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56 results for Proslavery activities:
Slave bills of Sale, Cowherd family slave trade
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1852-1859
These three handwritten bills of sale outline the terms and conditions of the sale of three different slaves, in transactions taking place from 1852-1859.

Keywords: African Americans; Bills of sale; Cowherd family; Cowherd, David; Proslavery activities; Slave bills of sale; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves


Journey from Massachusetts to Kansas
Authors: Allen, Chestina Bowker
Date: October 17, 1854 - April 22, 1858
Chestina Bowker Allen traveled to Kansas Territory from Roxbury, Massachusetts, with her husband Asahel Gilbert Allen and five children--William, Charles, Henrietta, John, and Abbie. Apparently, they were members of the third company sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Company and began the journey to Kansas Territory in October, 1854. While the title indicated it recorded the journey to the territory, it actually documented their first three years in Kansas Territory. Mrs. Allen described their journey west with stops in Kansas City and Lawrence. They eventually settled near Rock Creek in Pottawatomie County. She wrote about many of her daily activities including assisting neighbors when ill. She mentioned a cholera epidemic in the area in 1855. She wrote about various rumors and encounters with free state supporters (which the Allen family was) and proslavery groups. She provided a great deal of information about living conditions and the price and availability of various goods. She wrote about her husband and older sons going to various communities to work and also about people that visited their home and those who boarded with them. She provided fairly stereotypical descriptions of Native Americans.The document appeared to be recopied from an original diary and included some penciled in corrections and a few annotations from a later time.

Keywords: Allen, Asahel Gilbert; Allen, Charles Bowker; Allen, Chestina Bowker; Allen, William Francis; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Diaries; Diseases; Economic conditions; Ferries; Free state supporters; Louisville, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Pottawatomie County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Rock Creek, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Steamboats


Letter, C. Robinson to Rev. E. E. Hale
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 9, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Edward Everett Hale, commented that Free State supporters were forming military companies in response to perceived "outrageous conduct" by Missourians during the March 30, 1855, election of representatives for the territorial legislature. Robinson asked Hale to send two hundred Sharp's rifles and two cannon for the use of Lawrence settlers.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state; Guns; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Pro-slavery Banner
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
This flag was created by pro-slavery Missourians who captured Free State supporter Reverend Pardee Butler of Atchison in April 1855. The pro-slavery men sent Butler adrift on a raft down the turbulent Missouri River with this flag flying from it. The Missourians wanted others to know that the minister had helped slaves escape. Although he was expected to drown, Butler survived.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Butler, Rev. Pardee; Butler, Rev. Pardee; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Flags and banners; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Missourians; Objects; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Slavery; Underground railroad; Violence


Statement, William Phillips, Sworn before Samuel Lecompte, Chief Justice of Kansas Territory
Authors: Phillips, William
Date: May 23, 1855
William Phillips, a Leavenworth resident, testified before Chief Justice Samuel Lecompte and described an incident in which Phillips, an anti-slavery proponent, was tarred and feathered by a group of Weston, Missouri pro-slavery supporters.

Keywords: Antislavery; Border ruffians; Chief justice; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Phillips, William; Proslavery; Proslavery activities


Proslavery Meeting
Authors: Tebbs, W. H.
Date: August 2, 1855
The documented summarized the proceedings of a meeting held by proslavery supporters to determine the proper time and place to hold a convention in which they would nominate a candidate to the U. S. Congress. They decided to have the convention on August 29, 1855 at the Shawnee Manual Labor School.

Keywords: Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Proslavery support; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Territorial politics; United States. Congress


Public Speaking!
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September, 1855
This broadside listed six places where John W. Whitfield planned to speak during his campaign for reelection as the delegate to Congress from Kansas Territory. Whitfield was a proslavery supporter. The speeches were to be given between September 24 and September 29, 1855. He planned to speak at Dr. Chapman's, Otta Creek; Henry Sherman's; Old Pottawatamie Mission; Sugar Mound; crossing of the Little Osage, and Fort Scott. A barbecue was scheduled for Fort Scott on September 29.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Chapman, J.B.; Elections; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Sherman, Henry; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Letter, S. L. Adair to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: October 15, 1855
Writing from Osawatomie, Samuel Adair mentioned that his family had been sick and that others in the area had been ill and/or died. The bulk of the letter dealt with elections held by both proslavery and antislavery supporters in October, 1855, and the number of Missourians that voted in the proslavery election on October 1. He also discussed the territorial legislature that met at Shawnee Mission. The letter also indicated that a relative and his son and son-in-law had arrived in Kansas Territory and that he had brought a number of weapons. This is probably referring to John Brown, who was a half brother of Adair's wife Florella. Adair mentioned that he was concerned about Brown's war-like attitude. Adair briefly discussed a slaveholder who had left the territory because of his concern about the "outcome." This appears to be a draft of a letter sent to Jocelyn.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Elections; Free state activities; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Slaveholders; Slavery


