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148 results for Leavenworth, Kansas Territory:
General Land Agent and Dealers in Real Estate, Leavenworth City and Lecompton, Kansas Territory
Authors: Akers, Logan, & Co.
Date: undated
This advertisement was on behalf of Akers, Logan, & Company, describing the services it provided as a real estate company.

Keywords: Akers, Logan and Company; Claims (see Damage claims or Land claims); Immigration and early settlement; Land; Land sales; Land surveys; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Real estate; Real estate business


Letter, Tom [Tho. Ewing, Jr.] to Dear Father [Hon. T. Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: 
Ewing, Jr., wrote from Leavenworth to inform his father about 915 acres of land, "near the Kaw river . . . three & a half miles north east of Topeka," that had just been purchased for him. "The land is beautiful & fertile--and is adjacent to fine bodies of timber in the Kansas Valley. The proximity of the land to Topeka (which will be the Capital, of the state) and to the rail road, which will undoubtedly be built in a few years is to be considered in estimating the value of the land." He also mentioned its proximity to the "great military road to Fort Riley."

Keywords: Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Military roads; Ozawkie, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Timber claim; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation


Meeting Minutes, Leavenworth Association
Authors: Leavenworth Association
Date: June 22, 1854
The minutes described a meeting in Weston, Missouri at which Leavenworth Town Association members elected officers. George W. Gist was elected president, H. Miles Moore was elected secretary, and Joseph B. Evans was elected treasurer.

Keywords: Evans, Joseph B.; Gist, George W.; Land speculation; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Town Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Town companies; Weston, Missouri


Meeting Minutes, Leavenworth Association
Authors: Leavenworth Association
Date: July 7, 1854
The Leavenworth Association met "on the tract of the Association's land" in Kansas Territory at the house of G. B. Pauton. The minutes included resolutions requesting the creation of a map showing the specific land claims of each association member and the selection of a town site.

Keywords: Land speculation; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Town Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Squatters; Town companies; Town sites


Meeting Minutes, Leavenworth Association
Authors: Leavenworth Association
Date: July 26, 1854
The Leavenworth Association met "on the tract of the Association's land" in Kansas Territory at the house of G. B. Parton. The minutes included a report listing all the members of the association and described the progress made in clearing land for a town site.

Keywords: Land speculation; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Town Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Parton, G. B.; Town companies; Town development; Town sites


Certificate, Leavenworth Association, Five Town Shares
Authors: Leavenworth Association
Date: October 9, 1854
This certificate for "five shares of the Town property of Leavenworth Association" was made out to Andrew H. Reeder, the first territorial governor. It was signed by H. Miles Moore, secretary, and George W. Gist, president. The latter, and two other men, had laid claim, according to Andreas's History of Kansas, to the land that would become Leavenworth city on June 12, 1854, the first land claimed in the territory by U. S. citizens after passages of the Kansas Nebraska Act.

Keywords: Gist, George W.; Land acquisition; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town shares


Letter, Janett Barringer to Mr. [Henry Miles] Moore
Authors: Barringer, Jarrett
Date: October 16, 1854
Janett Barringer, writing from Mineral Pointe, Wisconsin, sought to purchase a Leavenworth town lot from Henry Miles Moore, secretary of the Leavenworth Town Association. Barringer proposed to pay fifty dollars for the lot.

Keywords: Barringer, Jarrett; Land acquisition; Land speculation; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Town Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Town companies; Wisconsin


Certificate for distribution of Leavenworth town lots
Authors: Leavenworth Association
Date: October 17, 1854
The certificate, issued to Henry Miles Moore, secretary of the Leavenworth Town Association, detailed the town lots distributed to Moore as a town association shareholder. Moore held four shares in the Leavenworth Association and was entitled to thirty-two town lots.

Keywords: Certificates; Land acquisition; Land speculation; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Town Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Town companies; Town lots


Certificate, Leavenworth Association, One Town Shares
Authors: Leavenworth Association
Date: October 18, 1854
This document/certificate was identical to the one issued to Andrew H. Reeder (Document #261), but it was made out to C. A. Williams for "one share of the Town property of Leavenworth Association," and on the reverse side it was transferred to Reeder, November 11, 1854. It was signed by Charles Mundee, secretary, and D. P. Wallingford, a proslave partisan from Weston, Mo. At the top, the document was signed, "With Greetings: John A. Halderman."

Keywords: Certificates; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Mundee, Charles; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town shares; Wallingford, D. P.; Williams, C. A.


Photograph, First house in Leavenworth
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1855
A photograph of the first dwelling house in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, built in 1855. The date of the photograph is unknown. It was located between 4th and 5th Streets on Olive Street. A young African-American child was photographed standing next to the house.

Keywords: African Americans; Houses; Immigration and early settlement; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth buildings; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement


Carriers Address to the Patrons of the Kansas Weekly Herald
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: January 1, 1855
This Carriers Address to the patrons of the Kansas Weekly Herald was published New Year's Day. It was in the form of a poem reflecting on events in 1854. The Kansas Weekly Herals was published in Leavenworth from 1854-1859.

Keywords: Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Poetry


Contract, Between Leavenworth Town Association and John A. Halderman
Authors: Leavenworth Town Association
Date: June 25, 1855
Signed by three trustees of the Leavenworth Town Association (Oliver Diefendorf, William S. Yohe, and J. M. Day), this contract or agreement sold lot #19 in block #17 to J. A. Halderman for $175.00. The specific terms of the agreement were described.

Keywords: Day, J. M; Diefendorf, Oliver; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Town Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Town settlement; Yohe, William S.


Governor's Message Vetoing the Bill to Incorporate a Ferry at the Town of Kickapoo in K.T.
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: July 21, 1855
This letter was written by Andrew Reeder to the legislature, informing them that he had vetoed the bill. Furthermore he reminded them that the place where the legislature was supposed to meet was at Ft. Leavenworth, and not at the Shawnee Manual Labor School.

Keywords: Kansas Legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Territorial Council (see Kansas Territory. Council); Territorial politics and government


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: July 28, 1855
Marcus Parrott, a lawyer and free state man, wrote to his father, Thomas Parrott, from the Shawnee Methodist Mission in Kansas Territory. Marcus told his father of his desire to purchase land and build a home in Leavenworth City, for which he asked his father to send money for lumber. He also mentioned business and referred to his role in the defense of Cole McCrea, a free state man who had killed Malcolm Clark in Leavenworth the past April. Marcus also mentioned his prospect of being nominated as Reporter to the Supreme Court, which he saw as good advertising only.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Freight and freightage; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Judicial system; Lawyers; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; McCrea, Cole; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Shawnee Mission; Timber


Agreement, Construction of Office Building in Leavenworth
Authors: Hook, H. M.; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: September 29, 1855
A. H. Reeder herein entered into an agreement with H. M. Hook for the latter to "erect" an office building on lot #8, block #3 of Leavenworth, KT. Hook agreed to build the structure, "16 feet by 32 feet similar to the office of M. I. Parrot" (perhaps, Marcus J. Parrott) for $400. Hook was to be paid out of the rent received on this property when finished, as well as from that he received on three others he was leasing from Reeder.

