act
Authors: United States. Congress
Date: May 30, 1854
Officially titled "An Act to Organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas," this act repealed the Missouri Compromise, which had outlawed slavery above the 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude in the Louisiana Territory and reopened the national struggle over slavery in the western territories. In January 1854, Senator Stephen Douglas introduced a bill that divided the land west of Missouri into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. He argued for popular sovereignty, which would allow the settlers of the new territories to decide if slavery would be legal there. Antislavery supporters were outraged because, under the terms of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, slavery would have been outlawed in both territories. After months of debate, the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed on May 30, 1854. Images and document description courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration, Our Documents web site, http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=28. Transcription courtesy of the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/avalon.htm.

Keywords: Kansas Nebraska Act; Missouri compromise; Slavery; United States. Congress; Westward expansion


Letter, J. Z. Goodrich to Dear Sir
Authors: Goodrich, J. Z.
Date: June 29, 1854
This printed letter, on letterhead from the House of Representatives in Washington, D. C., was written by John Zacheus Goodrich, a representative from Massachusetts. He informed the recipient that members of Congress and regular citizens of the city had formed the Union Emigration Society--these citizens opposed both the repeal of the Missouri Compromise and the opening of the territories to slavery. It included details about the Missouri Compromise, the designs of Slave Power, and stated that "our watchword is Constitutional Freedom everywhere within the jurisdiction of the United States."

Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Goodrich, J. Z.; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Missouri compromise; Nebraska Territory; Sectionalism (United States); Slave power; Slavery; United States. Congress. House


Letter, New York Kansas League to the Public
Authors: Lockwood, Roe (Pres. NY Kansas League)
Date: September 20, 1854
This letter, written by the New York Kansas League, was addressed to the public. The New York Kansas League encouraged people to emigrate to Kansas Territory, pledging to support anyone who decided to go to Kansas. It also gave details about the league and how to join. In addition, the letter discussed the problems of slavery.

Keywords: Antislavery; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Frontier; Lockwood, Roe; New York League; Slavery


Letter, Tovey, R. [Robert] A. to My Dear Wife [Eliza (Matthew) Tovey]
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: c. 1854
Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr., an Englishman traveling to Kansas Territory, wrote to his wife Eliza (Matthew) Tovey, at their home it Albany, New York. Tovey recounted his travel experiences by steamboat and rail. Throughout, he provided detailed scenic descriptions from New York, the Great Lakes, Detroit, Illinois, St. Louis, and the Missouri River. Tovey, coming into contact with slavery on his journey, included brief commentary on the subject.

Keywords: Diseases; Medicine; Missouri River; New York; Railroads; Slavery; St. Louis, Missouri; Steamboats; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Transportation; Travel


Pro-slavery Banner
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
This flag was created by pro-slavery Missourians who captured Free State supporter Reverend Pardee Butler of Atchison in April 1855. The pro-slavery men sent Butler adrift on a raft down the turbulent Missouri River with this flag flying from it. The Missourians wanted others to know that the minister had helped slaves escape. Although he was expected to drown, Butler survived.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Butler, Rev. Pardee; Butler, Rev. Pardee; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Flags and banners; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Missourians; Objects; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Slavery; Underground railroad; Violence


Letter, L. C. P. Freer to James B. Abbott
Authors: Freer, L.C.P.
Date: August 7, 1855
L. C. P. Freer of Chicago wrote a scathing commentary of the Kansas Territory free state movement and its supporters to James Abbott, who had solicited subscriptions from him to fund the cause. Freer suggested that the founders of the Emigrant Aid Societies were hypocritical and the free state men were nothing but "cattle" forming only a "little whiff of opposition to the introduction of Slavery into Kanzas." Freer did not appear to be a proslavery supporter, but rather a tough critic who responded cynically to the idealism of the free state cause.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abolitionists; Emigrant aid companies; Free Soil Party; Free state activities; Free state cause; Fugitive Slave Law; Pierce administration; Slavery


An Act to Punish Offences Against Slave Property
Authors: Kansas Territory, Legislature
Date: August 14, 1855
This act was passed by the Legislative Assembly of Kansas Territory on August 14, 1855. It was to take effect on September 15, 1855. The Speaker of the House was J. H. Stringfellow and the President of the Council was Thomas Johnson. The act included a death penalty for persons causing or aiding in any "rebellion or insurrection of slaves, free negroes, or mulattoes" in Kansas Territory. Other provisions dealt with "speaking, writing, or printing" that encouraged slaves to rebel or that argued that the right to hold slaves did not exist in Kansas Territory. Several sections of the act contained penalities for encouraging or assisting slaves to escape and one stated that anyone opposed to the holding of slaves cound not serve on a jury.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Antislavery; Antislavery movements; Johnson, Thomas; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Laws; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Slave insurrections; Slavery; Slaves; Stringfellow, John H.


To the citizens of Missouri
Authors: Brown, John Carter, 1797-1874
Date: September 1855
This letter was written by the directors of New England Emigrant Aid Company responding to various charges made against them by the citizens of Missouri.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John Carter; Cabot, Samuel; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Slavery; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Williams, John M. S.


Letter, S. L. Adair to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: October 15, 1855
Writing from Osawatomie, Samuel Adair mentioned that his family had been sick and that others in the area had been ill and/or died. The bulk of the letter dealt with elections held by both proslavery and antislavery supporters in October, 1855, and the number of Missourians that voted in the proslavery election on October 1. He also discussed the territorial legislature that met at Shawnee Mission. The letter also indicated that a relative and his son and son-in-law had arrived in Kansas Territory and that he had brought a number of weapons. This is probably referring to John Brown, who was a half brother of Adair's wife Florella. Adair mentioned that he was concerned about Brown's war-like attitude. Adair briefly discussed a slaveholder who had left the territory because of his concern about the "outcome." This appears to be a draft of a letter sent to Jocelyn.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Elections; Free state activities; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Slaveholders; Slavery


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: November 2, 1855
In this letter from "Brownsville, Kansas Territory," John Brown made some observations about the harshness of the weather, the health of his Kansas children, their general lack of preparedness for the winter, and the farm work that needed to be accomplished. His only comment about the political situation in the territory came in closing: "I feel more, & more confident that Slavery will soon die out here; & to God be the praise."

