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38 results for Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877:
Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: October 15, 1855
Josiah Miller, at his office at the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his Father and Mother in South Carolina regarding recent events. He supported Reeder in the October 9th election over the pro-slavery candidate, John W. Whitfield, and suspected that Reeder would be elected regardless of any fraudulently cast votes. Miller elaborated on his problems with Robert Elliott, his business partner, who had no money to invest further in their newspaper. He also mentioned that the most debated topic at the recently convened Nebraska Territorial Legislature was the location of their capital, not the slavery question.

Keywords: Contested elections; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Nebraska Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Letter, [Hiram Hill] to Dear Wife
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 8, 1855 - December 9, 1855
Hiram Hill wrote from Westport, Missouri to his wife as he received new information concerning the Wakarusa War at Lawrence. Hill was frustrated by these reports, which conflicted and were from the proslavery perspective, and which concerned the number of free state and proslavery soldiers, the status of the war, and government action taken to prevent conflict. Hill was also troubled by shameless "traveling and drinking and swearing" and gunshots on the Sabbath. The last page of the letter expresses his relief at news of peace in Lawrence, where he would learn "the other syde of the story" upon arrival. The murder of Thomas W. Barber, who rode outside Lawrence and was shot by a proslavery supporter on December 6th, was mentioned. Hill also described an eventful stagecoach journey.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Cannons; Daily life; Free state militia; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery perspective; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Stagecoaches; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Wakarusa Treaty
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles ; Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 8, 1855
A draft of an agreement between Governor Wilson Shannon, representing the territorial government, and Charles Robinson and James Lane, representing the free state movement, settling the dispute that resulted in the Wakarusa War. In essence, Robinson and Lane pledged to "aid in the execution of any legal process" against individuals involved in rescuing free state supporter Jacob Branson provided that these individuals received a hearing before a U.S. District Court judge. This compromise ended the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter/Order, Wilson Shannon to C. Robinson and J. H. Lane
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 9, 1855
According to D. W. Wilder, Governor Wilson Shannon arrived in Lawrence on December 7, 1855, and on December 8 made "a treaty with the Free-State Generals" ending the Wakarusa War. The paper was signed by Shannon, Robinson and Lane. With the document represented here, dated Lawrence, December 9, 1855, Governor Shannon "authorized & directed [Robinson and Lane] to take such measures & use the enrolled force under your command in such manner for the preservation of the peace & the protection of the persons & property of the people in Lawrence & vicinity as in your judgment shall best secure that end." ( A subsequent notation indicated that the order was written in Robinson's hand, but signed by Shannon.)

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, unsigned [Marc Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: December 15, 1855
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus recounted the events of the Wakarusa War, and described the actions of the Missourians prior to their attack, which supported his idea that it was premeditated. He told about his experience as a prisoner in the Missourians' camp and his interview with Governor Shannon regarding a peace treaty between the two groups. Marcus was pleased with the terms of the treaty, but was wary of Shannon's motives, saying that he was trying to "ring in" the free state party.

Keywords: Ammunition; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Barber, Thomas W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Wife
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 12, 1855
Hiram Hill arrived in Lawrence, Kansas Territory shortly after the end of the Wakarusa War. This letter to his wife reviewed the events of the war, made mention of women's assistance, described Hill's journey from Leavenworth with Mr. Conway, and gave an account of Thomas W. Barber's funeral, at which Charles Robinson and James Lane spoke. Barber was killed south of Lawrence on the 6th. Hill had met Mr. Whitney, Judge Johnson, Mr. Haskell, and Mr. Simpson, and planned to visit Charles Robinson. Hill also detailed Governor Shannon's settlement with free state leaders at Lawrence.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Funerals; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Town development; Travel; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Women


