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77 results for Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ):
Letter, N. P. Banks to Gov. [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Banks, Nathaniel Prentice, 1816-1894
Date: March 19, 1856
U. S. Congressman Nathaniel P. Banks of Massachusetts wrote Robinson from Washington on March 19, 1856, to forward John Fremont's letter (see document, #101103) and to encourage that letter's publication in Kansas Territory. The newly elected speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives believed Fremont was a good friend of Kansas and that he would make a solid, electable candidate for president. Banks also wrote that he was "hopeful the Kansas question will meet its first decision in the House this week." He was confident something positive would be done for the cause. (Perhaps he was speaking of the Howard Committee, which was authorized that very day.)

Keywords: Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss, 1816-1894; Congressional Report 200 (see also Howard Committee); Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Kansas question; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress. House; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Charles Sumner to My Dear _______
Authors: Sumner, Charles , 1811-1874
Date: March 24, 1856
Addressed from the "Senate Chamber," Washington, D.C., this brief note appeared to be a letter of introduction for Mark W. Delahay from Charles Sumner, the famed Republican, abolitionist senator from Massachusetts. Interestingly, since the federal government never recognized the elections held under the Topeka Constitution, the senator introduced "Col. Delahay" as a "member of Congress elect from the state of Kansas."

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Massachusetts; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; Topeka Constitution; United States. Congress. Senate; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Milton M. Powers to Dear Friend, Cyrus K. Holliday
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: June 7, 1856
Milton M. Powers, Deputy Clerk of Court in Columbus, Ohio wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday, Free State leader and founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory. Powers had read of Holliday's activities in northern newspapers. A presentation of the Wrongs of Kansas, emphasizing Andrew H. Reeder and Samuel N. Wood's experiences, had emotionally motivated Powers to write and assure Holliday of his support. Once a Jeffersonian Democrat, but convicted that the party had abandoned its principles, Powers had become a Republican. He stated that the entire nation was attuned to events in Kansas Territory, and he believed that these events would have intense impact on the nation's future.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Columbus, Ohio; Democratic Party (U.S.); Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; National politics; Newspapers; Powers, Milton M.; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, Jonathan Watson[,] J. H. Baker[,] Thos. S. Chase [&] E. H. Chase to Col. C. K. Holliday
Authors: Baker, J. H.; Chase, E. H.; Chase, Thos. S.; Watson, Jonathan
Date: July 29, 1856
This letter, sent by a Republican Party caucus committee in Titusville, Pennsylvania, requested that Cyrus K. Holliday speak at a convention in August. They described a local political shift, as Democrats agreed to support the Republican presidential nominee. Cyrus already had left Topeka on July 7th, intending to bring his wife, Mary, and daughter, Lillie, to Kansas Territory. Responding to invitations such as this, Cyrus spoke about 130 times on behalf of the Republican presidential candidate, John Charles Fremont, who supported admittance of Kansas as a free state. Though speaking mostly in Pennsylvania, Cyrus saw little of his family until after the November election, which Fremont lost.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Pennsylvania; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Speeches, addresses, etc.


Letter, C. Robinson, Camp Sacket, to Hon. J. C. Fremont
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: July 28, 1856
While a prisoner at Camp Sackett near Lecompton, Robinson informed Fremont that James Emery was traveling east and should be used in Fremont's presidential campaign as a stump speaker as he "can do good service to the cause." Robinson also indicated that he did not know if the Pierce administration had decided whether or not to hang Robinson and his fellow prisoners.

Keywords: Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Election, Presidential, 1856; Elections; Emery, James Stanley; Free state cause; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Prisoners; Prisons; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Fremont Campaign Ribbon
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 30, 1856
Kansas was a major issue in the 1856 presidential election. John C. Fremont was the candidate of the newly formed Republican Party, which wanted Kansas admitted as a free state. This silk ribbon is printed with an image of Fremont, and the text, "Let Freedom Conquer! . . . For President, John C. Fremont, of California. Vice President, Wm. L. Dayton of New Jersey. Young Men's Convention, Dayton, O. July 30th, 1856."

Keywords: Dayton, William Lewis; Election, Presidential, 1856; Elections; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Objects; Ohio; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Andrew H. Reeder, Easton, PA to William Hutchinson
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 25, 1856
Reeder described his efforts to raise money for the Free State cause in his travels through the northern states.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; National Kansas Committee; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Broadside, "Fremont & Dayton Meeting"
Authors: Buffalo City Town Association
Date: September 11, 1856
This broadside advertised a meeting of "the friends of Fremont and Dayton, and all opposed to the Cincinnati Platform and the extension of Slavery into Free Kansas". John C. Fremont was the newly-formed Republican party's candidate for the Presidency in 1856; William L. Lewis was his running mate. The pair favored admitting Kansas to the Union as a free state, but did not support the Cincinnati Platform, which would put the issue of slavery to a popular vote in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Cincinnati Platform; Dayton, William Lewis; Election, Presidential, 1856; Free state supporters; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, Henry Woods to Col [Cyrus K.] Holliday
Authors: Woods, Henry
Date: October 2, 1856
Henry Woods, member of the Township Meetings and Speakers committee of the Fremont Club, asked Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, give an address that evening in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Holliday had returned to his home state to speak on behalf of Republican presidential nominee John Charles Fremont, who supported the free state cause. Woods' brief letter was written on the back of a printed list of subcommittees of the Fremont County Executive Committee. Evidentially, Woods had enclosed with the letter a note from G. E. Appleton of Birmingham, which requested that Holliday speak there the following day.

