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64 results for Settlement:
Advertisement, Kansas Land Trust Co.
Authors: Kansas Land Trust Company
Date: Undated
This advertisement, presumably created by the Kansas Land Trust Company, lists thirty main points about Kansas Territory, including the advantages of settling in Kansas and general statistics about the territory. It also mentions the town of Quindaro and its growing influence in the area along the Kansas River. For those interested in obtaining tickets, the advertisement furnished the address of the New England Emigrant Aid Society. The bottom of the flyer provided the names of the officers that were involved in the company and their contact information.

Keywords: Advertisements; Boston, Massachusetts; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Kansas Land Trust Company; Land; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Skilled workers; Walker, Joel


Circular of the American Settlement Company, Great Kanzas Enterprise
Authors: American Settlement Company
Date: 
This brochure encouraged the settlement of Council City (Burlingame). It included constitution, descriptions of climate and soil, and testimonials from the company's representative in Kansas.

Keywords: American Settlement Company; Burlingame, Kansas Territory; Circulars; Council City, Kansas Territory; Dwight, Theodore; Emigration and immigration; Homestead law; Missionaries; New York League; Osage County, Kansas Territory; Santa Fe road; School lands; Settlement; Walter, George; Winchell, J. M.


Letter, Robert Gilbert to My dear Parents
Authors: Gilbert, Robert L.
Date: December 5, 1849
Robert Gilbert, a young Englishman studying at Yoxford Academy in England anticipating the Christmas holiday, wrote to his parents summarizing his studies of the past half-year. He was born in Sibton, Suffolk County, England. After graduating from Yoxford, he became a gardener in the Crystal Palace Gardens in London. Gilbert emigrated to the U.S. in 1855 and began farming nine miles north of Lawrence the same year.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; England; Farmers; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


Deed of Caleb S. Pratt for Charles Robinson
Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: October 13, 1853
This handwritten deed entitled Charles Robinson to the ownership of a house and farm claim south of the town of Lawrence, which was previously owned by Caleb Pratt.

Keywords: Emery, James Stanley; Emigration and immigration; Land acquisition; Legal documents; Lykins, William H. R.; Pratt, Caleb S.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement


Letter, C. C. Andrews to John A. Halderman, Esq.
Authors: Andrews, Christopher C.
Date: June 27, 1854
From Fort Leavenworth, C. C. Andrews wrote a short letter to inform Halderman that "nothing has transpired" at that location during the past week or so but he was certain "that the territory will be populated with a rapidity unparralleled [sic] in the rise of states." Andrews also was sure that men in the legal profession, such as Andrews himself and Halderman, would do quite well financially.

Keywords: Andrews, Christopher C.; Emigration and immigration; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Settlement


Lyrics, Lays of the Emigrants
Authors: Whittier, John Greenleaf
Date: August 29, 1854
This title page of a musical booklet was subtitled, "as sung by the second party for Kanzas, on their departure from Boston." It contains two songs. The first of the songs was written by J. G. Whittier and named "The Kanzas Emigrants." The other song is T. B. H.'s "Song of the Kanzas Emigrants."

Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Emigration and immigration; Lyrics; Music; Settlement; Songs; Whittier, John Greenleaf


Journey from Massachusetts to Kansas
Authors: Allen, Chestina Bowker
Date: October 17, 1854 - April 22, 1858
Chestina Bowker Allen traveled to Kansas Territory from Roxbury, Massachusetts, with her husband Asahel Gilbert Allen and five children--William, Charles, Henrietta, John, and Abbie. Apparently, they were members of the third company sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Company and began the journey to Kansas Territory in October, 1854. While the title indicated it recorded the journey to the territory, it actually documented their first three years in Kansas Territory. Mrs. Allen described their journey west with stops in Kansas City and Lawrence. They eventually settled near Rock Creek in Pottawatomie County. She wrote about many of her daily activities including assisting neighbors when ill. She mentioned a cholera epidemic in the area in 1855. She wrote about various rumors and encounters with free state supporters (which the Allen family was) and proslavery groups. She provided a great deal of information about living conditions and the price and availability of various goods. She wrote about her husband and older sons going to various communities to work and also about people that visited their home and those who boarded with them. She provided fairly stereotypical descriptions of Native Americans.The document appeared to be recopied from an original diary and included some penciled in corrections and a few annotations from a later time.

