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48 results for Massachusetts:
Letter, S. L. Adair to Ladies Circle of South Hadley Falls, Massachusetts (draft)
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: not dated
Adair thanked the Ladies Circle for sending a fount, plate and cups for use in the church in Osawatomie. His appreciation was expressed in a religious sense. He asked for their prayers and said they have those of the church. He reported on sickness and on difficulties related to the church. He also commented on the "irreligion" in the area.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Churches; Illness; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Massachusetts; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Religion; Women


Letter, Sarah [presumably Sarah T. D. Lawrence] to My Dear Mrs. [William B.] Stowe
Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: January 9 1851
This letter, written by Sarah [presumably would be Sarah T.D. Lawrence, Charles Robinson's future wife] from Belchertown, MA, to Mrs. William B. Stowe, in West Brookfield, MA, contains excerpts of a letter written by Charles Robinson to Sarah. Robinson described his conditions of imprisonment in California (where he had traveled prior to settling in Kansas); he had been jailed for supporting squatter's rights and anti-slavery causes. He makes reference to a Dr. J.G. Holland, who had been a friend and colleague of his at home in Massachusetts.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; California; Massachusetts; National politics; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Squatter sovereignty


Letter, Alden G. Tucker to Mr. [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Tucker, Alden G.
Date: January 20, 1854
Tucker, a twenty-three year old printer writing from Taunton, Massachusetts, to Edward Everett Hale, volunteered to go to Kansas as part of the "Emigration Association" about which he had heard rumors. Hale later became a leader of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company that was chartered in April 1854.

Keywords: Antislavery; Emigrant aid companies; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Tucker, Alden G.


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Eli Thayer
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: May 26, 1854
Webb, writing from Boston, Massachusetts, was the secretary of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company. He informed Eli Thayer, the organizer of the company, of his concerns about fund raising efforts among the Massachusetts business elite.

Keywords: Emigrant aid companies; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, T. H. Cunningham to [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Cunningham, T. H.
Date: June 16, 1854
Cunningham, writing from Boston, Massachusetts, offered his opinion to Edward Everett Hale on the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company. Cunningham wrote of his doubts about the potential success of the company and expressed strong opposition to abolitionism.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Cunningham, T. H.; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company


Circular, Worcester County [Massachusetts] Kansas League
Authors: Worcester County Kansas League
Date: July 11, 1854
This printed circular, issued by the Worcester County Kansas League, advertises the establishment and growth of the "Emigrant Aid Company." It further explains their role in assisting New Englanders to emigrate to the Kansas Territory. Included are the Constitution and By-laws of the Worcester County Kansas League.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Circulars; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Williams, John M. S.; Worcester County Kansas League


Letter, Samuel C. Pomeroy to Sir [likely Edward Everett Hale]
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: July 27, 1854
Pomeroy, writing from Southhampton, Massachusetts, indicated his desire to go to Kansas to explore business possibilities and to keep slavery from gaining a foothold in the territory. Pomeroy, who likely was writing to Edward Everett Hale, expressed interest in assisting with the work of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Business; Economic development; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Mills and mill-work; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Water-power


Kanzas and Nebraska: the History, Geographical, and Physical Characteristics, and Political Position of those Territories; an account of the Emigrant Aid Companies and Directions to Emigrants
Authors: Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909
Date: 1854
This volume is generally accepted as the first book on Kansas. It dealt with Nebraska Territory also. The author, Edward Everett Hale indicated that he had researched the various memoirs and exploration journals of the various white men who had visited the area before its creation as a territory. This research resulted in a narrative history that focused on Native Americans and events in the area prior to 1854. Hale also included information about emigrant aid companies and the volume included some printed letters from emigrant aid company agents. The volume included the charter and "objects" of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid company, which was organized in March, 1854. Hale also provided some information on the Emigrant Aid Company of New York and Connecticut, which was organized in July, 1854 and the Union Emigration Society. The Appendices include the constitution of the Worcester Co. Kanzas League and a letter from George S. Park describing the Kansas and Smoky Hill river valleys.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Exploration; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Journals; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Native Americans; Park, George S.; Railroads; Settlement; Smoky Hill River, Kansas Territory; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Union Emigration Society; Worcester County Kansas League