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Speeches, addresses, etc.; Woods, Henry


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: October 17, 1856
Three days after the Pennsylvania state election, Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Monongahela House, a hotel in Pittsburgh, PA to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville. Results were unofficial, and Cyrus hoped that John C. Fremont, republican presidential candidate, had won at least by a slim majority, if not by the expected large margin. Concerned about the November 4th national election, Cyrus anticipated fraud in Kansas Territory and prayed that the people would do right. He mentioned counties he had spoken in; his next stop, Philadelphia; and his planned return to counties near Meadville.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Philadelpia, Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, R. P. Bourn to Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Bourn, R. P.
Date: October 18, 1856
R. P. Bourn, writing from Nicholasville, Kentucky, addressed this letter to Franklin Crane of Topeka. Bourn discussed politics both in Kansas and at the national level, including the Presidential election of 1860. He made his anti slavery beliefs clear.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Slavery


Letter, A. H. Reeder to My Dear Sir [John A. Halderman]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: October 22, 1856
Former Governor A. H. Reeder wrote to Halderman from Easton, Pennsylvania, regarding his business affairs and his desire to have Halderman act as his attorney and agent. But in this letter, Reeder also gave brief attention to the political situation in Kansas Territory and the nation, mentioning the congressional committee investigating the Kansas affairs, the "horrible state of things . . .in our unfortunate Territory," and his belief that, although James Buchanan would win the presidential contest in 1856, "the Republican party is bound to sweep the North within the next four years."

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Business; Congressional Report 200 (see also Howard Committee); Election, Presidential, 1856; Halderman, John Adams; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Leases; Pennsylvania; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, B. Darrach to Rev. S. L. Adair
Authors: Darrach, Barstow
Date: December 17, 1856
Doctor B. Darrach wrote from the New York Hospital and commented on published reports that imply that prospects for Kansas becoming a free state are improving. Darrach shared his thoughts on Republicans and Democrats at the national level and also on reactions of southerners. Darrach also described his personal plans that will prevent him from returning to Kansas.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Darrach, Barstow; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state perspective; New York; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Southerners


Letter, S .[Salmon] P. Chase, of endorsement for "Captain John Brown"
Authors: Chase, Salmon Portland
Date: December 20, 1856
The Free Soil/Republican governor of Ohio, Salmon P. Chase, Columbus, Ohio, wrote this letter of introduction/endorsement for "Captain John Brown" who was "a gentleman in every way worthy of entire confidence."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Columbus, Ohio; Free Soil Party; Free state cause; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


"God Save Kansas" Banner
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Banner used in New Hampshire during the 1856 presidential campaign, illustrating the national interest in Kansas territorial affairs. Fremont/Dayton banner was made of silk and used at Lancaster, N.H. Inscribed "God Save Kansas" and "From the ladies of Lancaster to Fremont Club No. 244."

Keywords: Dayton, William Lewis; Election, Presidential, 1856; Elections; Flags and banners; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; New Hampshire; Objects; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Pamphlet, "The Coming Struggle: or, Shall Kansas Be a Free or Slave State?"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This pamphlet, authored anonymously by "One of the People" directs the question "Slavery or Liberty?" primarily to a Northern audience. The context of the argument supports Kansas achieving status as a free state, though it pointedly states that "the Free States desire not to control the internal arrangements of their sister States; but while they are willing that State rights should be respected, they will not submit to the nationalization of Slavery".

Keywords: Catholic Church; Democratic Party (U.S.); Missouri compromise; National politics; Popular sovereignty; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Secession; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery


Letter [transcript], Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: June 15, 1857
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother in Chester, South Carolina, before their departure for Kansas Territory. Miller informed them of banking practices and his new business enterprise-- raising stock. He also discussed the value of prairie land versus timbered land. Miller referred to the "bogus" election of the day before, which elected delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Lecompton. Free state men did not vote, and only 2,071 votes were polled. This clearly showing that, had the election been conducted fairly, the free state men would have won the majority.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Business enterprises; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Illinois; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, M. [Martin] F. Conway to F. [Franklin] B. Sanborn
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: November 16, 1857
Shortly before he was to leave Washington, D.C., for a return trip to the territory, Conway wrote Sanborn in Concord, Mass., about his disappointment at again being separated from his wife and child, but he focused most of his comments on the Lecompton machinations and his continued belief that the Free State Party had be wrong to participate in the territorial election (thus giving that government legitimacy).

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Free State Party; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Slavery; United States. Congress


Letter, John A. Martin to Sir
Authors: Martin, John A., 1839-1889
Date: c. 1858
In his capacity as chairman of the Atchison County Republican Central Committee, John Alexander Martin apparently wrote this draft of a letter to a member of the Democratic opposition, responding to an invitation to make a speech in support or participate in a discussion of the proposed Wyandotte Constitution. The campaign for its ratification took place in August and September 1858. Martin expressed a willingness to speak out for the constitution, but he objected to the proposed format ("the programme of discussion you have laid down"). Martin insisted that the Republicans were "proud" of the constitution and "are willing to go before the people with the members of the Democratic party" and discuss its provisions "on any fair terms."