Keywords: Allen, Asahel Gilbert; Allen, Charles Bowker; Allen, Chestina Bowker; Allen, William Francis; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Diaries; Diseases; Economic conditions; Ferries; Free state supporters; Louisville, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Pottawatomie County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Rock Creek, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Steamboats


Illustration, Lawrence, Kansas, 1854-5
Authors: Rice, J. E.
Date: 1854 - 1855
This sketch of Lawrence, Kansas, circa 1854-5 was made by J. E. Rice. It is a view of Massachusetts and Vermont Streets facing North towards the Kansas River; a ferry is landing on the pier on New Hampshire Street. The illustration includes several homes and establishments of Lawrence's noteworthy first settlers.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Brooks, Paul R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Ferries; Fry, Samuel; Herald of Freedom; Hoyt, David Starr; Illustrations; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Kimball, S. & F.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Miller, Josiah; Pioneer House; Rice, J.E.; Sampson, Turner; Sands, J.G.; Settlement; Simpson, Samuel Newell; St. Nicholas House; Stearns, Charles


Photograph, Members of the first party from the New England Emigrant Aid Company to go to Lawrence, Kansas in 1854
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1854
Portrait of four men, all members of the first party going to Lawrence, Kansas. The party left Boston, Massachusetts on July 17, 1854, and joined with Charles Robinson in St. Louis before arriving in Lawrence.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Fuller, Ferdinand; Goss, George W.; Harrington, Dr. S.C.; Massachusetts; Morgan, J.F.; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographers; Settlement


Kanzas and Nebraska: the History, Geographical, and Physical Characteristics, and Political Position of those Territories; an account of the Emigrant Aid Companies and Directions to Emigrants
Authors: Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909
Date: 1854
This volume is generally accepted as the first book on Kansas. It dealt with Nebraska Territory also. The author, Edward Everett Hale indicated that he had researched the various memoirs and exploration journals of the various white men who had visited the area before its creation as a territory. This research resulted in a narrative history that focused on Native Americans and events in the area prior to 1854. Hale also included information about emigrant aid companies and the volume included some printed letters from emigrant aid company agents. The volume included the charter and "objects" of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid company, which was organized in March, 1854. Hale also provided some information on the Emigrant Aid Company of New York and Connecticut, which was organized in July, 1854 and the Union Emigration Society. The Appendices include the constitution of the Worcester Co. Kanzas League and a letter from George S. Park describing the Kansas and Smoky Hill river valleys.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Exploration; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Journals; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Native Americans; Park, George S.; Railroads; Settlement; Smoky Hill River, Kansas Territory; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Union Emigration Society; Worcester County Kansas League


Photograph, First house in Leavenworth
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1855
A photograph of the first dwelling house in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, built in 1855. The date of the photograph is unknown. It was located between 4th and 5th Streets on Olive Street. A young African-American child was photographed standing next to the house.

Keywords: African Americans; Houses; Immigration and early settlement; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth buildings; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement


Letter, Ellen [Goodnow] to Dear Sister Harriet [Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, Ellen
Date: July 21, 1855
Ellen Goodnow, recently arrived at her homestead near Manhattan, Kansas Territory, wrote to her sister-in-law Harriet Goodnow in New England, regarding her trip West and her impressions of Kansas Territory. Ellen described her journey in a detailed but concise manner, and, in her first impressions, likened Kansas to "another garden of Eden. . .too good for bondage, or for the oppressor's rod [references to slavery]." A devout Christian woman, she also expressed her opinion that Satan held influence over the Missourians. Despite this ominous presence, Ellen still tried to convince Harriet to join them in the Territory.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Harriet; Railroads; Settlement; Stagecoaches; Transportation; Travel; Water transportation


Kansas pioneer staking his squatter claim, 1855
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: July 26, 1855
Samuel Reader painted this watercolor of himself staking a claim at Indianola. Reader moved to Kansas from Illinois in 1855, attracted by "rich, cheap farm land" (as stated in his autobiography). The inscription on the painting reads, "Samuel J. Reader. July 26, 1855." The artist drew many Kansas territorial and Civil War scenes.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Daily life; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Indianola, Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Land claims; Objects; Photographs and Illustrations; Reader, Samuel James; Settlement; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Squatters


Letter, I. T. Goodnow to My Dear Brother [William Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: October 10, 1855
Isaac Goodnow wrote from Shannon, Kansas Territory, to his brother William in New England. Having recently arrived in the Territory, Goodnow reported that work on his homestead was still in progress, delayed a bit by the illness of both himself and his wife, Ellen. However, he had recovered enough to ride over to Juniatta to vote in several elections: one for Governor Reeder for delegate to Congress, another for delegates to a State Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Election, Topeka Constitution delegates to convention, October 1855; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Goodnow, William E.; Merchants; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Shannon, Kansas Territory