Keywords: Agriculture; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Crops; Farmers; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Houses; Slavery; Weather


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, Afternoon Session
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: November 9, 1855
During the course of the proceedings recorded for the afternoon of November 9, 1855, discussion turned to the effort by Jim Lane to first include a provision for the "removal" of all blacks and then all "slaves" from Kansas by July 4, 1860. Charles Robinson supported an amendment which changed the effective date to July 4, 1857. All other provisions were to take effect immediately upon the adoption of the constitution.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Topeka Constitution (as printed in D.W. Wilder's Annals of Kansas (1868)).
Authors: Topeka Constitutional Convention
Date: November 11, 1855
The Topeka Constitution, the first one written for Kansas Territory, was drafted by free state supporters in reaction to contested elections that gave the proslavery party initial control of Kansas' territorial government. Free-staters gathered in convention at Lawrence on August 14 and Big Spring on September 5, 1855 and delegates assembled at Topeka on October 23, 1855, to draft a constitution. The document was approved on December 15 by a vote of 1,731 to 46. The Topeka Constitution prohibited slavery and limited suffrage to white males and "every civilized male Indian who has adopted the habits of the white man." Congress rejected this constitution and the accompanying request for Kansas to be admitted to the Union. This version of the document was published December 26, 1855 in the Kickapoo Pioneer newspaper.

Keywords: Constitutions; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Slavery; Smith, Samuel C.; Suffrage; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Narrative," A Twelve Months Practical Life in Kansas Territory, written by an actual settler"
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: ca. 1855
Robert Atkins Tovey wrote these pages so that "those who are going forth with their wives & children, their property, yea their all on earth should have the information covering the country to which they are making a Pilgrimage" from someone who has recently made the same journey. Broken up into chapters by subject, Tovey gave advice about the journey and settlement, provisions, land claims, soil, and weather, in addition to providing commentary about the current political situation and his disgust at the "Mob law" being imposed by the Missourians.

Keywords: African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Election fraud; Free state perspective; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Missourians; Native Americans; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Slavery; Slaves; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Transportation; Travel; Weather


John Brown portrait
Authors: Ruggles, Quartus
Date: 1855-1859
John Brown portrait by Quartus Ruggles, 1889. Brown was an abolitionist who came to Kansas in 1855. Although in the territory for only about three years, he was involved in several skirmishes and helped free some Missouri slaves. Brown was hanged for treason on December 2, 1859 for attempting to overtake the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Ruggles, Quartus; Slavery


Circular, Informational Letter regarding Emigration to Kansas
Authors: Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909
Date: 1855
Edward Hale was the author of this printed letter describing the services provided by the [New England] Emigrant Aid Company and the conditions of settlement in Kansas Territory. Hale included information regarding cost of travel and settlement, conditions of land acquisition, job opportunities, and relations with local Indians. He also addressed the slavery question, and already mentioned occurrences of election fraud on the part of proslavery supporters, but concluded that, in his own opinion "there is no danger whatever for Kanzas".

Keywords: Business enterprises; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Libraries; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement; Slavery; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Travel; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Williams, John M. S.


Pamphlet, Miscellaneous State Legislative Resolutions
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855-1856
Includes Resolutions from various State Legislatures concerning the extension of slavery into Kansas Territory, disturbances in Kansas Territory, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the admission of Kansas into the Union as a state.

Keywords: Iowa; Kansas Nebraska Act; Legal documents; Maine; Massachusetts; National politics; New Hampshire; Ohio; Rhode Island; Slavery; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Texas; Violence


Pamphlet, History of Kanzas
Authors: Walker, George
Date: 1855
The full title of George Walker's pamphlet is "History of Kanzas, also, Information Regarding Routes, Laws, etc, etc". Walker, an Agent and Master of Emigration for the New York Kanzas League, included what he saw as "all the information required by an emigrant to Kanzas; so far, at least, as relates to the situation of the Territory". He also included advice when traveling through slave states, suggesting that "the emigrant should avoid all unnecessary allusion to slavery."

Keywords: Economic development; Free state perspective; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Legal documents; Livestock; Natural resources; Roads; Slavery; Squatter sovereignty; Timber; Transportation; Travel; Travel literature; Walker, George


Slave Bill of Sale, Thomas Johnson
Authors: Burge, David
Date: May 24, 1856
A bill of sale issued by David Burge to Thomas Johnson as a receipt for Johnson's purchase of an African American slave named Martha for $800. Thomas Johnson was a Methodist minister and the founder of the Shawnee Methodist Mission. Johnson County, Kansas Territory was named for Thomas Johnson.

Keywords: African Americans; Bills of sale; Burge, David; Johnson, Thomas; Slave bills of sale; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Westport, Missouri


Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: June 6, 1856
From an embattled Lawrence, Learnard again wrote of near daily "occurrences of exciting interest," including skirmishes between the two "antagonistic parties" and actions of federal troops to "quell disturbances." The problem was with Missourians who had crossed over the border, not "actual settlers." Learnard claimed to be ready to do battle with them over the issue of "slavery or liberty in this country," and predicted that if things continued in this same direction, the entire country would soon be "embroiled in civil war."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Civil war; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Federal troops; Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Skirmishing; Slavery; Vermont; Violence


Letter, Wm Morris Davis to My dear Sir [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Davis, William Morris
Date: August 29, 1856
William Morris Davis wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, Kansas Territory, although Holliday was speaking in Pennsylvania in support of Republican presidential candidate John C. Fremont. Davis praised Holliday's efforts, for he saw both Fremont's election to the presidency and the free statehood of Kansas as steps toward the end of slavery. Williard Filmore, Know-Nothing candidate, had hopeless prospects, and Democrat James Buchanan would be rejected by the masses protesting the current administration, Davis claimed. This letter uses exalted, militant, and religious language to describe territorial and national conflict. Davis also mentioned William Y. Robers (lieutenant governor under the Topeka Constitution), Burlingame, and Cobb.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Davis, William Morris; Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Philadelpia, Pennsylvania; Roberts, William Young; Slavery; Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Newspaper article, Journal of Commerce
Authors: Journal of Commerce
Date: September 22, 1856
This clipping, enclosed in a letter from A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt dated September 22, 1856, argued that the emigration sponsored by New England emigrant aid societies was "indiscreet," although not illegal. The article placed the blame for the current troubles on the free-state settlers in Kansas, stating that Missouri settlers were only responding to the provocation of anti-slavery supporters.