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: December 16, 1855
Soon after his return from Lawrence, where he and other volunteers had successfully defended that place, John Brown wrote from Osawatomie to give his family "a brief account of the invasion," the so-called Wakarusa War. As it turned out, Brown provided some interesting details about their preparations and arrival in the besieged city and the negotiations that were ongoing when the Browns came on the scene. The Free State leaders, according to Brown, skillfully accomplished and signed an agreement with Governor Shannon that was "much to their own liking."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Barber, Thomas W.; Bogus legislature; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Coleman, Franklin M.; Dow, Charles W.; Free state cause; Free state militia; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery supporters; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, S. C. P. [Samuel Clarke Pomeroy] to Dr. [Thomas H.] Webb
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: December 19, 1855
Samuel Pomeroy, writing from Boonville, Missouri, to Dr. Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, described a dinner he attended in Lexington, Missouri with pro-slavery Missourians who had participated in the Wakarusa War. Pomeroy expressed the opinion that the Missourians drank too much alcohol but he reported that he had been allowed to express his anti-slavery views to the group. Pomeroy indicated that the Missourians were particularly upset with Governor Wilson Shannon's intervention in the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Missouri; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery perspective; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Narrative," A Twelve Months Practical Life in Kansas Territory, written by an actual settler"
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: ca. 1855
Robert Atkins Tovey wrote these pages so that "those who are going forth with their wives & children, their property, yea their all on earth should have the information covering the country to which they are making a Pilgrimage" from someone who has recently made the same journey. Broken up into chapters by subject, Tovey gave advice about the journey and settlement, provisions, land claims, soil, and weather, in addition to providing commentary about the current political situation and his disgust at the "Mob law" being imposed by the Missourians.

Keywords: African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Election fraud; Free state perspective; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Missourians; Native Americans; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Slavery; Slaves; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Transportation; Travel; Weather


Excerpt from letter, I. T. G [Isaac Goodnow] to [unknown]
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: January/February 1856
In the wake of the Wakarusa War, Isaac Goodnow wrote to an unknown recipient regarding recent skirmishes and negotiations between proslavery and free state supporters. According to Goodnow, Governor Shannon had demanded that the free state men surrender their Sharp's rifles and obey the laws of the "bogus" legislature. Governor Robinson had responded, telling his men to "keep the rifles, but surrender their contents." Goodnow also commented on the "determined heroism" of the free state women, and recounted the incident of voter fraud which occurred in the Delegate to Congress election between former Governor Reeder and J. W. Whitfield.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Election fraud; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879; Women


Letter, M. W. Delahay to Genl. C. Robinson, Col. J. H. Lane & Others
Authors: Delahay, Mark W.
Date: February 16, 1856
From Washington, D.C., on February 16, 1856, Mark Delahay, the Free State Party's would be representative to the 34th Congress, wrote to his free state colleagues regarding President Franklin Pierce's directive to Governor Wilson Shannon. The latter was "to arrest and punish all who may take part in the making and putting inforce any law in oposition to the Territorial laws now upon the Statute Book." Delahay warned against "the organization of an independent State Government" and wrote "we are upon the brink of a crisis of serious import." (See D.W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas, 109-110.)

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Free state government; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Pierce administration; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Organization of the Free State Government in Kansas with the Inaugural Speech and Message of Governor Robinson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 4, 1856
This pamphlet provides a vivid description of the scene, players, and proceedings of the initial sessions of the Free State Government convened in Topeka. From Governor Charles Robinson's inaugural speech, the intent of the new Legislature was clear: they convened in order to formulate a State government which would serve their political interests and would reflect the principle of "squatter [popular] sovereignty", since the existing Territorial government was merely provisional and furthermore did not advance their free-state aspirations.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Free state legislature; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Speeches, addresses, etc.; Squatter sovereignty; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Letter, [unknown] to Hiram Hill
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 30, 1856
The author of this letter, possibly C. A. Wright, wrote to Hiram Hill from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He discussed continuing speculation efforts in Lawrence, but particular ones were becoming rife with politics. Also mentioned is the recent completion of the Free State Hotel, which would help ease the recent emigration rush. The author described events surrounding the shooting of Sheriff Samuel Jones "by an unknown hand". The shooting followed the issuing of arrest warrants for George Deitzler, Gaius Jenkins, and others, for their failure to assist with the arrest of S. N. Wood, who was charged with aiding the rescue of a free state man from prison the past November.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Emigration and immigration; Free State Hotel; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Jenkins, Gaius; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Land speculation; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence; Warrants (Law); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: May 9, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, regarding recent events, which were "unfathomably deep in the waters of territorial trouble". He described the movement of armed men towards Lawrence, a mix of U.S. troops and militiamen from Missouri. Marcus also referred to the current situations of Robinson, Reeder, Lane, and other men who were to play important roles in the imminent Sack of Lawrence. Despite these threats, Marcus still commented on his own economic situation and again asked for money from his brother and father.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Neosho, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Real estate investment; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Telegraph; Town development