Keywords: Construction; Hook, H. M.; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin A. Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: November 25, 1855
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth City, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin A. Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marc told his brother about his recent efforts in defending Cole McCrea, on trial before Judge Lecompte for murder. He also urged his brother to come to Kansas Territory by describing business and land purchase opportunities there. Marc also referred to an upcoming meeting of free state men, which would serve "as a counterblast to the proslavery one".

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Balls (parties); Business enterprises; Free state activities; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; McCrea, Cole; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; United States. General Land Office


Head Quarters of the Second Brigade of Northern Division of Kansas Militia, Leavenworth City
Authors: Eastin, Lucian J.
Date: November 28, 1855
This document is a printed notice to the Militia of the Second Brigade requesting them to meet at Leavenworth on Dec. 1, 1855.

Keywords: Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Militia


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: December 13, 1855
Marcus Parrot wrote from Leavenworth City, Kansas Territory, to his father, Thomas Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus told him that the local citizens had been in "a state of war for the last ten days", referring to the events of the Wakarusa War. Marcus had raised his own company of free state men to fight the invading Missourians, and was captured by them, but freed at the conclusion of the skirmish. He also mentioned a duel which was supposed to take place (but never occurred) between James Lane and G.P. Lowery, in which he himself was to be Lane's "second".

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lowrey, G.P. (Grosvenor P.); Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Wakarusa River; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, unsigned [Marc Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: December 15, 1855
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus recounted the events of the Wakarusa War, and described the actions of the Missourians prior to their attack, which supported his idea that it was premeditated. He told about his experience as a prisoner in the Missourians' camp and his interview with Governor Shannon regarding a peace treaty between the two groups. Marcus was pleased with the terms of the treaty, but was wary of Shannon's motives, saying that he was trying to "ring in" the free state party.

Keywords: Ammunition; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Barber, Thomas W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 26, 1856
Marcus Parrot wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus, on a political trip to discuss the 'Kansas Question" with members of the U.S. Congress, told him that the "dead-lock in the House has paralyzed [Washington] society" and that social engagements had been "quiet". He wrote Edwin of his surprise to hear an abolitionist speech as a Sunday sermon, and of his desire to speak with Tom Hendricks, Commissioner of the Land Office, regarding the prospective decline in availability of land warrants.

Keywords: Kansas question; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Real estate investment; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shoemaker, Tom C.; United States. Congress


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 26, 1856
Marcus Parrot wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus, on a political trip to discuss the 'Kansas Question" with members of the U.S. Congress, told him that the "dead-lock in the House has paralyzed [Washington] society" and that social engagements had been "quiet". He wrote Edwin of his surprise to hear an abolitionist speech as a Sunday sermon, and of his desire to speak with Tom Hendricks, Commissioner of the Land Office, regarding the prospective decline in availability of land warrants.

Keywords: Hendricks, Thomas A.; Kansas question; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Real estate investment; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shoemaker, Tom C.; Violence


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: February 9, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott. Marcus described the events of his ride home from a business meeting in Lawrence, where he encountered a funeral procession for his friend T. C. Shoemaker, who had been beaten to death for "abusing" Mayor William E. Murphy. Marcus equated this murder to the assault on William Phillips in May 1855, and anticipated that there would only be a "so-called" trial for the men responsible. He also told his brother to be prepared to come to Kansas Territory in April.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Land claim disputes; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Murphey, William E; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Senate Executive Documents, Reports from Colonel E.V. Sumner
Authors: Sumner, Edwin Vose
Date: May 16, 1856 - August 31, 1856
Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner, leader of a Kansas Territory cavalry regiment, corresponded primarily with Territorial Governer Wilson Shannon and the Secretary of War's Adjutant General regarding military action taken in response to the Sack of Lawrence and the subsequent retaliatory skirmishes between free state and proslavery men. Sumner maintained that safety in the Territory could not be guaranteed "unless the posse of the U.S. Marshal was dismissed" in favor of local troops. Fearing civil war, Sumner and his correspondents discussed the convening of the Topeka Legislature, which they dubbed "bogus".

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Skirmishing; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States marshals; Violence; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, M. S. Cecilia Sherman To Mrs. [Sara] Robinson
Authors: Sherman, Margaret S. C.
Date: May 25, 1856
Margaret Sarah Cecilia (Mrs. John) Sherman wrote Sara Robinson on May 25, 1856, regarding Governor Robinson's captivity to date. He had been arrested on May 10 at Lexington, Missouri, and subsequently returned to the territory. At this time he was being held in Leavenworth, where Sherman and many other of Robinson's friends had the opportunity to visit with him, and Sherman was able to attest to his good treatment. She makes interesting, favorable reference to Robinson's stay in Lexington and to "Captain [John W.] Martin of the Kickapoo rangers," who "seemed to have charge" of the governor in Leavenworth. (Congressman John Sherman of Ohio was the brother of William T. Sherman, later of Leavenworth, and a member of the Howard Committee, investigating the Kansas affair.)

Keywords: Damage claims; Free state cause; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lexington, Missouri; Martin, John W.; Preston, Colonel; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sherman, John, 1823-1900


Letter, S. P. Hanscom to Mrs. Sara T. D. Robinson
Authors: Hanscom, S. P.
Date: May 25, 1856
On Sunday, May 25, 1856, "at the request of Gov. Robinson," S. P. Hanscom wrote Sara Robinson to assure her that her "esteemed and gallant husband" was well. This remarkably detailed letter describes the governor's captivity, the bogus charges filed against him, and circumstances that brought him to Leavenworth. Hanscom found that Robinson was receiving many visitors, including Congressman William A. Howard, chair of the congressional committee investigating Kansas troubles.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus laws; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Hanscom, S. P.; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Howard, William Alanson; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Martin, John W.; Preston, Colonel; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stringfellow, John H.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Treason; Westport, Missouri


Letter, Wm Phillips to Respected Madam [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Phillips, William
Date: May 26, 1856
William Phillips, after visiting Charles Robinson in jail, wrote to Sara Robinson updating her on her husband's situation. Phillips reported to her that Charles was being held on two counts: one for high treason and the other for usurping office. He also related to her the events of the sack of Lawrence and the resulting destruction of her home.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Phillips, William; Preston, Colonel; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


