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67 results for Militia:
Letter, C. Robinson to E. Thayer
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 2, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts, described voting irregularities in the March 30, 1855 election of members to the territorial legislature. Robinson maintained that the election was "controlled entirely by Missourians" who came to the territory, took over the polling places, and cast illegal ballots to ensure that proslavery supporters were elected to the legislature. Robinson also reported that free staters in Lawrence had formed themselves into four military companies, and urged Thayer to send Sharps rifles and cannons for these forces.

Keywords: Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Free state perspective; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, C. Robinson to Rev. E. E. Hale
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 9, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Edward Everett Hale, commented that Free State supporters were forming military companies in response to perceived "outrageous conduct" by Missourians during the March 30, 1855, election of representatives for the territorial legislature. Robinson asked Hale to send two hundred Sharp's rifles and two cannon for the use of Lawrence settlers.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state; Guns; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Stubbs Militia Company Constitution, By-laws, and Charter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 16, 1855
The Stubbs militia company was organized on April 16, 1855, to protect Lawrence and the people of Kansas Territory. The constitution limited membership to 64 "rank and file" members and listed the duties of the various officers. The by-laws called for weekly drills, public parades once each three months, and indicated that prospective members had to be voted upon as well as paying ten dollars. Other expectations for members were detailed in the by-laws. The charter was the draft of a bill to be passed by the territorial legislature and listed the following as the incorporators of the Stubbs, a volunteer military company: Joseph Cracklin, A. Cutler, George F. Earle, John G. Crocker, Caleb S. Pratt, A. Gunther, and A. D. Searl. Although the document included the date of April 16, 1855, a date of 1858 was penciled above the title Constitution.

Keywords: Cracklin, Joseph; Crocker, John G.; Cutler, A.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Earle, Geroge F.; Free state activities; Gunther, A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Pratt, Caleb S.; Searl, Albert D.; Stubbs militia company


Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: September 17, 1855
Frederick Law Olmstead, a free state fundraiser and landscape architect who would later design New York City's Central Park, wrote from New York to James Abbott, reporting of his recent fundraising efforts. Within a week, he hoped to raise enough money to purchase "100 _____", believing it wise not to mention in writing that the objects purchased would be weapons to equip free state militias.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Militia; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Weapons (see also Guns)


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 30, 1855
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 30, 1855
During this session of the constitutional convention, delegates dealt briefly with the question of "an immediate organization of a State Government," a highly controversial issue, and considered a report on the militia. Lively debate on the latter issue seems to have followed, although not much detail is given here, with Charles Robinson offering an amendment "striking out the word white--" This presumably would have had the effect of making African Americans and Indians eligible for service, but the amendment failed seven to twenty-four.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Suffrage; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting


Militia Commission, issue by James H. Lane to Joel Grover
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: November 27, 1855
This printed document, headed with the name "James H. Lane," announced the election and certification of Joel Grover as colonel of the 6th Regiment, First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers, raised "to defend the City of Lawrence from threatened destruction by foreign invaders." It is dated November 27, 1855, and signed "J. H. Lane," general commanding.

Keywords: Border ruffians; First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers; Free state militia; Grover, Joel; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Head Quarters of the Second Brigade of Northern Division of Kansas Militia, Leavenworth City
Authors: Eastin, Lucian J.
Date: November 28, 1855
This document is a printed notice to the Militia of the Second Brigade requesting them to meet at Leavenworth on Dec. 1, 1855.