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 13, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday, who had been appointed colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Kansas Troops, hoped that the Wakarusa War would be the last armed conflict in Kansas Territory. Writing from Free State Headquarters in Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, he described the preparations of troops in Lawrence during the War. He told Mary of his receipt of a draft and the sale of a bond, and assured her that the boats to Kansas were still running.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state regiment; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Proslavery activities; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Portrait, Andrew H. Reeder
Authors: Hall, Cyrenius
Date: 1855
Portrait of Andrew H. Reeder, first territorial governor. In 1855 Reeder was removed from office by President Pierce and was forced to leave Kansas when threatened by a pro-slavery grand jury. He escaped with the help of Thomas and Julia Stinson, who dressed him in women's clothing. Later, Reeder disguised himself as a woodcutter (as depicted in this painting) and escaped via a steamer on the Missouri River. Artist Cyrenius Hall painted this portrait in 1880.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Stinson, Julia; Stinson, Thomas N.; Violence


Manuscript Volume, Items of 1856
Authors: Hanway, James
Date: 1856
This little journal/ledger contained a five-page account of the May 24, 1856, killings on Pottawatomie Creek, apparently written by James Hanway shortly after the incident. He mentioned the five victims by name and wrote: "The settlement is plunged into a perfect commotion. A meeting of the settlers was held on the 26th and they mutually agreed to protect each other from foreign or internal foes. All men of real good sense, condemned these midnight assassinations and also the killing of men who are attending to their concerns". This was a somewhat different perspective of the situation than expressed by Hanway in his 1860 letter to James Redpath. Nevertheless, the responsibility for "all such blood tragedies" is with the pro-slave men.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Doyle, James P.; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Hanway, James; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Proslavery activities; Violence; Violent deaths; Wilkinson, Allen


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every One
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: February 1, 1856
From Osawatomie, Brown wrote of the continued severe winter and "the fierce Winds of Kansas," as well as his desire to visit the family at North Elba, New York. But he also mentioned that they had "just learned of some new, & shocking outrages at Leavenworth; & that the Free State people there have fled to Lawrence." Although more conflict threatened, Brown expected little action until the weather improved.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Salmon; Free state supporters; Household activities; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; North Elba, New York; Proslavery activities; Weather


Letter, Thomas Webb, Boston, Massachusetts to J. S. Emery, Brandon, Vt.
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: April 4, 1856
Emery was in New England and Webb was informing him of various places in Maine and New Hampshire that would like someone from Kansas to speak to them. Webb informed Emery that the group in New Hampshire was interested in securing recruits to go to Kansas but that Emery's principal purpose was to raise money for the Relief Fund. He wrote Emery that the sponsoring group should cover his expenses, that they should take contributions at any public meeting and that they should establish a committee for soliciting funds locally. Webb also described an incident where Missourians seized a box they thought contained weapons, but it housed a rosewood piano. Webb also mentioned that Charles Robinson was in Washington, D. C.

Keywords: Emery, James Stanley; Free state activities; Furniture; Massachusetts; Proslavery activities; Relief; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Your Affectionate Husband & Father [John Brown] to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: April 7, 1856
From "Brown's Station" in the southeastern corner of Franklin County, K.T., Brown wrote the family about a variety of matters, including family finances/business interests and, as usual, his faith in God ("trust us to the care of 'Him who feeds the young Ravens when they cry'"). Brown also mentioned the house they were building for Orson Day, his brother in law, and the "rumors" of what was to come in the political arena. "For one I have no desire (all things considered) to have the Slave Power cease from its acts of aggression. 'Their foot shall slide in due time.'"