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: May 11, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory to his brother, Edwin Parrott, updating him on the situation in K.T. in the days leading up to the Sack of Lawrence. Marcus told him of attempts to arrest both Andrew Reeder and Charles Robinson, and how Reeder claimed that he was privileged from arrest. He also discussed the movement of the troops and his plans to visit Neosho in the coming few days, provided that the political tensions subside.

Keywords: Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Missouri River; Neosho River, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912


Legal document, Free Passage to Josiah Miller out of Kansas Territory
Authors: Donalson, I.B. ; Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: May 16, 1856
Josiah Miller, of the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence, was arrested for treason by South Carolina soldiers and was tried in a military tent near Lecompton. He was defended by James Christian and was acquitted. Governor Shannon and I. B. Donalson, U. S. Marshall of the Kansas Territory, issued him this pass on his way out of the territory so that he would not be arrested again by border ruffians.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Christian, James; Courts; Donalson, Israel B.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


Senate Executive Documents, Reports from Colonel E.V. Sumner
Authors: Sumner, Edwin Vose
Date: May 16, 1856 - August 31, 1856
Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner, leader of a Kansas Territory cavalry regiment, corresponded primarily with Territorial Governer Wilson Shannon and the Secretary of War's Adjutant General regarding military action taken in response to the Sack of Lawrence and the subsequent retaliatory skirmishes between free state and proslavery men. Sumner maintained that safety in the Territory could not be guaranteed "unless the posse of the U.S. Marshal was dismissed" in favor of local troops. Fearing civil war, Sumner and his correspondents discussed the convening of the Topeka Legislature, which they dubbed "bogus".

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Skirmishing; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States marshals; Violence; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: May 23, 1856
Written just two days after the sack of Lawrence, this letter contained Learnard's observations of and reflections on "the fearful disaster to which this unfortunate town has been subjected." The town's citizens, wrote Learnard, chose not to resist the authority of the U.S. marshal but were nevertheless brutalized by Sheriff Jones and a posse of Missourians. He also mentioned Governor Reeder, Governor Shannon and David R. Atchison, who "made a speech."

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Missourians; Proslavery support; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence