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Black Republicans; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, S.C.S. [most likely Samuel C. Smith] to "Doctor" [Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: January 11, 1858
This letter, dated Lawrence, January 11, 1858, most likely from Samuel C. Smith, mentions many of the Free State Party's main actors and issues at this critical time in Kansas politics. He described the activities of the Legislature, which assembled in Lawrence in January, and devotes considerable attention to the machinations of the "villain" Jim Lane.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Free State Party; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Railroad companies; Railroad legislation; Railroad promotion; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Temperance movement; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Friend [F. B. Sanborn ?]
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: February 18, 1858
As a follow up to his more lengthy report of January 16, Whitman wrote from Lawrence on February 18, 1858, about the turbulent course of Kansas politics during the last month. Again, he attacked Robinson's efforts to compromise with the forces behind the "Lecompton Swindle," and described the other factions plan of action should Congress adopt the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Constitutional conventions; Election, Leavenworth Constitution delegates to convention, March 1858; Free State Party; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to George L. Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: February 20, 1858
This rather lengthy report from Lawrence addressed many issues, especially those surrounding the Lecompton constitutional controversy. With "the Topeka Movement . . . abandoned," the question was what would take its place to resist the Lecompton Constitution if it were accepted by the Congress. The territorial legislature had formally "protested against the admission of Kansas into the Union under the Lecompton Constitution," and "the Mass of the people are determined" to resist its imposition. Whitman went on to make many other interesting observations about the political situation, regarding Democrats and Republicans and even abolitionists: "men who seek here and now, on this issue, to break the back bone of slavery forever." In addition to the political, Whitman described his "labor of distributing the clothing . . . for the relief of Kansas," and discussed in some detail the financial situation regarding the Committee, his personal debt, and Kansas relief and support to John Brown.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Buchanan administration; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, [C. Robinson] to "My Dear Sir" [Henry Wilson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: May 12, 1858
This important document is reportedly a copy of a letter from Charles Robinson, Lawrence, May 12, 1858, to Massachusetts Senator Henry Wilson in which the Kansas governor expresses confidence that the Lecompton Constitution will be overwhelmingly defeated in the upcoming election and makes numerous observations about the state of politics--present and future--in Kansas. Robinson believed that half the Democrats would oppose the Lecompton instrument because they knew that freestaters would dominate any state government that would be admitted under it and subsequently "the Constitution would be changed in the 'twinkling of an eye.'" Thus, he predicted no Kansas admission until at least December 1859, and in the meantime expected Democrats to "take the lead in aiding in developing the resources of Kansas, & [the Democratic Party] will claim to be the special friends of our infant State."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, August 1858; Election, Lecompton Constitution, August 1857; English Bill; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state supporters; Journals; Lecompton Constitution; Partisan press; Press and politics; Press and propaganda; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875


Letter, M. F. Conway to My dear Sir [George L. Stearns]
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: June 13, 1858
Somewhat disturbed that Stearns of Boston had published his (Conway's) letter regarding "money for the Leavenworth Constitution," Martin F. Conway, Lawrence, wrote to say that there was nothing "improper or dishonorable in this transaction" and went on to reflect on the nature of the Free State Party/movement at that time. Charles Robinson was "at work to destroy the influence of the Republican wing of the Free State Party," but people back East should not conclude "that the bottom is going to fall out of Kansas because there is division in the Free State Party." Conway expected both Robinson and James H. Lane to fall from prominence because of changing circumstances in Kansas.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: September 14, 1858
S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. S.T. mentioned his recent election to the Vermont State Legislature, in which the Republicans "swept the kitchen clean" of the Democratic candidates. He also asked about land operations in Kansas Territory, but added that he was opening a store of his own in Vermont. He discussed the possibility of obtaining buffalo and otter skins from Kansas to add to his store inventory.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Democratic Party (U.S.); Elections; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Merchandise; Merchants; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Vermont


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Gov. [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: October 19, 1858
The benefactor of the city of Lawrence and much free-state activity generally, wrote Robinson from Boston, Mass., on several issues, including the establishment of a college and business/financial matters, but he made interesting reference to his (Lawrence's) own candidacy for governor on the American Party ticket. He did not expect to win, but instead proposed to simply be working to keep the "Americans" in line for a unified opposition to the Democrats in 1860.

Keywords: American Party; Boston, Massachusetts; Democratic Party (U.S.); Education; Election, Presidential, 1860; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to Dear Governor [James Denver]
Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight
Date: October 28, 1858
Hugh S. Walsh, Acting Governor of Kansas Territory, wrote to former Governor James Denver regarding recent political events. The first part relates incidents arising from the mishandling of prisoners by Marshals Robbins and Walker, who had arrested and imprisoned them, leaving them "without a bailiff or any charge whatever." The second part discusses political strategies for appeasing some free state party members in order to win their support. Among those, Walsh proposes that a Kentuckian man become the next governor and that during the Democratic Convention of November 25 they adopt the Cincinnati Platform, which would uphold popular sovereignty in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Cincinnati Platform; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Davis, Alson C.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Elmore, Rush; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sykes, T.B.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Walsh, Hugh Sleight


Letter, S.C.S [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [C. Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: December 29, 1858
In this letter from Lawrence, December 29, 1858, Smith mentions a few business matters (e.g., the railroad convention) but concentrates on the border conflict, with specific criticism leveled at John Brown and James Montgomery. "Captains Brown & Montgomery continue their 'reign of terror' in Linn and Bourbon counties. . . ."

Keywords: African Americans; Bleeding Kansas; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Newspapers; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad conventions; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves; Smith, Samuel C.


Letter, J. P. Root to Hon. Charles Robinson
Authors: Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: January 17, 1859
Joseph Root wrote to Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, informing him of a development that was splitting the Republican (anti-slavery) Party. Root mentioned that a large majority of the free state House members had begun to call themselves "Radicals," or extreme Republicans. He stated that he would leave the party if, in order to be a Republican, he had to be a member of the "Jim Lane Montgomery Men." Root also informed Robinson that a court had been established in Lawrence in order to try violent offenders from Linn, Lykins, and Bourbon counties.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Smith, Samuel C.


Letter, C. Robinson to Geo. R. Morton Esq
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: March 9, 1859
In this typed "transcript" of a letter from Lawrence dated March 9, 1859, Charles Robinson confirmed Morton apparent conclusion that Robinson preferred Governor Salmon P. Chase for president in 1860. Robinson considered Chase "the purest & best Statesman in the country," and thought he was "more available than any other man of whatever shade of political faith," including William Seward. Robinson also comments on the Kansas scene which was "badly cursed with the most unscrupulous demagogues that ever afflicted any people, & there is at present but little union of effort or harmony of action among the free State men."