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Watson, 1835-1859; Day, Orson; Free state activities; Free state cause; Proslavery activities; Slave power; Thompson, Ruth (Brown); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


"Southern Rights" flag
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 21, 1856
Pro-slavery forces carried this flag while attacking the anti-slavery stronghold of Lawrence. Sheriff Samuel Jones led the group in sacking the town on May 21, 1856. A group of South Carolinians known as the Palmetto Guards participated in the attack, and flew their "Southern Rights" flag over the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper offices and the Free State Hotel before destroying the buildings.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Flags and banners; Free State Hotel; Herald of Freedom; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Palmetto Guards; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; South Carolina; Violence


Letter, M. S. Cecilia Sherman To Mrs. [Sara] Robinson
Authors: Sherman, Margaret S. C.
Date: May 25, 1856
Margaret Sarah Cecilia (Mrs. John) Sherman wrote Sara Robinson on May 25, 1856, regarding Governor Robinson's captivity to date. He had been arrested on May 10 at Lexington, Missouri, and subsequently returned to the territory. At this time he was being held in Leavenworth, where Sherman and many other of Robinson's friends had the opportunity to visit with him, and Sherman was able to attest to his good treatment. She makes interesting, favorable reference to Robinson's stay in Lexington and to "Captain [John W.] Martin of the Kickapoo rangers," who "seemed to have charge" of the governor in Leavenworth. (Congressman John Sherman of Ohio was the brother of William T. Sherman, later of Leavenworth, and a member of the Howard Committee, investigating the Kansas affair.)

Keywords: Damage claims; Free state cause; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lexington, Missouri; Martin, John W.; Preston, Colonel; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sherman, John, 1823-1900


Articles of Association
Authors: Proslavery Association of Clay County, Missouri
Date: June 7, 1856
Written document concerning the formation of a organization in Missouri with the purpose of making Kansas a slave state. Includes the purpose of the organization and three articles.

Keywords: Kansas question; Missouri; Money; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Proslavery prospects; Proslavery support


Letter, Mary Holliday to My Dear Husband [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Mary
Date: June 15, 1856
Mary Holliday wrote, deeply disappointed, from Meadville, Pennsylvania to her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday, in Topeka, Kansas Territory. Mary was prepared to leave when she received his report of continued hostilities and instructions to wait further. Mr. Nichols, Mary's would-be escort, considered leaving shortly despite the political strife in K. T. Mr. Johnson, optimistic about the Free State cause, had told Mary of Colonel Edwin V. Sumner's recent activities there. She mentioned an upcoming Mason's banquet (Cyrus had joined a lodge in Crawford, Pennsylvania on November 4, 1852) and the well-being of their daughter, Lillie.

Keywords: Free state cause; Freemasons; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Proslavery activities; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr.
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: July 7, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported to Hill that the Topeka Legislature had recently been dispersed by U.S. Troops under order of President Pierce, and that southern emigrants were coming into Kansas Territory by "hundreds" while the northern emigrants found themselves forced out by proslavery supporters. Short on time, Simpson kept his report regarding Hill's properties short; Whitney had almost finished his home, offers had been made on various lots, Mr. Fuller continued to be a problem.

Keywords: Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Sir [J. A. Halderman]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
The former governor wrote this letter from Easton, Pennsylvania, to his former secretary and attorney, J. A. Halderman, in order to secure his services in an effort to retrieve some personal papers and settle some matters of business pertaining to town lots and shares. According to Reeder, "the Sheriff posse at the sacking of Lawrence broke open my trunk and stole the contents. The clothing is probably by this time worn out" and he was not concerned about other contents, with the exception of "some private papers" that someone had informed him could be retrieved. He asked Halderman to get the papers, which included "certificates of stock in Leavenworth, Tecumseh, Lecompton, Lawrence, Easton, Pawnee" etc., and then take care of business matters that were reflected therein--"some obligations for money, leases contracts Receipts & etc." Reeder also asked Halderman "to attend to my Leavenworth lots" and went into considerable detail about these matters.

Keywords: Businessmen; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Easton, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leases; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Stock certificates; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town shares


Circular, Kansas -- Help! Help!
Authors: Hurd, H. B.; Lawrence Citizens
Date: August 13, 1856
This circular was composed of two parts. The first section was a letter written from Lawrence to the National Kansas Committee, asked for help because of the conflict in Kansas, stating that "instant action alone can save our people from destruction." The letter briefly mentioned the recent attack on Lawrence and the proslavery forces which were gathering and organizing. Although there was a lull in the fighting, the citizens of Lawrence were looking for assistance and relief. The second part was a response written by H. B. Hurd, secretary of the National Kansas Committee, encouraging emigration to Kansas but raising the possibility that free state settlers in the territory must at times defend their rights. He wrote that "Kansas is now in a state of open war."

