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76 results for Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864:
Memorandum, Instructions as to Wyandot Float
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: [1857]
This document, obviously written by A. H. Reeder either to the surveyor or to Halderman, is undated but was most likely composed in 1857. It addressed issues related to the location of Reeder's claim to land in the Wandotte float.

Keywords: Halderman, John Adams; Indian lands; Lykins, Johnston; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Searl, Albert D.; Surveyor General (see United States. Surveyor General); Wyandot Float


Letter, Tho Sherwood to Friend Woodward
Authors: Sherwood, Thomas
Date: July 5, 1855
Thomas Sherwood wrote to Friend Woodward of the now-famous confrontation between Governor Andrew Reeder and Benjamin F. Stringfellow. According to Sherwood, the two men were only saved from shooting one another by the intervention of Reeder's private secretary, John Halderman, and the U.S. District Attorney for Kansas Territory, Andrew Isacks.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Isacks, Andrew Jackson; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Mission; Sherwood, Thomas; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.


Kansas Territorial Seal
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 30, 1854
The Kansas territorial seal supposedly was engraved by Robert Lovett of Philadelphia from a design developed by Andrew H. Reeder, the first Territorial Governor of Kansas. Encircling the border of the two-inch brass die is the text, "SEAL OF THE TERRITORY OF KANSAS / ERECTED MAY 30, 1854." The face features a pioneer holding a rifle and hatchet opposite Ceres (the goddess of agriculture) who stands next to a sheaf of grain. At their feet lie a tree and the axe that felled it. Between these two figures is a shield with a plow in the top compartment and a hunter stalking a buffalo below. Above the shield is a banner reading, "POPULI VOCE NATA." This Latin motto has been translated to read "Born by the voice of the people" or "Born of the popular will." The motto speaks directly to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, creating the territory and establishing popular sovereignty whereby voting residents would decide if Kansas became a slave or free state.

Keywords: Agricultural implements; Agriculture; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas Territory; Objects; Popular sovereignty; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Territorial government


Certificate, Leavenworth Association, Five Town Shares
Authors: Leavenworth Association
Date: October 9, 1854
This certificate for "five shares of the Town property of Leavenworth Association" was made out to Andrew H. Reeder, the first territorial governor. It was signed by H. Miles Moore, secretary, and George W. Gist, president. The latter, and two other men, had laid claim, according to Andreas's History of Kansas, to the land that would become Leavenworth city on June 12, 1854, the first land claimed in the territory by U. S. citizens after passages of the Kansas Nebraska Act.

Keywords: Gist, George W.; Land acquisition; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town shares


Certificate, Leavenworth Association, One Town Shares
Authors: Leavenworth Association
Date: October 18, 1854
This document/certificate was identical to the one issued to Andrew H. Reeder (Document #261), but it was made out to C. A. Williams for "one share of the Town property of Leavenworth Association," and on the reverse side it was transferred to Reeder, November 11, 1854. It was signed by Charles Mundee, secretary, and D. P. Wallingford, a proslave partisan from Weston, Mo. At the top, the document was signed, "With Greetings: John A. Halderman."

Keywords: Certificates; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Mundee, Charles; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town shares; Wallingford, D. P.; Williams, C. A.


Letter, John N. Dyer to Gov. A. H. Reeder
Authors: Dyer, John N.
Date: November 7, 1854
John N. Dyer, Pawnee, KT, wrote Reeder to say that the Pawnee Town Association, which had been formed in November 1854 and of which Dyer was secretary, had voted to admit the governor "as a member with equal rights, and responsibilities, as the original members." The letter was written on the 7th about a meeting on the 6th of November; perhaps this was the association's first meeting, since they reportedly organized sometime in November.

Keywords: Dyer, John N.; Pawnee Town Association; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town companies


Certificate appointing James S. Emery as a Justice of the Peace for the First District, Kansas Territory.
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: November 8, 1854
Reeder made this appointment as the territorial governor. The boundaries of the First District were described in the document based on various geographic landmarks. The district included the town of Lawrence and ran along the south side of the Kansas River to the Missouri state line. Its southern boundary was the Santa Fe road.

Keywords: Certificates; Courts; Emery, James Stanley; Justices of the peace; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Santa Fe road


Document signed by Gov. Reeder affirming that James S. Emery was sworn in to serve as Justice of the Peace
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: November 9, 1854
This was a follow up document to James Emery's appointment as Justice of the Peace for the First District, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Courts; Emery, James Stanley; Justices of the peace; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864


Receipt, Handwritten, William A. Hammond to A. H. Reeder
Authors: Hammond, William A.
Date: November 16, 1854
William A. Hammond, secretary of the Pawnee Town Association, wrote: "Received Fort Leavenworth K. T. November 16th of A. H. Reeder one hundred dollars ($100.00) in full of a payment on his interest in the stock of Pawnee Town Association." This was the first of several such receipts and documents pertaining to transactions in town shares, etc. Shares had been selling for $120 each, with 10 shares equal to an "interest." The contents of several additional receipts are included in the text version of the item.

Keywords: Hammond, William A.; Pawnee Town Association; Receipts; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town shares


Letter, William A. Hammond to Dear Sir [Gov. A. H. Reeder]
Authors: Hammond, William A.
Date: November 20, 1854
Dr. Hammond, the secretary of the Pawnee town company, was post surgeon at Fort Riley in 1854-55. He wrote from the "Catholic Mission" (undoubtedly the Potawatomi mission at St. Mary's) to inform the governor that he had "just purchased from Mr. Wilson one whole interest (10 shares) and from Lt. Hunter one half an interest (5 shares)" for Reeder--total cost, $1,800.00.