Letter, Peter Page to Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: Page, Peter
Date: July 6, 1856
Peter Page wrote from Chicago, Illinois to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, concerning the shipment of relief to free-state settlers in Kansas Territory and the emigration of settlers into Kansas. The author wrote a lengthy account of the committee's frustrated attempts to arrange suitable transportation into the territory, since the water route on the Missouri River was unsafe due to persistent harassment from border ruffians.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Chicago, Illinois; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lexington, Missouri; Missouri; Page, Peter; Violence


Letter, [I. Sabin] to Chad Kellogg
Authors: Sabin, I.
Date: August 8, 1856
I. Sabin wrote to Chad Kellogg regarding real-estate transactions and troubles along the Missouri-Kansas border. Sabin, the commander of a 40-man company against pro-slavery forces, described the amount of firearms needed by each fighting man and his lack of money with which to purchase them. The letter is written on a printed circular "Appeal of Kansas to the Voters of the Free States," which enumerates various offenses done to free state men, focusing particularly on the contested election of 1856.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Frederick; Buford, Jefferson; Free state perspective; Guns; Kellogg, Chad; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Popular sovereignty; Sabin, I.; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Sir [J. A. Halderman]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
The former governor wrote this letter from Easton, Pennsylvania, to his former secretary and attorney, J. A. Halderman, in order to secure his services in an effort to retrieve some personal papers and settle some matters of business pertaining to town lots and shares. According to Reeder, "the Sheriff posse at the sacking of Lawrence broke open my trunk and stole the contents. The clothing is probably by this time worn out" and he was not concerned about other contents, with the exception of "some private papers" that someone had informed him could be retrieved. He asked Halderman to get the papers, which included "certificates of stock in Leavenworth, Tecumseh, Lecompton, Lawrence, Easton, Pawnee" etc., and then take care of business matters that were reflected therein--"some obligations for money, leases contracts Receipts & etc." Reeder also asked Halderman "to attend to my Leavenworth lots" and went into considerable detail about these matters.

Keywords: Businessmen; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Easton, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leases; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Stock certificates; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town shares


Letter, N. McCracken to Judge [John A.] Halderman
Authors: McCracken, Nelson
Date: September 4, 1856
Writing from the "Missouri River" on September 4, 1856, Nelson McCracken, reportedly one of Leavenworth's leading free-state businessmen, asked J. A. Halderman if it would be safe for him "to Return to Leavenworth to do Business or Settle my unfinished Business." McCracken and several others had recently been forced to leave the city for St. Louis by proslave partisans there, and they petitioned Governor John W. Geary for assistance in reclaiming their property and lawful place in the community.

Keywords: Business; Businessmen; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; McCracken, Nelson; Missouri River; St. Louis, Missouri


Letter, Your Affectionate Son & brother [John Brown, Jr.?] to Dear Father [John Brown] & Brother
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: September 8, 1856
Still in the custody of territorial officials, John Brown, Jr., wrote to express his remorse upon learning of the death of his brother Frederick--at least he was relieved to learn that his father and Jason were safe, as early reports had them dead or missing. "Poor Frederick has perished in a good cause!" wrote John, Jr., "the success of which cause I trust will yet bring joy to millions." He then wrote of his forthcoming trial and possible plan to "escape in case it should appear best."

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Wealthy; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Sickness (see Illness); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Letter, J. A. Davies to Dear Friend [Thomas Wentworth] Higginson
Authors: Davies, J. A.
Date: September 27, 1856
This letter was written by a Kansas settler named J. A. Davies who was originally from Massachusetts. It was addressed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, an agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee and an ardent Northern abolitionist. The main topic of the letter was the Leavenworth municipal election on September 1, 1856 and the other "outrages" witnessed by Davies. On the date of that election, border ruffians had crossed the border and hampered the legal voters of the territory from casting their votes. The mob violence was so terrible that virtually every free state settler was driven from the town, and Mr. Hops was murdered by Mr. Fugent. Davies and his family fled to St. Louis and then left for Alton, Illinois, but he hopes to return to the territory.

Keywords: Alton, Illinois; Border ruffians; Davies, J. A.; Election fraud; Elections; Free state perspective; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; St. Louis, Missouri; Violence


Proclamation
Authors: Murphey, William E.
Date: September 29, 1856
This proclamation was written by the mayor of Leavenworth, William E. Murphy, announcing that he would use the forces of the law against any person who sent an anonymous communication requesting that a citizen of Leavenworth leave the territory. Murphy encouraged the citizens of the city to "frown down any secret Conspiracy against law." It also mentioned that such action was contrary to the interests of both the government and the Law and Order Party.

Keywords: Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Law and Order Party; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Murphey, William E


Letter, W. F. M. Arny to W. Hutchinson
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 28, 1856
From Chicago, William F. M. Arny, general agent for the National Kansas Committee, wrote to inform Hutchinson of a shipment of relief goods that would arrive soon at Leavenworth. Arny had also given James Blood several thousand dollars "to purchase goods in St. Louis," and Arny was on his way East to raise more.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blood, James; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Herald of Freedom; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief; St. Louis, Missouri; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, Samuel C. Smith to Dear Friend [Rev. T. W. Higginson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: November 26, 1856
This letter, written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory by Samuel Smith, was addressed to Rev. T. W. Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts. The letter began with several small matters regarding aid for Kansas, and then turned quickly to the most recent events in the struggle between proslavery and free state forces. Apparently, thirty two of the free state prisoners held by U. S. troops at Tecumseh had managed to escape, and Smith rather sarcastically commented that the troops had done a favor to "Uncle Sam" by relieving the government of the cost of supporting all those prisoners. The author also spoke of [Thaddeus] Hyatt's presence in the territory, and of George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom. He also informed Higginson that Col. Eldridge and Thomas Eldridge have had complaints filed against them, stating that "nature never designed them for distributions of charity." The letter concludes with information regarding land sales in Leavenworth, and the founding of a new city, Quindaro. In general, Smith's writing style is quite humorous, as well as informative.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Donalson, Israel B.; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Eldridge, Thomas B.; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Relief; Smith, Samuel C.; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Town development; United States. Army; Worcester, Massachusetts


Receipt, N. M'Cracken to William Hutchinson
Authors: Morgan, J. F.
Date: November 27, 1856
Unlike most of the other receipts for money or merchandise saved by James Blood for the Kansas State Central Committee, this one was on a pre-printed form and issued by "N'Mcracken" of Leavenworth for merchandise to be delivered to William Hutchinson at Lawrence. It was actually signed by J. F. Morgan, who apparently delivered the goods from Leavenworth to Lawrence and "received pay of J. Blood" on January 26, 1857.