Keywords: Circulars; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Hurd, H. B.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; National Kansas Committee; Proslavery activities; Relief; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Copy of letter, S. L. Adair to Mrs. H. L. Hibbard
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: August 14, 1856
Adair, writing from Osawatomie, reported on conditions in Kansas. Mrs. Hibbard was the president of the Woman's Kansas Aid and Liberty Association of Chicago, Illinois. He reported that many recent emigrants were ill and others were using up their reserves to help others, hoping they would be repaid by aid received in Kansas. He also reported that a group of Georgians camped near Osawatomie and ran off more than 18 horses. Some free state men were prepared to confront them but they left the area. Adair wrote of rumors that a large force was coming to burn Osawatomie.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Chicago, Illinois; Emigration and immigration; Free state perspective; Hibbard, Mrs. H. L.; Illness; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Migration, internal; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery settlers; Women


Buffum Tombstone
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Sept. 17, 1856
Tombstone of David C. Buffum, a free-stater from Massachusetts who was killed by the pro-slavery Kickapoo Rangers on Sept. 17, 1856. Buffum was plowing a field on his farm near Lawrence when the Rangers (including Henry Titus and Sheriff Samuel Jones) stole his horse and shot him. Before he died, Buffum was heard to express the sentiments chiseled on his tombstone: "I am willing to die for the cause of Freedom in Kansas."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buffum, David C.; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state perspective; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kickapoo Rangers (militia); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Proslavery activities; Titus, Henry Theodore; Tombstones; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 20, 1856
From Lawrence Charles Robinson writes to update his wife on developments in and around Lawrence since her departure. Governor John W. Geary had arrived and promised to see that the Missouri militia then threatening Lawrence "were disbanded." Robinson goes on to describe a very tense few days in September, beginning on Friday the 12th, involving militia of both sides and the governor. After a brief skirmish on the prairie east of Lawrence, Geary and some U.S. troops arrived and "the Missourians agreed to go home. It was all a farce. . . ."

Keywords: Buffum, David C.; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stubbs militia company; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; Westport, Missouri


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 7, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his father, Thomas Parrott. Marcus told him of his preparation to defend the free state men accused of murder for their role in the recent skirmishes surrounding the Battle of Hickory Point; he was not optimistic of the outcome, calling his position "embarrassing". Marcus added news of the recent election of a new Territorial Legislature, and shared poll statistics that showed a vast majority of free state supporters in several voting areas. Though this was a positive turn, he stated again that the free state cause would be in the hands of the new President.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Proslavery activities


Letter, R. J. Hinton to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Authors: Hinton, R. J.
Date: November 6, 1856
This letter from R. J. Hinton was written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory and was addressed to Rev. Higginson, a radical abolitionist and agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee. The letter is filled with information about the struggle for Kansas. Hinton mentioned the trials of the free state prisoners at Lecompton and Governor Geary's order to arrest other free state figures. Colonel Titus was also threatening to help the U. S. troops arrest free state men. Apparently a Captain Homes [sic] from New York had become so frustrated that he had collected several followers and was determined to administer his own brand of justice. Hinton did not completely approve of such action, claiming that while it was understandable, it was "not generally beneficial to our cause." Hinton had experienced some personal troubles as well, when some thieves who claimed to be free state men carried off the belongings of his company, settled at Lexington. The letter concluded with updates about the various men in his company.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dunning, John; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Lexington Township, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Proslavery activities; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; White, Martin


Letter, G. S. Lewis to Bro. [Samuel] Adair
Authors: Lewis, G. S.
Date: December 12, 1856
Mr. Lewis was a friend of Samuel Adair and wrote to him from Albany, Athens Co., Ohio. Mr. Lewis was concerned about the safety of the Adair family and commented on the trials they must be suffering. He commented on the bravery of Charley, the Adair's son who helped warn Osawatomie of the coming of proslavery forces prior to the Battle of Osawatomie. Mr. Lewis commented on John Brown, Gov. Geary, John Freemont, and the political situation in Kansas and nationally. He also reported on rumors of slave insurrections in Kentucky and Tennessee.