Keywords: Catholic Church Missions; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Hammond, William A.; Pawnee Town Association; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Speculation; Surgeons; Town site speculation; United States. Army


Letter, James M. Hunter to T. N. Stinson
Authors: Hunter, James M.
Date: December 5, 1854
James M. Hunter, writing from Westport, Missouri, informed Thomas N. Stinson about a joint land speculation deal involving lots in Tecumseh, KT. Hunter alluded to Governor Andrew Reeder's involvement in the speculative venture.

Keywords: Hunter, James M.; Land speculation; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Stinson, Thomas N.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town lots


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 10, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from "Up the River," Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, describing the difficult living conditions for him and the other men at the future site of Topeka, where they had been visited by Governor Andrew H. Reeder. Holliday assured his wife of his health and requested that she explain to Mr. Drew Lowry and Mr. McFarland in Pennsylvania why he had not written. He praised the beauty of the country and expressed his vision of its future, ending with a request that she write to him.

Keywords: Food; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation; Town sites


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 11, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, where he had stopped on his way to visit Governor Andrew H. Reeder at the Shawnee Indian Mission. Holliday hoped to make the growing Topeka the capital of Kansas Territory. In Lawrence, a hotel keeper had died and George W. Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom, was ill. Despite mail-delaying winter storms further east, the weather continued mildly. Holliday described his financial investments and requested money for his trip to Meadville, more urgent as the birth of their first child approached.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Capitals (cities); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town settlement


Letter, C. Robinson to Rev. E. E. Hale
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 9, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Edward Everett Hale, commented that Free State supporters were forming military companies in response to perceived "outrageous conduct" by Missourians during the March 30, 1855, election of representatives for the territorial legislature. Robinson asked Hale to send two hundred Sharp's rifles and two cannon for the use of Lawrence settlers.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state; Guns; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John Halderman to Messrs [Josiah] Miller and [Robert G.] Elliot
Authors: Halderman, John Adams
Date:  April 6, 1855
John Halderman, Governor Reeder's private secretary, wrote from Shawnee Mission to Josiah Miller, editor of the Kansas Free State newspaper, and to his business partner, Robert G Elliott, requesting that they print Reeder's proclamations from the recent convention of the territorial legislature.

Keywords: Elections; Elliott, Robert G.; Halderman, John Adams; Herald of Freedom; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Miller, Josiah; Newspapers; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Mission


Letter, Wm. E. Goodnow to My Dear Wife [Harriet Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, William E.
Date: June 10, 1855
William Goodnow, brother of Isaac Goodnow, wrote from Shannon, Wild Cat Creek, Kansas Territory, to his wife back East. Goodnow described his experiences participating in the development of the nearby town of Manhattan, having attended a city council meeting and anticipating the founding of a newspaper. Goodnow also mentioned religious services and "Sabbath Schools" currently running out of settler's homes, and commented on the numerous emigrants who had traveled to Kansas Territory only to quickly give up and return home.

Keywords: Diseases; Election fraud; Emigration and immigration; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Goodnow, William E.; Livestock; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Methodists; Newspapers; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Religion; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory; Town development


Letter, Sam Tappan to Mrs. [Ellen] Goodnow
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: June 29, 1855
Samuel Tappan wrote from Barker's Mission on the Shawnee Reserve in present-day Johnson County, Kansas Territory, to Ellen Goodnow, Isaac Goodnow's wife, near Manhattan. Tappan updated Ellen on the status of some misplaced luggage, providing a good description of local shipping and travel procedures. He praised the land of Kansas, " a glorious country to try 'men's soles' ". Tappan also described the recent scuffle between Governor Reeder and Benjamin Stringfellow, an incident which embodied the tension between anti and proslavery supporters.

Keywords: Freight and freightage; Goodnow, Ellen; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Landscape; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Mission; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913


Letter, Wm [Goodnow] to My Dear Wife [Harriet Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, William E.
Date: July 1, 1855
William Goodnow, brother of Isaac Goodnow, wrote from Shannon, Wild Cat Creek, Kansas Territory, to his wife Harriet in New England. Goodnow described his current activities, among them serving on the Manhattan city council along with his brother. He related his experience of seeing Governor Reeder pass by on his way to Pawnee, and judged him "fully able. . .to meet any Missouri renegade." Goodnow also anticipated that the free soil members of the Territorial Legislature would resign "not acknowledging this Legislature as a constitutional one."

Keywords: Crops; Diseases; Free Soil Party; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Harriet; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Goodnow, William E.; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Town development; Travel; Women


Journal of the Council of the Territory of Kansas, At Their First Session
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 2 through August 30, 1855
This printed document contained the actions of the First Territorial Council (Senate). It first met at the town of Pawnee near Fort Riley on Monday July 2, 1855. On July 6, 1855, the House of Representatives approved a resolution sent to them by the Council that moved the meeting of the Legislature to Shawnee Manual Labor School beginning July 16, 1855. This session of the Council concluded this first session on August 30, 1855. Included in the volume are various messages from the Governor and Acting Governor. The appendix contained reports of various committees--judiciary, special committee on exempting slaves from execution, bounds of counties and districts, elections, convention, public printing. The appendix also had the "opinion of the Supreme Court in regard to the legality of the present session" by Samuel Lecompte and Rush Elmore, a memorial from the legislature of Kansas to the President of the United States requesting the removal of Andrew Reeder, and the Rules and Orders under which the House of Representatives conducted business. The last 52 pages were an index to the volume. The members of the Council were Thomas Johnson and Edward Chapman, 1st Council District; A. M. Coffey and David Lykins, 4th Council District; William Barbee, 5th Council District; John W. Forman, 7th district; William P. Richardson, 8th district; D. A. N. Grover, 9th district; L. J. Eastin and Richard R. Rees, 10th district. The elections in the 2nd, 3rd, and 6th Council Districts were disputed but Andrew Macdonald, 2nd Council district, H. J. Strickler, 3rd district; and John Donaldson, 6th district were sworn in as members of the Council. John A. Haldeman served as the Chief Clerk.