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Antislavery perspective; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Conway, Martin Franklin; Herald of Freedom; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Morton, George R.; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; Vaughan, Champion; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, M. F. Conway to My dear friend [George L. Stearns]
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: March 16, 1859
Most of this letter from Conway to George Stearns, Boston, was directed at the securing of a loan for a seemingly unstated investment opportunity, but Conway mentioned in closing that "We are about to organize a square Republican Party in Kansas."

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Finance; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Nute, Ephraim; Osawatomie convention; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Geo. L. Stearns Esq.
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: March 1859
Here Whitman wrote about his support on behalf of the National Kansas Committee of several activities: Dr. Doy's defense, John Brown (despite the fact that he had obtained additional funds "under false pretences"), and the organization of the Republican Party which was to be undertaken at convention in Osawatomie later that spring. Whitman feared that without some effort "the genuine standard Republicans" would fail to control the movement. He also mentioned an "unfortunate" altercation between Martin Conway and Charles Robinson on the streets of Lawrence.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Factionalism; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie convention; Railroad land grants; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [G. W. Brown]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: April 13, 1859
With regard to the formation of the Republican Party at the forthcoming Osawatomie convention, Ewing told George W. Brown, editor of Lawrence's Herald of Freedom, why he believed this was the right course for the "opposition" to take at this time. The Free State Party had, in his opinion, accomplished its objectives, and the Democratic Party contained a proslave faction and was affiliated with the administration. Ewing's objective was "to secure an organization of the Republican or opposition party at Osawattomie [sic], on a just and rational platform, and led by honest & conservative men."

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie convention; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Proslavery; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [J. M. Winchell]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: April 13, 1859
This letter from Ewing in Leavenworth to James M. Winchell at "Wyandott" addressed a question regarding real estate in the latter's city and the upcoming Osawatomie convention for the founding of the Republican Party in Kansas. Ewing believed the "opposition" would "have no difficulty in carrying the county: but if the party is badly managed at Osawattomie [sic], & at subsequent conventions, our county is surely gone and probably the Territory."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Land speculation; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Real estate; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Dear Friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 17, 1859
In this letter, Samuel Tappan continued to keep Thomas Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts apprised of the current situation in Kansas Territory. He mentioned such topics as the Pike's Peak gold rush and the affairs of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, stating his belief that Robinson and Pomeroy were innocent of any charges of speculation. He praised John Brown's work to free slaves and the work of the Doy family in that same endeavor. However, he did not agree with Charles Robinson, who too readily looked to the interests of the Republican Party instead of supporting John Brown's work in the territory. Tappan appreciated the Atlantic Monthly magazine and Higginson's contributions to it.

Keywords: African Americans; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy, John; Free state perspective; Fugitive slaves; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas City, Kansas Territory; Land speculation; Pikes Peak gold rush; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913


Letter, A. Lincoln (copy) to M. W. Delahay
Authors: Lincoln, Abraham
Date: May 14, 1859
This two-page, handwritten copy of a letter to Mark Delahay from Abraham Lincoln was probably given to the KSHS by Delahay's daughter Mary E. Delahay in the early 1900s. Lincoln regretfully declined an invitation to attend the Osawatomie convention on May 18 which was to formally organize the Republican Party in Kansas. Lincoln warned against "the temptation to lower the Republican Standard [in whatever platform the convention might adopt] in order to gather recruits. In my judgment," Lincoln continued," such a step would be a serious mistake" that "would surrender the object of the Republican organization--the preventing the Spread and Nationalization of Slaver . . ."

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Presidential, 1860; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Slave power; Slavery


Letter, Frank Walker to Dear Brother
Authors: Walker, Frank
Date: May 23, 1859
This is part of a series of letters from Frank Walker written in Mound City, Linn County, Kansas Territory. The letter implied that Walker was part of a free state militia group and indicated that the free state men never stole things. He wrote that the proslavery men took their horses. He mentioned a meeting of the Republican Party and that Horace Greeley gave a speech.

Keywords: Free state militia; Free state perspective; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Walker, Frank


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: June 10, 1859
From Sumner on June 10, 1859, just days after the election for delegates to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, Ingalls wrote his father about the "well fought" contest in a county (Atchison) that was "an old stronghold of pro-slavery democracy." Ingalls won, of course, even though he at first "regarded the contest as a hopeless one," but still feared that the Democrats could control the convention; if so, "Kansas may be a Slave State after all. . . . It is Estimated that there are five hundred slaves in the territory today by virtue of the Dred Scott decision. A family recently came to this place from Kentucky with five."

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Dred Scott decision; Election, Wyandotte Constitution delegates to convention, June 1859; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Osawatomie convention; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Slaves in Kansas Territory


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Leandre Martin]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: July 2, 1859
In his reply to a June 25 letter from Leandre Martin, Osawatomie, Ewing, Jr. agreed there was little doubt that "several hundred illegal & fraudulent votes" for the Democrats impacted Leavenworth's early June election for delegates to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention. (Democrats captured all ten spots in the county's delegation.) The problem was establishing proof for individual cases of fraud totaling 450, the Democratic majority in the county.

Keywords: Contested elections; Democratic Party (U.S.); Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, [Marc Parrott] to Dr. Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: c. 1859
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, of Ohio. Marcus inquired about the "mixed politics" he had heard about in Ohio. He also remarked that he anticipated being a candidate for Congress, and expressed his interest in visiting Pike's Peak. Marcus added that he would leave the following morning for Wyandotte in order to attend the Constitutional Convention there, and projected that there would be trouble since the Republicans held a heavy majority.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; National politics; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pikes Peak, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: July 5, 1859
On the first day of the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, Ingalls wrote from Wyandotte, Kansas, with observation on the city and the nature of the convention, which he considered "not a very superior one." Nevertheless, the Republicans had a big majority, and Ingalls was "on some of the most important committees in the convention and shall be obliged to do some hard work."