Keywords: Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Militia


List of Companies
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November-December, 1855
This document listed general information about militia recruited by free state leaders during the Wakarusa War, November-December, 1855. These troops gathered to defend Lawrence against an estimated 2000 Missourians. Details on the number of commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers and rank and file are provided for Companies A through I, Horse Company No. 1, and the headquarters company. The documents also listed the weapons available ("Sharpe's Rifles," "Other Arms," and "Cartridges"). All of the officers were listed. A total of 349 men with 156 Sharpe's Rifles and 169 other weapons and 6807 cartridges were recruited. James H. Lane served as the brigadier general and William Y. Roberts was the adjutant general. Colonels were Lyman Allen, M. A. Hunt, and C, K. Holliday. Majors were Jno. A. Wakefield, David Dodge, J. M Mitchell, Geo. W. Smith, Sr., Milton C. Dickey and men with the last names of Thomas, Tuton, Sampson, and Yates.. George W. Smith, Jr. was the Sergeant Major, A. H. Malory, Quartermaster; Jno. G. Crocker, Quartermaster Sergeant; Mr. Hunt, Commisary; and Dr. S. B. Prentiss and Dr. Foles, surgeons.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Crocker, John G.; Dickey, Milton C.; Dodge, David; Free state activities; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hunt, Morris; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Mallory, Anson H.; Militia; Mitchell, J. M.; Prentiss, S.B.; Roberts, William Young; Smith, George W.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wakefield, John A.


Letter/Order, Wilson Shannon to C. Robinson and J. H. Lane
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 9, 1855
According to D. W. Wilder, Governor Wilson Shannon arrived in Lawrence on December 7, 1855, and on December 8 made "a treaty with the Free-State Generals" ending the Wakarusa War. The paper was signed by Shannon, Robinson and Lane. With the document represented here, dated Lawrence, December 9, 1855, Governor Shannon "authorized & directed [Robinson and Lane] to take such measures & use the enrolled force under your command in such manner for the preservation of the peace & the protection of the persons & property of the people in Lawrence & vicinity as in your judgment shall best secure that end." ( A subsequent notation indicated that the order was written in Robinson's hand, but signed by Shannon.)

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Certificate of Service, Franklin L. Crane, Jr.
Authors: Headquarters, Kansas Volunteers
Date: December 11, 1855
Franklin L. Crane, Jr., son of a prominent citizen in Topeka, served as a private from November 27 to Dec. 11, 1855 in defense of Lawrence. This certificate of service was signed by several people active in the free state cause, including James H. Lane and Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Certificates; Crane, Franklin L., Jr.; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Military; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Muster Roll of Captain John Brown's company, Fifth Regiment, 1st Brigade, Kansas Volunteers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 12, 1855
This muster roll listed men who served in the Wakarusa War from November 27 to December 12, 1855. The fifth regiment was commanded by Col. George W. Smith. This company was recruited from the area around Osawatomie, Kansas Territory. The information provided included name, title if an officer, and age. Officers, in addition to Captain John Brown, were William Updegraff, Henry H. Williams, James J. Holbrook, Ephraim Reynolds, R. W. Wood, Frederick Brown, John Yelton, Henry Alderman, H. Harrison Updegraff, Daniel W. Collis, and William Partridge. William Partridge furnished one keg of powder and 8 pounds of lead that were used by the company. Ages of the company ranged from 19 to 55 years old. This was a small company and the other members were Amos D. Alderman, Francis Brennon, William W. Caine, Benjamin L. Cochran, Jeremiah Harrison and John Brown's sons John, Jr., Owen, and Sallmon

Keywords: Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Owen; Brown, Salmon; Free state activities; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Militia; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Partridge, William; Smith, George W.; Updegraff, W. W.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Williams, Henry H.


Daily diary, Isaac Goodnow
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: July 1855 - January 1856
Isaac Goodnow, a free state supporter and founder of Bluemont College in Manhattan, Kansas Territory, recorded news of political events and military skirmishes from July 1855-January 1856. Goodnow's diary makes mention of the details of his daily life, such as home maintenance, crop harvests, prairie fires, and extended illness.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Daily life; Denison, Joseph; Elections; Free state activities; Free state support; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Schuyler, Philip Church; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Constitution; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Abbott Sword
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
Major James B. Abbott acquired this Model 1840 Noncommissioned Officer's sword in 1855. He carried it through the territorial period.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Militia; Objects; Swords and daggers; Weapons (see also Guns)


List of participants and casualties at the battle of Black Jack
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: June 2, 1856
According to this document listing the participants and those "men wounded in the battle of Palmyra or Black Jack," son-in-law Henry Thompson was "dangerously wounded."