Keywords: Barbee, William; Chapman, Edward; Coffey, A. M.; Courts; Donaldson, John; Eastin, Lucian J.; Elmore, Rush; Forman, John W.; Geary County, Kansas; Grover, D. A. N.; Halderman, John Adams; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Johnson, Thomas; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Lykins, David; Macdonald, Andrew; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Rees, Richard R.; Richardson, William P.; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Woodson, Daniel


Journal of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Kansas Territory, Legislature
Date: July 2 through August 30, 1855
This printed document contained the actions of the First Territorial House of Representatives. It first met at the town of Pawnee near Fort Riley on Monday July 2, 1855. On July 6, 1855, the House of Representatives approved a resolution sent to them by the Council (Senate) that moved the meeting of the Legislature to Shawnee Manual Labor School beginning July 16, 1855. This session of the House of Representatives concluded this first session on August 30, 1855. Included in the volume are various messages from the Governor and Acting Governor. The appendix contained reports of various committees--judiciary, special committee on exempting slaves from execution, bounds of counties and districts, elections, convention, public printing. The appendix also had the "opinion of the Supreme Court in regard to the legality of the present session" by Samuel Lecompte and Rush Elmore, a memorial from the legislature of Kansas to the President of the United States requesting the removal of Andrew Reeder, and the Rules and Orders under which the House of Representatives conducted business. The last 31 pages were an index to the volume.

Keywords: Browne, O. H.; Courts; Davis County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Geary County, Kansas; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Johnson, Alex S.; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Marshall, F.J.; Mathias, William G.; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Stringfellow, John H.; Wilkinson, Allen; Woodson, Daniel


By Authority. Official Message of His Excellency Gov. A. H. Reeder, to the First Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Kansas.
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: July 3, 1855
This printed version of Reeder's address included a review of how the land that became Kansas was acquired by the United States and of various legislation and treaties that applied before the passage of the Kansas Nebraska Act. Reeder also identified some of the responsibilities of the Legislature including establising a means of determining if Kansas was to be slave or free, establishing counties, setting up a judicial system, levying taxes, organizing a militia, determining a permanent seat of government, and creating a constitution. He also included some statistics from the first official census, which recorded 2,904 qualified voters out of 8,521 residents (only free males could vote). Reeder indicated the need to resolve the issue of selling intoxicating liquors to Native Americans.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Census; Courts; Kansas Territory. Council; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Native Americans; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864


Governor's Message Vetoing the Bill to Incorporate a Ferry at the Town of Kickapoo in K.T.
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: July 21, 1855
This letter was written by Andrew Reeder to the legislature, informing them that he had vetoed the bill. Furthermore he reminded them that the place where the legislature was supposed to meet was at Ft. Leavenworth, and not at the Shawnee Manual Labor School.

Keywords: Kansas Legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Territorial Council (see Kansas Territory. Council); Territorial politics and government


Town Share Certificate, Pawnee Association
Authors: Pawnee Town Association
Date: July 21, 1855
The Pawnee Association issued this certificate for "one share of the town property" to Thomas Sherwood, a business associate of Gov. Reeder's. Sherwood was involved in many of Reeder's land and town share transactions. This printed certificate is more elaborate than the ones issued earlier in the year.

Keywords: Certificates; Pawnee Town Association; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sherwood, Thomas; Speculation; Town development; Town shares


Veto Message of Andrew H. Reeder, Governor of Kansas Territory together with A Memorial from the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Kansas to His Excellency, Franklin Pierce, President of the United States
Authors: Kansas Territory, Legislature ; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: July 26, 1855
This printed pamphlet contained Andrew Reeder's veto messge for two bills passed by the territorial legislature. He based his veto not on the content of the bills but on the argument that the legislation was not passed at the official "seat of government." He explained his position in detail citing federal legislation and acts of the territorial legislature. The "Memorial" from the territorial legislature included a request that Reeder be removed as territorial governor with explanations of their grievances against Reeder. The item included the names of the members of the Council and members of the House.

Keywords: Johnson, Thomas; Kansas Territory. Council; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Stringfellow, John H.


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: July 29, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote letters from several cities to his wife, Mary Holliday, after leaving their home at Meadville, Pennsylvania to return to business at Topeka, Kansas Territory. Once in Lawrence, K. T., he reported the political situation to his wife. Governor Andrew H. Reeder, who expected violence, and the fraudulently elected Territorial Legislature were at loggerheads. (Holliday had been elected to the Legislature in a reelection called by Governor Reeder during Holliday's absence, but the reelection results were rejected by the Legislature.) Holliday also mentioned the good corn crop and warm weather and expressed his love for his wife and daughter, Lillie, born March 18.

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence; Weather


Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [T. W. Higginson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: August 27, 1855
This letter, written by free state governor Charles Robinson, was sent to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist. Robinson discussed in rather general terms the troubles facing Kansas, stating that he believed this struggle did not only involve Kansas, "but I regard it as one in which the whole nation is involved." Robinson also expressed doubts that the North would support the free state settlers in the territory, writing that they can only "hope" for reinforcements, not take them for granted. He asked Higginson to stir up Northerners against the bogus legislature, and made mention of ex-Governor Reeder and opposition to the bogus legislature. In general, this letter eloquently demonstrates the passion of this free state leader and his dedication to the cause of liberty.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Bogus legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee Manual Labor School


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: September 4, 1855
S. N. Simpson of Lawrence, Kansas Territory wrote to Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts concerning the improvement of the town and Hill's property. He alluded to "outsiders" who had made "a little stir." Simpson had demanded rent payment from Mr. Fuller, who agreed to pay part. Hill's distance from the situation had encouraged Fuller's delinquency. Simpson planned to attend the free state convention on the 5th. On page 2, written after the convention, Simpson reported that Governor Reeder was living in Hill's new house. He also mentioned that one of Simpson's Sabbath schools had stopped meeting.

