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44 results for Missouri:
Letter, [James Griffing] to [J. Augusta Goodrich]
Authors: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: October 15, 1854 - October 25, 1854
James Griffing wrote from the bank of the Illinois River in Illinois and Milton, Missouri to his fiancee J. Augusta Goodrich in Owego, New York. Griffing, a Methodist minister, described the daily routine of his overland journey from Indianapolis, Indiana to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Daily life; Emigration and immigration; Food; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Illinois; Missouri; Transportation; Travel; Wagons


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children All
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 4, 1855
In Scott Co., Iowa ("about 4 miles West of the Mississippi"), on his way to Kansas Territory, John Brown wrote the family to say all was well despite some delays caused by their freight in Chicago and a sick horse. Brown commented mostly on the nature of there journey to date and some miscellaneous business matters.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Brown, Oliver; Brown, Watson, 1835-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Iowa; Kansas City, Missouri; Missouri; Travel


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: October 13, 1855
One week after arriving at his sons' settlement ("Brownville") near Osawatomie, Brown wrote the family back east that although most were sick when he first arrived, they "appear now to be mending." The trip across Missouri was without incident, except for problems with a sick horse and their "heavy load." Brown then wrote briefly of the Adairs, the "most uncomfortable situation" in which he found his children upon his arrival, and other things including prairie fires and finally the political situation in the territory. In fact, at this early date, John Brown "believe[d] Missouri is fast becoming discouraged about making Kansas a Slave State & think the prospect of its becoming Free is brightening every day."

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Election, Topeka Constitution delegates to convention, October 1855; Free state; Free state settlers; Missouri; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Settlement; Weather


Letter, S. C. P. [Samuel Clarke Pomeroy] to Dr. [Thomas H.] Webb
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: December 19, 1855
Samuel Pomeroy, writing from Boonville, Missouri, to Dr. Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, described a dinner he attended in Lexington, Missouri with pro-slavery Missourians who had participated in the Wakarusa War. Pomeroy expressed the opinion that the Missourians drank too much alcohol but he reported that he had been allowed to express his anti-slavery views to the group. Pomeroy indicated that the Missourians were particularly upset with Governor Wilson Shannon's intervention in the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Missouri; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery perspective; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, J. H. Lane to Gov. of Minnesota [Willis A. Gorman]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles
Date: January 22, 1856
This "Appeal of Gen. Lane & Gov. Robinson" to Willis A. Gorman, the territorial governor of Minnesota, was a call for assistance during Kansas Territory's present crisis: the territory face, wrote Lane and Robinson from Lawrence, K.T., on January 22, 1856, "an overwhelming force of the Citizens of Missouri" organized for invasion on the Missouri border.

Keywords: Free state cause; Gorman, Willis A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Minnesota; Missouri; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, W. A. Gorman to Speaker of the House of Reps [Minnesota Territory]
Authors: Phillips, Wendell
Date: February 18, 1856
In response to a January 22, 1856, appeal from free-state leaders in Kansas, the governor of Minnesota Territory, Willis A. Gorman (St. Paul, February 18, 1856), conveyed the appeal to his territory's House of Representatives and encouraged Minnesota officials to follow a policy of "Non intervention." Governor Gorman refused to recognize Lane and Robinson as "officers in the Territory of Kansas, under any authority of the laws of the United States or of that Territory."

Keywords: Border ruffians; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Gorman, Willis A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Minnesota; Missouri; Popular sovereignty; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Letter, George Washington Brown to his mother
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: May 13, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Writing to his mother on the day before his arrest, Brown expressed concern that his life could be in danger. He instructed his mother to use his estate to provide support for the Herald of Freedom.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state cause; Herald of Freedom; Journalism; Kansas City, Missouri; Missouri; Newspapers; Prisoners


George Washington Brown to Mr. Fowler
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: May 13, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Written from Kansas City, Missouri, to a friend on the day before his arrest, Brown expressed concern that his life could be in danger. He enclosed an outline for a "Documentary History of Kansas" and asked Fowler to publish a book based on the outline.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state cause; Herald of Freedom; Journalism; Kansas City, Missouri; Missouri; Newspapers; Prisoners; Treason


Articles of Association
Authors: Proslavery Association of Clay County, Missouri
Date: June 7, 1856
Written document concerning the formation of a organization in Missouri with the purpose of making Kansas a slave state. Includes the purpose of the organization and three articles.