Keywords: Adair, Charles; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Albany, Ohio; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lewis, G. S.; Ohio; Osawatomie, Battle of; Proslavery activities; Slave insurrections


Testimonies of Nathaniel Parker, Horace L. Dunnell, Hinton S. Dunnell, Alexander MacArthur, James Hall, Jerome Hazen, and Charles Henry Caulkins
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 7, 1856
These testimonies, presumably taken down on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, include personal information about each settler, such as their age, occupation, etc., as well as their experiences in Kansas and their involvement in border warfare and skirmishes with pro-slavery settlers. Each account is descriptive and provides tremendous detail about their individual experiences. The testimonies of MacArthur, Hall, and Hazen are combined into one, with this group testimony split into two separate sections.

Keywords: Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Caulkins, Charles Henry; Cutter, Calvin M.; Dunnell, Hinton S.; Dunnell, Horace L.; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Guns; Hall, James; Harvey, James A.; Hazen, Jerome; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; MacArthur, Alexander; Missouri River; Parker, Nathaniel; Prisoners; Prisons; Proslavery activities; Skirmishing; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns); Weston, Missouri; Wounds and injuries


Pro-slavery man's musket
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Flintlock musket carried by J. H. Meyer in 1856, while a member of the pro-slavery Kansas Terriorial Militia.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Firearms; Guns; Meyer, J. H.; Militia; Objects; Proslavery activities; Proslavery perspective; Weapons (see also Guns)


George Clarke Desk
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Desk brought to the Kansas Territory in 1855 by George Clarke, who was a Pottwatomie Indian agent and slave holder. Clarke was a notorious proslavery leader during the border war period. He was suspected of killing a free state man, Thomas W. Barber of Lawrence in 1855. While Clarke was sitting at this desk in his Lecompton home in 1856, a shot was fired at him. He was uninjured, but the bullet put a hole in his desk. Clarke was driven out of the territory in 1858.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Clarke, George W.; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; House furnishings; Objects; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Kansas Experience of George Cutter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: January 1, 1857
This reminiscence is presumably from the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, which was compiled by the National Kansas Committee under the leadership of Thaddeus Hyatt. George Cutter was with Frederick Brown shortly before the Battle of Osawatomie, and like Brown, he was wounded during an altercation with border ruffians. While he was not directly involved in this battle, this reminiscence is still a rather fascinating account.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Cutter, George; Darrach, Barstow; Everett, John R.; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Gillpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reid, John W.; Sears, W. A.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns); White, Martin; Wounds and injuries


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "Dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: January 26, 1857
Written on stationery that included a item from the Kansas Tribune, "Appeal of Kansas to the Voters of the Free States," Kagi wrote his father, who was still in Nebraska, regarding his continuing problems with proslavery officials in Lecompton. Kagi was arrested again (quickly made bail) and nearly killed by a mob while there "to report the proceedings" of the territorial legislature, which opened on January 12. (This was the first legislature to meet in Lecompton.)

Keywords: Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Stringfellow, John H.; Territorial government; Topeka Tribune


Letter, D. R. Barker to Brother [Samuel] Adair
Authors: Barker, D. R.
Date: February 16, 1857
Writing from Mercer, Pennsylvania, Barker, a classmate of Adair's at Oberlin College, commented on the political situation in regard to Kansas and pro-slavery forces including pro-slavery churches.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Barker, D. R.; Free state prospects; Oberlin College; Pennsylvania; Proslavery activities; Religion; Slavery


Letter, James Garrison to Dear Cousin [Samuel Adair]
Authors: Garrison, James
Date: February 27, 1857
Garrison wrote to Samuel Adair about the prospects for Kansas and being harassed by ruffians. He believed only a large migration to Kansas in the spring will prevent it from becoming a slave state. He discussed pro-slavery plans to prevent emigration to Kansas.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Garrison, James; Migration, internal; Ohio; Proslavery activities


Speech, John Brown
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: ca. March 1857
During the spring of 1857, John Brown traveled to several Northeastern cities (specifically, in Brown's home state of Connecticut) to solicit financial support for the Kansas crusade. In the speech delivered from these handwritten notes, Brown outlined some of the many sacrifices he and others had made to give his audience a sense of what was needed and discussed the unfolding situation in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Buford expedition; Cato, Sterling G.; Crops; Finance; Free state cause; Hartford, Connecticut; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Proslavery activities; Speeches, addresses, etc.