Keywords: Free State Convention; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development


Kansas Free!! Gov. Reeder For Congress!!
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 8, 1855
This broadside invites the "Freeman on the Wakarusa" to attend a meeting to endorse the proceeding of the Big Spring Convention, which was organized by free state supporters as part of the actions leading up to the drafting of the Topeka Constitution. The meeting was to be held at Blanton on September 13, 1855. The document indicated that the "FREE STATE PLATFORM and the Proceedings of the CONVENTION" would be read and that the best "Orators of the Country" would be there.

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Wakarusa River


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: September 10, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, in good health, though others in Topeka were ill. He wanted Mary to join him, but when and with whom were undecided. He foresaw accepting the editorship of The Kansas Freeman, founded by Edward C. K. Garvey, and acquiring a farm. To Cyrus' disappointment, not he but Governor Reeder was nominated as the Kansas Territory delegate to Congress. He closed by inquiring after Lizzie and friends in Meadville.

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Free State Convention; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Kansas Freeman; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Agreement, Construction of Office Building in Leavenworth
Authors: Hook, H. M.; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: September 29, 1855
A. H. Reeder herein entered into an agreement with H. M. Hook for the latter to "erect" an office building on lot #8, block #3 of Leavenworth, KT. Hook agreed to build the structure, "16 feet by 32 feet similar to the office of M. I. Parrot" (perhaps, Marcus J. Parrott) for $400. Hook was to be paid out of the rent received on this property when finished, as well as from that he received on three others he was leasing from Reeder.

Keywords: Construction; Hook, H. M.; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864


Letter, A. H. Reeder to J. A. Halderman
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: October 6, 1855
In this letter to Halderman from former territorial governor A. H. Reeder at Westport mentioned a new assessment of $5 per share for Tecumseh's 640 acre Wyandot Float. He also discussed the erection of a court house with bricks that had been intended for a hotel.

Keywords: Construction; Halderman, John Adams; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Wyandot Float


Letter, I. T. Goodnow to My Dear Brother [William Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: October 10, 1855
Isaac Goodnow wrote from Shannon, Kansas Territory, to his brother William in New England. Having recently arrived in the Territory, Goodnow reported that work on his homestead was still in progress, delayed a bit by the illness of both himself and his wife, Ellen. However, he had recovered enough to ride over to Juniatta to vote in several elections: one for Governor Reeder for delegate to Congress, another for delegates to a State Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Election, Topeka Constitution delegates to convention, October 1855; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Goodnow, William E.; Merchants; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Shannon, Kansas Territory


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: October 15, 1855
Josiah Miller, at his office at the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his Father and Mother in South Carolina regarding recent events. He supported Reeder in the October 9th election over the pro-slavery candidate, John W. Whitfield, and suspected that Reeder would be elected regardless of any fraudulently cast votes. Miller elaborated on his problems with Robert Elliott, his business partner, who had no money to invest further in their newspaper. He also mentioned that the most debated topic at the recently convened Nebraska Territorial Legislature was the location of their capital, not the slavery question.

Keywords: Contested elections; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Nebraska Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Daily diary, Isaac Goodnow
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: July 1855 - January 1856
Isaac Goodnow, a free state supporter and founder of Bluemont College in Manhattan, Kansas Territory, recorded news of political events and military skirmishes from July 1855-January 1856. Goodnow's diary makes mention of the details of his daily life, such as home maintenance, crop harvests, prairie fires, and extended illness.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Daily life; Denison, Joseph; Elections; Free state activities; Free state support; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Schuyler, Philip Church; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Constitution; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Portrait, Andrew H. Reeder
Authors: Hall, Cyrenius
Date: 1855
Portrait of Andrew H. Reeder, first territorial governor. In 1855 Reeder was removed from office by President Pierce and was forced to leave Kansas when threatened by a pro-slavery grand jury. He escaped with the help of Thomas and Julia Stinson, who dressed him in women's clothing. Later, Reeder disguised himself as a woodcutter (as depicted in this painting) and escaped via a steamer on the Missouri River. Artist Cyrenius Hall painted this portrait in 1880.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Stinson, Julia; Stinson, Thomas N.; Violence


Narrative," A Twelve Months Practical Life in Kansas Territory, written by an actual settler"
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: ca. 1855
Robert Atkins Tovey wrote these pages so that "those who are going forth with their wives & children, their property, yea their all on earth should have the information covering the country to which they are making a Pilgrimage" from someone who has recently made the same journey. Broken up into chapters by subject, Tovey gave advice about the journey and settlement, provisions, land claims, soil, and weather, in addition to providing commentary about the current political situation and his disgust at the "Mob law" being imposed by the Missourians.

Keywords: African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Election fraud; Free state perspective; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Missourians; Native Americans; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Slavery; Slaves; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Transportation; Travel; Weather


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 26, 1856
Marcus Parrot wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus, on a political trip to discuss the 'Kansas Question" with members of the U.S. Congress, told him that the "dead-lock in the House has paralyzed [Washington] society" and that social engagements had been "quiet". He wrote Edwin of his surprise to hear an abolitionist speech as a Sunday sermon, and of his desire to speak with Tom Hendricks, Commissioner of the Land Office, regarding the prospective decline in availability of land warrants.

Keywords: Hendricks, Thomas A.; Kansas question; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Real estate investment; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shoemaker, Tom C.; Violence


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 26, 1856
Marcus Parrot wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus, on a political trip to discuss the 'Kansas Question" with members of the U.S. Congress, told him that the "dead-lock in the House has paralyzed [Washington] society" and that social engagements had been "quiet". He wrote Edwin of his surprise to hear an abolitionist speech as a Sunday sermon, and of his desire to speak with Tom Hendricks, Commissioner of the Land Office, regarding the prospective decline in availability of land warrants.