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: October 13, 1855
One week after arriving at his sons' settlement ("Brownville") near Osawatomie, Brown wrote the family back east that although most were sick when he first arrived, they "appear now to be mending." The trip across Missouri was without incident, except for problems with a sick horse and their "heavy load." Brown then wrote briefly of the Adairs, the "most uncomfortable situation" in which he found his children upon his arrival, and other things including prairie fires and finally the political situation in the territory. In fact, at this early date, John Brown "believe[d] Missouri is fast becoming discouraged about making Kansas a Slave State & think the prospect of its becoming Free is brightening every day."

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Election, Topeka Constitution delegates to convention, October 1855; Free state; Free state settlers; Missouri; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Settlement; Weather


Certificate, Declaration of Intention
Authors: Court of Monroe County, New York State
Date: October 23, 1855
Robert L. Gilbert, a 21-year-old Englishman, had just finished his journey to the United States when he renounced his allegiance to the Queen of England by signing this Declaration of Intention. Gilbert would continue west into Kansas Territory, where he eventually settled nine miles north of Lawrence in late 1855.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; England; Farmers; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Monroe County, New York State; Settlement


Narrative," A Twelve Months Practical Life in Kansas Territory, written by an actual settler"
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: ca. 1855
Robert Atkins Tovey wrote these pages so that "those who are going forth with their wives & children, their property, yea their all on earth should have the information covering the country to which they are making a Pilgrimage" from someone who has recently made the same journey. Broken up into chapters by subject, Tovey gave advice about the journey and settlement, provisions, land claims, soil, and weather, in addition to providing commentary about the current political situation and his disgust at the "Mob law" being imposed by the Missourians.

Keywords: African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Election fraud; Free state perspective; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Missourians; Native Americans; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Slavery; Slaves; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Transportation; Travel; Weather


Directory, City of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
This transcript of the 1855 City of Lawrence Directory not only lists landowners and landholdings by street address, but also includes an index of landholdings by last name of the landowner.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


History of Kansas: and Emigrant's Guide.
Authors: Chapman, J. Butler
Date: 1855
The title page of the printed volume indicated that it contained "a description geographical and topographical--also climate, soil, productions and comparative value with other states and territories, including its political history, officers-candidates-emigrant colonies-election, abolition, squatter and pro-slavery contentions and inquisitions; with the prospects of the territory for freedom or slavery. Mr. Chapman was a resident of the territory and the information in the booklet was compiled by traveling through Kansas Territory in 1854. The description covers most of the territory and includes information about Native American tribes and lands.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Delaware Indians; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigrant aid companies - Pro-slavery; Emigration and immigration; Free state prospects; Land; Landscape; Native Americans; Proslavery; Settlement; Wyandot Indians


Immigrant's Violin
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
James Limerick brought this violin from Kentucky to Kansas Territory in 1855. Limerick played the violin around campsites in the evenings. The Limerick family settled at Rock Creek in Pottawatomie County, near the James Darnell family whom they met on the trail. Limerick eventually gave the violin to the Darnells.

Keywords: Darnell, James; Entertainment; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Irish; Limerick, James; Music; Objects; Pottawatomie County, Kansas Territory; Settlement


History of Kanzas, also, Information Regarding Routes, Laws, etc.
Authors: Walter, George
Date: 1855
This history was written by George Walter, agent for the New York Kanzas League. The purpose of the League was to assist individuals and families to emigrate to Kansas and help provides reduced prices and other assistance. The office of the New York Kanzas League was located on the 3rd floor of No. 110 Broadway, New York City. Walter provided the information he thought emigrants to Kansas would need including descriptions of the situation in the territory, its climate, soil, rivers, and native products. He also gave information about industry in Kansas Territory, particularly the milling industry. He provided information on routes and supplies needed as well as a copy of the reemption law. The text of the Bill to organize the territories of Kansas and Nebraska was included on pages 24 through 48 of the pamphlet.

Keywords: Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Free state cause; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Nebraska Act; Land acquisition; Landscape; New York; Preemption law United States; Settlement


Pamphlet, History and Map of Kansas and Nebraska
Authors: Sloan, Walter B.
Date: 1855
The full title of this pamphlet is "History and Map of Kansas & Nebraska: describing Soil, Climate, Rivers, Prairies, Mounds, Forests, Minerals, Roads, Cities, Villages, Inhabitants, and such other subjects as Relates to that Region -- Politics Excepted." Information falling under these categories was compiled by the publisher, Walter B. Sloan. This example of the pamphlet is incomplete, lacking final pages.