Keywords: Black Jack, Battle of; Black Jack, Kansas Territory; Bondi, August; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Oliver; Brown, Owen; Brown, Salmon; Carpenter, A.O.; Free state militia; Militia; Missourians; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`; Pate, Henry Clay; Proslavery supporters; Thompson, Henry; Whitman, E. B.


Certificate of Commission, Kansas Militia
Authors: Topliff, Charles
Date: June 14, 1856
This is a printed certificate filled in by hand by Charles W. Topliff, Maj. General of the Kansas Militia, commissioning Samuel Wemple to 2nd Lieutenant of 7th Company G. As such, Wemple must "defend the rights and liberties" of the people of Kansas "from threatened destruction by foreign invaders, and internal foes."

Keywords: Clark, Eduard; Military; Militia; Topliff, Charles W.; Wemple, Samuel


Letter, William H. Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: July 15, 1856
William H. Leeman, a follower of John Brown in Kansas and eventually a casualty of the Harpers Ferry raid, wrote this letter to his mother while "traveling across the prairies of Iowa" in July 1856. Although he briefly mentions an encounter with "2,000 border ruffians," he assures his mother that he is safe, in good health, and well armed, and that he is much happier in this "adventure" than had he staid home and "worked in a shop."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cannons; Free state militia; Iowa; Leeman, William H.; Militia; Missouri; Weapons (see also Guns)


Receipt, D. A. Clayton, Jr. to G. W. Hutchinson and William Hutchinson
Authors: Clayton, D. A., Jr.
Date: July 25, 1856
D. A. Clayton, Jr., of Topeka had received and promised to deliver to G. W. and William Hutchinson of Lawrence $134.95 worth of articles: sugar, candles, pepper, mustard, cinnamon, and flour. Under Clayton's signature is a note indicating that the provisions were supplied to "Company B.," which was under the command of H. A. Burgess.

Keywords: Free state cause; Free state militia; Hutchinson, George W.; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Receipts; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, [J.H. Lane] to His Excellancy C. [Charles] Robinson, et al
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: August 10, 1856
In a brief letter from Topeka that is very difficult to decipher, Jim Lane informs Robinson, Gen. George W. Deitzler, George W. Brown, John Brown, "& others" of his arrival with "a sufficient force" to do battle for the free state cause. He seems to counsel quick and decisive action.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Deitzler, George W.; Free state cause; Free state government; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "Dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: September 4, 1856
From Topeka, Kagi wrote his father about his (Kagi's) personal situation and more generally about the civil war in Kansas. Several thousand "armed Missourians" had been committing outrages against free state citizens with the support of proslave leaders--Wilson Shannon, Samuel Lecompte, and Daniel Woodson. Freestaters, according to Kagi, were just then mounting an effective defense of both Lawrence and Topeka, both primary targets of the proslavery forces--"the enemy are determined to 'wipe out', as they say, both these towns."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Militia; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: September 9, 1856
From Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Oscar Learnard wrote briefly to some Vermont friends of his recent "military" experience as "Lieutenant Colonel of the 4th regiment (cavalry) of Kansas Volunteers." At the time, Learnard said "the whole Territory presents a scene of wide spread desolation," but he also claimed Kansas was a beautiful place full of opportunity for agriculturalists and real estate investors. At present, however, one should only come if well armed and via "the new road" [Lane Trail].