Keywords: Kansas question; Missouri; Money; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Proslavery prospects; Proslavery support


Minutes, Kansas Relief Committee
Authors: National Kansas Committee
Date: June 9, 1856 - June 26, 1856
This document details the minutes of three meetings of the Kansas Relief Committee, otherwise known as the National Kansas Committee, held in 1856 on June 9th, June 21st, and June 26th. It also includes information about the membership of this emigrant aid company. The first of these meetings adopted resolutions to aid the plight of free-state settlers in Kansas Territory. Furthermore, the members of the committee decided to establish five thousand settlers in Kansas Territory and to give them a year's worth of provisions.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Relief Committee; Minutes; Missouri; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Relief funds


Letter, Peter Page to Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: Page, Peter
Date: July 6, 1856
Peter Page wrote from Chicago, Illinois to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, concerning the shipment of relief to free-state settlers in Kansas Territory and the emigration of settlers into Kansas. The author wrote a lengthy account of the committee's frustrated attempts to arrange suitable transportation into the territory, since the water route on the Missouri River was unsafe due to persistent harassment from border ruffians.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Chicago, Illinois; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lexington, Missouri; Missouri; Page, Peter; Violence


Letter, William H. Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: July 15, 1856
William H. Leeman, a follower of John Brown in Kansas and eventually a casualty of the Harpers Ferry raid, wrote this letter to his mother while "traveling across the prairies of Iowa" in July 1856. Although he briefly mentions an encounter with "2,000 border ruffians," he assures his mother that he is safe, in good health, and well armed, and that he is much happier in this "adventure" than had he staid home and "worked in a shop."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cannons; Free state militia; Iowa; Leeman, William H.; Militia; Missouri; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, [Orville] Chester [Brown] to My dear friend
Authors: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904
Date: September 2, 1856
This eloquent letter, presumably written by Orville Chester Brown, provides an example of the free state perspective on the events of 1856. It includes references to a number of key personalities and places that played a vital role during the struggle for Kansas. Brown writes that "Kansas is the scene of bloody strife," as "2000 armed men" from Missouri were rumored to have crossed into Kansas.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, Spencer; Free state perspective; Georgia; Missouri; Violence


Startling news, our border in danger, Missouri to be invaded
Authors: Bent, William M.
Date: September 3, 1856
Call to arms for Missourians against an expected attack from Lane and "3,000 lawless abolitionists."

Keywords: Boone, Albert G.; Independence, Missouri; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lexington, Missouri; Missouri; Westport, Missouri


Newspaper article, Journal of Commerce
Authors: Journal of Commerce
Date: September 22, 1856
This clipping, enclosed in a letter from A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt dated September 22, 1856, argued that the emigration sponsored by New England emigrant aid societies was "indiscreet," although not illegal. The article placed the blame for the current troubles on the free-state settlers in Kansas, stating that Missouri settlers were only responding to the provocation of anti-slavery supporters.

Keywords: Bills, legislative; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state cause; Immigrants; Kansas Nebraska Act; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Missouri; Missouri compromise; Pierce administration; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery; Topeka Constitution; United States Government; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution


Letter, George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et al
Authors: Hunt, George W.; Stearns, C.
Date: September 29, 1856
On behalf of a committee of Lawrence citizens, Hunt and Stearns wrote the State Central Committee of Kansas "to urge upon your attention several important points in reference to the present condition of Kansas." They were convinced that a "storm" from Missouri was about "to burst upon the devoted heads of the freemen of Kansas" and "perhaps to deluge Kansas with rivers of blood." The committee urged the state and national organization to help them prepare for the storm, while things were relatively calm, with an adequate supply of arms and ammunition and men. But, with a veiled reference, perhaps, to John Brown, they called only for "moral heroes" who would not follow the "principles of Border Ruffianism."