Photograph, Members of the first party from the New England Emigrant Aid Company to go to Lawrence, Kansas in 1854
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1854
Portrait of four men, all members of the first party going to Lawrence, Kansas. The party left Boston, Massachusetts on July 17, 1854, and joined with Charles Robinson in St. Louis before arriving in Lawrence.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Fuller, Ferdinand; Goss, George W.; Harrington, Dr. S.C.; Massachusetts; Morgan, J.F.; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographers; Settlement


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Revd. Edw. E. Hale
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: February 25, 1855
Amos Lawrence, writing from Boston to Edward Everett Hale, a Worcester, Massachusetts resident, expressed concern about the manner in which Worcester leaders in the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company were doing business. Specifically, Lawrence was upset about Hale's and Eli Thayer's use of Emigrant Aid Company funds to make a loan to George Washington Brown, the editor of the Herald of Freedom.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Worcester, Massachusetts


Letter, Eli Thayer to Dr. [Thomas H.] Webb
Authors: Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899
Date: March 3, 1855
Eli Thayer, writing from Worcester, Massachusetts to Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, expressed his positive impression of the emigrant aid company founded in Connecticut. He also expressed his distrust of the American Settlement Company and the New York League, two other emigrant aid organizations.

Keywords: American Settlement Company; Connecticut Emigrant Aid Company; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New York League; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, E. Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Jones, Edmund
Date: July 26, 1855
Edmund Jones wrote to Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to report expenses, update Hill of construction progress, and request money. At this time, S. N. Simpson had returned east, and Jones oversaw the building of Hill's house in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Jones was in debt, unable to pay workers or buy supplies. Mr. Fuller, who seems to have rented another house owned by Hill (implied in S. N. Simpson's letter to Hill written September 4, 1855), refused to pay rent until the roof was repaired. Jones closed with concern for the security of lots in Lawrence.

Keywords: Construction; Cost and standard of living; Financial statements; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Town development; Town lots


Letter, Edmund Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Jones, Edmund
Date: July 29, 1855
Well before Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts could have received Edmund Jones' previous letter from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Jones received a bank draft from Hill. In this letter, Jones thanked him for the draft. He shortly expected two renters, Mrs. Herd and Mrs. Hall, to move into Hill's house in Lawrence. These renters wanted to build a house for their own borders on the lot behind. A store and an office were going up on either side of Hill's new house. James mentioned controversy over city lots but did not identify the source of this "new movement." He encouraged Hill to visit Lawrence a second time in early fall.

Keywords: Construction; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Town development; Town lots


Letter, Edmund Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Jones, Edmund
Date: August 21, 1855
Edmund Jones wrote briefly from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. He referred to the security of town lots and a previously sent newspaper. Mr. Fuller, a delinquent renter, was "selling liquor" in Hill's house. Jones suggested that Hill come soon.

Keywords: Construction; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Liquor (see Alcoholic beverages); Massachusetts


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: September 4, 1855
S. N. Simpson of Lawrence, Kansas Territory wrote to Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts concerning the improvement of the town and Hill's property. He alluded to "outsiders" who had made "a little stir." Simpson had demanded rent payment from Mr. Fuller, who agreed to pay part. Hill's distance from the situation had encouraged Fuller's delinquency. Simpson planned to attend the free state convention on the 5th. On page 2, written after the convention, Simpson reported that Governor Reeder was living in Hill's new house. He also mentioned that one of Simpson's Sabbath schools had stopped meeting.

Keywords: Free State Convention; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development


Letter, E. [Edmund] Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Jones, Edmund
Date: September 4, 1855
Edmund Jones oversaw the building of a house in Lawrence, Kansas Territory for Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. He wrote to update Hill on construction progress. Jones was frustrated with the plasterer, Mr. Johnson, who was sick and whose work was poor and rate too high. S. N. Simpson had returned to town. Jones mentioned the health of Mrs. Whitney and Mrs. Herd. Page 2 is primarily a list of expenses for materials and labor and a list of amounts received, including rent income.

Keywords: Construction; Cost and standard of living; Financial statements; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Mr. [Charles H.] Branscomb
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: September 26, 1855
Amos Lawrence, writing from Boston, Massachusetts to Charles H. Branscomb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, submitted his resignation as treasurer of the Emigrant Aid Company.