Keywords: Celebrations; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas City, Missouri; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); St. Louis, Missouri; Steamboats; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Correspondence, Champion Vaughan to S.O. Thacher, et al
Authors: Vaughan, Champion
Date: July 7, 1859
Vaughan, editor of the Leavenworth Times, wrote this letter soon after the convention convened to introduce and lend his support to three "Delegates elect from Southern Nebraska to the Kansas Convention." They had convinced Vaughan that efforts toward annexation were not just more Democratic politics.

Keywords: Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Times; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Thacher, Solon O. (Solon Otis), 1830-1895; Vaughan, Champion; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Hugh [Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: July 27, 1859
In this letter to Hugh Ewing in Washington, D.C., Ewing, Jr. sought his brother's consent to donate "a lot" to Leavenworth's German Catholic to help with the construction of a "new building" (the pastor wanted to hold a raffle for the property to raise money). Perhaps more importantly, Ewing, Jr. wrote of political developments in which their business associate Hamp Denman was a likely Democratic nominee for governor, and he (T.E., Jr.) felt "strongly inclined to take the place on our [the Republican] ticket of Chief Justice of Supreme Court (a nomination he received in October; Ewing subsequently won election to that office in the December general election). Ewing also observed that the Republican Party was weaker in Leavenworth County than he anticipated and predicted that "the new Constitution [Wyandotte] will be unpopular in this County & and lose us many votes--not so much for its failure to exclude negroes as for its unjust & dishonest apportionment . . ."

Keywords: African Americans; Apportionment; Catholic Church; Churches; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Hugh; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Halderman, John Adams; Johnston, Sanders W.; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Miege, John Baptist; Mitchell, Robert Byington; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution


Speech, Fellow Citizens--In Support of the Wyandotte Constitution
Authors: Martin, John A., 1839-1889
Date: c. July 1859
This eleven-page document was a speech or essay, most likely in John Alexander Martin's handwriting, in support of the proposed Wyandotte Constitution, which was ratified by the voters of the territory on October 4, 1859. Martin, a twenty-year-old Atchison editor, served as secretary for the convention which finished its work at the end of July. Thus, this speech, attacking the Democrats for conspiring to defeat this latest free-state constitution and for "the Lecomptonizing of Kansas," was undoubtedly delivered several times during the months of August and September 1859. It covered the various issues opponents were likely to use to defeat it at the polls and stressed that in light of actions of "a servile judiciary" slavery could not be removed from Kansas until it was admitted as a "sovereign state."

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); English Bill; Free state constitutions; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Lecompton Constitution; Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Missouri compromise; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Scott, Dred; Slave power; Slavery; Squatter sovereignty; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: August 14, 1859
Back in Sumer on August 14, 1859, Ingalls wrote regarding the convention's recently completed work and the prospects for the Wyandotte Constitution, now "before the people." The Democrats were "taking strong ground against it" because of the state boundaries set by the delegates (excluded "Southern Nebraska & Pike's Peak"), there was to be no exclusion of "free negroes" from Kansas, and of the "apportionment," which gave the Republicans, and thus their proposed constitution, a big advantage. "The democracy are furious about it [the apportionment] of course and some temporizing Republicans are inclined to smooth the matter over by explanations and euphimisms. I adopt a different ground . . . ." Ingalls argued that he "was not aware of any extreme favors or kindnesses extended to the people of Kansas in the last four years by the democratic party which warranted any very delicate considerations form the party in power today."

Keywords: Apportionment; Boundaries; Buchanan administration; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Wyandotte Constitution ratification, October 1859; Exclusion, African Americans; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Land speculation; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Pikes Peak, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, H. [Henry] Wilson to Dear [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Wilson, Henry , 1812-1875
Date: August 15, 1859
The senator from Natick, Mass., wrote to express to Robinson in Lawrence his and his friend's anxiety "about your new state." Wilson believed it a mistake for Kansas to have organized the Republican Party before gaining admission to the Union, but now that that had been done, "Don't for God's sake let the Democrats carry it."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875


Correspondence, John A. Martin to J. M. Winchell
Authors: Martin, John A., 1839-1889
Date: September 7, 1859
In the weeks following the close of the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, John A. Martin, the convention's secretary, and James M. Winchell, president of the convention, were occupied with the campaign for its ratification. This letter from Martin, dated Atchison, September 7, 1859, addressed some of the steps that had been and should be taken in the document's behalf during the bitter, partisan campaign leading up to the October 4, 1859, referendum.

Keywords: Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Nebraska Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress. Senate; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, F. M. Cummins to S. N. Wood
Authors: Cummins, F. M.
Date: October 3, 1859
From El Mendaro, Madison Co., K.T., F. M. Cummins wrote to Wood regarding the latter's candidacy for the territorial legislature in the election of November 8, 1859. He asked Wood to clarify his position on general issues concerning loyalty to Republican principles and a boundary issue that had negatively affected Madison County. (The 23rd District included Madison, Chase, and Morris counties; Wood ultimately lost this election to T. S. Huffaker, the Democratic nominee, but defeated a third candidate, S. G. Britton, who was mentioned as the local favorite by Cummins. A month later, Wood won a seat in the state senate under the Wyandotte Constitution.)