Letter, James [H. Holmes] to Dear friend [John] Brown
Authors: Holmes, James H.
Date: April 30, 1857
On April 30 after he had received correspondence from Brown (still in Springfield, Mass.), Holmes wrote again in reply and to further explain the state of affairs in Kansas. He is critical of Charles Robinson's willingness to compromise with the proslavery leaders and is confident that "the free-state men wont do it." A friend, Archibal Kandell, had been recently "kidnapped" (or "abducted into Missouri") from his claim near Osawatomie.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Holmes, James H.; Missouri; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Resolution, Democratic Party
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
This resolution seems to be responding to the history of accusations of election fraud on the part of the proslavery voters, claiming that the recent Democratic election loss was due to the "importation of Abolitionists, many of who perjured themselves by falsely swearing that they were legal voters". Also resolved was that Governor Walker's collaboration with the Abolitionists and free soilers be rebuked, and that men from the Southern states have equal property rights with those of the North. The Democrats also documented their support for the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free soil; Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery support; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Photograph, Marais des Cygnes Massacre
Authors: Chapin, John R.
Date: 1858
An illustration of the Marais des Cygnes Massacre in Linn County, Kansas Territory, copied from Beyond the Mississippi by Albert. D. Richardson, 1867. In May 1858, Missourians crossed the border and murdered five Free-State men. This massacre was generally viewed as the last major violent occurrence during the territorial period. The site of the massacre is now one of the Kansas State Historical Society's historic properties.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Firearms; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Massacres; Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery activities; Violence; Violent deaths


Report of the President of the Council and Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Kansas, on the result of the vote of December 21st for the Lecompton Constitution, and on the result of the election of Januray 4th under said Constitution.
Authors: Babcock, Carmi William; Deitzler, George W.; Denver, James William, 1817-1892
Date: January 14, 1858
This printed document reported the votes on the Lecompton Constitution from elections held on December 21, 1857, and January 4, 1858. It was prepared by G. W. Deitzler, Speaker of the House and C. W. Babcock, president of the Council of the territorial legislature. The vote showed a majority of 5,574 for the constitution with slavery but 3,012 of those votes came from areas the authors felt were sparsely settled and thus indicated fraudulent votes. The same charges of fraud applied to the election for state officials, though the free state candidates claimed a small majority in all races. The results of the vote on the Lecompton Constitution on January 4, 1858, showed a majority of 10,000 against the Lecompton Constitution as presented in a proclamation from J. W. Denver, Secretary and Acting Governor.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Deitzler, George W.; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Elections; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Lecompton Constitution; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters


Letter, Your devoted Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: January 24, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego described how, since the shelter being built around the mill equipment was not yet complete, the wind and rain interfered with their ability to work. Though the work was hard, he favored the milling business over other means toward income. Trego responded to a newspaper article from the Rock Island Advertiser that his wife had sent him, deeming their coverage of the Kansas troubles "sensational." He expected that Fort Scott would soon be destroyed by free state militiamen, as "Bourbon County Bandits" (proslavery supporters) had been harassing extensively free state supporters in the area. Despite all this disorder, the development prospects of Mound City, in Linn County, appeared favorable.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Business enterprises; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Neosho, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Postal service; Proslavery activities; Railroads; Rock Island Advertiser; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Telegraph; Town development; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Weather


Address of the Constitutional Convention to American Public
Authors: Address committee. John Morgan Walden, James Fletcher, et al
Date: April 3, 1858
A committee made up of John M. Walden, James Fletcher, Thomas Ewing, Jr., Isaac T. Goodnow, Henry J. Adams, T. Dwight Thacher, and Addison Danford prepared this eleven-page manuscript "address to accompany the instrument" adopted at the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. The statement essentially laid out the philosophical foundations and rationale for the new document. It argued that the facts showed the overwhelming majority of Kansans desired admission as a free state.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Danford, Addison; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Fletcher, James; Free State Party; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Proslavery activities; Slave power; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Walden, John Morgan


Augustus Wattles, Fort Scott, Kansas Territory to William Hutchinson
Authors: Wattles, Augustus
Date: April 28, 1858
Wattles described violence in the southern portion of Kansas Territory shortly before the Marais des Cygnes massacre.