Keywords: Agriculture; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state regiment; Lane Trail; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Militia; Real estate investment; Vermont


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 13, 1856
Charles Robinson wrote to John Brown from Lawrence on September 13, 1856, a short note encouraging Brown to give Governor Geary, who "talks of letting the past be forgotten," a chance and to come to town to "see us." A note from John Brown, Jr., on the bottom of the page, however, advised caution, as he had "no doubt an attempt will be made to arrest you as well as Lane."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, William Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: November 9, 1856
Writing to his Mother from Nebraska Territory on November 4, 1856, Leeman, who "belong[ed] to Old Browns company," said he had just left Kansas Territory because, after driving the "Border Ruffians" out, the governor and "his troops were after us [and] we were obliged to leave the territory." Leeman hoped to go back to his 160 acre farm in Kansas soon and encouraged his Mother to come when the troubles were over.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state settlers; Jayhawking; Leeman, William H.; Militia; Nebraska Territory; Osawatomie, Battle of; Sharps rifles


Receipt, Thomas J. Aliff to N. B. Blanton
Authors: Aliff, Thomas J.
Date: December 3, 1856
Thomas J. Aliff, one of the free-state prisoners held at Lecompton in the fall of 1856 (see previous document #101288) signed this receipt to Napoleon B. Blanton for "one pair of Drawers" and "one flanel [sic] Shirt." The total cost of these items was indicated as being $3.75.

Keywords: Blanton, Napolean Bonaparte; Blood, James; Clothing and dress; Free state militia; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Militia; Receipts


Kansas Experiences of A.R. Scolen, William Reap, Ephraim Coy, and Capt. Samuel Anderson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 21, 1856 - December 23, 1856
These testimonies were collected from a number of free state settlers along Pottawatomie Creek, presumably by an associate of the National Kansas Committee. Each account includes personal information about the settler (their origins, family, crops, etc.) and also testimonies of their involvement in the free state militia.

Keywords: Agriculture; Anderson, Samuel; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Casualties; Cline, Captain; Clothing and dress; Coy, Ephraim; Crops; Food; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Illness; Livestock; Militia; Missourians; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Reap, William; Scolen, A.R.; Shore, Samuel T.; Sickness (see Illness); Skirmishing; Travel; Wounds and injuries


Pro-slavery man's musket
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Flintlock musket carried by J. H. Meyer in 1856, while a member of the pro-slavery Kansas Terriorial Militia.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Firearms; Guns; Meyer, J. H.; Militia; Objects; Proslavery activities; Proslavery perspective; Weapons (see also Guns)


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Wyandotte County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This muster roll for Captain A. H. Macauley's company listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, Kansas residence, and a place for "remarks." The latter was used to record the type of weapon the individual was issued or brought with him: e.g., Sharps, Western rifle, Carbine. All the men appeared to be residents of Quindaro, Wyandotte County in their twenties or early thirties.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Macauley, A. H.; Militia; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns); Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Memorandum, Articles wanted for an outfit of fifty volunteers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. January 1857
Among the articles itemized in this "Memorandum of articles wanted as an outfit for fifty volunteers to serve under my [John Brown?] direction during the Kansas war" are wagons, horses, blankets, frying pans, etc., at an estimated cost of $1,774.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Horses; Militia; Wagons


Letter, Chas. Blair to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Blair, Charles
Date: March 20, 1857
During his 1857 fund raising tour, Brown made arrangements with a Connecticut blacksmith, Charles Blair, for the production of a number of spears or "pikes" for use in the Kansas territory. On March 20, Blair wrote from Collinsville that he had the first dozen "spears" ready to send and was eager to see Brown to work out the details for the production of more. (He wrote of production details and cost estimates--this first dozen would cost $12 if Brown decided he wanted no more.)

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Jayhawkers; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns)


General Order No. 1, Headquarters of Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: July 18, 1857
This printed document was issued by James H. Lane and indicated that Lane had been authorized by the Free State government in Topeka to organize militia companies in order to protect ballot boxes on election day. It included instructions on how to organize the companies.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting; Whitman, E. B.