Keywords: Chase County, Kansas Territory; Cummins, F. M.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Huffaker, T. S.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Madison County, Kansas Territory; Morris County, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, J. F. Newton to S. N. Wood
Authors: Newton, J. F.
Date: October 13, 1859
In this letter from Emporia, Newton complimented a Wood article on Emporia that gave "hell" to the local Republicans and encouraged Wood to do it again in the next issue of his newspaper. Factionalism was dividing the local party, and Newton mentioned several locals, such as [Charles V.] Eskridge, by name. "O yes a majority of the Republican central committee and Democrats hurrah for old Breckinridge this shows what shrewd Republicans we have give them 'hell' in your next."

Keywords: Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory (see also Lyon County, Kansas); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emporia, Kansas Territory; Eskridge, Charles V.; Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Newspapers; Newton, J. F.; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, F. M. Cummins to S. N. Wood
Authors: Cummins, F. M.
Date: November 13, 1859
Writing from El Mendaro, Madison County, K. T., F. M. Cummins speculated about Wood's November 8, 1859, election defeat. (Interestingly, when the territorial legislature convened in January 1860, Wood and not his Democratic opponent, T. S. Huffaker, represented the 23rd District.) In a faded letter, Cummins wrote that "the ill timed article in your [Wood's] issue of Oct 31st [the Kansas Press, Council Grove] on Jim Lane pretty effectively "cooked" your prospects in Madison County. . . ." Cummins went on to mention Wood's candidacy for the state senate (election of December 6, the first under the Wyandotte Constitution) and wrote: "Being a Lane man myself and knowing your opposition to him I cannot wish you success. . . ."

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Cummins, F. M.; Democratic Party (U.S.); El Mendaro, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, November 1859; Factionalism; Huffaker, T. S.; Kansas Press; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Madison County, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, N. S. Storrs to Mr. [Samuel N.] Wood
Authors: Storrs, N. S.
Date: November 14, 1859
N.S. Storrs of Emporia wrote to Wood concerning the ill will that had developed toward Wood in Butler County as a result of the recent (October 12) Republican nominating convention and the subsequent election of P.G.D. Morton to the territorial legislature. Storrs agreed with his friends from Butler County that it was a "packed" convention and Butler was not given sufficient representation; the county just wanted "her proper rights and not have a man forced upon her by Skullduggery and damd rascality." Wood was advised to convince people in Butler County that "you did not pledged yourself to Morton."

Keywords: Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory (see also Lyon County, Kansas); Butler County, Kansas Territory; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Morton, P. G. D.; Nominations for office; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Storrs, N. S.


Letter, H. J. Espy to S. N. Wood
Authors: Espy, H. J.
Date: November 28, 1859
H. J. Espy, a probate judge in Council Grove, wrote in response to a letter from Wood, who seemed to have challenged Espy's "charge" that Wood was "connected with the Underground Rail Road." Espy explained that "as I understand the term, Underground Rail Road, I believe there is an inseparable connection between it and the republican party. . . ."

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Courts; Espy, H. J.; Judges; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Underground railroad; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, S. [Samuel] Medary to My Dear Sir [John A. Halderman]
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: December 10, 1859
From Lecompton, territorial Governor Samuel Medary wrote to J. A. Halderman to express his disappointment with his (Medary's) and the Democratic Party's showing in the December 6 elections for state offices under the Wyandotte Constitution. Medary ran against Charles Robinson in the "state's" first gubernatorial contest and lost 7,908 to 5,395. Medary made a number of interesting observations in what amounted to a post election analysis of the outcome. The party should have won, in Medary's estimation, but as a result they would "have to submit to the eternal disgrace of having it [Kansas] go forth as a Black Old John Brown state."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, unsigned [Charles Chadwick] to Hiram Hill
Authors: Chadwick, Charles
Date: December 14, 1859
Charles Chadwick wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Chadwick reported that the Republicans (anti-slavery supporters) had been successful in recent elections. However, the economy was worse than the year before, according to Chadwick, money was scarce, and the city of Quindaro had not started collecting property taxes because the amounts would exceed the value of the property. A newspaper "The Kansas Tribune" had begun to circulate after a period in which there had been no newspaper, and the Parkville and Grand River Railroad was slated to be constructed through the town.

Keywords: Chadwick, Charles; Economic conditions; Elections; Hill, Hiram; Newspapers - Free State; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad companies; Railroad land grants; Rent; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Taxation; Telegraph; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Olin Thurston to Friend [John A.] Halderman
Authors: Thurston, Olin
Date: December 30, 1859
Olin Thurston of Humbolt, Kansas, wrote J. A. Halderman to comment on the past election for state offices, to thank him for "your gallant fight in behalf of the Democracy, and to assure him that "we of southern Kansas are always ready to co-operate with our friends in Leavenworth."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Humboldt, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Thurston, Olin


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [John Hanna]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 26, 1860
In this letter to a friend in Greencastle, Indiana, Ewing made numerous observations about the state of Kansas politics, of which he wrote: "Politics in Kansas you know are a business to those caught in the whirlpool." Ewing thought the state government was "pretty well officered" but was concerned about prospects for the senatorial contest. "Lane is nearly dead with the politicians. . . But he is a power with the people. . . . I look on Lane as a decidedly bad man," even though he recognized Lane's positive "service to the cause before the [Lawrence free-state] Convention in Decr 1857."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state cause; Hanna, John; Journalism; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Congress. Senate; Vaughan, Champion


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Vernon [Thomas Vernon]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: February 23, 1860
Along with a request that his friend Thomas Vernon purchase a list of used books for him in New York City, Ewing commented on the presidential nomination and the fact that the Republicans were "not so extensively engaged in preaching the irrepressible conflict as before John Browns day." Ewing hoped the party picked someone "at least as moderate" as Abraham Lincoln, whom he "could heartily support."