Keywords: Ammunition; Beecher Bibles; Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; State Central Committee of Kansas; Weapons (see also Guns)


Settlers on Little Sugar Creek
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856 or 1857
This listing of the settlers along Little Sugar Creek includes information about each settler, the resources in the area, and local buildings. It also includes an account of an attack by the Missouri ruffians in which a number of men were carried off to Westport, Missouri. It was most likely compiled by John E. Stewart at the request of Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border ruffians; Churches; Free state settlers; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Missouri; Ohio; Proslavery settlers; Schools; Settlement; Timber; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; Westport, Missouri


Settlers on the Marais des Cygnes River
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856 or 1857
This document, presumably compiled by John E. Stewart at the request of Thaddeus Hyatt, lists the pro-slavery and free state settlers who resided on the Marais des Cygnes River in Kansas Territory. The author also included a listing of where the free-state settlers lived before coming to Kansas.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Illinois; Indiana; Kentucky; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes River; Missouri; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Proslavery settlers; Settlement


Map, Kansas and Nebraska
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This 1856 map included not only Kansas, Nebraska, and Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), but also Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Wisconsin, and Illinois, and marked the counties in those states and territories as they existed at that time.

Keywords: Arkansas; Illinois; Indian lands; Iowa; Kansas Territory; Maps; Minnesota; Missouri; Nebraska Territory; Wisconsin


Broadside, Chicago and Burlington Railroad "Iowa and Kanzas Spring Arrangement", 1856
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This 1856 advertisement for the Chicago and Burlington Railroad presented its new seasonal schedule, or "Spring Arrangement", which included maps and information about the company's routes from Chicago to Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri, and connection with stagecoach lines in Kansas.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Illinois; Iowa; Maps; Missouri; Railroad companies; Railroads; Stagecoaches; Transportation; Travel


Speech, John Brown
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: ca. March 1857
During the spring of 1857, John Brown traveled to several Northeastern cities (specifically, in Brown's home state of Connecticut) to solicit financial support for the Kansas crusade. In the speech delivered from these handwritten notes, Brown outlined some of the many sacrifices he and others had made to give his audience a sense of what was needed and discussed the unfolding situation in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Buford expedition; Cato, Sterling G.; Crops; Finance; Free state cause; Hartford, Connecticut; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Proslavery activities; Speeches, addresses, etc.


Letter, James [H. Holmes] to Dear friend [John] Brown
Authors: Holmes, James H.
Date: April 30, 1857
On April 30 after he had received correspondence from Brown (still in Springfield, Mass.), Holmes wrote again in reply and to further explain the state of affairs in Kansas. He is critical of Charles Robinson's willingness to compromise with the proslavery leaders and is confident that "the free-state men wont do it." A friend, Archibal Kandell, had been recently "kidnapped" (or "abducted into Missouri") from his claim near Osawatomie.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Holmes, James H.; Missouri; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, J. G. Anderson to "Dear Brother"
Authors: Anderson, J. G.
Date: August 23, 1857
Writing to his brother from Barnesville (Bourbon County) on August 28, 1857, Jeremiah Goldsmith Anderson, a native of Indiana and follower of James Montgomery in southeast Kansas, described a variety of mundane matters regarding conditions in Kansas, including land claims and the construction of a steam sawmill on the river.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; County seats; Crops; Farmers; Free state settlers; Missouri; Proslavery settlers; Sawmills; Sickness (see Illness); Timber claim


Map, "Guide to Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, & Kansas
Authors: Smith, John Calvin
Date: 1857
This 1857 "Guide" maps the township lines of the United States surveys, as well as the location of cities, towns, villages, post hamlets, canals, rail and stage roads of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Kansas. The map also includes a list of 1850 census statistics.

Keywords: Census; Cities and towns; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Kansas Territory; Maps; Michigan; Minnesota; Missouri; Nebraska Territory; Ohio; Postal service; Railroads; Smith, John Calvin; Stagecoaches; Wisconsin


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: April 30, 1858
Among other things, Whitman wrote to Sanborn from Lawrence on April 30, 1858, regarding increased activity on the region's U.G.R.R. due in part to the fact that proslavery men in Missouri knew they had lost the battle for Kansas and "large gangs of slaves are already made up for Texas and the Extreme South, in case Lecompton fails to pass. Political harmony had, for the most part, returned to the Free State Party and "we have broken the back bone of the Slave power."