Keywords: Blood, James; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Receipts; Relief; Transportation


Experiences of R. S. Griffithe, N. W. Spicer, and J. A. Harvey
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 6, 1856
These testimonies, collected by the National Kansas Committee, record the experiences of these three settlers during the turbulent times of Bleeding Kansas. These testimonies focus on each settler's involvement in free state activities and their interaction with border ruffians. Griffithe and Spicer both served in the free state militia, and Harvey, who had commanded an emigrant train from Chicago, was the commander of a free state company.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Griffithe, R. S.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Spicer, N.W.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Topeka, Kansas; Violence


Letter, Wilson Shannon to John A. Halderman
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: January 4, 1857
Wilson Shannon, an Ohio Democrat who preceded John W. Geary as governor of KT (August 1856--August 1857) and was considered a proslave partisan, wrote Halderman from Lecompton regarding some legal matters--specifically, "some land warrants" being sent to Halderman in Leavenworth. Obviously, Halderman the attorney was trusted and respected by men on both sides of the political imbroglio.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Land titles; Lawyers; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Ohio; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


Letter, A. H. Reeder to J. A. Halderman
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: January 9, 1857
From the National Hotel in Washington, Andrew Reeder wrote to advise Halderman on the disposition of some business matters, especially those related to his Leavenworth lots. He went on to comment on a variety of subjects, including his desire "to return to Kansas in the spring" and to have some long-term impact on the growth and development of Leavenworth. Reeder also mentioned his influence with "some of the men who will probably control the Pacific [Rail] Road when it is built," his desire to help Leavenworth secure the eastern Kansas terminus, and his activity with the National Kansas Committee. Although he had no interest in the rival town of Quindaro, he intended to "help build up" that city if he were not "fairly dealt with" in Leavenworth.

Keywords: Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Pacific railroads; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town lots


Letter, Marcus J. Parrott to H. Miles Moore
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 12, 1857
Parrott, the representative of Kansas Territory to the U.S. Congress, wrote to Moore from Washington offering his assessment of the upcoming session of Congress. Parrott predicted that the Congress would reject the Lecompton Constitution. He also offered Moore, a Free State advocate recently elected to the Kansas Territorial House of Representatives, advice on activities to pursue in the Territorial Legislature.

Keywords: Constitutions; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; United States. Congress


Letter, A. H. Reeder to J. A. Halderman
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: January 14, 1857
In this letter from Washington, D.C., dated January 14, 1857, Reeder wrote at length of a visit with W. H. Russell of Leavenworth (William H. Russell of Russell, Majors & Waddell) who believed the business climate was improving and that Reeder's lots were safe. Russell advised Reeder not to sell anything until value increased and volunteered to help Reeder reclaim the personal papers he lost during the Sack of Lawrence. Reeder thought Russell's help might be useful, since "Russell is so undoubtedly sound on the goose that he can afford to ask for them."

Keywords: Businessmen; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Russell, William H (of Russell, Majors and Waddell); Sound on the goose; Speculation; Town lots; Washington, D.C.


An Act to incorporate the City of Topeka
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: February 14, 1857 & April 22, 1857
This act, handwritten by Cyrus K. Holliday, was passed by the territorial legislature at Lecompton on February 14th, 1857. Its three sections established the city limits of Topeka, designated a board of trustees, and secured the city's rights. Fred P. Stanton, Secretary of the Territory of Kansas, certified this copy of the act.

Keywords: Cleveland, L. G.; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Dickey, Milton C.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Thornton, Thomas G.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Walkley, I.


Letter, A. [Alson] C. Davis to J. A. Halderman
Authors: Davis, Alson C.
Date: June 19, 1857
Alson C. Davis, a Democrat legislator and party leader from Leavenworth (later Wyandotte) County, wrote from Wyandotte that he strongly favored "the establishment of a first class democratic paper" in Leavenworth. He believed this was vital "to the Cincinnati Platform Democracy" and was willing to pledge an additional $400 to the cause; a Mr. Beach had previously offered to give Halderman "a bonus of two thousand dollars" with which to start such a newspaper.

Keywords: Davis, Alson C.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Partisan press; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter Press Book, Thomas Ewing, Jr., to Dear Judge [M. F. Moore]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: June 5, 1857
Thomas Ewing, Jr., moved to Kansas Territory in 1856 and established a law practice in Leavenworth. It is from this town, Kansas Territory's largest city, where he also had many investments, that he wrote Judge M. F. Moore, Sioux City, Iowa, regarding Moore's investments and other opportunities in Leavenworth.

Keywords: Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Iowa; Land acquisition; Land speculation; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Town development; Town promotion


Letter, Sam. F. Tappan to Dear friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: July 6, 1857
In this letter, Samuel Tappan wrote to Thomas W. Higginson to update him on the situation in Kansas. He discussed the "bogus" constitutional convention and Gov. Walker's actions against the free state cause. He mentioned that the proslavery forces "did all they could to have us 'partake' in the bogus election without success." Tappan still had confidence that the forces of "democracy" would triumph. In the postscript, he spoke briefly of a census taken by free state leaders.

Keywords: Census; Election, Lecompton Constitution delgates to convention, June 1857; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter Press Book, Tom [Thomas Ewing, Jr.] to Dear Father [Thomas Ewing, Sr. ]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: July 14, 1857
Writing to his father from Leavenworth, K.T., Thomas Ewing, Jr., described the prospects for "good bargains" in Delaware lands. "Hamp" went to secure 1,000 acres for Ewing, Sr., which they hoped to acquire for $3.00 per acre. Ewing, Jr., addressed additional transactions that he was considering for his father and others.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Delaware Indians; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Land titles; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ozawkie, Kansas Territory; Railroads


Letter Press Book, addendum to Thomas Ewing to Dear Sir
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: July 14, 1857
Accompanying a two page, mostly illegible letter from Thomas Ewing dated Leavenworth, July 14, 1857, was a two page addendum describing and itemizing the cost of building 40 new and reconstructing the roofs on 27 previously built houses in Leavenworth--total cost, $8,990. He also provided an estimate as to rent that could be expected on these properties and on "a two story brick building, such as you spoke of building on the corner of 4 & Delaware."

Keywords: Commercial real estate; Construction; Cost and standard of living; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Houses; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Rent


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: July 20, 1857
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his father, Thomas Parrott. Marcus began by telling him of new land sales near Paola, Kansas Territory, the extreme heat they had been having lately, and news about family friends. He spoke about a recent proclamation given by Governor Walker, who had set up camp near Lawrence, which condemned the municipal government in that city as unauthorized. Marcus added that the Free State Convention in Topeka had delegated him as their representative to Congress; he had accepted, despite worries that his private business would suffer because of the appointment.