Keywords: Branscomb, Charles H.; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: October 1, 1855
S. N. Simpson wrote concerning his attempts to collect rent from Mr. Fuller, who had not yet paid up, to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. The undefined "outside movement" was at rest. Lawrence property values were rising; Hill had bought several lots and a house for the price of a single lot on Massachusetts Street at the current rate.

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Town lots


Letter, [Hiram Hill] to Edmund Jones Esq
Authors: Jones, Edmund
Date: October 1, 1855
Hiram Hill wrote to Edmund Jones in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, where Jones was completing construction on Hill's new house. Hill was surprised by the amount of Jones' expenses, and he insisted that Jones negotiate payment of Mr. Johnson, the plasterer. Hill planned to visit Lawrence, but was delayed by his oldest brother's illness. Hill relayed the health of Hill family members and others. He had advised Mrs. Hill to go to Kansas to improve her health. The letter ends abruptly, without a signature, and it possibly lacks pages.

Keywords: Construction; Health; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Town development


Pamphlet, Miscellaneous State Legislative Resolutions
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855-1856
Includes Resolutions from various State Legislatures concerning the extension of slavery into Kansas Territory, disturbances in Kansas Territory, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the admission of Kansas into the Union as a state.

Keywords: Iowa; Kansas Nebraska Act; Legal documents; Maine; Massachusetts; National politics; New Hampshire; Ohio; Rhode Island; Slavery; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Texas; Violence


Letter, A. A. Lawrence to My dear Sir [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: January 31, 1856
From Boston, January 31, 1856, Amos Lawrence wrote to advise his friend Charles Robinson submit to the authority of recognized officers of the U.S. government, no matter how unjust their actions appeared. He suggested that Robinson follow the "Fabian policy" of non-violent, peaceful resistance, and do what he could to discourage "all aggression" on the part of free-state men.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Massachusetts; Pierce administration; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slave power; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Letter, Charles Sumner to My Dear _______
Authors: Sumner, Charles , 1811-1874
Date: March 24, 1856
Addressed from the "Senate Chamber," Washington, D.C., this brief note appeared to be a letter of introduction for Mark W. Delahay from Charles Sumner, the famed Republican, abolitionist senator from Massachusetts. Interestingly, since the federal government never recognized the elections held under the Topeka Constitution, the senator introduced "Col. Delahay" as a "member of Congress elect from the state of Kansas."

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Massachusetts; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; Topeka Constitution; United States. Congress. Senate; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Thomas Webb, Boston, Massachusetts to J. S. Emery, Brandon, Vt.
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: April 4, 1856
Emery was in New England and Webb was informing him of various places in Maine and New Hampshire that would like someone from Kansas to speak to them. Webb informed Emery that the group in New Hampshire was interested in securing recruits to go to Kansas but that Emery's principal purpose was to raise money for the Relief Fund. He wrote Emery that the sponsoring group should cover his expenses, that they should take contributions at any public meeting and that they should establish a committee for soliciting funds locally. Webb also described an incident where Missourians seized a box they thought contained weapons, but it housed a rosewood piano. Webb also mentioned that Charles Robinson was in Washington, D. C.

Keywords: Emery, James Stanley; Free state activities; Furniture; Massachusetts; Proslavery activities; Relief; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Handbill advertizement for Concert in Honor of Governor Charles Robinson
Authors: Willey, Prof. G.F.
Date: June 5, 1856
This handbill advertised a concert of the Glee Class and Fitchburg Cornet Band, given "in honor of His Excellency Charles Robinson, Governor of Kansas." Each person in attendance would receive an original piece of music composed by Andrew Whitney, entitled "Gov. Robinson's Polka," in honor of Gov. Robinson.

Keywords: Entertainment; Fitchburg, Massachusetts; Free state government; Massachusetts; Music; National politics; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Whitney, Andrew


To the People of the United States
Authors: Cabot, Samuel ; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Higginson, Charles J.; Russell, Le Baron ; Spooner, William B.; Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899; Waters, R. P.; Williams, John M.S.
Date: June 17, 1856
This printed circular was produced by the executive committee of the New England Emigrant Aid Company to respond to what it perceived as errors in the "Report made to the Senate of the United States by the Chairman of the Committee on Territories, March 12, 1856." The circular addressed issues such as it was not a "mammoth moneyed corporation" or that it was not connected to the state of Massachusetts. The document contained a long section on how its purpose was "to aid in the permanent settlement of the Territory of Kanzas by a free and intelligent population" and that it had not attempted to violate the Kansas Nebraska Act. The committee also argued that it had not invested its funds in weapons and that it had not encouraged violence against residents of Missouri. It concluded that many residents of Kansas Territory were supportive of the company and that many of its supporters in Massachusetts were prominent, well respected individuals.