Keywords: Bills, legislative; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state cause; Immigrants; Kansas Nebraska Act; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Missouri; Missouri compromise; Pierce administration; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery; Topeka Constitution; United States Government; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution


Receipt, William Patton's purchase of a slave
Authors: Thornton, C.A.
Date: September 29, 1856
This handwritten receipt documents William Patton's purchase of a young slave girl, for which he paid $650.

Keywords: Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Iowa Point, Kansas Territory; Patton, William; Prices; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Letter, R. P. Bourn to Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Bourn, R. P.
Date: October 18, 1856
R. P. Bourn, writing from Nicholasville, Kentucky, addressed this letter to Franklin Crane of Topeka. Bourn discussed politics both in Kansas and at the national level, including the Presidential election of 1860. He made his anti slavery beliefs clear.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Slavery


Letter, M. C. Dickey to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Dickey, Milton C.
Date: October 23, 1856
This letter to Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, written by Milton Dickey from Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, informed Hyatt of Dickey's journey west. The author described the hardships endured by Kansas settlers, as well as the enthralling tale of a free state man who escaped from the prison at Lecompton.

Keywords: Cannons; Dickey, Milton C.; Donalson, Israel B.; Emigration and immigration; Firearms; Free state perspective; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Mt. Pleasant, Iowa; Prisoners; Prisons; Relief; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sharps rifles; Slavery; United States. Army


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Dr. [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: November 14, 1856
The letter, written by Cyrus Holliday from Meadville, Pennsylvania, discusses the results of the 1856 Presidential election and its anticipated impact on the Kansas issue. Holliday describes to Franklin Crane, a prominent Topeka doctor, a meeting in Boston where he was encouraged to make Kansas a free state. Many of those present at the meeting were influential figures in emigrant aid companies. The letter also discusses efforts to make Nicaragua a slave state in order to achieve a compromise with the South. In addition, Holliday mentions making speeches on behalf of John C. Fremont and Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Election, Presidential, 1856; Emigrant aid companies; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Slavery


Speech, The Progress of Tyranny
Authors: Martin, John A., 1839-1889
Date: December 10, 1856
This "essay," presumably by John Alexander Martin, was "Read before the 'Franklin Literary Institute,' of Brownsville [Pennsylvania], Dec. 10th 1856," about a year before Martin moved to Kansas Territory. It was an interesting statement of the young journalist's emerging philosophy on many of the troubling questions of the day, including a discussion of their historical context. According to the "essayist," America's early opponents of "tyrany," both Northern and Southern, "looked forward to the day when it [slavery] would be abolished," and he pointed to the Constitutions and the Ordinance of 1787 as proof "that the founders of the Republic, in all their acts, strove to circumscribe the limits of slavery, and extend the area of Freedom." Subsequent generations of Americans placed greater emphasis on the economic value of slave production and the current generation was aggressively advocating its expansion and taking whatever action was necessary to insure the institution's survival and continue "the march of tyrany."

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Crime Against Kansas; Election, Presidential, 1856; Fugitive Slave Law; Kansas Nebraska Act; Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Missouri compromise; Ordinance of 1787 (see United States. Ordinance of 1787); Slave power; Slavery; Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; United States. Ordinance of 1787


Letter from National Kansas Committee
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: 1856
This was a generic solicitation letter seeking money, supplies, and settlers. It mentioned Col. Buford's expedition to Kansas and speculated on Southern motives with regard to Kansas.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Emigration and immigration; Food; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Hurd, H. B.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas State Central Committee; Money; National Kansas Committee; New York; Relief; Slavery; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Pamphlet, "The Coming Struggle: or, Shall Kansas Be a Free or Slave State?"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This pamphlet, authored anonymously by "One of the People" directs the question "Slavery or Liberty?" primarily to a Northern audience. The context of the argument supports Kansas achieving status as a free state, though it pointedly states that "the Free States desire not to control the internal arrangements of their sister States; but while they are willing that State rights should be respected, they will not submit to the nationalization of Slavery".

Keywords: Catholic Church; Democratic Party (U.S.); Missouri compromise; National politics; Popular sovereignty; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Secession; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery


Letter, D. R. Barker to Brother [Samuel] Adair
Authors: Barker, D. R.
Date: February 16, 1857
Writing from Mercer, Pennsylvania, Barker, a classmate of Adair's at Oberlin College, commented on the political situation in regard to Kansas and pro-slavery forces including pro-slavery churches.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Barker, D. R.; Free state prospects; Oberlin College; Pennsylvania; Proslavery activities; Religion; Slavery