Keywords: Bates, Edward, 1793-1869; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Presidential, 1860; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; New York, New York; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Vernon, Thomas


Letter, John Ritchey to My Dear Friend [A. D.] Stevens
Authors: Ritchie, John , 1817-1887
Date: March 6, 1860
From Franklin, Indiana, on March 6, 1860, John Ritchey wrote to Aaron Steven, one of the Harpers Ferry raiders still awaiting execution in Virginia, that it "it is gratafying to me, to find you, so willing to meet your sentence."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery perspective; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Slavery; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Stowe, Harriet Beecher; Uncle Tom's Cabin


Letter, M. J. Parrott to S. N. Wood
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: March 28, 1860
From Washington, D.C., the territory's delegate to Congress, Marcus J. Parrott wrote Wood about several issues, including the establishment of mail routes and railroad matters. Regarding the latter, he briefly discusses pending legislation and possible outcomes.

Keywords: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Postal service; Railroad legislation; Railroads; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, C. Robinson to "Dear Madam" [Emma Willard]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: March 30, 1860
In response to Willard's letter of March 22, Robinson wrote from Quindaro that he was "gratified" to learn of her interest in Kansas history and that she was "disposed to examine for yourself the random thrusts of the press." Robinson went on to make some interesting observations regarding his interpretation of Kansas events and the importance of the various factions, free state and proslavery.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state cause; Kansas question; Law and Order Party; Lecompton Constitution; Millard, Emma; Proslavery; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, R. S. Stevens to S. N. Wood
Authors: Stevens, Robert S.
Date: April 2, 1860
R. S. Stevens, a Democratic attorney who had a variety of financial interests in Kansas during the 1850s and 1860s, wrote this letter to Wood from Washington, D.C., where he (Stevens) seemed to be lobbying for a number of concessions for himself and Kansas Territory. Specifically, he wrote of mail routes and "grants for R Rr" [railroads], which would not be forthcoming because of the Republicans who "care[d] nothing about us [Kansas] except so far as political capital can be made." Much of the letter is a condemnation of the Republican Party, which he also wrote was holding up Kansas admission so it could be used against the Democrats, and the final page addressed action, or inaction, with regard to Indian treaties and land.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic National Convention (1860 : Charleston, S.C.); Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Presidential, 1860; Indian lands; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Railroad land grants; Railroads; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; Stevens, Robert S.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to S. N. Wood
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: April 17, 1860
From Washington, D.C., Pomeroy wrote to express his concern for the Woods who had just lost their "'House & Effect'" in a fire. But as consolation Pomeroy informed Wood that Kansas was "going to be admitted 'into the family of States,' this season." Then, making reference to the 1856 dispersal of the Topeka free state legislature, Pomeroy wrote: "I wonder if our State Legislature could not be called together at Topeka upon the 4th of July, to commemorate the day of our being 'dispersed' by the United States Soldiers!!" Although optimistic, Pomeroy conceded politics might still hold up admission, if the anti-Seward forces thought Kansas votes might influence the decision of the upcoming Chicago convention.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Atchison, Kansas Territory; Deitzler, George W.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Fires; Free state legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; United States. Congress


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Charley [Charley Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: May 1, 1860
In a letter to Charley Ewing, his younger brother, Thomas Ewing made some interesting observations about national presidential politics and parties. He was hopeful that the Republican Party in convention at Chicago would nominate a good "National man," but if they didn't he would "hope for the election of [Stephen A.] Douglas."

Keywords: Charleston, South Carolina; Chicago, Illinois; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Presidential, 1860; Ewing, Charles; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Political conventions; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Whig Party (U.S.)


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Abraham Lincoln]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: May 6, 1860
On May 6, 1860, ten days before the Republican convention convened in Chicago, Illinois, Ewing wrote to Abraham Lincoln at Springfield, Ill., regarding the fact that the Kansas Republican delegation had been "instructed by the Convention by which they were selected to cast their votes (if they should have any) for Mr. Seward [considered by most a more radical candidate]. . ." Ewing wanted to explain how this happened and why D.W. Wilder, a strong Seward man, was the Leavenworth delegate rather than "Col. Delahay who was understood to be strongly in favor of your nomination."

Keywords: Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Chicago, Illinois; Delahay, Mark W.; Election, Presidential, 1860; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Illinois; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Political conventions; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; Wilder, Daniel Webster, 1832-1911


Letter, James Montgomery to George L. Stearns
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: October 6, 1860
Having returned from a trip to the East (where he visited Stearns, Horace Greeley, and others in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia), Montgomery wrote from Mound City, Linn County, that he "found the people greatly excited." News of violence directed against free state men in Texas and Arkansas had awakened Kansans' sense of urgency, as Montgomery continued his efforts to free slaves and undercut the slave economy of western Missouri.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border ruffians; Free state supporters; Fugitive slaves; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Texas


Letter, Joseph Denison to Br. [Isaac] Goodnow
Authors: Denison, Joseph
Date: November 9, 1860
Joseph Denison wrote from Cincinatti, Ohio, to Isaac Goodnow, who was also traveling in the East. Denison had been traveling in the Midwest as part of an effort to raise a relief fund for citizens of Kansas Territory, who had suffered as a result of a severe drought. His fellow churchmen and abolitionists were eager to help, as they believed that "the recent Republican victories are due in great part to the settlers and suffers in Kansas" who "must be helped or they will be starved out of the Territory."

Keywords: Denison, Joseph; Economic conditions; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Railroads; Relief; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); de Vivaldi, Charles F.