Keywords: Free state activities; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Paola, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Railroads; Territorial politics; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Weather


Letter, Tho. Ewing, Jr., to Dear Hamp [H. B. Denman]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: July 25, 1857
From Leavenworth, Ewing wrote to a law and business partner, Hamp Denman, who was working on some possible land acquisitions in the Osaukee (Ozawkie?) vicinity. Ewing provided some specific instruction regarding a number of potential deals, including the "fraction . . . Adjoining the Kaw land directly opposite Topeka. My sole object in buying would be to have a RR [railroad] depot on the land, & lay out a town."

Keywords: Business enterprises; Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Kansa Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Kansa Indians; Land speculation; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ozawkie, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation


Poll List, Leavenworth, Topeka Constitution
Authors: Anthony, Scott A.
Date: August 3, 1857
On August 3, 1857, the free-state legislature gave K. T. voters another chance to vote the Topeka Constitution (first approved, December 1855) when they went to the polls to elect new legislators. Few, if any, proslave voters participated and the territory-wide tally was 7,257 for the constitution, 34 against. The polling list for Leavenworth contains the names of 721 voters, "seven hundred and six (706) being in favor of said Constitution and two (2) against."

Keywords: Constitutions; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Elections; Free state; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution


Letter, [Tho. Ewing, Jr.] to Dear Father [Hon. T. Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: August 5, 1857
The first letter in this letter press book mainly concerned with political affairs in the territory was addressed to Ewing, Sr., in Lancaster, Ohio, and dated Leavenworth, Kansas, August 5, 1857. Responding to the father's observations about the situation in Kansas, Ewing, Jr., wrote "I have all along regarded the attempt at an organization of a State Government, while we are a Territory, as the extreme of folly . . ." and some additional observations about the Topeka movement. Ewing "intend[ed] to stand clear of the political arena in Kansas while the leaders of the Democracy are made up of political murderers, and while the free state party is but the football for the Free soilers in the Northern States."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free Soil Party; Free State Party; Free soil; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lancaster, Ohio; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Dear Hyatt [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: August 6, 1857
Pomeroy again reports to Hyatt from Atchison regarding various issues having to do with their investments in that town--"the Rail Road matter," which went "well," had led Pomeroy to make tentative plans, it seems, to found a town across the river from Atchison on land he already owned to tie to the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad. "If the Rail Road can be put through next season, we can sell [Atchison] lots enough to make such sinners as we are rich as sinners ought to be."

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Calhoun, John; Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Railroad promotion; Railroads finance; Town development


Letter, Owen Brown to Dear Mother [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown, Owen
Date: August 27, [1856]
On August 27, 1856, from Tabor, Iowa, Owen Brown wrote to tell his mother that according to all accounts "Father is the most daring courageous man in Kansas" and to relate other happenings in K.T. involving Jim Lane and Governor Shannon. Another invasion from Missouri was rumored, but free state recruits were assembling and "the Missourians are trembling in their Boots."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Brown, Owen; Crops; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Weapons (see also Guns); Woodson, Daniel


Broadside, "To the People of Leavenworth County"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
A printed announcement "To the People of Leavenworth County" nominating delegates to attend, most likely, the Lecompton Constitutional Convention. According to the letter, the candidates named would support that the clause that included the slavery question be put to the people of Kansas Territory for their vote.

Keywords: Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Nominations for office; Popular sovereignty; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Map of Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory
Authors: Quin, Richard ; United States., Surveyor General
Date: 1857
This map shows a Leavenworth County composed mainly of Kickapoo and Delaware Indian lands, but does feature Leavenworth City. Leavenworth County was founded in 1855 and was named for Colonel Henry H. Leavenworth of the U.S. Army, as was Fort Leavenworth which was established in 1827.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Indian lands; Kickapoo Indians; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Quin, Richard; United States. Surveyor General


Letter, I. T. Goodnow to Friend Sherman
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: April 1 & 3, 1858
Isaac Goodnow wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to a friend, expressing his excitement and support for the Leavenworth Constitution. The status of the Lecompton Constitution was currently being debated in Congress, but Goodnow predicted its "destruction". Goodnow described the events of the Constitutional Convention, which had first convened in Minneola, but had been removed to Leavenworth. He stated that the finished constitution was" the best Constitution in existence", and remarked at James Lane's leading role in its development.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Prohibition; Topeka Constitution


Letter, S.C.S. [most likely Samuel C. Smith] to "Doctor" [Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: January 11, 1858
This letter, dated Lawrence, January 11, 1858, most likely from Samuel C. Smith, mentions many of the Free State Party's main actors and issues at this critical time in Kansas politics. He described the activities of the Legislature, which assembled in Lawrence in January, and devotes considerable attention to the machinations of the "villain" Jim Lane.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Free State Party; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Railroad companies; Railroad legislation; Railroad promotion; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Temperance movement; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion


Letter, Wm. Stanley to Dear [John A.] Halderman
Authors: Stanley, William
Date: January 12, 1858
Shortly after Halderman left Leavenworth for a trip east (Washington, D. C., it is nearly certain), William Stanley wrote him from Leavenworth regarding some "excitement" that had occurred there the very day Halderman left. Many were fearful of "attack" and thus the alarms were "sounded. . . . Hundreds of free state men were soon in arms, and the proslavery party exhibited more of apprehension than I have ever witnessed before." He mentions proslavery men leaving for Shawnee, the fact that many free-state men had recently been driven out of nearby Kickapoo, that John Calhoun was given a military escort to Lecompton, and his confidence that the [Lecompton] constitution would pass the Congress.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Free state; Free state militia; Halderman, John Adams; Kickapoo, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Proslavery; Stanley, William


Letter, Lucian J. Eastin to My Dear Sir [Gov. James Denver]
Authors: Eastin, Lucian J.
Date: February 20, 1858
Lucian J. Eastin, a proslavery supporter and editor of the Herald in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, wrote to Governor James Denver praising him for his efforts and congratulating him for his successes. Eastin told Denver that he feared the Lecompton Constitution would not pass, and he referred to recent incidents of election fraud. He also requested money from Denver so that he could print Denver's recent address and proclamation to the Kansas people.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Eastin, Lucian J.; Economic conditions; Election fraud; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Newspapers; Proslavery supporters; United States. Congress


Letter, J. H. Noteware to His Excellency Gov. [James W.] Denver
Authors: Noteware, James H.
Date: March 5, 1858
James H. Noteware, superintendent of schools for Kansas Territory, wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory to Governor James W. Denver seeking the governor's support for his effort to establish a school system in the territory.