Letter, A. Pierse to Dear Sir [Eli Thayer]
Authors: Pierse, A.
Date: March 31, 1857
A. Pierse wrote from Washington, D.C. to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts. Pierse was born in North Carolina and lived most of his life in the South but had been living in Minnesota Territory for the past seven years. He told Thayer that he planned to move to Kansas in the spring of 1857. Pierse offered Thayer his opinion on what free state supporters should do in Kansas Territory. He informed Thayer that, although he had "Southern opinions on the subject of slavery" and believed the federal government had no right to prohibit slavery in the territories, he was "without prejudice for or against either side" in the debate over slavery in Kansas Territory. Pierse suggested that the best course for free staters to take would be to accept the Dred Scott decision, actively participate in the political process in Kansas Territory, and work for the admission of Kansas as a state with or without slavery. Once Kansas was admitted, he contended, free state supporters would be on firmer legal ground to advocate for the prohibition of slavery, since it was generally accepted that "the people have the power to prohibit slavery in their state." He concluded by stating that once Kansas was a state, free staters could make the case that property would be worth 3 or 4 times more if slavery was prohibited in the state.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Dred Scott decision; Free state prospects; Pierse, A.; Proslavery perspective; Slavery; Southern emigrants; Southerners; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Letter, B. Darrach to Rev. S. L. Adair
Authors: Darrach, Barstow
Date: April 20, 1857
B. Darrach, a doctor at New York Hospital, wrote Adair that he was encouraged by the results of the Leavenworth election. He has authorized a Mr. Tator to settle his affairs in Osawatomie. He also discussed the slave oligarchy and indications that St. Louis was opposed to slavery. He cited several events that he felt indicated the free state cause was progressing.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Darrach, Barstow; Free state prospects; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); New York; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Slavery


Inaugural Address of R. J. Walker, Governor of Kansas Territory. Delivered in Lecompton, K. T., May 27, 1857
Authors: Walker, Robert J. (John), 1801-1869
Date: May 27, 1857
In this long and formal printed document directed to the citizens of Kansas, Robert Walker reviewed various issues facing Kansas Territory. He argued that all of the voters of Kansas Territory needed to vote on the Constitution and that he was pledged to seeing that the elections were fair. He explained that this was the procedure that had been set up by Congress. The address also discussed issues related to public lands in Kansas, particularly grants of lands for railroads and schools and to taxation. Walker addressed the issue of slavery in detail and explained that the "law of the thermometer, of latitude or altitude, regulating climate, labor and productions" would determine the extent of the spread of slavery based on profit and loss. Walker explained that this law rendered slavery unprofitable in cooler climates which were "unsuited to the tropical constitution of the negro race." He also argued that it was more important that the people of Kansas determined their government rather than not having one because of the issue of slavery.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Kansas Territory. Governor; Railroad land grants; Schools; Slavery; Voting; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Proclamation, To the People of Leavenworth County
Authors: Halderman, John Adams
Date: June 3, 1857
J. A. Halderman appeared to have penned this handwritten proclamation, signed by numerous other "residents and citizens" of Leavenworth County, calling on the people of the county "to support at the coming election for members of the constitutional convention" at Lecompton a slate of twelve named delegates. The document assured the citizenry that the "undersigned" and their chosen delegates were committed to a fair process that would allow the people to vote to accept or reject any proposed constitution and to vote separately on the question of slavery.

Keywords: Elections; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Slavery


Article, "History, as Espounded by the Supreme Court"
Authors: Plumb, Preston B.
Date: June 6, 1857
This article was printed in the very first edition of the Kanzas News, edited by Preston Plumb and printed in Emporia, Kansas Territory. It included excerpts taken from the May edition of Putnam's Monthly. The article documented the reaction of free soilers to the Dred Scott decision, which was passed by the Supreme Court in March 1857. Since he had lived on free soil for several years, Dred Scott had sued his master in an attempt to gain his freedom. However, the court determined that Dred Scott, and other slaves, were not legal citizens of the United States and therefore could not sue the government. As a result, Scott would remain a slave until his master voluntarily freed him shortly thereafter. This decision also annulled the Missouri Compromise of 1820.

Keywords: African Americans; Antislavery perspective; Dred Scott decision; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Scott, Dred; Slavery; Slaves; Taney, Roger B.; United States Government; United States. Constitution; United States. Supreme Court


Lecompton Constitution (manuscript version)
Authors: Lecompton Constitutional Convention
Date: November 7, 1857
The Lecompton Constitution, the second constitution drafted for Kansas Territory, was written by proslavery supporters. The document permitted slavery (Article VII), excluded free blacks from living in Kansas, and allowed only male citizens of the United States to vote. There were three separate votes on the Lecompton Constitution: December 21, 1857, January 4, 1858, and August 2, 1858. In the final vote, residents of Kansas Territory rejected the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Constitutional conventions; Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery; Slavery


Lecompton Constitution (as printed in D.W. Wilder's Annals of Kansas (1868)).
Authors: Lecompton Constitutional Convention
Date: November 7, 1857
The Lecompton Constitution, the second constitution drafted for Kansas Territory, was written by proslavery supporters. The document permitted slavery (Article VII), excluded free blacks from living in Kansas, and allowed only male citizens of the United States to vote. There were three separate votes on the Lecompton Constitution: December 21, 1857, January 4, 1858, and August 2, 1858. In the final vote, residents of Kansas Territory rejected the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery; Slavery


Letter, M. [Martin] F. Conway to F. [Franklin] B. Sanborn
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: November 16, 1857
Shortly before he was to leave Washington, D.C., for a return trip to the territory, Conway wrote Sanborn in Concord, Mass., about his disappointment at again being separated from his wife and child, but he focused most of his comments on the Lecompton machinations and his continued belief that the Free State Party had be wrong to participate in the territorial election (thus giving that government legitimacy).

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Free State Party; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Slavery; United States. Congress


Letter, Geo. S. Boutwell to "My dear Sir" [Governor Salmon P. Chase]
Authors: Boutwell, George S.
Date: November 24, 1857
George Boutwell of Indianapolis, Indiana, wrote the governor of Ohio, Salmon P. Chase, regarding the forthcoming vote on the Lecompton Constitution--for the constitution with or without slavery. Boutwell explained why he believed the best alternative for Kansas free staters was to "abstain from voting." He asked Chase to encourage his Kansas friends to follow this course. (Chase likely forwarded this letter to Robinson.)