Senate Executive Documents, 34th Congress, 3rd session, Report of the Secretary of War
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 23, 1856 - November 12, 1856
Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, submitted a number of documents in his report to the President that was submitted to the "Two Houses of Congress" on December 2, 1856. There were three sections of documents. Part 1 consisted of letters from the Secretary of War (Davis) and the Adjutant General ( S. Cooper) (pp. 27--35) to Colonel E.V. Sumner, General P. F. Smith, the governors of Kentucky and Illinois, and Major Emery, in relation to a militia force to be employed to aid the legitimate Territorial Government in Kansas Territory. Part 2 (pp.35--61) contained various reports from Colonel E. V. Sumner, commaning officer of the 1st Cavalry at Fort Leavenworth about events in Kansas. The reports include correspondence from Wilson Shannon, territorial governor, and various officers of the 1st Cavalry from Lecompton, Tecumseh, and other locations in the territory. Part 3 (pp. 62-146) was headed "Reports for the Department of the West" and included correspondence from various military officers about the activities of United States troops at various locations in Kansas Territory. This section contained several letters from Daniel Woodson and John Geary, territorial officials. A few non-Kansas items relating to dealings with Native Americans were interspersed among the Kansas Territory correspondence.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Cooke, Philip St. George; Davis, Jefferson; Deas, George; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Military; Sackett, Delos B.; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, Jas Finley to Dear Sister
Authors: Finley, James Agnew
Date: May 24, 1856
James A. Finley, a Lawrence resident at the time of the Sack of Lawrence, wrote to his sister recounting the events that had transpired only three days before. Concisely but vividly he described events as they unfolded from the morning of May 21st, when David Atchison "planted 2 cannon upon the hill above town." Finley, a more fortunate man than many in Lawrence that day, claimed to have suffered no losses in the incident.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Finley, James Agnew; Free state perspective; Guns; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Smith, George W.; United States marshals; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, M. S. Cecilia Sherman To Mrs. [Sara] Robinson
Authors: Sherman, Margaret S. C.
Date: May 25, 1856
Margaret Sarah Cecilia (Mrs. John) Sherman wrote Sara Robinson on May 25, 1856, regarding Governor Robinson's captivity to date. He had been arrested on May 10 at Lexington, Missouri, and subsequently returned to the territory. At this time he was being held in Leavenworth, where Sherman and many other of Robinson's friends had the opportunity to visit with him, and Sherman was able to attest to his good treatment. She makes interesting, favorable reference to Robinson's stay in Lexington and to "Captain [John W.] Martin of the Kickapoo rangers," who "seemed to have charge" of the governor in Leavenworth. (Congressman John Sherman of Ohio was the brother of William T. Sherman, later of Leavenworth, and a member of the Howard Committee, investigating the Kansas affair.)

Keywords: Damage claims; Free state cause; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lexington, Missouri; Martin, John W.; Preston, Colonel; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sherman, John, 1823-1900


Letter, S. P. Hanscom to Mrs. Sara T. D. Robinson
Authors: Hanscom, S. P.
Date: May 25, 1856
On Sunday, May 25, 1856, "at the request of Gov. Robinson," S. P. Hanscom wrote Sara Robinson to assure her that her "esteemed and gallant husband" was well. This remarkably detailed letter describes the governor's captivity, the bogus charges filed against him, and circumstances that brought him to Leavenworth. Hanscom found that Robinson was receiving many visitors, including Congressman William A. Howard, chair of the congressional committee investigating Kansas troubles.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus laws; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Hanscom, S. P.; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Howard, William Alanson; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Martin, John W.; Preston, Colonel; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stringfellow, John H.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Treason; Westport, Missouri


Letter, Wm Phillips to Respected Madam [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Phillips, William
Date: May 26, 1856
William Phillips, after visiting Charles Robinson in jail, wrote to Sara Robinson updating her on her husband's situation. Phillips reported to her that Charles was being held on two counts: one for high treason and the other for usurping office. He also related to her the events of the sack of Lawrence and the resulting destruction of her home.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Phillips, William; Preston, Colonel; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: June 22, 1856
During a lull, Cyrus K. Holliday reported from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania that Colonel Edwin V. Sumner had forced proslavery troops back to Missouri and camped on the border. Two free state men from Wisconsin had killed proslavery supporters near Osawatomie. Governor Wilson Shannon had resigned. A "large mass convention" was planned for July 2nd and 3rd, with a meeting of the free state legislature on the 4th. Cyrus advised Mary and Mr. Nichols to wait until after the 4th to travel to the territory.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Holidays; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Letter, E. Hoogland to Thos. N. Stinson, Esq.
Authors: Hoogland, Edward
Date: July 6, 1856
Edward Hoogland, a resident of Tecumseh, KT who was visiting his family in New York, described a meeting with Governor Wilson Shannon in St. Louis concerning territorial politics. Hoogland displayed a pro-slavery perspective in his comments on Kansas affairs. He described efforts to encourage settlement in Kansas Territory, especially Tecumseh, and to promote economic development in the territory. He mentioned an acquaintance who hoped to establish a sawmill and a gristmill in the territory.