Keywords: Agriculture; Cities and towns; Emigration and immigration; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Natural resources; Nebraska Territory; Roads; Settlement; Sloan, Walter B.; Timber; Weather


Circular, Informational Letter regarding Emigration to Kansas
Authors: Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909
Date: 1855
Edward Hale was the author of this printed letter describing the services provided by the [New England] Emigrant Aid Company and the conditions of settlement in Kansas Territory. Hale included information regarding cost of travel and settlement, conditions of land acquisition, job opportunities, and relations with local Indians. He also addressed the slavery question, and already mentioned occurrences of election fraud on the part of proslavery supporters, but concluded that, in his own opinion "there is no danger whatever for Kanzas".

Keywords: Business enterprises; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Libraries; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement; Slavery; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Travel; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Williams, John M. S.


Circular, Information for Kanzas Immigrants, 1855
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: 1855
Thomas Webb compiled the information in this circular not to "entice people to go to the Kanzas", but rather to "collect the best and most reliable information relative to the Territory, and furnish the same to those desiring it." The circular provides details about the logistics of the trip to Kansas: when and how it should be done, and what provisions to take, for example. It also includes information about subjects such as weather, farming, Indians, and employment, to name a few.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Circulars; Crops; Farmers; Freight and freightage; Land acquisition; Merchandise; Merchants; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Settlement; Timber; Transportation; Travel literature; Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Directory, City Directory of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
Early directory lists landowners and landholdings by street address and includes names of prominent political figures of Kansas' Territorial period. The settlement previously known as "Wakarusa" had only been known as Lawrence for less than a year.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


Photograph, First House in Lawrence
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1855
This was the first house in Lawrence, a log cabin, belonging to Clark Stearns (also known as Charles Stearns). It was located at 620 Massachusetts Street.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Stearns, Charles; Town development


Daily Diaries, Isaac Goodnow
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: 1856 - 1860
These diaries, written by Isaac Goodnow, described his daily life and his community activities. He settled near Manhattan and was involved in promoting the town and in establishing and promoting Bluemont College, the predecessor to Kansas State University. Many of the entries are somewhat mundane, dealing with weather, illness, neighbors, etc. However, the entries also describe activities in Kansas aimed at making it a free state, as well as the land speculation involved with both towns and farm land.

Keywords: Bluemont Central College; Daily life; Diaries; Education; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Illness; Land speculation; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Town development; Universities and colleges; Weather


Certificate, Surveyor General to William H. Bayless
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 4, 1856
This certificate documented William Bayless' acquisition of pre-emption rights to land in Kansas Territory, which would then be distributed to incoming settlers.

Keywords: Bayless, William; Calhoun, John; Emigration and immigration; Kansas Territory; Land grants; Settlement; United States. Surveyor General


Public letter with Interrogatories
Authors: Whitman and Searl
Date: May 8, 1856
Edmund A. Whitman and Albert D. Searl established an Emigrants' Intelligence Office in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. They stressed the importance of finding out information about the country before making a decision about acquiring land in a particular area. This printed letter outlines several issues to be considered and also presents a series of twenty-two questions that they recommend be answered when considering where to settle. While a few of the questions relate to the slave versus free state controversy, most are general concerns to be considered in selecting a place to live. Whitman and Searl produced at least one early Kansas map.

Keywords: Business; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrants' Intelligence Office; Emigration and immigration; Immigrants; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Immigration and early settlement; Land acquisition; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Settlement; Whitman and Searl; Whitman, E. B.


Advertisement, Emigrant's Intelligence Office
Authors: Whitman and Searl
Date: June 15, 1856
This advertisement by Whitman and Searl, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, stated that they were proposing to open an Emigrant's Intelligence Office to "meet the urgent demands by emigrants, for accurate and reliable information in regard to the different sections of the Territory." Apparently, they had worked to create a map of Kansas, which made them qualified for this task. They also offered their services as general land agents and wrote that they "are also prepared to lay out town sites and to survey farm claims," to "negotiate the sale and transfer of town property," and to "investigate the validity of titles."

Keywords: Advertisements; Emigrants' Intelligence Office; Emigration and immigration; Land; Land acquisition; Land sales; Land surveys; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Settlement; Town sites; Whitman and Searl; Whitman, E. B.