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Jefferson City, Missouri; Missouri; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Slave power; Slaveholders; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Underground railroad; United States. Army; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister, father and others"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: August 13, 1858
By June 28, 1858, J. H. Kagi was back in K.T. at Lawrence, and on August 13 he was writing the family from Moneka, Linn County, where he had "been very busily engaged in fortifying along the State line to prevent further inroads from Missouri." [See J.B. letter of August 3 to Wm. Hutchinson in which he speaks of building the fort on the site of the Marie des Cygnes Massacre.] In an unusually open and frank few lines, Kagi wrote: "C. W. Moffet and two of the other boys (whom you have not seen) are in Ashtabula Co., Ohio. Some have gone to Harpers Ferry. We are all ready and in good spirits. Things are working rightly, here, and brightening elsewhere for our final work. Those who once thought us the most foolish, now think most cheerfully of the whole plan." He closed by asking that they write him at the "Whitney House" in Lawrence.

Keywords: Ashtabula County, Ohio; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Moffett, Charles; Moneka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Charles M. Stebbins, Booneville, Missouri, to Alfred Gray
Authors: Stebbins, Charles M.
Date: September 18, 1858
Stebbins was building a telegraph line from St. Louis, Missouri, to Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, and wrote Gray about what would be required to get him to run the line through Quindaro, Kansas Territory. Stebbins included a draft of a document for raising subscriptions to underwrite the cost of building the telegraph line. Details included maintaining a telegraph office in Quindaro for a year and providing up to $1000 in telegraph services if $1000 was raised to pay to Stebbins.

Keywords: Booneville, Missouri; Gray, Alfred; Missouri; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Stebbins, Charles M.; Telegraph; Town promotion; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Your Friend [most likely John Brown] to Capt. James Montgomery
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: January 2, 1859
This brief letter from a "Friend"--most likely John Brown--to James Montgomery, the Linn County jawhawker, was addressed from "Turkey Creek," January 2, 1859: "Osawattomie men made a drive into Missouri the other night, since which some of the settlers & other friends have made a stand on the line to prevent an invasion. You are requested to hold yourself in readiness to call out reinforcements at a moments notice."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Jayhawking; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter, William Hutchinson to "Dear Helen"
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: January 3, 1859
A resident of Lawrence and correspondent from the New York Tribune, William Hutchinson wrote his wife Helen from Mapleton, northern Bourbon County, right after the first of the year, 1859, to tell her about "the wars" in the southern part of the territory and about the activities of "Old" John Brown and his followers. Hutchinson met with the "war council," as well as with James Montgomery, advised against "rash measures," and, with Montgomery, participated in a large meeting of the citizens "to devise a plan for peace." (A note on the back of page 4, by R.J. Hinton, reads, "Copied by my wife from original. Interesting." A good number of the documents in this folder are copies--mostly handwritten.)

Keywords: Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Hamilton, Charles A.; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Paola, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers; Trading Post, Kansas Territory; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, John Brown to Gents [Old Brown's Parallels]
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: January 3, 1859
Designated "Old Brown's Parallels" and dated January 3, 1859, from Trading Post, Kansas, this is one of the better-known John Brown documents from Kansas. Written for publication in the newspapers just before his final departure from the territory, Brown began by stating "two parallels"--one being the failure of government to do anything about the murder of free-state men (Marias des Cygnes Massacre) May 1858; the other being his recent raid into Missouri to free eleven slaves and take "some property." In the latter incident, only one white man, a slave owner, was killed, but "all 'Hell is stirred from beneath,'" as the governor of Missouri was demanding the capture of those "concerned in the last named 'dreadful outrage.'"

Keywords: African Americans; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border disputes and warfare - Proslavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan administration; Civil rights; Free State Party; Fugitive slaves; Hamilton, Charles A.; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Press and propaganda; Slaveholders; Slaves; Trading Post, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. G. Anderson to "Dear brother," J. Q. Anderson
Authors: Anderson, J. G.
Date: January 14, 1859
From near Lawrence, Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote about his recent call "into the service," whick took him to Fort Scott and into Missouri with "Old [John] Brown as they call him," where they liberate "ten slaves." Anderson provides some interesting details of their current action and journey, and he observed: "Brown has drawn a paralel [sic] which will be published in the Tribune."