Keywords: Economic development; Gristmills; Hoogland, Edward; Law and Order Party; Mills and mill-work; Sawmills; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stinson, Thomas N.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town building (see Town development); Town development


Letter, [I. Sabin] to Chad Kellogg
Authors: Sabin, I.
Date: August 8, 1856
I. Sabin wrote to Chad Kellogg regarding real-estate transactions and troubles along the Missouri-Kansas border. Sabin, the commander of a 40-man company against pro-slavery forces, described the amount of firearms needed by each fighting man and his lack of money with which to purchase them. The letter is written on a printed circular "Appeal of Kansas to the Voters of the Free States," which enumerates various offenses done to free state men, focusing particularly on the contested election of 1856.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Frederick; Buford, Jefferson; Free state perspective; Guns; Kellogg, Chad; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Popular sovereignty; Sabin, I.; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: August 10, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote from Lawrence of his continued commitment to the "Sacked City," insisting that he would not be "bullied or frightened" by those committing outrages in Kansas Territory. He commented on the political composition of the territory and Lawrence, where he found many Douglas Democrats. Although there were some "fanatics" and "abolitionists," most residents of Lawrence were "western men" who had been driven to oppose the administration by the outrages. He insisted that the significance of the New England Emigrant Company had been exaggerated and that although more violent confrontations were likely, Kansas would eventually be free.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Douglas Democrats; Dragoons; Free State Party; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pierce administration; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.


Letter, Mary to My Dear Husband [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Mary
Date: August 29, 1856
Mary Holliday wrote from Meadville, Pennsylvania to her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, who was presently touring Pennsylvania to speak in support of Republican presidential nominee John C. Fremont. Mary mentioned Mr. Howe, L. Lord, and Alfred Huidekoper, all friends of Cyrus. William D. Paul, who lived in Shawnee County, Kansas Territory had written. Quoting from his letter, Mary reported a skirmish between free state and proslavery men at Franklin, in Douglas County. Henry C. Titus, colonel of proslavery troops, and Israel B. Donal[d]son, U. S. marshal, had been taken prisoner. Governor Wilson Shannon had negotiated a treaty. Mary also mentioned her ill health, and she hoped that Cyrus was well.

Keywords: Battles; Donalson, Israel B.; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Missourians; Paul, William D.; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Titus, Henry Theodore


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "Dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: September 4, 1856
From Topeka, Kagi wrote his father about his (Kagi's) personal situation and more generally about the civil war in Kansas. Several thousand "armed Missourians" had been committing outrages against free state citizens with the support of proslave leaders--Wilson Shannon, Samuel Lecompte, and Daniel Woodson. Freestaters, according to Kagi, were just then mounting an effective defense of both Lawrence and Topeka, both primary targets of the proslavery forces--"the enemy are determined to 'wipe out', as they say, both these towns."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Militia; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Woodson, Daniel


Pamphlet, "Affairs in Kansas"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This pamphlet contains a proclamation made by President Franklin Pierce and a speech by Senator Isaac Toucey. Also included are printed copies of letters and papers which date from December 1, 1855 to February 18, 1856, and communicate between Governor Wilson Shannon and other officials in Kansas Territory and the President and officials of the federal government which relate to "difficulties" in Kansas Territory. In this document, free state efforts are described as those of a "secret military organization" working against the legitimate Territorial Government.

Keywords: Buckley, H.H.; Calhoun, John; Clarke, George W.; Davis, Jefferson; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Hargis, S.N.; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marcy, William L.; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Richardson, William P.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee Mission; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Toucey, Isaac; Weapons (see also Guns); Westport, Missouri


Letter, draft of, written by Amos Lawrence for Sara Robinson
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: 1856
According to Frank W. Blackmar, who reprinted this document in the appendix of his book, The Life of Charles Robinson (1901), it was "a draft of a letter sent by Amos A. Lawrence to be re-written and signed by Mrs. Robinson and addressed to Mrs. Lawrence, [a "relative" of President Pierce and] the mother of Amos A. Lawrence. The letter," which concerns Charles Robinson's imprisonment (May 10-Sept. 10, 1856 ) in K.T., was sent by Mrs. Lawrence to Mrs. Pierce, wife of the President who gave it to the President to read."]