Keywords: Boutwell, George S.; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Columbus, Ohio; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Free state cause; Lecompton Constitution; Slavery; United States. Congress


Speech of Senator Douglas, of Illinois, on the President's Message
Authors: Douglas, Stephen
Date: December 9, 1857
Senator Stephen Douglas delivered this speech in the United States Senate, responding to President Buchanan's decision to let Congress determine whether or not to admit Kansas into the Union. Douglas approved of the decision, as he believed it was not an Executive matter. Douglas reiterated the point that the members of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention were appointed to frame a sample government, subject to the approval of the Territory's citizens, not to make a government themselves. Although he disapproved of the means used to submit the Lecompton Constitution to Congress, Douglas judged that the free state government in Topeka was an unlawful legislative body.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election fraud; Free state legislature; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Missouri compromise; Popular sovereignty; Slavery; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Poll Book, Atchison, Lecompton Constitution
Authors: Adams, Franklin G.
Date: January 4, 1858
On January 4, 1858, by act of the free-state territorial legislature, the voters of K. T. were given a second chance to vote on the Lecompton Constitution. This poll book lists the names of 319 individuals who voted "'against the Constitution framed at Lecompton' there being no votes given 'for the Constitution framed at Lecompton with slavery' and no votes given 'for the Constitution framed at Lecompton without slavery.'" The authenticity of the document was attested to by election judges, including F.G. Adams, and two clerks.

Keywords: Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), 1824-1899; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Eastin, Lucian J.; Elections; Free state legislature; Popular sovereignty; Slavery


Minority Report of Senator Douglas of Illinios on the Kansas-Lecompton Constitution
Authors: Douglas, Stephen
Date: February 18, 1858
Senator Stephen Douglas, as a member of the Committee on the Territories, presented this report, which analyzed the Lecompton and Topeka constitutional rivalry, for the consideration of the President. Douglas found that, under the Kansas-Nebraska Act, no government of Kansas, Territorial or otherwise, had the power to draft any constitution without the intital consent of Congress; the territories, though "self-governed" were not sovereign entities, and still were to defer to the direction of the federal government. He argued that even the recognized territorial government had no right to convene a constitutional convention without Congressional approval, and the vote the Lecompton Convention presented to the people offered no opportunity to fully reject the Lecompton Constitution, but only to accept or reject the slavery provision; a person could not vote against making Kansas a slave state unless he was also willing to vote for the Lecompton Constitution. Douglas, however, in his report likened this unauthorized act of Lecompton Constitutional Convention as much "revolution" and "treasonable pertinacity" as those actions of the free state government in Topeka; neither group held legitimate authority to draft or present their constitutions.

Keywords: Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Free state legislature; Illinois; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Popular sovereignty; Slavery; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Speech of Hon. Reuben E. Fenton of New York, "The Designs of the Slave Power"
Authors: Fenton, Reuben E.
Date: February 24, 1858
Representative Reuben Fenton, of New York, delivered this speech on the floor of the House of Representatives, in reaction to the Congressional debate over the validity of the Lecompton Constitution. Believing that the repeal of the Missouri Compromise was a mistake, meant to allow the extension of slavery into the new territories, Fenton emphasized that their forefathers recognized that slavery and anti-slavery men could not coexist. Thus, under the authority outlined in the Constitution, slavery in all Territories should be abolished, in line with the Federal Government's duty to "install a government [in the Territories] conducive to the greatest degree of happiness and welfare" of its residents. Fenton did not believe that the Lecompton Constitution represented the will of Kansas' citizens, insisting that the majority, as free state supporters, were proposing no challenge to the Government constructed by the founding fathers.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Dred Scott decision; Fenton, Reuben E.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton Constitution; Missouri compromise; New York; Popular sovereignty; Slavery; Speeches, addresses, etc.


Letter, John Brown, Jr. to My Dear General [E. B.] Whitman
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: February 26, 1858
To his Kansas friend "General Whitman," John Brown Jr. wrote from his farm in Ashtabula, Ohio, regarding his continued commitment to the cause of Kansas and the state of his health. Brown wanted Whitman to know the reason for his sudden departure in October 1856: "the symptoms of mental abberation were again manifest to myself at least, and I knew that I must change scenes & circumstances, or again loose my balance entirely." But despite the hardships endured and the resulting illness, "Kansas is deguerotyped upon my heart, a stormy yet glorious picture."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Illness; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Topeka; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slavery; Whitman, E. B.


Speech of Hon. John Crittenden of Kentucky on the Admission of the State of Kansas
Authors: Crittenden, John
Date: March 17, 1858
John J. Crittenden, a Senator of Kentucky, delivered this speech, which addressed the debate over Kansas Territory's admission to the Union under the Lecompton Constitution, on the floor of the Senate. Crittenden, himself a Southerner, contended that there was enough evidence to indicate that the Constitution that had been submitted was not well supported by the citizens of Kansas Territory, and proposed an idea which would become known as the "Crittenden Amendment" which called for the ratification of the whole Lecompton Constitution by a popular vote in the Territory before Kansas could be admitted as a state under it.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Crittenden Amendment; Crittenden, John J. (John Jordan), 1787-1863; Election fraud; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lecompton Constitution; Popular sovereignty; Slavery


Minutes of the Third Session of the Kansas and Nebraska Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church
Authors: Kansas and Nebraska Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church
Date: April 15-19, 1858
The annual conference was held in Topeka, Kansas Territory from April 15 through 19, 1858. The minutes included the names of those attending as well as the business conducted. It listed the various ministerial appointments in Kansas and Nebraska as well as the membership of the committees. The minutes reported on educational efforts at Baker University and Blue Mount Central College. It contained information on the church's stand on slavery and temperance. The constitution of the Kansas and Nebraska Conference Missionary Society was included in the report as were statistics for the various churches.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Baker University; Baldwin, Kansas Territory; Big Springs, Kansas Territory; Bluemont Central College; Burlingame, Kansas Territory; Churches; Community life; Denison, Joseph; Dennis, Levin B.; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Holton, Kansas Territory; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Methodist Church; Methodists; Oskaloosa, Kansas Territory; Paddock, G. W.; Palermo, Kansas Territory; Prairie City, Kansas Territory; Religion; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Temperance; Topeka, Kansas Territory; White Cloud, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Speech, Fellow Citizens--Opposing the Lecompton Constitution
Authors: Martin, John A., 1839-1889
Date: c. 1858
This hand-written speech appeared to be another by John Alexander Martin, seemingly composed for delivery in the spring and/or early summer of 1858, not long after he took over Atchison's Squatter Sovereign and renamed it Freedom's Champion. Here the speaker aimed his attack at the Buchanan administration and the English Bill, and the renewed attempt to pass the Lecompton Constitution at a referendum scheduled for August 2, 1858, and thus overturn the free-state victory that had already been won. The speaker seemed confident it would be defeated, as the constitution itself had been in January but hoped for an overwhelming vote against (perhaps as many as 15,000).