General Order No. 2, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: July 20, 1857
General Order No. 2 established divisions and brigades which were to protect the ballot box in Topeka. It lists the divisions, brigades, and the superintendents of the divisions and brigades. James Lane was organizing the Kansas Volunteers and Martin Conway was the Adjutant General for the K.V.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Stewart, John E.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting; Williams, Henry H.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 20, 1857
In his August 20, 1857, report to Stearns, Marsh again asked for some clarification on a couple payment issues and described his role for the committee (Mass. State Kansas Committee) with regard to Jim Lane's efforts to organize protection for free state voters. For a short while, things looked good for the Free State cause, but Governor Walker's conduct to date had been disruptive and Judge Cato and friends began to issue arrest warrants.

Keywords: Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: September 7, 1857
James H. Lane, whose extant correspondence is scarce, here wrote from Lawrence to John Brown regarding his (Lane's) efforts "in perfecting an organization for the protection of the ballot box at the October Election," and Lane encouraged Brown to come "with all the materials you have." Lane was confident Brown could enter the territory safely but offered all required assistance--protection, transport, etc.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.


Commission, James Montgomery, captain
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 16, 1857
This printed commission, issued from the "Head-Quarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot-Box," was given to James Montgomery and signed by J.H. Lane and M. F. Conway, adjutant general, on September 16, 1857. Montgomery was commissioned captain of the "Little Sugar Creek Company." This would have been specifically for the territorial election, October 5, 1857.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Letter, J. H. Lane to Genl. J. B. Abbott
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: October 15, 1857
James Lane ordered James Abbott to gather his brigade and have them in Lecompton by the following Monday. Lane perhaps responded to the results of the early October election of the Territorial Legislature, in which free state men questioned the validity of votes cast by U.S. troops, or to the meeting of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, which would reconvene on October 20.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia


Order No. 2, Quartermaster's Department, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, Lawrence, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 19, 1857
This printed letter written by E. B. Whitman concerned the success of Kansas volunteers in organizing to help freemen and the lack of success with voting lists.

Keywords: Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Whitman, E. B.


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited from the city of Leavenworth. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. All of the members are from Leavenworth and their ages range from 22 to 38. The captain was William Kempf. With the exception of the 1st Lieutenant Joseph Mrosowsky who was born in Poland, all of the members of the company were born in Germany though they had lived various places before coming to Kansas.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Germans; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Kempf, William; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth City; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from the areas of Walnut Creek and Fall Creek. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. This muster roll also included information under remarks about whether or not the members had weapons. All of the members are from Leavenworth County and their ages range from 18 to 66. The captain was Horace L Dunlap. This muster roll lits two free state men who, according to Captain Dunlap, refused to enroll.

Keywords: Dunlap, Horace L.; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns)


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballott Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from Delaware City. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. The ages of company members range from 18 to 54. The captain was A. Cutter.

Keywords: Cutter, A.; Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Jefferson County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Jefferson County. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas and residence in Kansas. The remarks column noted if the company member had a weapon. The ages of company members range from 15 to 56. The captain was Simeon Hull.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Muster roll, Burlingame Rifles Company C
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1857
This "Muster Roll" lists men of Burlingame Rifles Company C, under the leadership of Captain H.W. Wood, who "mustered into the service" of the protection of the people of Kansas Territory. This particular documents lists men by their rank, and includes their names, age, height, and riding equipment and firearms owned.

Keywords: Burlingame Rifles; Free state cause; Free state militia; Horses; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns); Wood, H.W.


Muster Roll, Potawatomie Rifles, Co. B, Capt. Benjamin
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1857 or 1858
This roll list named the members of the Potawatomie Rifles, Company B, of the Kansas free state militia. Under the direction of Captain Jacob Benjamin, the men were listed by rank, paired with information about their rank, age, height, and weapons or horses owned.