Letter, M. W. Delahay to My Dear Sir
Authors: Delahay, Mark W.
Date: December 1, 1860
In response to an inquiry about a presidential appointment, Delahay wrote from Leavenworth that it was too soon to bother the president elect with such matters. When the time came, perhaps in April or May, Delahay believed Lincoln would treat Kansas fairly and might "consult his friends in Kansas and I may be one of them . . . I have been an old friend of Mr. Lincoln and he is a relative of my wife." (This is identified as a "circular letter," so perhaps it was mailed to a number of individuals with similar interests.)

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Patronage, political; Presidential appointments; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, J. B. Woodward to S. N. Wood
Authors: Woodward, J. B.
Date: December 2, [1860]
From Junction City, Woodward wrote to inform Wood that he (Woodward) was "elated with the idea" that Wood might move his newspaper to Junction City and promised to do all he could to support the paper if the relocation came about. According to Woodward his town needed "a Press just as rabid and saucy as yours" that could effectively counter opposition. Reference was made to a "Geery," apparently H. T. Geery, who switched to the Democratic Party and started a Junction City newspaper. This may have been the Kansas Frontier, which was published by H.N. Short and H.T. Geery at least by the spring of 1861. (Only two extant copies exist; the first is vol. 1, no. 8, May 25, 1861.)

Keywords: Davis County, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Geary County, Kansas; Geery, H. T.; Junction City, Kansas Territory; Kansas Frontier; Newspapers; Partisan press; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [W. R. Griffith]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: December 18, 1860
With regard to the "difficulties in Linn and Bourbon Counties," Ewing wrote William Riley Griffith of Marmaton, Bourbon County, regarding their shared belief that the Republican Party should not condone the violence perpetrated by James Montgomery and company. Ewing was hopeful that if Kansas was admitted soon, order would be restored.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state activities; Griffith, William Riley; Lincoln administration; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marmaton, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Violence


Letter, [Jim] Lane to [M. W.] Delahay
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: December 18, 1860
Writing on "Christian & Lane" attorneys letterhead, Jim Lane (at least it certainly appeared to be Lane) informed Delahay in a "Strictly confidential" letter of his plan to help John Speer, Lawrence editor and "faithful friend," take control of the Republican, another Lawrence newspaper. To do so he needed to raise $500, but the political payoff would be worth the effort." Lane felt control of the Republican, Times [Leavenworth] & Record [Topeka] would lead to success for the free state cause.

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Free state cause; Kansas State Record; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Leavenworth Times; Newspapers; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Speer, John, 1817-1906


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Father [Thomas Ewing, Sr.]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 20, 1861
As with the January 17 letter to his brother, Ewing, Jr., stressed the significance of Robinson's appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs in this letter to his father in Lancaster, Ohio. Ewing expressed high regard for Robinson's abilities and believed he had wide support, from virtually every "republican of note in Kansas save Jim: Lane."

Keywords: Civil war; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lancaster, Ohio; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; New York, New York; Ohio; Presidential appointments; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; United States. Congress. Senate; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear [Joseph J.] Coombs
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 22, 1861
In January 1861 Ewing wrote several letters to members of Congress and others of influence in Washington on behalf of Charles Robinson's appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. This one, marked "Private," to J. J. Coombs is one example. Not only was Robinson well qualified for this important position, according to Ewing, but Robinson's appointment to this influential post would increase Ewing's chance to capture a Senate seat--"If he can get the appt before the State Legislature sits it will so greatly strengthen his influence that my election will be certain."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Coombs, Joseph J.; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Presidential appointments; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; United States. Congress. Senate; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Hon. John Sherman]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 22, 1861
To Congressman, soon to be U.S. senator, John Sherman of Ohio, Ewing wrote to encourage Sherman to support Charles Robinson's appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. "It is a matter of very great importance to the people of Kansas that a Comr should be apptd who would exert himself to have the numerous reserves in our borders reduced, and such of the Tribes removed southward as wish to get out of our way . . . ." Ewing also mentioned the pending bill for "the admission of Kansas."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Courts; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Native Americans; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pettit, John; Presidential appointments; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 26, 1861
Marcus Parrott wrote from Washington, D.C. to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Ohio. Marcus began his letter berating his brother for his inconsistent correspondence; he himself, though very busy, managed to write Edwin regularly. Marcus also voiced his frustration with Congress, declaring this to be his last week as a Delegate, and predicted that both Republicans' and Democrats' stubbornness would cause the country to permanently divide. Kansas would become a state on January 29, only three days later.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Blair, Frank; Brown, Thomas; Democratic Party (U.S.); National politics; Ohio; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Secession; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Photograph, John C. Fremont
Authors: Brady's National Portrait Galleries
Date: 
In 1856, John C. Fremont was the first presidential candidate for the newly formed Republican party, which endorsed an antislavery platform. He served in the U.S. Topographical Corps and participated in a number of expeditions that explored the "West." He played a controversial role in the conquest of California, and he served as a Major General during the Civil War.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brady's National Portrait Galleries; Cartes de visite; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Photographs and Illustrations; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Photograph, Oscar E. Learnard
Authors: Mettner Studios of Lawrence
Date: 
Oscar E. Learnard came to Kansas from Vermont in the fall of 1855. He first settled in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, but later was one of the founders of Burlington in Coffey County, Kansas Territory in the spring of 1857. He served on the territorial council. He was president of the May 18, 1859, convention at Osawatimie where the Republican Part was organized. This photograph was taken later in his life by Mettner's Studio, Lawrence, Kansas.

Keywords: Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Council; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Photographs and Illustrations; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Photograph, Horace Greeley
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Horace Greeley was editor of the New York Tribune during the Kansas territorial era. He actively supported the free state cause in Kansas through editorials as well as coming to Kansas in 1859. He advocated resistance to the implementation of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and was involved in the founding of the Republican Party.

Keywords: Free state cause; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Journalists; Newspapers; Photographs and Illustrations; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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