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Constitutions; English Bill; Free labor; Lecompton Constitution; Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Missouri compromise; Popular sovereignty; Slave power; Slavery; Squatter sovereignty


Letter, John N. Gardner to Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: Gardner, John N.
Date: January 9, 1859
This letter, written from Buffalo by John N. Gardner, is addressed to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Mr. Gardner related the tale of Mrs. H.G. Hyzen of Waitsfield, Vermont, an ardent supporter of John Brown who claimed to have a clairvoyant vision of him in his prison cell. The entire letter is a passionate piece of correspondence, speaking frequently of liberty and the "Total Annihilation of that Scourge of Humanity, Human Slavery." The letter also mentioned other abolitionists--Henry C. Wright and Mrs. Child--who wrote letters to John Brown.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Gardner, John N.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Prisoners; Prisons; Slavery; Vermont; Waitsfield, Vermont


Statement, U.S. Constitution and Slavery . . .
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 9, 1859
Letter Press Book #3 began with an alphabetical, name index to the letters that follow, but the first document therein was a statement dated April 9, 1859, composed of three principles regarding the U.S. Constitution, governance, and slavery in the territories: "1st. We hold that the constitution of the U. States does not carry slavery into the Territories . . ." The second and third points asserted the rights of the people of the territories to govern themselves.

Keywords: Popular sovereignty; Slavery; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution


Letter, A. Lincoln (copy) to M. W. Delahay
Authors: Lincoln, Abraham
Date: May 14, 1859
This two-page, handwritten copy of a letter to Mark Delahay from Abraham Lincoln was probably given to the KSHS by Delahay's daughter Mary E. Delahay in the early 1900s. Lincoln regretfully declined an invitation to attend the Osawatomie convention on May 18 which was to formally organize the Republican Party in Kansas. Lincoln warned against "the temptation to lower the Republican Standard [in whatever platform the convention might adopt] in order to gather recruits. In my judgment," Lincoln continued," such a step would be a serious mistake" that "would surrender the object of the Republican organization--the preventing the Spread and Nationalization of Slaver . . ."

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Presidential, 1860; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Slave power; Slavery


Speech, Fellow Citizens--In Support of the Wyandotte Constitution
Authors: Martin, John A., 1839-1889
Date: c. July 1859
This eleven-page document was a speech or essay, most likely in John Alexander Martin's handwriting, in support of the proposed Wyandotte Constitution, which was ratified by the voters of the territory on October 4, 1859. Martin, a twenty-year-old Atchison editor, served as secretary for the convention which finished its work at the end of July. Thus, this speech, attacking the Democrats for conspiring to defeat this latest free-state constitution and for "the Lecomptonizing of Kansas," was undoubtedly delivered several times during the months of August and September 1859. It covered the various issues opponents were likely to use to defeat it at the polls and stressed that in light of actions of "a servile judiciary" slavery could not be removed from Kansas until it was admitted as a "sovereign state."

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); English Bill; Free state constitutions; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Lecompton Constitution; Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Missouri compromise; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Scott, Dred; Slave power; Slavery; Squatter sovereignty; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, William Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: October 2, 1859
From "Harpers Ferry" about two weeks before the raid that took his life, William H. Leeman wrote his mother that, although he didn't want to worry her, he was "waring with Slavery the greatest Curse that ever infested America," and he fully expected the entire South to be "free" by the time they finished. He had "been Engaged [for the past three years] in a Secret Asosiation [sic] of as gallaint fellows as ever puled a trigger with the sole purpose of the Extermination of Slavery," and they were now ready and "determined to strike for Freedom Incite the Slaves to Rebelion and Establish a free government."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Leeman, William H.; Slaveholders; Slavery


John Brown pike
Authors: Collins and Company
Date: October 18, 1859
Pike used by slaves at the insurrection planned by John Brown at the U.S. arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia, October 18, 1859. Armed with pikes and guns, Brown's army, primarily slaves, took hostages from the community and took over the arsenal. Brown's army was overwhelmed by U.S. troops led by Colonel Robert E. Lee. Brown was tried and hanged for treason on December 2, 1859.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Collinsville, Connecticut; Courts; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Swords and daggers; United States Government; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John Brown to Hon. Thos. Russell
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: October 21, 1859
From his jail cell in Charles Town, Virginia, just days before he was to go on trial for treason, John Brown wrote seeking legal counsel for himself and fellow prisoners. Brown mentioned his wounds, but said they were "doing well," expresses special concern for "the young men prisoners," and closed "Do not send an ultra Abolitionist."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Lawyers; Russell, Thomas; Slavery


Letter, A. D. Stevens to "My Dear Friend" [Jennie Dunbar]
Authors: Stevens, Aaron D.
Date: December 3, 1859
From his jail cell at Charlestown, Virginia, Stevens wrote his love interest, Jennie (recepient information is on a handwritten copy, also in folder 10), regarding his actions and prospects ("Slavery demands that we should hang for its protection") and the fact that he regretted nothing except that he would not live to "see this Country free."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Slave power; Slavery


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Hon. Edward Everett]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: December 21, 1859
In the wake of John Brown's execution, Ewing wrote to congratulate the renowned Whig congressman, governor, and U.S. senator from Massachusetts, Edward Everett, for the sentiments expressed by Everett and others at "the great meeting at Fanueil Hall to give expression to the opinion of the conservative people of Boston respecting the foray of old John Brown." Nevertheless, Ewing had to point out "an erroneous statement" in Everett's speech "to the effect that the migration of free negroes into the Territory of Kansas is prohibited by law." This of course was not the case and Ewing believed to say so did disservice to the people of Kansas, "who, after achieving their own liberties . . . Have not disgraced themselves by denying the freedom of the Territory to any human being."