To the friends of free Kansas
Authors: Kansas Central Committee of Iowa
Date: July 4, 1856
The Kansas Central Committee of Iowa suggested a different overland route to Kansas, recommending that emigrants travel through Iowa instead of Missouri. Also the committee wanted men from the west to come to Kansas instead of eastern men, since travel from back East would be too expensive.

Keywords: Antislavery; Clark, W. Penn; Downey, H. D.; Emigration and immigration; Hobart, C. W.; Immigration and early settlement; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Kansas Central Committee of Iowa; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Topeka, Kansas


Promotional letter
Authors: Barnes, William , 1824-1913
Date: September 29, 1856
This letter, written by William Barnes, stated reasons for free state settlement in Kansas Territory. It included inflammatory language about proslavery settlers.

Keywords: Antislavery; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Emigration and immigration; Free state; Immigration and early settlement; Kansas Frontier; New York State Kansas Committee; Settlement; Williams, C. P.


Letter, R. J. Hinton to Gentlemen [National Kansas Committee]
Authors: Hinton, R. J.
Date: October 10, 1856
R. J. Hinton wrote this letter from Lawrence to the members of the National Kansas Committee, offering his suggestions about how to sustain the struggling settlers of Kansas. He proposed the idea of bringing the manufacturing industry into the territory as a source of employment. He also mentioned that a flour mill would be greatly appreciated by Kansans.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Flour mills; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Guns; Hinton, Richard Josiah; House furnishings; Manufacturing; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Settlement; Sewing machines; Steam power; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, M. Stowell to Dear [Thomas W.] Higginson
Authors: Stowell, Martin
Date: November 19, 1856
This letter from Martin Stowell, written from Nebraska City, was sent to Thomas Higginson to keep him apprised of business and financial affairs. He also included information about the other members of his emigrant party, including a Mr. Dunning, who continually asked Stowell for whiskey money. For the most part, the members of his company were employed and hard at work. Stowell also mentioned Eastern supporters such as Mr. Nightingale from Groton and Mr. Newell from Littleton. He wrote briefly concerning Orville Chester Brown, whose house was destroyed during the battle of Osawatomie.

Keywords: Alcoholic beverages; Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904; Businessmen; Dunning, John; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Finance; Firearms; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Immigration and early settlement; Livestock; Settlement; Stowell, Martin


Letter, A. Finch to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Finch, H.
Date: December 22, 1856
This letter, written from Osawatomie by A. Finch to Thaddeus Hyatt, chairman of the National Kansas Committee, provided general information about the inhabitants of Osawatomie and neighboring areas. It included a list of about half of the settlers residing in Osawatomie at this time, including the four pro-slavery voters. Mr. Finch went into detail about the most fertile areas that would be excellent sites for free state settlements, and about the economic conditions and financial needs of the settlers.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Chestnut, William; Churches; Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Finch, H.; Geer, Samuel; Hawley, John H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Mills and mill-work; Money; Natural resources; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Sears, W. A.; Settlement; Storrs, N. S.; Timber; Town settlement; Updegraff, Andrew


Circular, Information for Kanzas Immigrants, 1856
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: 1856
Thomas Webb expanded the information in his previous version of this circular to produce a more current edition. Topics such as travel routes, preparation, and provisions are still discussed, while more information regarding town settlements, accommodations, and family life are new additions.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Brown, John Carter; Cities and towns; Crops; Farmers; Freight and freightage; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Merchandise; Merchants; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Settlement; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Timber; Town development; Transportation; Travel literature; Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Settlers on the Marais des Cygnes River
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856 or 1857
This document, presumably compiled by John E. Stewart at the request of Thaddeus Hyatt, lists the pro-slavery and free state settlers who resided on the Marais des Cygnes River in Kansas Territory. The author also included a listing of where the free-state settlers lived before coming to Kansas.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Illinois; Indiana; Kentucky; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes River; Missouri; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Proslavery settlers; Settlement


The Kanzas Region: Forest, Prairie, Desert, Mountain, Vale, and River.
Authors: Greene, Max.
Date: 1856
The title page for this volume continued with "Descriptions of scenery, climate, wild productions, capabilities of soil, and commercial resources; interspersed with incidents of travel, and anecdotes illustrative of the character of the traders and red men; to which are added directions as to routes, outfit for the pioneer, and sketches of desirable localities for present settlement." A small map is opposite the title page. The "Addenda" included several "Laws Governing Kanzas," a section on the objects and plans of an Emigrant Aid Company, information about the American Settlement Company, and prices for various items in Lawrence. Also included in the "Addenda" was the text of the Kansas Nebraska Act, which was not scanned as it is available elsewhere on this site.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); American Settlement Company; Emigrant aid companies; Land; Land acquisition; Landscape; Maps; Native Americans; Prices; Settlement