Keywords: Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Jayhawking; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Rice, Benjamin; Slaves; Underground railroad


Letter, [John Henry] Kagi to Friend [William A.] Phillips
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: February 7, 1859
One the back of this "original" letter, "W. A. P." (William A. Phillips) noted that it was written by John H. Kagi, a Brown lieutenant, "after taking the Negroes captured in Missouri near the southeast Kansas line. The last armed exploit of John Brown in Kansas."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Fugitive Slave Law; Jayhawkers; Kagi, John Henry; Missouri; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Tabor, Iowa; United States marshals


Letter, [E. Nute] to [Unidentified recipient]
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: February 14, 1859
Ephraim Nute wrote from Lawrence on February 14, 1859, regarding "the disaster that befel the last expedition from this place with fugitives." The party, led by Dr. John Doy, was in route to Oskaloosa when captured and taken to Missouri, where "the colored people, both free and slaves, have been shipped for the New Orleans market." Doy and his son had been jailed at Platte City, Missouri, and were to be tried for "stealing a slave from Weston." Nute was quite sure this operation had been betrayed from within, as "Great rewards were offered, spies sent out & men hired in this place to watch & aid in recovering the run away property."

Keywords: African Americans; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Holton, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Nute, Ephraim; Oskaloosa, Kansas Territory; Spurs, Battle of the; Underground railroad; United States marshals; United States. Army


Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: June 27, 1859
The main focus of this letter, written from Lawrence by Samuel F. Tappan, is the case of Dr. John Doy, who had just been convicted of abducting slaves from Missouri. Doy had been sentenced to five years imprisonment, but his lawyers got a two month suspension so they could file an appeal with the state Supreme Court. Tappan outlined the evidence against Doy, which he said rested on the testimony of one proslavery man. He also reiterated the story behind the Doy kidnapping in case the recipient, Thomas Higginson, was not aware of all the details. The letter ended by mentioning the strength of the Democratic Party in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: African Americans; Courts; Democratic Party (U.S.); Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawyers; Missouri; Slaves; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913


Letter, John E. Stewart to My Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: December 20, 1859
John E. Stewart wrote from Wakarusa, Kansas to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, describing his work on the underground railroad. This letter detailed the inclement weather and difficulties he encountered as he helped slaves to escape from Missouri, as well as his procedure for locating the slaves and hiding them in his wagon. Stewart sought to gain assistance from Hyatt, mainly in the form of provisions and horses. He also needed advice about what to do with the escaped slaves to ensure that they were not captured and sold again into slavery.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Fugitive slaves; Guns; Horses; Iowa; Missouri; Nebraska Territory; Relief; Slaves; Stewart, John E.; Underground railroad; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, C. G. Allen to Redpath and Hinton
Authors: Allen, C. G.
Date: December 1859
Allen, a "minister of the Gospel" at Cottonwood Falls, K.T., wrote in response to the Redpath/Hinton call for "anecdotes & reminiscences" concerning "the brave & philanthropic [John] Brown," who the preacher first met in Lawrence in 1856. Allen left Lawrence when a call came for volunteers to aid in the defense of Osawatomie in August of that year and while there engaged saw his first "Border Ruffians," who he described as "miserable specimens of humanity. They were ragged & dirty. Their cloths & faces were to a considerable extent covered with tobacco spit." Allen and the men he was with actually missed the Battle of Osawatomie by moving south before the attack in an effort to find the attackers before they reached the town.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Stanton, Kansas Territory


Leavenworth City Directory, and Business Mirror for 1859-60, Containing the Name and Residence of Every Male Citizen, a Business Mirror, and an Appendix of Much Useful Information
Authors: Sutherland & McEvoy
Date: 1859
In addition to advertisements, and information about various civic institutions in Leavenworth, this city directory also contained an historical sketch of the city attributed to H. Miles Moore, one of Leavenworth's early settlers. Some women are listed in the directory if they operated a business such as a boarding house, if they had a job, or, apparently, if they were widowed or unmarried. The "business mirror" section listed individual businesses grouped by the type of business or profession. The appendix included a listing of city and county officials and community institutions. The volume contained a number of ads for businesses in St. Louis, Missouri. The item referenced a map that was supposed to serve as a street guide but it was not contained in the KSHS copy of this item.