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Constitutions; Everett, Edward, 1794-1865; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Exclusion, African Americans; Slavery


Citizens of Lawrence! L. Arms in area for negro hunting
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1860
This document warned the citizens of Lawrence that a U.S Marshal named L[eonard] Arms was searching Lawrence for slaves and that they had the right to keep him out of their homes.

Keywords: African Americans; Arms, Leonard; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Slaves; United States marshals


Veto Message of Governor Medary, on the Bill Prohibiting Slavery in Kansas.
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: February 20, 1860
Samuel Medary presented a very detailed message about why he was vetoring a bill prohibiting slavery in Kansas that had been passed by the territorial House of Representatives. This printed document contained a long discussion about the sovereignty (or lack thereof) by the federal government, territories and states and how that applied to the institution of slavery. He ultimately argued that the law passed contained no means of enforcement but only enacted the "declaratory" statement about slavery contained in the Wyandotte Constitution.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Slavery


Letter, John Ritchey to My Dear Friend [A. D.] Stevens
Authors: Ritchie, John , 1817-1887
Date: March 6, 1860
From Franklin, Indiana, on March 6, 1860, John Ritchey wrote to Aaron Steven, one of the Harpers Ferry raiders still awaiting execution in Virginia, that it "it is gratafying to me, to find you, so willing to meet your sentence."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery perspective; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Slavery; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Stowe, Harriet Beecher; Uncle Tom's Cabin


Letter, John Ritchey to "Friend Stevens" [A.D. Stevens]
Authors: Ritchie, John , 1817-1887
Date: March 7, 1860
Topeka's "John Ritchey" [Ritchie] wrote this letter dated March 7, 1860, to A. D. Stevens from Franklin, Indiana, where he had "been spending the winter with his family." Although Ritchey mentioned John Brown and his own fervent views in opposition to "Slavery," the focus of his brief comments to his former Kansas comrade, who was scheduled to die on the Charlestown gallows on March 17, were an expression of concern for Steven's eternal soul: "I can see but one way left for me to be of any service to you and that is to direct your mind to the Savior. 'Ye must be born again.'"

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Religion; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Slavery; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka boys; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Minutes of the Kansas and Nebraska Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Fifth Session
Authors: Kansas and Nebraska Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church
Date: March, 1860
The annual conference was held in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, on March 15, 1860. The report contained a great deal more information than the Third Session from 1858 and included information about Methodist Churches in all parts of Kansas (as well as Nebraska) Territory. Its committee reports included education, slavery, temperance, the conference missionary society, etc.

Keywords: Baker University; Bluemont Central College; Churches; Community life; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Methodist Church; Methodists; Religion; Slavery; Temperance


Political Anti-Slavery Convention
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 29, 1860
This announcement called for a political anti-slavery convention to be held in Boston on May 29, 1860. The men who called the convention, who were listed at the end of the announcement, believed that neither of the current political parties truly represented their anti-slavery sentiments. They stated their goal in terms of liberty for all people, both black and white.

Keywords: African Americans; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Political conventions; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Slave power; Slavery; Slaves; United States Government; United States. Constitution


$200 Reward!
Authors: Williams, G. D.
Date: June 7, 1860
Wanted poster of two slaves from Saline County, Missouri. Includes the names and descriptions of the two slaves. Poster is on display in the Kansas Museum of History, Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: African Americans; Broadsides; Fugitive slaves; Missouri; Money; Slavery; Slaves


First Thanksgiving Sermon
Authors: McVicar, Peter
Date: November 29, 1860
Apparently pretty typical of the Rev. Peter McVicar's sermons, this one is entitled "First Thanksgiving Sermon." It was delivered in Topeka on November 29, 1860, just weeks after he assumed the pastorate of the Congregational Church. McVicar focused on the concept that God's blessings were not to be measured by the accumulation of money or property, making specific comments about Kansas. He suggested, for example, that citizens of Kansas Territory who gathered together on that day should be especially thankful for the hardships endured by "early" settlers in order to establish freedom from slavery.

Keywords: Churches; Congregational churches; McVicar, Peter; Religion; Sermons; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Thanksgiving Day; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, L. Maria Child to Dear Mrs. [Mary] Brown
Authors: Child, Lydia Maria Francis , 1802-1880
Date: December 2, 1860
One year after the execution of John Brown, on December 2, 1860, Mrs. Child wrote the Brown's widow, Mary Brown, regarding the impact her husband's actions and commitment to the cause had had on the country and efforts for "emancipation." She also sent along "a trifle" to help support the Brown family financially.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Slavery


Letter, James Montgomery to F. B. Sanborn
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: January 14, 1861
Just two weeks before Kansas would be admitted to the Union and in the midst of the early secession crisis, Montgomery (Mound City) told Franklin B. Sanborn (Boston) that he (Montgomery) did not favor an invasion of "the slave states so long as they keep themselves at home," but Missouri was crossing the line and interfering in Kansas affairs. He also commented on recent mob violence in Boston and General Harney's futile efforts to enforce the Fugitive Slave law in southern Kansas.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Democratic Party (U.S.); Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Harney, William S.; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Martial law; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Secession; Slavery