Settlers on Little Sugar Creek
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856 or 1857
This listing of the settlers along Little Sugar Creek includes information about each settler, the resources in the area, and local buildings. It also includes an account of an attack by the Missouri ruffians in which a number of men were carried off to Westport, Missouri. It was most likely compiled by John E. Stewart at the request of Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border ruffians; Churches; Free state settlers; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Missouri; Ohio; Proslavery settlers; Schools; Settlement; Timber; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; Westport, Missouri


Quindaro Desk
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856-1861
Walnut desk used by abolitionist Fielding Johnson in Quindaro, Kansas. The word "Quindaro" is painted on the back of the desk. The town of Quindaro was settled by anti-slavery activists. Johnson, a merchant and agent to the Delaware Indians, was known to aid fugitive slaves.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Daily life; Delaware Indians; Fugitive slaves; Furniture; House furnishings; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Johnson, Fielding; Merchants; Objects; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Underground railroad; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Promotional Brochure for Lancaster City, Atchison County, Kansas
Authors: Smith and Wigton
Date: 1857
This promotional brochure advertised Lancaster City, which was located in Atchison County. It includes the price of lots, features around the city, and describes what has already been built in the city.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lancaster City, Kansas Territory; Land sales; Settlement; Weightman, Henry R


Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to My Dear Cleaveland
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: January 4, 1857
This rather inspiring letter, written by Thaddeus Hyatt while traveling in Kansas, demonstrates Hyatt's commitment to the National Kansas Committee and his passion for the free state cause. Apparently there was some sort of conflict within the committee that threatened its ability to function, but nevertheless Hyatt was determined to aid the struggling free state settlers in Kansas. He spoke in great detail about some of his travels around the territory, including the inclement weather and his perspective on the pro-slavery and free state settlers that he encountered during his stay.

Keywords: Bickerton, Thomas; Food; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes River; National Kansas Committee; Proslavery settlers; Relief; Settlement; Weather


Information for emigrants to Kansas
Authors: National Kansas Committee
Date: February 16, 1857
This printed promotional literature from the National Kansas Committee was a typical example of settlement information that described soil, water, manufacturing, and other conditions in Kansas.

Keywords: Immigration and early settlement; National Kansas Committee; Settlement


Letter, [E. B. Whitman?] to [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: May 10, 1857
E. B. Whitman (letter not signed, but author's identity is pretty clear), an agent in Lawrence for the National Kansas Committee, wrote Franklin Sanborn in Massachusetts regarding his disappointment with the lack of support being given by "our professed friends" in the East. To their discredit, according to Whitman, Massachusetts "supporters" had refused to provide assistance which was desperately needed for the Kansas settlers who had just endured a very "severe winter." He believed false information was being circulated for political purposes by individuals within the Free State movement: "Kansas, bleeding Kansas, is of value to them only so far as it subserves their selfish ends."

Keywords: Dred Scott decision; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Settlement; Vermont; Whitman, E. B.


Certificate, receipt for purchase of Iowa Trust Lands
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: June 8, 1857
When the Territory was opened in 1854, the Iowa Indians inhabited most of northern Doniphan County. Shortly after the passage of the Kansas- Nebraska bill a treaty was made between the U.S. Government and the Indians, by which the Indians sold a most of their lands and accepted the diminished reserve which they still occupy. The land that was then released to the Government was known as the "Iowa Trust lands," and was, with the exception of 480 acres, sold to the highest bidder (adapted from William G. Cutler's "History of the State of Kansas").

Keywords: Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Indian lands; Iowa Indians; Iowa Point, Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Settlement


Letter, A. Tuttle, Buffalo, New York, to Friend Gray [Alfred]
Authors: Tuttle, A.
Date: June 25, 1857
Tuttle wrote from Buffalo, New York, about his plans to come to Kansas by the fall. Alfred Gray apparently was from Buffalo also and had settled in Quindaro, Kansas Territory. Tuttle wrote about bank failures and the poor economy in the east. He also wanted Gray to send printed information about Kansas as he thought it would attract some of those out of work. He inquired if any of the literature was in German as there were a number of out-of-work German immigrants in the area.