Keywords: Cabot, Samuel; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Higginson, Charles J.; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Russell, Le Baron; Spooner, William B.; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; United States. Senate; Waters, R. P.; Williams, John M. S.


Letter, [unknown] to Hiram Hill
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 8, 1856
An unknown author, referring to himself as one in a group of "missionaries. . .of constitutional heathens", wrote to Hiram Hill regarding his experiences "on the march" after the Battle of Franklin at the beginning of June. He described the movements and dispersal of the enemy forces. The author also told Hill that he and his men "would do the fighting you must do the fueling we can get all the provisions we want if we can have money", and said that Massachusetts was doing more to help them than all the other free states combined. The author purposefully did not sign his name to this letter.

Keywords: Battles; Franklin, Battle of; Free state activities; Free state cause; Hill, Hiram; Massachusetts; Money


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Wm. Barnes
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: September 9, 1856
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to William Barnes of Albany, New York. Webb lamented the difficulties experienced by free state supporters in Kansas and described efforts to convince the Massachusetts state government to provide aid to the free state settlers. He urged Barnes to launch a similar effort in New York.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Emigrant aid companies; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Saml. F. Lyman to Dear Sir [Hiram Hill]
Authors: Lyman, Samuel F.
Date: September 11, 1856
Samuel F. Lyman wrote from Northampton, Massachusetts, to Hiram Hill, also in Massachusetts. Lyman requested Hill's presence at a fundraising meeting at the Fremont Headquarters. Lyman wished "to raise a large sum in the shortest possible time" in order to purchase and transport supplies to free state supporters in Kansas Territory before roads and transportation might be restricted on account of the fighting.

Keywords: Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Lyman, Samuel F.; Massachusetts; Money


Buffum Tombstone
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Sept. 17, 1856
Tombstone of David C. Buffum, a free-stater from Massachusetts who was killed by the pro-slavery Kickapoo Rangers on Sept. 17, 1856. Buffum was plowing a field on his farm near Lawrence when the Rangers (including Henry Titus and Sheriff Samuel Jones) stole his horse and shot him. Before he died, Buffum was heard to express the sentiments chiseled on his tombstone: "I am willing to die for the cause of Freedom in Kansas."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buffum, David C.; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state perspective; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kickapoo Rangers (militia); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Proslavery activities; Titus, Henry Theodore; Tombstones; Violence; Violent deaths


Newspaper article, Journal of Commerce
Authors: Journal of Commerce
Date: September 22, 1856
This clipping, enclosed in a letter from A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt dated September 22, 1856, argued that the emigration sponsored by New England emigrant aid societies was "indiscreet," although not illegal. The article placed the blame for the current troubles on the free-state settlers in Kansas, stating that Missouri settlers were only responding to the provocation of anti-slavery supporters.

Keywords: Bills, legislative; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state cause; Immigrants; Kansas Nebraska Act; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Missouri; Missouri compromise; Pierce administration; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery; Topeka Constitution; United States Government; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution


Report, Vermont Colony in Kansas
Authors: Newton, B. B.
Date: September 24, 1856
This report written by B. B. Newton to the Vermont State Kansas Committee. He described the efforts made by the party to settle in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Free state; Iowa; Kansas Frontier; Massachusetts; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Newton, B. B.; Relief; Vermont


Letter, S. F. Lyman to H. Hill
Authors: Lyman, Samuel F.
Date: October 13, 1856
Samuel Lyman wrote from Northampton, Massachusetts, to Hiram Hill, also in Massachusetts, regarding Hill's responsibility to raise money for aid to Kansas. Lyman reminded Hill of the suffering occurring in the Territory. He added in a postscript that although Samuel Pomeroy had recently delivered provisions to people in KT, they were only enough to last a few days.