Keywords: Benjamin, Jacob; Free state militia; Horses; Militia; Pottawatomie Rifles; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, S.C.S. [most likely Samuel C. Smith] to "Doctor" [Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: January 11, 1858
This letter, dated Lawrence, January 11, 1858, most likely from Samuel C. Smith, mentions many of the Free State Party's main actors and issues at this critical time in Kansas politics. He described the activities of the Legislature, which assembled in Lawrence in January, and devotes considerable attention to the machinations of the "villain" Jim Lane.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Free State Party; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Railroad companies; Railroad legislation; Railroad promotion; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Temperance movement; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion


Letter, J. G. Anderson to "Dear Brother"
Authors: Anderson, J. G.
Date: February 17, 1858
From "Camp near Luella K.T." on February 17, 1858, J. G. Anderson wrote to his brother regarding the "considerable excitement" that had recently resulted after a free state man was robbed in Fort Scott. Two companies of "Kansas Militia" were called out to arrest the thieves, "our company under Capt. [O.P.] Bayne and the Sugar Creek company under Capt. [James] Montgomery. When they arrived at "the Fort" on the 11th "the bloody villains" had already fled to Missouri. The letter is a "typical" mix of news about the Kansas troubles, work on the claim, and pleasantries about the folks back home. [Before the end of the year, Anderson would sign on with John Brown and follow him to Harpers Ferry.]

Keywords: Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John Vansickle and John Peters to Dear Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: March 3, 1858
John Vansickle and John Peters wrote from Bourbon County regarding their recent experiences in Kansas Territory. Vansickle discussed the "Kansas trubels" [sic] and described the chaotic situation of the area, full of armed free state and proslavery men acting in the name of politics but stealing horses and robbing homes. He added that men were not safe at home, though he intended to stay in K.T. until forced out. Vansickle also referred to a coming March 9 election which would select delegated to the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Militia; Skirmishing; Vansickle, John H.; Weather


Articles of Agreement for Shubel Morgan's Company
Authors: Morgan, Shubel
Date: July 12, 1858
In July 1858, fifteen men including Shubel Morgan, alias John Brown, J. H. Kagi, James Montgomery, and Augustus Wattles signed this document and thus "agree[d] to be governed by the following rules" of conduct. The rules included "gentlemanly and respectful deportment," obedience to the commander's orders, "no intoxicating drinks," etc.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state militia; Kagi, John Henry; Military; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Morgan, Shubel; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, William F. Creitz to "Col. James Redpath"
Authors: Creitz, William F.
Date: December 17, 1859
William F. Creitz of Holton, who had served under Aaron Stevens as captain of a Kansas militia company, wrote Redpath regarding "the particulars of 'Old John Brown's' final departure from this territory." Brown and company, which included "eleven fugitives," reached Holton on January 27, 1859, and Creitz described the events that followed, to which he was an "eyewitness" and participant, including the Battle of the Spurs. Creitz's "article" was prepared "to assist you [Redpath] in your praiseworthy undertaking that of publishing the lives of those heroic men." Redpath published "Echoes of Harper's Ferry" in 1860, and Richard J. Hinton used this material in his "John Brown and His Men (1894).

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Battles; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Holton, Kansas Territory; Jackson County, Kansas Territory (see also Calhoun County, Kansas Territory); Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Militia; Nebraska Territory; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Slave power; Spurs, Battle of the; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Underground railroad; United States marshals


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
This claim was submitted by Blake Little on behalf of J. H. Little & Company for supplies furnished to the territorial militia on or about August 22, 1856. Mr. Little's store was in Bourbon County. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Damage claims; J. H. Little & Company; Little, Blake; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Claim #280 was filed on behalf of Mrs. Mary Lovell, a widow, for property taken in August, 1856. She lived in Sugar Mound in Linn County. Her horses and household goods were taken by various armed groups and she stated she walked 25 miles to Westport, Missouri, because she feared for her life. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Horses; House furnishings; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Lovell, Mary; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Women