Keywords: Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Education; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Noteware, James H.; Schools


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, Afternoon Session
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: March 26, 1858
Kansas's third constitutional convention, convened at Minneola, Franklin County, on March 23, 1858, elected officers (including Samuel F. Tappan, secretary), and then adjourned to reconvene at Leavenworth on March 25. During the afternoon session, March 26, 1858, some interesting debate occurred regarding the viability of the Topeka Constitution, and a minority of the Leavenworth delegates reaffirmed their support for the 1855 instrument. (The Leavenworth Convention nevertheless drafted and adopted a new constitution, and adjourned on April 3, 1858.)

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Constitutions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free State Party; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Constitution; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Letter, Tho. Ewing, Jr. to Dear Sir
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: March 29, 1858
In this letter from Leavenworth, Ewing began with comments on a note that was being extended and ended with observations about his city's rapid growth and bright prospects. "Majors & Russell," he predicted, "will only start a portion of their trains from Nebraska City. They will do all their business here as far as the capacity of the town & neighborhood will permit."

Keywords: Commerce; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Freight and freightage; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Majors, Alexander, 1814-1900; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Russell, William H (of Russell, Majors and Waddell)


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: March 31, 1858
During the course of the convention's business on Wednesday, March 31, 1858, the delegates took up the article on "elective Franchise reported back from Committee on Phraseology." Samuel N. Wood's motion "to strike out the word 'male'" failed, 21 to 35, but interestingly, the yeas and nays were recorded. The votes for the unsuccessful effort to insert the word "white" were also recorded.

Keywords: Constitutions; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, April 1, 1858
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 1, 1858
On Thursday afternoon, April 1, the delegates began considering the proposed constitution in its entirety. When they reached Article II, the elective franchise, Hampton P. Johnson of Leavenworth, "moved to insert the word 'white' before the word 'male'." Jim Lane's motion to refer the matter to a special committee failed, as did B.B. Newton's motion to table "the whole subject"--yeas 35, nays 41. The yeas and nays were recorded. Among those voting to table, and thus to stifle the effort to add the word "white," were Lane, Ritchie, Preston B. Plumb, Thacher, and Amasa Soule.

Keywords: Constitutions; Johnson, Hampton P.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Newton, B. B.; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Soule, Amasa; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 1, 1858
The delegates considered the "Homestead Exemption" during the morning session, April 1, 1858. The provision was amended so as to make the basic exemption 160 acres or not over $2,000. The vote on this was recorded, and the yeas and nays are followed by numerous explanations--delegates who voted nay but not because they opposed the concept.

Keywords: Constitutions; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Homestead exemptions; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Winans, A. L.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 2, 1858
When the convention considered Article 7, Education, near the end of the afternoon session on Friday, April 2, James Davis of Leavenworth moved to insert "white" before "child," but Sam Wood's motion to table passed 44 to 36. The yeas and nays were recorded.

Keywords: Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), 1824-1899; African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Constitutions; Davis, James; Education; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Harvey, Henry; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, April 2, 1858
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 2, 1858
After considering a few other issues, such as the selection of Topeka as "the temporary seat of Government," the convention took up the motion from the previous day on the elective franchise, with T. D. Thacher explaining that his select committee had considered the insertion of the word "white" and "unanimously report against its insertion." After some debate over procedure, Thacher offered an amendment that instructed the first legislature to put "the question of universal suffrage to the people at the general elections." The amendment passed, 50 to 29.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Capitals (cities); Constitutions; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Roberts, William Young; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 2, 1858
At the beginning of the afternoon session, Friday, April 2, 1858, suffrage was briefly discussed, with Samuel N. Wood moving to strike "male" wherever it occurred in the instrument and "to insert after the word 'he' the words 'or she' . . ." The motion failed, but 20 delegates supported what arguably amounted to an equal rights amendment for women. The yeas and nays were recorded.

Keywords: Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), 1824-1899; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Constitutions; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Women; Womens rights; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 3, 1858
At the final session, Saturday afternoon, April 3, 1858, all the delegates signed the convention's proposed constitution, but several took the opportunity to make one last protest of the inclusion of "negro suffrage" because they believed their constituents opposed it and/or insisted that the instrument did "not extend the right of suffrage to negroes." This protest included Caleb May of Atchison County, the entire Linn County delegation (Addison Danford, Robert B. Mitchell, Thomas H. Butler, and Robert Ewing), and A. W. McCauslin of Jefferson County. The latter also expressed concern about the Education clause, "which appears to permit colored children to go to Common Schools with white children" and "the subject of negro immigration."

Keywords: African Americans; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Butler, Thomas H.; Constitutions; Danford, Addison; Education; Ewing, Robert; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; May, Caleb; McCauslin, A. W.; Mitchell, Robert Byington; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913


Leavenworth Constitution (manuscript version)
Authors: Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Date: April 3, 1858
The Leavenworth Constitution was the most radical of the four constitutions drafted for Kansas Territory. The Bill of Rights refers to "all men" and prohibited slavery from the state. The word "white" did not appear in the proposed document and therefore would not have excluded free blacks from the state. Article XVI, Section 3 directed the general assembly to provide some protection for the rights of women. The Leavenworth Constitution was ratified on May 18, 1858 but the U.S. Senate did not act to approve the document.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutional conventions; Constitutions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Womens rights


Leavenworth Constitution as published in D.W. Wilder's, The Annals of Kansas (1886)
Authors: Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Date: April 3, 1858
The Leavenworth Constitution was the most radical of the four constitutions drafted for Kansas Territory. The Bill of Rights refers to "all men" and prohibited slavery from the state. The word "white" did not appear in the proposed document and therefore would not have excluded free blacks from the state. Article XVI, Section 3 (p. 227) directed the general assembly to provide some protection for the rights of women. The Leavenworth Constitution was ratified on May 18, 1858 but the U.S. Senate did not act to approve the document.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutional conventions; Constitutions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Womens rights


Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Dear Friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 7, 1858
Samuel F. Tappan of Lawrence wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson, informing him that the last letter he received from Higginson was lost in the Kansas River while Tappan was crossing it on horseback. Tappan also told Higginson that he had been elected secretary of the Leavenworth constitutional convention meeting that month. He discussed in detail the turn out of the votes concerning negro suffrage and women's suffrage, and mentioned the joyful reaction to the defeat of a Senate bill. According to Tappan, the border warfare had ceased and "it is almost impossible to excite a war spirit in Kanzas," further stating that "we rely wholly upon numbers now, and not upon Sharp's rifles." He expressed interest in having more women emigrate to Kansas, writing that "the fact is, women are scarce in Kansas and unmarried men numerous."

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutional conventions; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Slaves; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Women Suffrage


Agreement, Articles of agreement made . . .
Authors: Halderman, John Adams
Date: April 30, 1858
Dated April 30, 1858, and executed in Leavenworth, this handwritten document was an "agreement made and entered into" by John Adams Halderman and Hugh Ewing, representing the Leavenworth Journal, and C. H. McLaughlin and William B. Hutchison to lease all the newspaper equipment for $25 per month. Among other more technically oriented conditions of the lease pertaining to the upkeep of the business, McLaughlin and Hutchinson agreed "to make it a free-state Democratic paper, sustaining the ___ ___ course of Senator Douglas . . ."