Keywords: Kansas question; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Real estate investment; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shoemaker, Tom C.; United States. Congress


Excerpt from letter, I. T. G [Isaac Goodnow] to [unknown]
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: January/February 1856
In the wake of the Wakarusa War, Isaac Goodnow wrote to an unknown recipient regarding recent skirmishes and negotiations between proslavery and free state supporters. According to Goodnow, Governor Shannon had demanded that the free state men surrender their Sharp's rifles and obey the laws of the "bogus" legislature. Governor Robinson had responded, telling his men to "keep the rifles, but surrender their contents." Goodnow also commented on the "determined heroism" of the free state women, and recounted the incident of voter fraud which occurred in the Delegate to Congress election between former Governor Reeder and J. W. Whitfield.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Election fraud; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879; Women


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: February 11, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother Edwin Parrott in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus described his experiences mixing his social engagements with politics, having to navigate through discussions with members of different parties. He mentioned the distrust he had for certain acquaintances that were also active in the government, and seemed frustrated by his only modestly successful attempts to discuss the Kansas question with them.

Keywords: Iverson, Alfred; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Medill, William; National politics; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shoemaker, Tom C.; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Doctor [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: February 16, 1856
From "Washington City" on February 16, 1856, former K.T. governor Andrew Reeder wrote Charles Robinson regarding his (Reeder's) efforts to influence Kansas policy in the nation's capital. Reeder was working through friends, since he no longer had personal influence with President Pierce, and he was not pleased with the president's February 11 proclamation, which he called "the low contemptible trickstering affair which might expected from Pierce, and is like the Special Message [of January 24] a slander on the Free State Party." Nevertheless, Reeder thought it could have been worse and insisted that Robinson and the other free-state leaders "should not organize the State Govt." Pierce would just use that action to justify aggressive moves to suppress the movement.

Keywords: Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Pierce administration; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Washington, D.C.


Letter, M. W. Delahay to Genl. C. Robinson, Col. J. H. Lane & Others
Authors: Delahay, Mark W.
Date: February 16, 1856
From Washington, D.C., on February 16, 1856, Mark Delahay, the Free State Party's would be representative to the 34th Congress, wrote to his free state colleagues regarding President Franklin Pierce's directive to Governor Wilson Shannon. The latter was "to arrest and punish all who may take part in the making and putting inforce any law in oposition to the Territorial laws now upon the Statute Book." Delahay warned against "the organization of an independent State Government" and wrote "we are upon the brink of a crisis of serious import." (See D.W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas, 109-110.)

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Free state government; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Pierce administration; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Doctor [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: February 18, 1856
On February 18, 1856, a concerned former governor, Andrew Reeder, wrote Charles Robinson again from the nation's capital. Reeder advised Robinson of the current situation in Washington, D.C., and urged caution; Reeder believed the Topeka movement/legislature and Robinson must clearly state that they were organizing a "state government" solely for the purpose of being ready to assume authority if/when Congress admitted Kansas to the Union. Reeder believed the "state movement" was on solid constitutional ground if this was its official position in the meantime; they must not usurp the power and authority of the territorial government.

Keywords: Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Washington, D.C.


House Executive Documents, 34th Congress, 1st Session, v.9, Executive Document No.66, Executive Minutes of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 24, 1856
President Franklin Pierce, along with his Secretary of State, complied with a resolution brought forth by the House of Representatives, which requested the "transmission of documents touching the affairs of the Territory of Kansas." The contents of these span from January 1, 1855- June 1855, and include the description of judicial districts and voting precincts as constructed by Territorial Governor Andrew Reeder. Also transmitted are Records of Oath for various Territorial justices and constables, voter census tables, and Territorial Legislature election returns of March 1855. Claims of election fraud in each district are also addressed by Governor Reeder.

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Executive departments - Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Judicial system; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864


Letter, C. A. Wright to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Wright, Charles A.
Date: April 14, 1856
Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Wright described his recent experiences buying and selling cattle obtained from Missouri counties. He also mentioned his purchase of town shares in Manhattan, Kansas Territory, and commented on the recent emigration rush, which was increasing demand for land, filling hotels, and causing rent to increase. Wright felt optimistic about the future of peace in Kansas, having heard a story about Governor Reeder's feeling for the same.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Livestock; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town development; Town shares; Wright, Charles A.


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: May 9, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, regarding recent events, which were "unfathomably deep in the waters of territorial trouble". He described the movement of armed men towards Lawrence, a mix of U.S. troops and militiamen from Missouri. Marcus also referred to the current situations of Robinson, Reeder, Lane, and other men who were to play important roles in the imminent Sack of Lawrence. Despite these threats, Marcus still commented on his own economic situation and again asked for money from his brother and father.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Neosho, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Real estate investment; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Telegraph; Town development


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: May 11, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory to his brother, Edwin Parrott, updating him on the situation in K.T. in the days leading up to the Sack of Lawrence. Marcus told him of attempts to arrest both Andrew Reeder and Charles Robinson, and how Reeder claimed that he was privileged from arrest. He also discussed the movement of the troops and his plans to visit Neosho in the coming few days, provided that the political tensions subside.

Keywords: Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Missouri River; Neosho River, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: May 15, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote to his brother, Edwin Parrott, from Leavenworth, K.T. He told Edwin that the border ruffians had made their first move into Lawrence the night before, defeating the "Lawrence party". Marcus added that morale in the town was exceptionally low after the departure of both Reeder and Robinson, and believed that the two men, plus the editors of the "Herald of Freedom" and the "Kansas Free State" were imprisoned. He also believed that, this victory gone to the border ruffians, with the support of Governor Shannon, the free soilers would be cleansed from the area.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Buford expedition; Free soil; Miller, Josiah; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Platte County, Missouri; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: May 23, 1856
Written just two days after the sack of Lawrence, this letter contained Learnard's observations of and reflections on "the fearful disaster to which this unfortunate town has been subjected." The town's citizens, wrote Learnard, chose not to resist the authority of the U.S. marshal but were nevertheless brutalized by Sheriff Jones and a posse of Missourians. He also mentioned Governor Reeder, Governor Shannon and David R. Atchison, who "made a speech."