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Isaac T. De Ment filed claim # 252 for items stolen or destroyed in his storehouse and home by proslavery forces under the command of G. W. Clarke. The itemized list included a variety of good from fabrics and clothing to food and hardware. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Clarke, George W.; Clothing and dress; Damage claims; De Ment, Isaac T.; Food; Groceries; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Benjamin D. Castleman, Tecumseh, Shawnee County, presented claim #216 for losses suffered in August and September, 1856. He operated as a merchant so his claim listed groceries, clothing, dry goods, medicines, guns, hardware, books and stationery, and tin and glassware. He stated that the damage was caused by about 50 well armed men under the command of James H. Lane and another group of 200 men under the command of "Captains A. Jameson, Cleveland, and Charles Moffet." Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Alcoholic beverages; Castleman, Benjamin D.; Clothing and dress; Damage claims; Food; Groceries; Jameson, A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Moffett, Charles; Retail businesses; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Benjamin S. Hancock submitted claim # 163 for agricultural equipment, livestock, and crops that were destroyed at various times in 1855 and 1856. His list of livestock and other items claim is very detailed. He lived near Lecompton in Douglas County. His losses were caused by the territorial militia under the command of several including William Martin, John Randolph, Colonel Titus, General Richardson, and General Stringfellow. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Crops; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hancock, Benjamin S.; Livestock; Martin, William; Militia; Randolph, John; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Stringfellow, John H.; Titus, Henry Theodore


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
William Green Price submitted claim # 109 for the loss of goods from his home and grocery store in September, 1856 by the territorial militia. The detailed listing of items included alcoholic beverages and a variety of goods from the store. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Alcoholic beverages; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Groceries; Grocery trade; Militia; Price, William Green; Retail businesses; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
John Wakefield, Douglas County, Kansas Territory, filed claim # 96 for damages caused by the territorial militia on September 1, 1856. He was a farmer and his loses included crops of potatoes, corn, and a garden as well as a house and its furnishings. He also claimed damage to his well. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Crops; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; House furnishings; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Wakefield, John A.


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
James Campbell submitted this claim (#80) for damages suffered on August 15, 1857 from 200 men under the command of Captain Walker. Mr. Campbell lived in Douglas County and claimed the loss of various household and agricultural items. Mr. Campbell must have either been a slave owner or had a free black employee because he claimed bedding and wearing apparel for a negro. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: African Americans; Campbell, James; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; House furnishings; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
R. D. McCamish submitted this claim (No. 46) for damages and losses to a hotel, storehouse, and other property on September 4, 1856. James Lane commanded the troops that did the damage to Mr. McCamish's property. Mr. McCamish lived in Johnson County. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; McCamish, R. D.; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Samuel Nickel submitted this claim (No. 13) for damages to his property on or about September 1, 1856 by a company of men under the command of General Clark. Mr. Nickel lived in Linn County. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Militia; Nickel, Samuel; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: January 19, 1861
In Lawrence on January 19, 1861, attending the meeting of what proved to be the last territorial legislature, Ingalls wrote about everyone's interest in happenings outside the territory: namely, congressional action on the "Kansas Admission Bill" and the "Pacific Rail Road Bill," as well as "the condition of affairs of the South ['the secession movement']. Especially bad weather--"the snow is quite deep and the temperature below zero constantly"--had left Kansas somewhat isolated, and as they waited for news the legislature was "not doing much except discussing Union resolutions, endorsing Major [Robert] Anderson [commander of U.S. troops at Fort Sumter], and divorcing Every body that applies for rupture of the bonds of matrimony."

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Anderson, Major Robert; Divorce; Divorce law and legislation; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Secession; Sectionalism (United States)


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear General [James H. Lane]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 25, 1861
In this "Private" reply to his political rival, Ewing apparently responded to a request from Jim Lane for information about troops and munitions at Fort Leavenworth. Ewing provided some detailed information about this and about the local militia's readiness and strength. The troop strength at the fort was weak, but "Dragoons" from Fort Scott were expected soon: "If the Cavalry Companies come, all will be safe at the Fort. But we must have a force prepared to defend the City--& such preparation is our best guaranty for peace with our neighbors.