Keywords: Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Lyman, Samuel F.; Massachusetts; Money; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891


Letter, John B. Dunning to Mr. [Thomas W.] Higginson
Authors: Dunning, John
Date: October 30, 1856
This letter was written by John Dunning, a member of the Massachusetts Company, to Thomas W. Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist and agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee. Dunning informed Higginson that it was no longer safe for them to remain in Kansas, so they had temporarily relocated to Nebraska City, Nebraska. Furthermore, he adamantly asserted that "we want no further aid from Massachusetts through the hands of Martin Stowell." He asked that, in the future, all aid come through some other source, such as A. A. Jamerson.

Keywords: Dunning, John; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Massachusetts; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Relief; Stowell, Martin


Letter, Emily Kimball to Dear Sir [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Kimball, Emily P.
Date: December 18 - December 19, 1856
This letter was written to Thomas W. Higginson by Emily Kimball, a representative of the ladies of Oakham, Massachusetts. The letter included three dollars for freight on a shipment of supplies to Kansas. On the back of the letter was a note from N. Ayres, asking Higginson to inform the ladies of Oakham about why their contribution was not acknowledged in the circular.

Keywords: Freight and freightage; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Massachusetts; Relief


Abbott Howitzer
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Major James Burnett Abbott traveled east to raise funds and purchase arms for the free-state cause. In New York Abbott met Frederick Law Olmsted, who assisted in raising funds for the howitzer from the Ames Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts. The howitzer was taken to Lawrence, where it was captured by proslavery forces on May 21, 1856. It was recaptured at Fort Titus on August 16, 1856. Afterwards the howitzer was used in Linn County and by James H. Lane's brigade during the Civil War.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Ames Manufacturing Company; Border disputes and warfare; Cannons; Civil war; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Kansas Experience of George Cutter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: January 1, 1857
This reminiscence is presumably from the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, which was compiled by the National Kansas Committee under the leadership of Thaddeus Hyatt. George Cutter was with Frederick Brown shortly before the Battle of Osawatomie, and like Brown, he was wounded during an altercation with border ruffians. While he was not directly involved in this battle, this reminiscence is still a rather fascinating account.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Cutter, George; Darrach, Barstow; Everett, John R.; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Gillpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reid, John W.; Sears, W. A.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns); White, Martin; Wounds and injuries


Letter, Eli Thayer to Friend [John] Brown
Authors: Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899
Date: March 18, 1857
In this brief letter from Worcester, Mass., Eli Thayer wrote Brown with regard to his appearance at Concord and possibility of Brown coming to Worcester.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Massachusetts; Speeches, addresses, etc.; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Worcester, Massachusetts


Letter, [E. B. Whitman?] to [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: May 10, 1857
E. B. Whitman (letter not signed, but author's identity is pretty clear), an agent in Lawrence for the National Kansas Committee, wrote Franklin Sanborn in Massachusetts regarding his disappointment with the lack of support being given by "our professed friends" in the East. To their discredit, according to Whitman, Massachusetts "supporters" had refused to provide assistance which was desperately needed for the Kansas settlers who had just endured a very "severe winter." He believed false information was being circulated for political purposes by individuals within the Free State movement: "Kansas, bleeding Kansas, is of value to them only so far as it subserves their selfish ends."

Keywords: Dred Scott decision; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Settlement; Vermont; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My dear [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: May 18, 1857
In his May 18 report to Franklin Sanborn, agent Whitman of Lawrence again cast shame on Massachusetts for its failure to provided needed financial support for the cause in Kansas but focused on his efforts to provide aid for "the school project." Whitman claimed credit for establishing both an elementary school and a high school, the latter of which "is fast becoming a Model," and he hoped his financing would not disappear. He also comments on the political situation, especially the fact that Charles Robinson had "to a large extent" lost the "confidence" of the people.

Keywords: Chicago, Illinois; Education; Free state support; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; National Kansas Committee; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Nathan Starks to Hiram Hill Esq
Authors: Starks, Nathan
Date: March 8, 1858
Nathan Starks wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, asking for Hill's assistance in securing his old homestead in Massachusetts. Starks described his situation: he had moved to K.T. seeking better health and business, but had been disappointed in both of those, the social scene, and the lawlessness of the land. He hoped to return to his old homestead in Massachusetts after a year of life in Kansas Territory, provided that it had not been sold.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Mills and mill-work; Real estate investment; Starks, Nathan


Letter, H. H. Ropes to My Dear Sir [George Collamore]
Authors: Ropes, H.H.
Date: April 13, 1859
H. H. Ropes, from a town of Bedford in New England, wrote to George Collamore in Kansas Territory, discussing [presumably] Collamore's children. Ropes inquired as to the health of Collamore's baby, and proposed several options regarding the continuance of Collamore's son, Hoffman. Ropes added that his book "Cranston House" would be published at the first of May.