Keywords: Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Ewing, Hugh; Free state Democrats; Halderman, John Adams; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Leavenworth Journal; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; McLaughlin, C. H.; Newspapers


Letter, Ms. Maria Felt to Dear Mr. [Thomas W.] Higginson
Authors: Felt, Maria
Date: June 25, 1858
Miss Felt wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson, telling of her journey from Clinton, Massachusetts to Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Apparently, she was emigrating to Kansas in order to teach school. Miss Felt and her party traveled by train until they reached Alton, Illinois, where they took a steamer along the Mississippi to St. Louis. From there they traveled to Jefferson City and finally reached Leavenworth, Kansas Territory. At that point they traveled to Lawrence by stagecoach and Indian canoe. Once she had arrived in Lawrence, which she found to be a pretty town, she became acquainted with James Redpath, R. J. Hinton, Samuel Tappan, and George Stearns. She also called on Ephraim Nute, but she disliked both him and his wife, writing that they "sat up like two icicles." This letter appears to have been edited at some later date.

Keywords: Felt, Maria; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Railroads; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Schools; St. Louis, Missouri; Stagecoaches; Steamboats; Transportation; Travel; Water transportation; Weather; Women


Lombard Banner
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1858
Students of Lombard College at Galesburg, Illinois, presented this banner to Abraham Lincoln on October 7, 1858. Lincoln's fifth debate with Stephen A. Douglas was held at Galesburg that evening. Lincoln later presented the banner to Mark W. Delahay of Leavenworth, who was related to Lincoln by marriage. Delahay used the banner in the 1860 presidential election.

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Presidential, 1860; Elections; Flags and banners; Illinois; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Lombard College; Objects


Letter, A. C. Morton to Mr. Hill
Authors: Morton, Albert C.
Date: October 30, 1858
Albert Morton wrote from Leavenworth City, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton had "given up living in Quindaro" and planned to settle in Leavenworth City. Recently ill, he had left Quindaro along with many settlers and business owners. Morton reported that Abelard Guthrie continued to be optimistic about Quindaro's prospects for survival, but he remained skeptical. If Hill still planned to visit Quindaro in the spring, Morton would meet him there.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Guthrie, Abelard; Hill, Hiram; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Morton, Albert C.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment


Letter, W. T. Sherman to H. E. Ring
Authors: Sherman, William T. ((William Tecumseh), 1820-1891
Date: November 1, 1858
Thomas Ewing, Jr.'s law partner and brother-in-law, W.T. Sherman, who would gain military fame and glory as a general during the Civil War, wrote from Leavenworth to H.E. Ring in Dover, Tenn., regarding land and other prospects in Kansas. "Near this city now containing 1000 people," wrote Sherman, that land prices were high ranging about $100 an acre down to $4 or $5." Sherman offered to help this "old school mate" locate in Kansas if he so desired, but he advised that he would not do so unless his health was good and if he were prospering back home, "as there are many here seeking places. The climate too is not so genial as that of Tennessee."

Keywords: Dover, Tennessee; Land acquisition; Land sales; Land speculation; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ring, H. E.; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; Tennessee; Weather


Letter, Sherman [W. T.] & Ewing [Thomas] to Thomas A. Thompson
Authors: Sherman & Ewing
Date: November 3, 1858
One of the partners addressed this letter regarding the use of military land warrants in the territory to Thomas A. Thompson at Summit Point, Jefferson Co., Virginia. "Sherman & Ewing informed Thompson that such warrants could not be used to acquire land until after the public sale in July 1859, but some advice was offered for the interim.

Keywords: Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Land sales; Land speculation; Land titles; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Preemption law United States; Sherman & Ewing; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; Springfield, Missouri; Squatters; Summit Point, Virginia; Warrants (Law)


Letter, W. T. Sherman to Wm. T. Coleman & Co.
Authors: Sherman, William T. ((William Tecumseh), 1820-1891
Date: November 15, 1858
From Leavenworth on behalf of "two sons of the Hon. Thos Ewing of Ohio" and himself, Sherman informed Coleman & Co., "No. 88, Wall Street New York," that the firm would be pleased to be of whatever service they could. He then wrote of Leavenworth's great prospects: "we propose to make this our future home. . . . It now contains 10000 people, and reminds me much in the appearance of its houses, streets, and people of California towns in 1851 & 2."

Keywords: California; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; New York, New York; Ohio; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; Town promotion; Wm. T. Coleman & Co.


Letter, Tho. Ewing, Jr. to Dear Sir [Wm. S. Reyburn]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: November 23, 1858
In his capacity as attorney for H. B. Denman, who had just "bought of [John A.] Halderman the interest of the latter in the ferry, Ewing wrote Reyburn, Philadelphia, to encourage "an amicable settlement" to avoid taking their disagreement to court. The nature of their dispute was not entirely clear, but Ewing insisted that if not settled it could undermine the legitimacy of the ferry company's charter in the eyes of the soon to be constituted State government.

Keywords: Courts; Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Ferries; Halderman, John Adams; Lawsuits; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Philadelpia, Pennsylvania; Reyburn, William S.


Letter, Sherman [W. T.] & Ewing [Thomas] to Tax Collector
Authors: Sherman & Ewing
Date: December 15, 1858
The Leavenworth partners addressed this letter containing a list of real estate and a request for "the amount of taxes assessed" to the tax collector at Calhoun, Calhoun Co., Kansas. The property holdings of Thomas Ewing, Sr. (Lancaster, Ohio), and Jr. (Leavenworth), were listed, as were those of Hugh Ewing (Leavenworth).

Keywords: Calhoun County, Kansas Territory (see also Jackson County, Kansas Territory); Ewing, Hugh; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Jackson County, Kansas Territory (see also Calhoun County, Kansas Territory); Lancaster, Ohio; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Property tax; Real estate; Sherman & Ewing; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891


Letter, S.C.S [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [C. Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: December 19, 1858
The focus of this letter from Lawrence to Robinson in Washington, D.C., was the effort underway in Lawrence and Douglas County to attract a railroad and to have it built south of the Kansas River. Leavenworth, Kansas City, and Lawrence were obviously in the midst of their battle to gain advantage on the transportation front, and the decisions being made in Washington at that time with respect to land grants were vital to their future interests.

Keywords: Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Indian treaties; Jayhawkers; Johnnycake, Charles; Kansas City, Missouri; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Pratt, J. G. (John Gill), 1814-1900; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad conventions; Railroad land grants; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Stevens, Robert S.