Keywords: Free state activities; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Marmaton, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Proslavery activities; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, John Brown to Wm. Hutchinson
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: August 3, 1858
From Moneka, Kansas, John wrote to William Hutchinson regarding his (Brown's) "Revolvers," which had been distributed on loan to others in Kansas. Brown had been spending some weeks near the Kansas-Missouri border, "on the claim upon which the whole sale murders [Marias des Cygnes Massacre, May 19, 1858] were committed," as a show of force to more would-be invaders.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missourians; Proslavery activities; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Frank Walker to Dear Brother
Authors: Walker, Frank
Date: May 23, 1859
This is part of a series of letters from Frank Walker written in Mound City, Linn County, Kansas Territory. The letter implied that Walker was part of a free state militia group and indicated that the free state men never stole things. He wrote that the proslavery men took their horses. He mentioned a meeting of the Republican Party and that Horace Greeley gave a speech.

Keywords: Free state militia; Free state perspective; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Walker, Frank


Report of Edward Hoogland, H.J. Adams and S.A. Kingman, Commissioners of Claims
Authors: Adams, Henry J.; Hoogland, Edward ; Kingman, Samuel A.
Date: July 11, 1859
Hoogland, Adams, and Kingman, Commissioners of Claims appointed by resolution of Governor Medary, continued investigating property and monetary losses suffered by the citizens of Kansas Territory after H.J. Strickler vacated the post. The new Claims Commissioners also believed that the responsibility for paying these loss claims rested with the General (Federal) Government. They reassessed the claims reported by Strickler, obtaining more information about the claimants and their losses, which included each claimant's political affiliation (free state or proslavery), their specific damages (house, horses, crops, etc), and who caused the damage (on behalf of either the free state or proslavery cause); this information is summed up in a supplemental table. The Claims Commissioners believed that the total value of losses occurring between November 1, 1855, and December 1, 1856, approximated at least $2,000,000; they also concluded that during skirmishes free state men had caused $94,500 in property damage, while proslavery men were believed to have caused nearly $319,000.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Border disputes and warfare; Damage claims; Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hoogland, Edward; Kingman, Samuel A.; McKay, William; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Newspapers; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Letter, C. G. Allen to Redpath and Hinton
Authors: Allen, C. G.
Date: December 1859
Allen, a "minister of the Gospel" at Cottonwood Falls, K.T., wrote in response to the Redpath/Hinton call for "anecdotes & reminiscences" concerning "the brave & philanthropic [John] Brown," who the preacher first met in Lawrence in 1856. Allen left Lawrence when a call came for volunteers to aid in the defense of Osawatomie in August of that year and while there engaged saw his first "Border Ruffians," who he described as "miserable specimens of humanity. They were ragged & dirty. Their cloths & faces were to a considerable extent covered with tobacco spit." Allen and the men he was with actually missed the Battle of Osawatomie by moving south before the attack in an effort to find the attackers before they reached the town.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Stanton, Kansas Territory


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Hugh Ward of Leavenworth County filed claim # 115 for the loss and/or use of his horses, his home as a hospital, and various supplies by the pro-slavery party. The damages were done by a group of men commanded by Captain H. C. Dunn. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Dunn, H. C.; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Livestock; Proslavery activities; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Ward, Hugh


Letter, Harrison Anderson to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Anderson, Harrison
Date: January 27, 1860
The elder brother of Harpers Ferry raider Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote Hinton to provide information on his brothers activities in Kansas Territory, beginning in "June or July 1857," when he settle in norther Bourbon County. J.G. Anderson was actively engaged in free-state activities in southern Kansas, including efforts to defy the bogus authority through the establishment of what was called a "Squaters court." (According to a January 29, 1860, letter--also in this folder--from another brother, John Q. Anderson of Eddyville, Iowa, brother Harrison was still living in at Little Osage, KT, and he had "frequently entertained" John Brown.)