Keywords: Ammunition; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Firearms; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Military; Militia; United States. Army


Photograph, James Montgomery
Authors: Leonard & Martin, artists
Date: 
James Montogomery came to Linn County, Kansas Territory, early in the territorial period after living in Ohio, Kentucky and Missouri. He was active in the free state cause and was involved in most of the conflict between pro-slavery and free state forces in that area. He was ordered off his property but refused to leave the area. He raised a militia troop that was active in 1857.

Keywords: Free state militia; Free state supporters; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Photographs and Illustrations


Illustration, Battle of Hickory Point
Authors: Breyman, W.
Date: undated, ca. 1856
This illustration was based on the eye-witness experience of W. Breyman. The Battle of Hickory Point took place 5 miles east of Ozawkie, in Jefferson County. Pro-slavery forces surrendered to Free state forces, led by James Harvey, only six hours after they were first attacked. However, Harvey's 101 men were later captured and charged with murder in the first degree; about twenty of those men were convicted and sentenced to five years in the Penitentiary.

Keywords: Battles; Bickerton, Thomas; Breyman, W.; Free state militia; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Illustrations; Militia; Proslavery supporters


Photograph, Samuel J. Reader
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Samuel J. Reader was a participant in some of the free state activities. He wrote about his efforts in his diary, including descriptions of the Battles of Indianola and Hickory Point. He also used the diary as the basis for an autobiography which he illustrated with drawings and water colors. He lived in Shawnee County, Kansas Territory. His accounts also describe daily life.

Keywords: Cyanotypes; Free state supporters; Indianola, Battle of; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory


Photograph, John Henry Stringfellow
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Henry Stringfellow was a resident of Atchison and a proslavery supporter. He was in charge of some of the territorial troops that were mentioned in the Strickler report on damages from altercations in Kansas Territory. He held several elective positions including Speaker of the House in the 1855 territorial legislature.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Card photographs; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Stringfellow, John H.


Photograph, Lucian Eastin
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Lucian Eastin was a proslavery supporter. He was the head of the proslavery militia and the editor of the Herald in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory for a period of time. This image is a copy from a painting.

Keywords: Eastin, Lucian J.; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters


Photograph, Samuel J. Reader
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1854
Samuel J. Reader was a participant in some of the free state activities. He wrote about his efforts in his diary, including descriptions of the Battles of Indianola and Hickory Point. He also used the diary as the basis for an autobiography which he illustrated with drawings and water colors. He lived in Shawnee County, Kansas Territory. His accounts also describe daily life. Samuel J. Reader copied this photograph from a daguerreotype taken at La Harpe, Hancock County, IL, March 1, 1854. He was 18 years old.

Keywords: Free state supporters; Indianola, Battle of; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from the area of Easton. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, and where from to Kansas. Instead of listing where the company members lived in Kansas, this muster roll indicated how long they had been in Kansas under the column "residence is Kansas." The remarks column noted if the company member had a weapon. The ages of company members range from 18 to 52. The captain was Joseph Hicks.

Keywords: Easton, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Hicks, Joseph; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns)


Exemption Roll, Kansas Militia for Precinct of Columbia, Madison County, 7th Brigade
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
This undated document listed 8 men from the Columbia precinct of Madison County, Kansas Territory, who were exempt from serving in the Kansas Militia. Four were exempted due to age (46 through 70 years old), one was a physician and one was crippled. The cause of the exemption was not listed for 2 men. John W. Whistler was the commander of the 7th Brigade.

Keywords: Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory (see also Lyon County, Kansas); Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Madison County, Kansas Territory; Militia


Photograph, Preston Bierce Plumb
Authors: Prince, George
Date: 
Preston Bierce Plumb was involved in various antislavery events in Kansas Territory. He was involved with the Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box and was a member of the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. He was one of the founders of Emporia, Breckenridge County, Kansas Territory. He started the Emporia newspaper called "The Kanzas News."

Keywords: Antislavery; Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory (see also Lyon County, Kansas); Cartes de visite; Constitutions; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Kansas Volunteers; Leavenworth Constitution; Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Prince, George


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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