Keywords: Advertisements; Business; Business enterprises; Commerce; Community life; Economic development; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Retail businesses; St. Louis, Missouri; Town development; Women


$200 Reward!
Authors: Williams, G. D.
Date: June 7, 1860
Wanted poster of two slaves from Saline County, Missouri. Includes the names and descriptions of the two slaves. Poster is on display in the Kansas Museum of History, Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: African Americans; Broadsides; Fugitive slaves; Missouri; Money; Slavery; Slaves


Letter, James Montgomery to George L. Stearns
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: October 6, 1860
Having returned from a trip to the East (where he visited Stearns, Horace Greeley, and others in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia), Montgomery wrote from Mound City, Linn County, that he "found the people greatly excited." News of violence directed against free state men in Texas and Arkansas had awakened Kansans' sense of urgency, as Montgomery continued his efforts to free slaves and undercut the slave economy of western Missouri.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border ruffians; Free state supporters; Fugitive slaves; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Texas


Letter, J.M. [James Montgomery] to George L. Stearns
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: December 14, 1860
In response to a letter dated November 29, Montgomery informed Stearns that "Uncle Sam has stolen all my late corrispondence [sic]. I suppose he thinks he will find some Treason in it:--He is welcome to all he can find." Much of the news about his activities and intention, insisted Montgomery, was simply newspaper talk. "'Montgomery's Band' is a myth. Montgomery's men are the people, and Montgomery himslef is one them. [sic]." He was very interested in getting the press back East to inform the public of "the real state of affairs here."

Keywords: Free labor; Free state activities; Fugitive slaves; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Linn County, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; United States. Army


Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas.
Authors: Mitchell, S. Augustus
Date: 1860
Includes topographic features. Indicates locations of forts. Removed from Mitchell's New General Atlas with page number 33. Archaic county names and boundaries in Kansas. Link to scanned image at Wichita State University Libraries - Special Collections.

Keywords: Forts; Illinois; Iowa; Maps; Missouri; Nebraska Territory


Letter, James Montgomery to F. B. Sanborn
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: January 14, 1861
Just two weeks before Kansas would be admitted to the Union and in the midst of the early secession crisis, Montgomery (Mound City) told Franklin B. Sanborn (Boston) that he (Montgomery) did not favor an invasion of "the slave states so long as they keep themselves at home," but Missouri was crossing the line and interfering in Kansas affairs. He also commented on recent mob violence in Boston and General Harney's futile efforts to enforce the Fugitive Slave law in southern Kansas.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Democratic Party (U.S.); Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Harney, William S.; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Martial law; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Secession; Slavery


Bowie Knife
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1861
Knife made in a blacksmith shop operated by James Howell near Clay, Arkansas, for the purpose of fighting Kansans. Manufactured in 1861, it was used in the Civil War battles of Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove in Arkansas, and Wilson's Creek and Price's Raid in Missouri. Abolitionists and freestaters stereotyped pro-slavery defenders as always carrying Bowie knives. Indeed, Benjamin Stringfellow advised fellow slavery supporters in 1855 to "enter every election district in Kansas . . . and vote at the point of the bowie knife and the revolver.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border disputes and warfare; Bowie knife; Civil war; Howell, James; Missouri; Objects; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Swords and daggers; Violence


Photograph, David Rice Atchison
Authors: Whitehurst, Jessie H.
Date: 1850
David Rice Atchison was a proslavery leader from Missouri. He represented that state in the U.S. Senate from 1843 to 1855. He was involved in various aspects of the territorial conflict, allegedly riding with the raiders who sacked Lawrence in 1856. The town of Atchison and Atchison County were named for him.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Daguerreotypes; Missouri; Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery supporters; Whitehurst, Jessie H.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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