Keywords: Children; Collamore, George W.; Daily life; Education; Massachusetts; Ropes, H.H.


Letter, R. A. Randlett to Ely Thayer
Authors: Randlett, Reuben A.
Date: February 25, 1860
With regard to clothing sent from New England to "the poor of Kansas in 1856," R. A. Randlett of Topeka sought to find out if Thayer's Emigrant Aid Company was involved and if officials had intended that the clothing be sold or given away. The clothing was sold during the summer of 1857 "on a years time," according to Randlett, and now some men were trying to collect for it.

Keywords: Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New Hampshire; Randlett, Reuben A.; Relief fraud; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: August 21, 1860
The biggest share of this 8-page letter is devoted to comments on the weather and the environment, in and around Atchison, where Ingalls now had a law practice (for a time, he continued to live in Sumner). He missed some aspects of "Massachusetts weather," but overall he thought Kansas superior: "I have not had a cold in six months and but one or two since I came here . . . [and] The attacks of melancholy and despondency to which I was once a prey have also almost entirely disappeared." Ingalls also wrote of two arson fires--"a large grocery house" and "the steamer Hesperian," and the expected fate of the suspect then in custody.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Fires; Health; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Judicial system (see Courts); Lynch, Judge; Massachusetts; Steamboats; Vigilance committees; Weather


Photograph, Thomas H. Webb
Authors: J. W. Black & Co.
Date: 
Thomas H. Webb, Boston, Massachusetts, was secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. His name appears in publications of the Company and he is a frequent correspondent with people in Kansas Territory connected to the company.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Cabinet photographs; Emigrant aid companies; Free state cause; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographs and Illustrations; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Photograph, Charles Sumner
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Charles Sumner served in the United State Senate from Massachusetts during the Kansas territorial era. He was an outspoken abolitionist and helped the Free-Soil party in 1848. He was opposed to the Fugitive Slave Law and the Kansas Nebraska Act. After making his well known speech "The Crime Against Kansas" on May 20, 1856, he was assaulted (caned) by Preston Brooks, a Representative from South Carolina. He was unable to return to his Senate duties until December, 1859.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Cartes de visite; Massachusetts; Photographs and Illustrations; Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; United States. Senate


Photograph, George Luther Stearns
Authors: Pach Brothers
Date: 
George Luther Stearns lived in Boston, Massachusetts, and was a supporter of the free state cause. He was a member of the National Kansas Committee and president of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. He donated money to the cause and helped raise funds and arms, and he lent his support to John Brown for the raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Free state cause; Massachusetts; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; National Kansas Committee; Pach Brothers; Photographs and Illustrations; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Circular by various Protestant ministers on behalf of the activities of the New England Emigrant Aid Company
Authors: Gaffield, Thomas J.; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Stowe, Calvin E.
Date: 
This printed circular indicated that nineteen Protestant ministers in the Boston area were urging emigration to Kansas under the auspices of the New England Emigrant Aid Company because the ministers listed believed "that no christian work demanded effort more than the work for peopling Kanzas with men and women who were resolved to make it free." The ministers proposed to raise $60,000 to aid emigration efforts. The document listed four areas of interest to the emigrant aid company--freedom, religion, education, and temperance. All nineteen ministers were listed in the document that was signed by Calvin E. Stowe, Andover; Edward E. Hale, Worcester; and Thomas J. Gaffield, Boston.

Keywords: Beecher, Lyman, 1775-1863; Boston, Massachusetts; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Gaffield, Thomas J.; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lowell, Charles; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Stowe, Calvin E.; Worcester, Massachusetts


Photograph, Thomas Wentworth Higginson
Authors: Notman Photo Co.
Date: 
Thomas Wentworth Higginson was an ardent Northern abolitionist. He also served as an agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, procuring rifles, powder, cartridges and other materials for free state settlers in Kansas. He was from Worcester, Massachusetts, but he made a trip to Kansas in 1856.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Free state supporters; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Massachusetts; Photographs and Illustrations


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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