Keywords: Germans; Gray, Alfred; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Tuttle, A.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Diary
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: June 1857 - July 1858
Joseph Trego first came to Kansas Territory in June 1857. He chose to settle near Mound City (originally Sugar Mound), Miami County, Kansas Territory. He returned to his home near Rock Island, Illinois to prepare to move to Kansas. He then came back to Kansas Territory in the fall of 1857, though he did not bring his wife and three girls at that time. In March of 1858, he again returned to Illinois to bring his family to their new home. These diary entries started with his second trip to the territory in September 1857 and described the various trips to and from Kansas Territory and his various activities here. The diary entries from March 17, 1858 to May 25, 1858 (15 pages) are not included. Trego, along with Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell in the diary entries) and his brother Edwin Smith, constructed and operated a sawmill on Little Sugar Creek. Trego was involved in town company activities, and the sawmill furnished lumber and shingles for many of the buildings in Mound City. The diary entries provided information on the efforts of settlement including the furnishing of a cabin and construction of the sawmill. They documented the operation of the sawmill and other activities in the area, including some of the border disputes. Trego was a free state supporter and this was reflected in some of the entries.

Keywords: Diaries; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Free state settlers; House furnishings; Household activities; Houses; Illinois; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sawmills; Settlement; Smith, Edwin; Smith, Thomas Ellwood; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Illustration, St. Nicholas Hotel, Lawrence, KS
Authors: Watson, B.I.
Date: November 15, 1857
An unknown artist drew this pencil sketch of St. Nicholas House, a wagon stop built in 1854 in Lawrence, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hotels; Illustrations; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; St. Nicholas House; Town development


Quilt from Kentucky
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
Whitework quilt brought to Kansas from Kentucky in 1857. The bedcover dates from 1840 to 1850, and is made of plain white cotton fabric. The designs are the result of quilting and extra stuffing which gives a relief effect. Jeremiah King brought the quilt to Kansas, settling in Wyandotte County.

Keywords: Daily life; House furnishings; Immigration and early settlement; Kentucky; King, Jeremiah; Objects; Settlement; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Charles E. Mix to Hon J. Thompson
Authors: Mix, Charles E.
Date: April 4, 1858
Charles E. Mix, Acting Commissioner of U.S. Indian Affairs, wrote to J. Thompson, Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior, regarding communication he had received from A.B. Greenwood, Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Mix's inquiry had to do with the land reserve set apart for the New York Indians by a treaty of January 1858 and the growing need for land to distribute to new settlers in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Greenwood, A. B.; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Indian lands; Mix, Charles E.; New York Indian Reserve; Settlement; Thompson, J.; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs


Leslie's Illustrated, Panoramic View of Leavenworth
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Dec. 25th, 1858
Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 25, 1858, showing a panoramic view of Leavenworth. The scene shows businesses, homes, and steamboats on the Missouri River. The illustration is captioned, "City of Leavenworth, Kansas Territory."

Keywords: Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement


Leslie's Illustrated, Panoramic View of Lecompton
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 25, 1858
Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper depicting panoramic view of Lecompton. Scene includes steamboats on the Kansas River and immigrant wagons. Captioned, "City of Lecompton, Territorial Capital of Kansas."

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Immigration and early settlement; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Objects; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement


Leslie's Illustrated, Ship of the Plains at Sea.
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1858
Illustration from an unknown publication, probably Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper. The scene depicts wagons crossing the prairies.

Keywords: Commerce; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Objects; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement; Transportation


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: April 10, 1859
Hiram Hill wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his brother. Hill traveled to Lawrence to settle various business matters, but found himself preoccupied with repairing rat damage to the foundation of one of his homes. He had found renters for all of his buildings himself, as he was not inclined to trust anyone to do the business for him since "they are a promising set of cutthroats". Hill would not travel to Manhattan or Topeka but would stop in Quindaro before heading back to Massachusetts.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Letter, William A. Phillips, State Marshall, to Joel Grover
Authors: Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893
Date: June 24, 1859
William A. Phillips, Kansas State Marshall, wrote to Joel Grover, at the time a Douglas County Commissioner, appointing him to take the census in a township northwest of Lawrence. Grover had previously served in the Wakarusa War as captain of the first military company in Lawrence. Later, he became active in local government and held various positions until his death in 1879.

Keywords: Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Grover, Joel; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement


Account ledger, William Patton in Acct. with Leach & Bro.
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 1859
This document listed names and prices of items purchased by William Patton, presumably from the Leach & Bro. Store in Iowa Point, Kansas Territory. Patton himself was a slave owner.

