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24 results for Sack of Lawrence, May 1856:
Photograph, Ruins of the Free State Hotel
Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: 1856
An illustration of the Free State Hotel ruins, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856, copied from Kansas: Its Interior and Exterior Life by Mrs. Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: May 9, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, regarding recent events, which were "unfathomably deep in the waters of territorial trouble". He described the movement of armed men towards Lawrence, a mix of U.S. troops and militiamen from Missouri. Marcus also referred to the current situations of Robinson, Reeder, Lane, and other men who were to play important roles in the imminent Sack of Lawrence. Despite these threats, Marcus still commented on his own economic situation and again asked for money from his brother and father.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Neosho, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Real estate investment; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Telegraph; Town development


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: May 11, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory to his brother, Edwin Parrott, updating him on the situation in K.T. in the days leading up to the Sack of Lawrence. Marcus told him of attempts to arrest both Andrew Reeder and Charles Robinson, and how Reeder claimed that he was privileged from arrest. He also discussed the movement of the troops and his plans to visit Neosho in the coming few days, provided that the political tensions subside.

Keywords: Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Missouri River; Neosho River, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912


Senate Executive Documents, Reports from Colonel E.V. Sumner
Authors: Sumner, Edwin Vose
Date: May 16, 1856 - August 31, 1856
Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner, leader of a Kansas Territory cavalry regiment, corresponded primarily with Territorial Governer Wilson Shannon and the Secretary of War's Adjutant General regarding military action taken in response to the Sack of Lawrence and the subsequent retaliatory skirmishes between free state and proslavery men. Sumner maintained that safety in the Territory could not be guaranteed "unless the posse of the U.S. Marshal was dismissed" in favor of local troops. Fearing civil war, Sumner and his correspondents discussed the convening of the Topeka Legislature, which they dubbed "bogus".

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Skirmishing; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States marshals; Violence; Woodson, Daniel


Speech, David R. Atchison to Pro-Slavery "Soldiers"
Authors: Atchison, David R.; Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: May 21, 1856
According to a note on the top of page one made later by R. J. Hinton, "this report was made for me [Hinton] by or under the direction of Lt. Gov. (Dr.) Root [Joseph Pomeroy Root, subsequently elected the state's first lieutenant governor under the Wyandotte Constitution], who was a prisoner, heard & reported the speech" made by David Atchison to the assembled proslave "Soldiers" camped two miles west of Lawrence before they marched on and sacked the town on May 21, 1856. The transcript is labeled "Hon. David R. Atchison's Speech . . ." and begins, "This is the most glorious day of my life! This day I am a border-ruffian!" Amidst "Yells" and "Cheers," Atchison rallied the "true sons of the noble South," encouraging them to "tear down their Free State Hotel" and "thow into the Kanzas their printing presses," and to bravely follow their "worthy . . . Leader, Col. [John H.] Stringfellow!"

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Beecher Bibles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free State Hotel; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers - Free State; Pierce administration; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Southerners; Stringfellow, John H.


"Southern Rights" flag
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 21, 1856
Pro-slavery forces carried this flag while attacking the anti-slavery stronghold of Lawrence. Sheriff Samuel Jones led the group in sacking the town on May 21, 1856. A group of South Carolinians known as the Palmetto Guards participated in the attack, and flew their "Southern Rights" flag over the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper offices and the Free State Hotel before destroying the buildings.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Flags and banners; Free State Hotel; Herald of Freedom; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Palmetto Guards; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; South Carolina; Violence


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: May 23, 1856
Written just two days after the sack of Lawrence, this letter contained Learnard's observations of and reflections on "the fearful disaster to which this unfortunate town has been subjected." The town's citizens, wrote Learnard, chose not to resist the authority of the U.S. marshal but were nevertheless brutalized by Sheriff Jones and a posse of Missourians. He also mentioned Governor Reeder, Governor Shannon and David R. Atchison, who "made a speech."

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Missourians; Proslavery support; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence


Letter, Jas Finley to Dear Sister
Authors: Finley, James Agnew
Date: May 24, 1856
James A. Finley, a Lawrence resident at the time of the Sack of Lawrence, wrote to his sister recounting the events that had transpired only three days before. Concisely but vividly he described events as they unfolded from the morning of May 21st, when David Atchison "planted 2 cannon upon the hill above town." Finley, a more fortunate man than many in Lawrence that day, claimed to have suffered no losses in the incident.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Finley, James Agnew; Free state perspective; Guns; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Smith, George W.; United States marshals; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, G. P. Lowrey to Dear Madam [Sarah Robinson]
Authors: Lowrey, G.P. (Grosvenor P.)
Date: May 24, 1856
Grosvenor Lowrey, having recently gone into hiding near Hudson, Michigan, wrote to Sarah Robinson, Charles Robinson's wife. Lowrey told her of her husband's arrest which, as he reported, was for "conniving the assault against Jones" (Sheriff Jones) instead of under charges of high treason. Lowrey offered himself in service to both of the Robinsons, available upon their request.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Jenkins, Gaius; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Lowrey, G.P. (Grosvenor P.); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Letter, S. P. Hanscom to Mrs. Sara T. D. Robinson
Authors: Hanscom, S. P.
Date: May 25, 1856
On Sunday, May 25, 1856, "at the request of Gov. Robinson," S. P. Hanscom wrote Sara Robinson to assure her that her "esteemed and gallant husband" was well. This remarkably detailed letter describes the governor's captivity, the bogus charges filed against him, and circumstances that brought him to Leavenworth. Hanscom found that Robinson was receiving many visitors, including Congressman William A. Howard, chair of the congressional committee investigating Kansas troubles.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus laws; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Hanscom, S. P.; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Howard, William Alanson; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Martin, John W.; Preston, Colonel; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stringfellow, John H.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Treason; Westport, Missouri


Letter, M. S. Cecilia Sherman To Mrs. [Sara] Robinson
Authors: Sherman, Margaret S. C.
Date: May 25, 1856
Margaret Sarah Cecilia (Mrs. John) Sherman wrote Sara Robinson on May 25, 1856, regarding Governor Robinson's captivity to date. He had been arrested on May 10 at Lexington, Missouri, and subsequently returned to the territory. At this time he was being held in Leavenworth, where Sherman and many other of Robinson's friends had the opportunity to visit with him, and Sherman was able to attest to his good treatment. She makes interesting, favorable reference to Robinson's stay in Lexington and to "Captain [John W.] Martin of the Kickapoo rangers," who "seemed to have charge" of the governor in Leavenworth. (Congressman John Sherman of Ohio was the brother of William T. Sherman, later of Leavenworth, and a member of the Howard Committee, investigating the Kansas affair.)

Keywords: Damage claims; Free state cause; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lexington, Missouri; Martin, John W.; Preston, Colonel; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sherman, John, 1823-1900


Letter, Wm Phillips to Respected Madam [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Phillips, William
Date: May 26, 1856
William Phillips, after visiting Charles Robinson in jail, wrote to Sara Robinson updating her on her husband's situation. Phillips reported to her that Charles was being held on two counts: one for high treason and the other for usurping office. He also related to her the events of the sack of Lawrence and the resulting destruction of her home.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Phillips, William; Preston, Colonel; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


Letter, C. Robinson to My Dear S. [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: May 29, 1856
Charles Robinson wrote to his wife, Sara Robinson, his first letter during his detention, which would last until Sept 10, 1856. He reported to her that so far he had been treated like a gentleman, and that his quarters were comfortable and would also accommodate her, if she would like to join him. Robinson also expressed regret at the destruction of their home during the sack of Lawrence.

Keywords: Free state perspective; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Treason


Letter, Mary Holliday to My Dear Husband [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: May 29, [1856]
Mary Holliday of Meadville, Pennsylvania assured her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, Kansas Territory, that although she had read in northern newspapers of the May 21st sack of Lawrence, she was willing to join him. If violence relented, she and Mr. Nichols planned to leave the following week. Previous to writing, Mary sent Cyrus all their money but what she would carry while traveling. Concerning their friends in Pennsylvania, she mentioned a death, an invitation, a sickness, and a success.

Keywords: Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel


Letter, G. W. Brown to Eli Thayer, Esq.
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: June 4, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. G. W. Brown described the sack of Lawrence and the destruction of his printing press, commented upon the harshness of his prison conditions, and asked Eli Thayer to do anything in his power to help secure his release.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Herald of Freedom; Journalism; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Press; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Slave power; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Treason


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: June 6, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, in the wake of the Sack of Lawrence. Simpson told Hill he would "not attempt to give any description of what we have gone through, and the state of affairs here. And again business is completely prostrated and nothing is doing ". He discussed briefly some of Hill's property affairs, and stated in his closure that "it is war and murder constantly", though he added in a postscript that "the free state cause never looked more promising."

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Skirmishing; Violence; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Sir [J. A. Halderman]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
The former governor wrote this letter from Easton, Pennsylvania, to his former secretary and attorney, J. A. Halderman, in order to secure his services in an effort to retrieve some personal papers and settle some matters of business pertaining to town lots and shares. According to Reeder, "the Sheriff posse at the sacking of Lawrence broke open my trunk and stole the contents. The clothing is probably by this time worn out" and he was not concerned about other contents, with the exception of "some private papers" that someone had informed him could be retrieved. He asked Halderman to get the papers, which included "certificates of stock in Leavenworth, Tecumseh, Lecompton, Lawrence, Easton, Pawnee" etc., and then take care of business matters that were reflected therein--"some obligations for money, leases contracts Receipts & etc." Reeder also asked Halderman "to attend to my Leavenworth lots" and went into considerable detail about these matters.