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Missourians; Proslavery support; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence


Letter, Mr. [William B.] Hutchinson to Friend [Cyrus K.] Holliday
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: June 6, 1856
William B. Hutchinson of Lawrence, Kansas Territory wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, K. T., requesting support for a People's Mass Convention in Topeka on July 4. The gathering Free-Staters would be armed in case of opposition. Colonel Edwin V. Sumner had received orders on June 4th from K. T. Governor Wilson Shannon to disband unlawful military forces. The camp from which Hutchinson wrote had complied, but John W. Whitfield and his troops, camped at Bull Creek, refused. Hutchinson described northern enthusiasm to aid financially the free state cause. John H. Reeder and James H. Lane were speaking in northern states.

Keywords: Free State Convention; Free state support; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Letter, Milton M. Powers to Dear Friend, Cyrus K. Holliday
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: June 7, 1856
Milton M. Powers, Deputy Clerk of Court in Columbus, Ohio wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday, Free State leader and founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory. Powers had read of Holliday's activities in northern newspapers. A presentation of the Wrongs of Kansas, emphasizing Andrew H. Reeder and Samuel N. Wood's experiences, had emotionally motivated Powers to write and assure Holliday of his support. Once a Jeffersonian Democrat, but convicted that the party had abandoned its principles, Powers had become a Republican. He stated that the entire nation was attuned to events in Kansas Territory, and he believed that these events would have intense impact on the nation's future.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Columbus, Ohio; Democratic Party (U.S.); Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; National politics; Newspapers; Powers, Milton M.; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, [Amos A. Lawrence] to My Dear Madame [ Sara T. D. Robinson]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: June 26, 1856
From New York, Amos Lawrence wrote that he believed "Gov. Robinson cannot be harmed by any action of law" but thought it wise for Sara Robinson to write "a letter to my mother" "to be kept in reserve." (See, doc. #101115, draft letter) Lawrence mentioned visits with Congressmen William Howard and John Sherman (Howard Commission) and testimony before a congressional committee, and seemed optimistic about the situation in Kansas. [Reprinted in Blackmar, Life of Charles Robinson, 434.]

Keywords: Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Howard, William Alanson; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sherman, John, 1823-1900


To the friends of free Kansas
Authors: Kansas Central Committee of Iowa
Date: July 4, 1856
The Kansas Central Committee of Iowa suggested a different overland route to Kansas, recommending that emigrants travel through Iowa instead of Missouri. Also the committee wanted men from the west to come to Kansas instead of eastern men, since travel from back East would be too expensive.

Keywords: Antislavery; Clark, W. Penn; Downey, H. D.; Emigration and immigration; Hobart, C. W.; Immigration and early settlement; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Kansas Central Committee of Iowa; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Topeka, Kansas


Letter, O.E. Learnard to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: July 23, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote his father, S.T. Learnard, that he was disappointed in the attitude of people in Vermont and throughout the North who continued to support the Pierce administration. If they did so because they were Democrats, they should learn from Andrew H. Reeder, J. H. Lane, William Y. Roberts, and others who had seen the light. Learnard admitted "a few cases" of free state retaliation "upon their oppressors," and then gave some "facts" about the "Patawotamie" incident, while not mentioning John Brown by name. Learnard believed that the reports about mangled bodies were untrue.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Northern Democrats; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Roberts, William Young; Vermont; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Sir [J. A. Halderman]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
The former governor wrote this letter from Easton, Pennsylvania, to his former secretary and attorney, J. A. Halderman, in order to secure his services in an effort to retrieve some personal papers and settle some matters of business pertaining to town lots and shares. According to Reeder, "the Sheriff posse at the sacking of Lawrence broke open my trunk and stole the contents. The clothing is probably by this time worn out" and he was not concerned about other contents, with the exception of "some private papers" that someone had informed him could be retrieved. He asked Halderman to get the papers, which included "certificates of stock in Leavenworth, Tecumseh, Lecompton, Lawrence, Easton, Pawnee" etc., and then take care of business matters that were reflected therein--"some obligations for money, leases contracts Receipts & etc." Reeder also asked Halderman "to attend to my Leavenworth lots" and went into considerable detail about these matters.

Keywords: Businessmen; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Easton, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leases; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Stock certificates; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town shares


Andrew H. Reeder, Easton, PA to William Hutchinson
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 25, 1856
Reeder described his efforts to raise money for the Free State cause in his travels through the northern states.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; National Kansas Committee; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Sirs [Alfred and Edgar Huidekoper]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: September 20, 1858
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder and prominent citizen of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote to Alfred Huidekoper and Edgar Huidekoper, old associates from Meadville, Pennsylvania, to tell them of investment opportunities. He described rural claims, Town Act investments, and loans. He gave examples of large returns, including those gained by former governor Andrew H. Reeder. The time was ripe since Kansas' free statehood seemed certain, the land was titled, securities were assured, and financial difficulties had left some land and property owners with no option but to sell sacrificially. Holliday also confirmed the discovery of gold in western Kansas Territory (now Colorado).

Keywords: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Land claims; Land titles; Loans; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town lots


Newspaper article, Journal of Commerce
Authors: Journal of Commerce
Date: September 22, 1856
This clipping, enclosed in a letter from A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt dated September 22, 1856, argued that the emigration sponsored by New England emigrant aid societies was "indiscreet," although not illegal. The article placed the blame for the current troubles on the free-state settlers in Kansas, stating that Missouri settlers were only responding to the provocation of anti-slavery supporters.