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Election fraud; Free state cause; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Popular sovereignty; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Treason


Letter, Wilson Shannon to John A. Halderman
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: January 4, 1857
Wilson Shannon, an Ohio Democrat who preceded John W. Geary as governor of KT (August 1856--August 1857) and was considered a proslave partisan, wrote Halderman from Lecompton regarding some legal matters--specifically, "some land warrants" being sent to Halderman in Leavenworth. Obviously, Halderman the attorney was trusted and respected by men on both sides of the political imbroglio.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Land titles; Lawyers; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Ohio; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


Invitation, Mrs. Charles Robinson to the Citizens' Ball
Authors: McAllister, Richard
Date: January 15, 1857
This invitation was sent to Sara Robinson by Richard McAllister, Deputy Secretary to Governor Geary, enclosing it with a letter sent to her on January 9th. Governors Geary and Shannon were to be in attendance at the ball in Lecompton City, along with several other distinguished guests who supported the Territorial Legislature (considered "bogus" by free state supporters).

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; McAllister, Richard; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stevens, Robert S.; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, Owen Brown to Dear Mother [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown, Owen
Date: August 27, [1856]
On August 27, 1856, from Tabor, Iowa, Owen Brown wrote to tell his mother that according to all accounts "Father is the most daring courageous man in Kansas" and to relate other happenings in K.T. involving Jim Lane and Governor Shannon. Another invasion from Missouri was rumored, but free state recruits were assembling and "the Missourians are trembling in their Boots."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Brown, Owen; Crops; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Weapons (see also Guns); Woodson, Daniel


Letter, Wilson Shannon to Dr Sir [Orville C. Brown]
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: April 18, 1858
This letter, written by Wilson Shannon, former governor of Kansas Territory, was addressed to Orville C. Brown, one of the founders of Osawatomie. Shannon wrote from his office in Lecompton to reassure Brown that the problem with Osawatomie's town site would be addressed.

Keywords: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Town sites


Letter, O. H. Browne to J. A. Halderman
Authors: Browne, O. H.
Date: February 25, 1859
This letter, written by O. H. Browne from Ridgeway, Shawnee County, was a call to action. Browne was convinced that he and Halderman and others were being "swindled" out of their shares in the Lecompton Town Company, and that "little Bob [Robert] Stevens, law partner of Gov. Shannon, is the mischief making monkey that has caused all this difficulty." Although Halderman was apparently inclined to let this matter go, Browne wanted to file a law suit, and if that didn't work he was "ready to join any company that may be organized and deal out justice to the Lecompton Town Company according to the rules of equity as recognized and administered by Judge Lynch."

Keywords: Browne, O. H.; Fraud; Halderman, John Adams; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Lecompton Town Company; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Lynch, Judge; Ridgeway, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Stevens, Robert S.; Tax-sales; Town shares


Letter, E. Nute to F. B. Sanborn Esq.
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: March 22, 1859
Ephraim Nute's efforts on behalf of "4 more fugitives," including Charley Fisher of Leavenworth, and the activities of "manhunters" in and around Lawrence are the main focus of this letter to F. B. Sanborn, but Nute also mentions the continuing need for money to pay for Doy's defense. The trial was to begin at St. Joseph the next day.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, John; Fisher, Charley; Fugitive slaves; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad


Photograph, Wilson Shannon
Authors: Martin, H. T.
Date: 
Wilson Shannon was commissioned to serve as governor of Kansas Territory on August 10, 1855. He was sworn in on September 7, 1855 and served until June 24, 1856. He took a second oath of office on June 13, 1856 and served from July 7 until August 18, 1856. He was generally viewed as a proslavery partisan, but he took the initiative to end the Wakarusa War when he first became territorial governor.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Kansas Territory. Governor; Martin, H. T.; Photographs and Illustrations; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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