Keywords: Businessmen; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Easton, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leases; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Stock certificates; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town shares


Circular, Kansas -- Help! Help!
Authors: Hurd, H. B.; Lawrence Citizens
Date: August 13, 1856
This circular was composed of two parts. The first section was a letter written from Lawrence to the National Kansas Committee, asked for help because of the conflict in Kansas, stating that "instant action alone can save our people from destruction." The letter briefly mentioned the recent attack on Lawrence and the proslavery forces which were gathering and organizing. Although there was a lull in the fighting, the citizens of Lawrence were looking for assistance and relief. The second part was a response written by H. B. Hurd, secretary of the National Kansas Committee, encouraging emigration to Kansas but raising the possibility that free state settlers in the territory must at times defend their rights. He wrote that "Kansas is now in a state of open war."

Keywords: Circulars; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Hurd, H. B.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; National Kansas Committee; Proslavery activities; Relief; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Letter, E. S. Whitney to Dear Uncle Hiram [Hill]
Authors: Whitney, E.S.
Date: August 20, 1856
E. S. Whitney wrote from Sumner, Kansas Territory, to her uncle, Hiram Hill. Whitney apologized for the long delay in communicating with him, and explained that her husband, Thaddeus Whitney, had been very busy lately and was doing his best to complete Hill's home. She also described her experience watching the border ruffians invade Lawrence, and her friends' and neighbors' reactions to the situation. Despite the violence and uncertainty, she was "not sorry yet" that she had come to Kansas, and told Hill that her husband would write him shortly to discuss business matters.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Construction; Funerals; Hill, Hiram; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Skirmishing; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Violence; Whitney, E.S.; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Experiences of R. S. Griffithe, N. W. Spicer, and J. A. Harvey
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 6, 1856
These testimonies, collected by the National Kansas Committee, record the experiences of these three settlers during the turbulent times of Bleeding Kansas. These testimonies focus on each settler's involvement in free state activities and their interaction with border ruffians. Griffithe and Spicer both served in the free state militia, and Harvey, who had commanded an emigrant train from Chicago, was the commander of a free state company.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Griffithe, R. S.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Spicer, N.W.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Topeka, Kansas; Violence


Letter, R. G. Elliot to Dear Sister
Authors: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: May 8, 1857
Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence along with Josiah Miller, wrote to his sister from Delaware, Kansas Territory. Elliott told her that last season the area had been the site of "ruffian outrages," but since this time it had evolved into a thriving area with a large population of free state men, whose presence raised property values. The town was not without its share of "bloated ruffians" or stray dogs, however. Elliott also mentioned that a couple of proslavery men had even subscribed to his newspaper, though he did not intend to change the "character" of the paper, which continued to favor the free state cause.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state supporters; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Letter, James Hanway to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Hanway, James
Date: December 5, 1859
In response to the Redpath/Hinton notice in the Lawrence Republican, Hanway wrote from his home in Shermansville, Franklin County, to share his story about "our friend John Brown," and he hoped their efforts would convey to all Brown's "the character" and "motives" and "place him in his true light before the world." Hanway highlights the attempted "rescue of Lawrence" in May 1856; the subsequent "'Tragedy'" on Pottawatomie Creek, about which Brown personal told Hanaway, "it was a just act, to take the lives of those 5 pro-slave ruffians"; how John Brown was a surveyor who used his profession to gather intellegence among proslavery settlers; the fact, according to Hanway, that the Doyles and others were actively engaged in efforts to run free state settlers out of the area; and specifically denies the story that Frederick Brown was "insane."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hanway, James; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Proslavery settlers; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shermansville, Kansas Territory; Slave power; Surveyors


Letter, R. G. Elliott to Dear Sister
Authors: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: January 24, 1860
Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his sister from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Elliott told her that the Territorial legislature had just began its session, and he explained how it came to be held in Lawrence. He updated his sister on his current occupation as a Deputy at the Treasurer's office and cleared up a rumor that he had received $40,000 compensation for damages during the sack of Lawrence. He had only received $4,000, and he had immediately invested it in Territorial land warrants.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Pikes Peak gold rush; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Telegraph


Narrative, Account of the Life of Fredrick Brown
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: c. 1857
In this undated document, Samuel Adair related significant events in the life of Frederick Brown, one of John Brown's five sons. Frederick, alongside his father, participated in the Pottawatomie Massacre and other raids against proslavery supporters in Kansas Territory until his roadside murder by Martin White in August of 1856. This document also contains part of a letter to the Rev. S. S. Jocelyn recounting the winter's hardships.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state constitutions; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Violence; Violent deaths; Weather; White, Martin


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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