Keywords: Bills, legislative; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state cause; Immigrants; Kansas Nebraska Act; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Missouri; Missouri compromise; Pierce administration; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery; Topeka Constitution; United States Government; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution


Letter, A. H. Reeder to My Dear Sir [John A. Halderman]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: October 22, 1856
Former Governor A. H. Reeder wrote to Halderman from Easton, Pennsylvania, regarding his business affairs and his desire to have Halderman act as his attorney and agent. But in this letter, Reeder also gave brief attention to the political situation in Kansas Territory and the nation, mentioning the congressional committee investigating the Kansas affairs, the "horrible state of things . . .in our unfortunate Territory," and his belief that, although James Buchanan would win the presidential contest in 1856, "the Republican party is bound to sweep the North within the next four years."

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Business; Congressional Report 200 (see also Howard Committee); Election, Presidential, 1856; Halderman, John Adams; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Leases; Pennsylvania; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Plan of Action, Charles Robinson
Authors: Higginson, Thomas Wentworth
Date: November 5, 1856
This document lays out the plan of action proposed by Charles Robinson at a meeting of free state leaders in Boston on November 5, 1856. Most likely these notes from the meeting were written by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a radical abolitionist from Massachusetts. Six resolutions were passed, some focusing on emigration and others on land sales or fundraising. The back of the document lists the names of those present at the meeting, including such influential figures as Senator Henry Wilson and Eli Thayer.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Cabot, Samuel; Emery, James Stanley; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Free state legislature; Immigration and early settlement; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Smith, Gerritt; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875


Letter, A. H. Reeder to My Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: December 23, 1856
This letter by Andrew Reeder, former governor of Kansas Territory, was written from Easton, Pennsylvania, where both Reeder and Crane had lived before coming to Kansas. Reeder enclosed payment for the taxes on his Topeka lots. He also reported that he had been in Washington, D. C. lobbying for the free state cause, informing Crane of various issues being discussed in the capitol.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Congressional delegate; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Easton, Pennsylvania; Lobbying; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Reeder Dagger
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Many free-state leaders were charged with treason by the pro-slavery legislature in May 1856. Former territorial governor Andrew Reeder escaped arrest by leaving Kansas disguised as a woodcutter. Reeder carried this dagger for defense when he fled the territory.

Keywords: Free state cause; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Objects; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Swords and daggers; Treason; Weapons (see also Guns)


Statement of Lemuel Knapp
Authors: National Kansas Committee
Date: January 5, 1857
This testimony, recorded by the National Kansas Committee, describes the Kansas experience of Lemuel Knapp, a settler who emigrated to the area near Fort Riley, Kansas. His statement includes personal information as well as comments on the development of Pawnee City and the role that it played in the early years of Kansas Territory. It also relates an account of how the President ordered the destruction of Pawnee City because the newly drawn boundaries placed it on the Fort Riley Military Reserve.

Keywords: Cooke, Philip St. George; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Houses; Knapp, Lemuel; Montgomery, William R.; Ogden, Edmund Augustus; Ogden, Kansas Territory; Pawnee Town Association; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864


Letter, A. H. Reeder to J. A. Halderman
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: January 9, 1857
From the National Hotel in Washington, Andrew Reeder wrote to advise Halderman on the disposition of some business matters, especially those related to his Leavenworth lots. He went on to comment on a variety of subjects, including his desire "to return to Kansas in the spring" and to have some long-term impact on the growth and development of Leavenworth. Reeder also mentioned his influence with "some of the men who will probably control the Pacific [Rail] Road when it is built," his desire to help Leavenworth secure the eastern Kansas terminus, and his activity with the National Kansas Committee. Although he had no interest in the rival town of Quindaro, he intended to "help build up" that city if he were not "fairly dealt with" in Leavenworth.

Keywords: Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Pacific railroads; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town lots


Letter, A. H. Reeder to J. A. Halderman
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: January 14, 1857
In this letter from Washington, D.C., dated January 14, 1857, Reeder wrote at length of a visit with W. H. Russell of Leavenworth (William H. Russell of Russell, Majors & Waddell) who believed the business climate was improving and that Reeder's lots were safe. Russell advised Reeder not to sell anything until value increased and volunteered to help Reeder reclaim the personal papers he lost during the Sack of Lawrence. Reeder thought Russell's help might be useful, since "Russell is so undoubtedly sound on the goose that he can afford to ask for them."

Keywords: Businessmen; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Russell, William H (of Russell, Majors and Waddell); Sound on the goose; Speculation; Town lots; Washington, D.C.


Letter, James Redpath to Sir
Authors: Redpath, James , 1833-1891
Date: February 1857
This printed form letter was written by James Redpath to the people of Boston asking for money for the people of Manhattan, Kansas in order to build a church, school, and library. Redpath had been appointed their agent to solicit this money. He included a list of references at the foot of the page.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Cabot, Samuel; Churches; Community life; Dana, Charles A.; Education; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Williams, John M. S.


Legal Document, Power of Attorney to John A. Halderman
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: April 27, 1857
A. H. Reeder gave his "Power of Attorney" to John A. Halderman, who had served him faithfully in various capacities since 1854, via this notarized, handwritten document dated April 27, 1857. It specifically detailed what this means in terms of the property holdings Reeder had in KT, etc."

Keywords: Halderman, John Adams; Lawyers; Legal profession (see Lawyers); Power of attorney; Real estate; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Speculation


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: September 1, 1858
Andrew Reeder, former governor of Kansas Territory, wrote from Easton, Pennsylvania, to inform Franklin Crane of the eastern response to elections in Kansas and the prospects for the Leavenworth Constitution. He also discussed the value of Topeka lots and a request to donate one for a church.