John Speer's Reminiscences of Jas. Skaggs, formerly a slave owner near Lecompton
Authors: Speer, John
Date: July 13, 1895
Mr. Speer described his knowledge of the slaves owned by James Skaggs. Mr. Skaggs lived on Kaw half-breed lands about a mile from Lecompton. Speer also described an encounter he had in 1870 or 1871 with a former slave of Mr. Skaggs who owned property near Parker in Montgomery County. The former slave apparently rented a house and some farm land to his former owner Mr. Skaggs. Speer also described slaves owned by Judge Rush Elmore. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Skaggs, James; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speer, John, 1817-1906


Letter, Wm. Leamer to F. G. Adams, Sec., State Hist. So.
Authors: Leamer, William
Date: July 13, 1895
Writing from Lecompton, William Leamer described several families who had slaves when he arrived in Kansas Territory in 1856. The information is very brief. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), 1824-1899; African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Leamer, William; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Letter, Isaac Maris to F. G. Adams
Authors: Maris, Isaac
Date: July 22, 1895
Isaac Maris was responding to a request for information about slaves in Kansas Territory. He provides the names of several families who had slave and describes the escape of one female slave and her child with indirect references to the underground railroad. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), 1824-1899; African Americans; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Maris, Isaac; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad


Reminiscences of Mrs. J. B. Abbott, De Soto, Sept. 1, 1895
Authors: Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett
Date: September 1, 1895
This reminiscence, apparently, was based on an interview by Miss Zu Adams with Mrs. J. B. Abbott in 1895 and typed from notes she had taken during the visit. Mrs. Abbott states that their home was one of the Underground Railway stations. She described the escape of a young male slave who came to the house while her husband was absent. Miss Adams was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett; African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad; Women


Letter, Thos. R. Bayne to Miss Zoe Adams
Authors: Bayne, Thomas R.
Date: September 11, 1895
Mr. Bayne wrote from Williamstown, Kansas describing slaves that he had owned. He also listed a number of other families who owned slaves in Kansas during the territorial period in southern Jefferson and northern Douglas counties. He offered a southerners perspective on owning slaves. This item is from information collected by F. G. Adams and Miss Zu Adams in 1895. They contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society.

Keywords: African Americans; Bayne, Thomas R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery perspective; Skaggs, James; Skaggs, Thomas; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Wallis, John


Letter, S. L. Adair to Miss [Zu] Adams
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: September 16, 1895
Samuel Adair, Osawatomie, Kansas, described the two slaves that he had encountered. One was an eight to ten year old boy that had been hired by a merchant from Kansas City. The other slave of which he was aware was a woman owned by an Indian interpreter named Baptiste. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Adams, Zu; African Americans; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Letter, Fannie E. Cole to Miss [Zu] Adams
Authors: Cole, Fannie E.
Date: October 20, 1895
Fannie Cole wrote about slaves in Kansas Territory that she remembered from her childhood. Her family came to the territory in the spring of 1855 and settled in Shawnee County. The families with slaves that she mentioned were George L. Young and his mother, John Young, Louis Harris, and Perry Fleshman. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: African Americans; Cole, Fannie E.; Fleshman, Perry; Harris, Louis; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Women; Young, George L.; Young, John


Reminiscence of Marcus Lindsay Freeman, a former slave
Authors: Freeman, Marcus Lindsay
Date: 1895
Mr. Freeman came to Kansas Territory as the slave of Thomas Bayne. Mr. Freeman described his childhood memories with his owner, who was about three months older and to whom he had been "given" as a baby. He provided information about his life and that of other family members and slaves during the Territorial era. This account was prepared by either F. G. or Zu Adams after an interview with Mr. Freeman. The penciled corrections were apparently made by Thomas Bayne. They contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society.

Keywords: African Americans; Bayne, Thomas R.; Edwards, Fielding; Freeman, Marcus Lindsay; Skaggs, Charity; Skaggs, Robert; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Reminiscence of John Sedgwick Freeland
Authors: Freeland, John Sedgwick
Date: 1895
Mr. Freeland gave a detailed account of the slaves owned by Judge Rush Elmore and his wife. The reminiscence contained some stereotypical views and phrases concerning African Americans. This account was prepared by either F. G. or Zu Adams after an interview with Mr. Freeland. They contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society.

Keywords: African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Freeland, John Sedgwick; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Shawnee Mission; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Reminiscences of Slave Days in Kansas
Authors: Armstrong, John
Date: circa 1895
John Armstrong assisted a slave named Ann Clarke, owned by G. W. Clarke, to escape into Iowa. He described the event in detail, including how she escaped, was captured, and escaped again. He also described slaves owned by a Mr. Bowen who lived on Washington Creek in Douglas. Armstrong lived on Washington Creek and later in Topeka. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: African Americans; Armstrong, John; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad


Letter, W. H. Mackey to George
Authors: Mackey, W. H.
Date: March 26, 1902
The letter describes two incidents involving female slaves. One involved a trade of a female slave owned by Fox Booth to someone named Reynolds for a white horse in 1855. Mr. Mackey, writing from Junction City, Kansas, described an incident were two slave women were accused of poisoning an ordinance Sergeant from Fort Riley and how they ultimately were released from punishment. Several other slave owners were mentioned. This information seems to be a follow up to the Historical Society's effort to collect information about slaves in 1895.

Keywords: African Americans; Booth, Fox; Davis County, Kansas Territory; Geary County, Kansas; Mackey, W. H.; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Sculpture of Slave Auction Block
Authors: Douglas, Frederick I.
Date: 1920-1927
Carved figure inside a glass bottle, depicting a slave auction. Figure was carved by Frederick I. Douglas to represent a story passed down by his father, Thomas O. Douglas, who had been sold in a similar manner in Tennessee. Thomas Douglas was an Exoduster who settled in Wabaunsee County in 1879. His son Frederick's carvings won ribbons when exhibited at a Topeka fair in 1927.

Keywords: African Americans; Art; Artist; Douglas, Frederick I.; Douglas, Thomas Oliver; Exodusters; Objects; Slave auctions; Slavery; Slaves; Tennessee


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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