Keywords: Account books; Domestics; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Iowa Point, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Patton, William; Prices; Settlement


Book, Gunn's Map and Handbook of Kansas and the Gold Mines
Authors: Gunn, O.B. (Otis Berthoude, 1828-1901)
Date: 1859
This book by O.B. Gunn, a civil engineer in Wyandotte, provides basic information about Kansas Territory and the living conditions there. The first half outlines statistics about the population, climate, crops, telegraph access, etc. for the use of potential settlers. The second half describes routes to gold mines in Western Kansas Territory and advises the best travel seasons and provisions necessary to make the journey. Includes more than 20 pages of business and trade advertisements, including Gunn's own advertisement on p. 57.

Keywords: Crops; Daily life; Gold mines and mining; Gunn, O.B. (Otis Berthoude, 1828-1901); Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land claims; Mining; Native Americans; Pikes Peak gold rush; Railroads; Settlement; Telegraph; Weather; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, John Vansickle to Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: February 20, 1860
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County about building his new home, the development of new roads in his area, and preparations for the recipient's coming visit. Vansickle also related a story in which a former Jayhawker was caught stealing a horse and "cabeled to a Post Oak Lim between heven and Erth. . .in token. . .of our Love for John Brown the People think of making Several Such Sacrifices."

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Economic conditions; Jayhawkers; Prices; Proslavery support; Roads; Sawmills; Settlement; Vansickle, John H.; Xenia, Kansas Territory


Report, New England Emigrant Aid Company Texan Committee
Authors: Cabot, Samuel ; New England Emigrant Aid Company Texan Committee
Date: March 8, 1860
S[amuel] Cabot submitted a report of the Texan Committee to the New England Emigrant Aid Company Executive Committee. The committee recommended that the Company take action to settle portions of Texas northwest of San Antonio with antislavery advocates as part of the effort to halt the westward advance of slavery. Cabot expressed the committee's view that the only peaceful solution to the slavery issue required demonstrating to slaveholders the superiority of free labor over slave labor; the committee believed West Texas a logical place for this demonstration to occur.

Keywords: Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Cabot, Samuel; Emigrant aid companies; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company Texan Committee; Settlement; Texas


Photo, Business Street with Covered Wagons
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Summer 1863
View West on 7th Street, Lawrence, KS.

Keywords: Business; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Town development; Wagons


Harper's Weekly, Exoduster Illustrations
Authors: Worrall, Henry
Date: July 5, 1879
Illustrations from Harper's Weekly magazine depicting Exodusters. As life in the South worsened for Blacks after the Civil War, many left for more promising lands. Thousands came to Kansas in a great exodus (hence the name "Exodusters") during the 1870s, attracted by the state's free-state reputation established during the territorial era. These three illustrations are captioned, "The Colored Exodus - - Scenes at Topeka, Kansas - - From Sketches by H. Worrall." Worrall was an early Kansas artist.

Keywords: African Americans; Exodusters; Immigration and early settlement; Objects; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement; Topeka, Kansas; Worrall, Henry


Map, Gebiet von Kansas ["Territory of Kansas"]
Authors: Meilen, Geogr.
Date: c. 1860s?
Undated map of eastern Kansas and western Missouri. These regions are home to the many battles and skirmishes between free state and proslavery supporters.

Keywords: Kansas Territory; Maps; Settlement; Town sites; Travel


Circular from the State Kansas Aid Society of Wisconsin
Authors: Daniels, Edward
Date: No date
Edward Daniels was an agent for the State Kansas Aid Society of Wisconsin. This undated printed circular encouraged the donation of funds to aid emigration to Kansas or the commitment of men to go to Kansas Territory as peaceful settlers. The circular stated that a train of wagons, with six men per wagon, would leave Wisconsin on or before September 15 of an unspecified year. It suggested that emigrants bring double-barrelled shot guns and rifles as well as clothing a blanket, good books, and seeds, with additional money for other equipment. The primary reference to the controversy in Kansas Territory was "each individual is of course honorably bound to remain in Kansas until the settlement of the present difficulties." The document refers to local societies as well at the state society.

Keywords: Daniels, Edward; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Guns; Settlement; State Kansas Aid Society of Wisconsin; Weapons (see also Guns); Wisconsin


Leslie's Illustrated, Lecompton and Lawrence
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Dec. 25th, 1858
Brief descriptions of territorial towns Lawrence and Lecompton, published in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly Newspaper in 1858. The article mentions constuction of a state capital in Lecompton and the destruction of the Free State Hotel in Lawrence.

Keywords: Free State Hotel; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Objects; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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