Keywords: Abolitionists; Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Proslavery activities; Squatters


Essay, Sketch of J. H. Kagi by E. R. Moffet
Authors: Moffet, E. R.
Date: March 4, 1860
Apparently written for Redpath and Hinton on March 4, 1860, this handwritten sketch of John H. Kagi is the reflection of long-time acquaintance E. R. Moffet, then of Davenport, Iowa. Moffet knew Kagi from the time the latter was two years old and became reacquainted with him in Kansas Territory. They spent time in "prison" together in October 1856, and in this somewhat odd manuscript, Moffet recreates some "Prison Scenesor Dialogue" and subsequently includes some correspondence from Kagi. Moffet recounts Kagi's second arrest, bail, and March 1857 altercation with Rush Elmore at Tecumseh.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery activities; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Tribune; Violence


Letter, James Montgomery to George L. Stearns
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: October 6, 1860
Having returned from a trip to the East (where he visited Stearns, Horace Greeley, and others in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia), Montgomery wrote from Mound City, Linn County, that he "found the people greatly excited." News of violence directed against free state men in Texas and Arkansas had awakened Kansans' sense of urgency, as Montgomery continued his efforts to free slaves and undercut the slave economy of western Missouri.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border ruffians; Free state supporters; Fugitive slaves; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Texas


Letter, Dr. C. R. Jennison to Dear friend [George L. Stearns]
Authors: Jennison, Charles Rainsford, 1834-1884
Date: November 28, 1860
From Mound City, Jennison opened his letter to Stearns by acknowledging that the two men did not know each other but Jennison counted Stearns "a true friend to the cause of freedom." Jennison told him about the so-called "desperadoes known as Kidnapers" who had been active in the region. After warning them of serious consequences if caught and convicted of "man hunting," Jennison's free state force captured, tried, and hung one Russ Hinds. Despite the threat from Gen. William S. Harney's federal troops, Jennison insisted "we are detirmined to Stand or fall by our weight for we have taken our position and it is honorable and Just." Federal troops were unfairly targeting free staters and ignoring proslave outrages.

Keywords: Beebe, George Monroe; Free state cause; Fugitive slaves; Hamelton, Charles A.; Harney, William S.; Hinds, Russell; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Kidnapping; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; United States. Army


Bowie Knife
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1861
Knife made in a blacksmith shop operated by James Howell near Clay, Arkansas, for the purpose of fighting Kansans. Manufactured in 1861, it was used in the Civil War battles of Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove in Arkansas, and Wilson's Creek and Price's Raid in Missouri. Abolitionists and freestaters stereotyped pro-slavery defenders as always carrying Bowie knives. Indeed, Benjamin Stringfellow advised fellow slavery supporters in 1855 to "enter every election district in Kansas . . . and vote at the point of the bowie knife and the revolver.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border disputes and warfare; Bowie knife; Civil war; Howell, James; Missouri; Objects; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Swords and daggers; Violence


Photograph, Benjamin Stringfellow
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1880
Portrait of Benjamin Stringfellow, attorney and Pro-slavery activist. In 1838, he settled in Missouri where Stringfellow served in the house of representatives and was attorney general for four years. After moving to Weston, MO, he became a member and officer of the Platte County Self-Defensive Association, an aggressive Pro-Slavery organization. He wrote a pamphlet entitled "Negro Slavery No Evil, or the North and the South". In 1858 Stringfellow moved to Atchison, Kansas Territory, where he helped build the town and was an attorney for the Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs Railroad.

Keywords: Photographs and Illustrations; Platte County Self-Defensive Association; Proslavery activities; Proslavery support; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.


Photograph, John Henry Stringfellow
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Henry Stringfellow was a resident of Atchison and a proslavery supporter. He was in charge of some of the territorial troops that were mentioned in the Strickler report on damages from altercations in Kansas Territory. He held several elective positions including Speaker of the House in the 1855 territorial legislature.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Card photographs; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Stringfellow, John H.


Photograph, Lucian Eastin
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Lucian Eastin was a proslavery supporter. He was the head of the proslavery militia and the editor of the Herald in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory for a period of time. This image is a copy from a painting.

Keywords: Eastin, Lucian J.; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters


Reminiscence, Account of obtaining Sharp's rifles
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: unknown
James Abbott recalled his experiences as a free state activist who participated in several Territorial conflicts. This transcribed version of the events is either a copy of an original handwritten manuscript or a compilation based on a personal oral interview. Abbott related a brief history of the Territory's political conflicts between free state and proslavery men and recounted the events of his own trip back East to secure funds and rifles for the free state cause. His purchases included a mountain howitzer and 117 sharp's rifles, all of which were smuggled under cover of disguise back to Kansas Territory and into the arms of free state militia.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Cracklin, Joseph; Free state activities; Free state militia; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Proslavery activities; Saunders, Henry F.; Sharps rifles; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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