Keywords: Crane, Franklin Loomis; Easton, Pennsylvania; Elections; Leavenworth Constitution; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town development; Town promotion


Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to Dear Governor [James Denver]
Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight
Date: October 28, 1858
Hugh S. Walsh, Acting Governor of Kansas Territory, wrote to former Governor James Denver regarding recent political events. The first part relates incidents arising from the mishandling of prisoners by Marshals Robbins and Walker, who had arrested and imprisoned them, leaving them "without a bailiff or any charge whatever." The second part discusses political strategies for appeasing some free state party members in order to win their support. Among those, Walsh proposes that a Kentuckian man become the next governor and that during the Democratic Convention of November 25 they adopt the Cincinnati Platform, which would uphold popular sovereignty in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Cincinnati Platform; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Davis, Alson C.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Elmore, Rush; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sykes, T.B.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Walsh, Hugh Sleight


Report of Edward Hoogland, H.J. Adams and S.A. Kingman, Commissioners of Claims
Authors: Adams, Henry J.; Hoogland, Edward ; Kingman, Samuel A.
Date: July 11, 1859
Hoogland, Adams, and Kingman, Commissioners of Claims appointed by resolution of Governor Medary, continued investigating property and monetary losses suffered by the citizens of Kansas Territory after H.J. Strickler vacated the post. The new Claims Commissioners also believed that the responsibility for paying these loss claims rested with the General (Federal) Government. They reassessed the claims reported by Strickler, obtaining more information about the claimants and their losses, which included each claimant's political affiliation (free state or proslavery), their specific damages (house, horses, crops, etc), and who caused the damage (on behalf of either the free state or proslavery cause); this information is summed up in a supplemental table. The Claims Commissioners believed that the total value of losses occurring between November 1, 1855, and December 1, 1856, approximated at least $2,000,000; they also concluded that during skirmishes free state men had caused $94,500 in property damage, while proslavery men were believed to have caused nearly $319,000.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Border disputes and warfare; Damage claims; Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hoogland, Edward; Kingman, Samuel A.; McKay, William; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Newspapers; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: November 28, 1859
Andrew Reeder, former governor of Kansas Territory, wrote from Easton, Pennsylvania to Dr. Franklin Crane of Topeka. The letter discussed business interests in Kansas and prospects for Kansas's admission to the union. Reeder also suggested that it might be beneficial to replace place names established by the bogus legislature, which had pro slavery connections.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Bogus legislature; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: January 11, 1861
From Lawrence, K.T., Robinson wrote his wife Sara, who was still in the East, concerning Jim Lane's efforts to destroy Robinson's influence. The governor was not too worried, however, and wrote that he could "by paying a little attention to the matter make him smell worse than ever. He and his friends are already beginning to falter in their course for fear that I will turn the tables on them which I can do with ease.

Keywords: Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Kansas Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lincoln administration; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; United States. Senate; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Memoranda, Records of Reeder's Stock in Towns
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: [1855]
This document was an undated "Mem. Of Stock in Towns," which appeared to have been written in longhand by Reeder himself and included the number of shares he had purchased (and how they were acquired) in fifteen different towns: Leavenworth, Pawnee, Tecumseh, Marysville, Lecompton, Montgomery (Dickinson Co.), Reeder (Dickinson Co.), Richmond, Whitfield (Shawnee Co.), Topeka, Douglas, Omaha City, Chetolah (Davis/Geary Co.), Grasshopper Falls, and Easton. Interestingly, he held thirty-four shares in Pawnee, his most famous (or infamous) investment venture, but he had thirty-six shares in Montgomery, twenty in Douglas and there appears to be a good number in Omaha City.

Keywords: Chetolah, Kansas Territory; Douglas, Kansas Territory; Easton, Kansas Territory; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marysville, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, Kansas Territory; Omaha City, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Reeder, Kansas Territory; Richmond, Kansas Territory; Speculation; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Town shares; Town site speculation; Whitfield, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Andrew Horatio Reeder
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
A portrait of Andrew Horatio Reeder taken in May, 1856, as he escaped from Kansas disguised as a woodchopper. The photograph was taken in Chicago, IL. He was appointed to Territorial Governor June 29, 1854, took the oath July 7; arrived in Kansas October 7, 1854;and served to April 17, 1855; June 23 to August 16, 1855. In 1854, Reeder called for an election to choose a delegate to Congress. On election day, Missourians came in great numbers and, voting illegally, elected a proslavery candidate. This same situation occurred in March, 1855, when an election was called to form a legislature. Early in 1856, Lecompton was designated the territorial capital. Sheriff Samuel Jones, a strong proslaveryite, arrested several free-staters in Lawrence. Several people for whom he was looking escaped including Reeder, who left Kansas dressed as a woodchopper.

Keywords: Card photographs; Photographs and Illustrations; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864


Photograph, Andrew H. Reeder
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Portrait of Andrew H. Reeder, first governor of the Kansas Territory. Reeder was commissioned June 29, 1854 and took the oath July 7, 1854. He arrived in Kansas on October 7, 1854 and served to April 17, 1855 and again from June 23 to August 16, 1855.

Keywords: Kansas Territory. Governor; Photographs and Illustrations; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Territorial government


Reminiscence, Branson rescue
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: unknown
James Abbott, a free state activist who participated in several Territorial conflicts, including the rescues of John Doy and Jacob Branson, chronicled his account of the rescue of Jacob Branson by handwritten manuscript or personal interview, here presented as a typed transcript. Sheriff Jones, supported by the proslavery "bogus" legislature, had arrested Jacob Branson, a free state man who witnessed the murder of Dow. Abbott and his cohorts endeavored to rescue him, and were successful, though their actions were controversial even among fellow free state supporters.Certain aspects of Abbott's account of these events, however, are in contention with an earlier account by Samuel Wood; Abbott actively addressed these discrepancies in this document.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Big Springs Convention; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Dixon, Howard; Dow, Charles W.; Free state militia; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Land claim disputes; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lock, Fred; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Saunders, Henry F.; Smith, Samuel C.; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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