Letter, Sherman [W. T.] & Ewing [Thomas] to Mess. Hart & Gordon
Authors: Sherman & Ewing
Date: December 22, 1858
Typical of much of the legal correspondence represented in this collection, the Leavenworth firm of Sherman & Ewing wrote to clients in Piqua, Ohio, regarding efforts to collect an overdue debt. In this case it was from a young man named F. N. Hamlin, a partner in a Leavenworth shoe store.

Keywords: Courts; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Hamlin, F. N.; Lawsuits; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Piqua, Ohio; Sherman & Ewing; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; William H. Lee and Co.


Leslie's Illustrated, Panoramic View of Leavenworth
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Dec. 25th, 1858
Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 25, 1858, showing a panoramic view of Leavenworth. The scene shows businesses, homes, and steamboats on the Missouri River. The illustration is captioned, "City of Leavenworth, Kansas Territory."

Keywords: Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement


Photograph, Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, 1858
Authors: Beaulieu
Date: 1858
An illustration of the City of Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, 1858, copied from Leslie's, December 25, 1858.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations


Leslie's Illustrated, Stories of Kansas Cities
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1858
Article from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 25, 1858. Entitled "The Cities of Kansas," it includes accounts of Lawrence, Leavenworth, Lecompton, and Topeka.

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Objects; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: January 2, 1859
From Lawrence, K.T., where he went to lobby the territorial legislature on behalf of Sumner's city charter and a "Pikes Peak Express Company," John J. Ingalls wrote to tell his father about the journey that took him through Leavenworth. He made some interesting observations about the condition of the roads and the general discomfort involved in overland travel ("The coaches are constructed with special reference to safety in passing over corduroy roads, through sloughs and ravines, having no regard whatever to the comfort of the passengers."), as well as nice descriptions of both cities, Leavenworth and Lawrence.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Delaware Indians; Eldridge House; Ferries; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Legislature; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pikes Peak gold rush; Roads; Stagecoaches; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Territorial government; Transportation; Wakarusa River


Letter, C. [Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: January 6, 1859
From Washington, D.C., Charles Robinson wrote his wife back home in Lawrence regarding land and railroad issues that he was working on behalf of in the capital. Robinson briefly addresses issues having to do with Indian land disputes, but focuses even more on the competition for railroads being fought out in Washington between Lawrence, Leavenworth, and Kansas City. ". . . Lawrence must fight its own battles . . . . I hope to be able to make Lawrence a point on both roads before we get through." [For more information on this battle over railroads, see I. E. Quastler, "Charting a Course: Lawrence, Kansas, and Its Railroad Strategy, 1854-1872," Kansas History 18 (Spring 1995): 18-33. For a time, civic and business leaders sought to make Lawrence the regional rail center with an aggressive promotion's plan, but they ultimately, and perhaps inevitably, lost the prize to Kansas City; this piece is largely drawn from the author's 1979 book-length study, The Railroads of Lawrence.]

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Indian floats; Jenkins, Gaius; Kansas City, Missouri; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; School lands; Stevens, Robert S.; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; United States. General Land Office


Letter, Albert C. Morton to Mr. Hill
Authors: Guthrie, Abelard
Date: January 8, 1859
Albert Morton wrote from Leavenworth City, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton reported that there was "a good deal of excitement out for Pikes Peak" and many Leavenworth citizens spoke of traveling there to dig for gold the following spring. His investments were not earning him much money, and he expressed his desire to sell land in order to pay what he owed to Hill and Abelard Guthrie.

Keywords: Guthrie, Abelard; Hill, Hiram; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Morton, Albert C.; Pikes Peak gold rush; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad companies


Letter, W. T. Sherman to Robert Campbell
Authors: Sherman, William T. ((William Tecumseh), 1820-1891
Date: January 13, 1859
For the Leavenworth law firm which was, after January 1, 1859, "Sherman Ewing & McCook," W. T. Sherman responded to correspondence regarding the collection of money owed from Robert Campbell of Saint Louis. One of the debtors in question was "Russell Majors & Waddell."

Keywords: Campbell, Robert; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Majors, Alexander, 1814-1900; McCook, Dan; Russell, Majors, and Waddell; Russell, William H (of Russell, Majors and Waddell); Sherman, Ewing & McCook; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; St. Louis, Missouri; Waddell, William B.; Weston, Missouri


Letter, Sherman[W. T], Ewing [Thomas] & McCook to Mess. Walker, Williams & Miller
Authors: Sherman, Ewing & McCook
Date: January 14, 1859
The day after writing to Robert Campbell regarding debt collections involving Russell, Majors & Waddell, the law firm contacted "Walker, Williams & Miller" of Weston, Missouri, about the amount owed because William Russell "could not pay the draft" but assured them that Walker, Williams & Miller "would promptly do so."

Keywords: Debt; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; McCook, Dan; Russell, Majors, and Waddell; Russell, William H (of Russell, Majors and Waddell); Sherman, Ewing & McCook; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; Walker, Williams & Miller; Weston, Missouri


Letter, W.T. Sherman to Robert Campbell
Authors: Sherman, William T. ((William Tecumseh), 1820-1891
Date: January 17, 1859
This was another letter to Robert Campbell regarding the debt that Sherman, Ewing & McCook was trying to collect. With the others, this conveyed a sense of the legal and financial transactions that seemed to have been a major part of this firm's business and the financial activities of the territory.

Keywords: Campbell, Robert; Courts; Finance; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Russell, Majors, and Waddell; Salt Lake, Utah; Sherman, Ewing & McCook; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; Weston, Missouri


Letter, W.T. Sherman to James B. Goddard
Authors: Sherman, William T. ((William Tecumseh), 1820-1891
Date: January 17, 1859
From Leavenworth, W.T. Sherman wrote to a correspondent in Louisville, Ohio, regarding the uncertain prospects of "the Gold Mines of Kansas." He speculated that the Pikes Peak mines would yield some gold but nothing like the mines of California and Australia, and offered some travel advice.

Keywords: California; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Goddard, James B.; Gold mines and mining; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ohio; Pikes Peak gold rush; Salt Lake, Utah; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891


Letter, E. N. [Ephraim Nute] to Unidentified recipient
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: February 24, 1859
Ephaim Nute of Lawrence provides an interesting description of the plight of one of the Doy party's fugitive slaves, captured and jailed at Platte City until his escape and dangerous flight back to Lawrence. "We have him now hid & are to day making arrangements to have him set forward tomorrow 30 miles to another depot. I think they (there are 2 others to go) will not be taken again without bloodshed." Nute also mentioned his involvement in the "Charley Fisher affair in Leavenworth." Fisher, a black fugitive, had actually come to Nute's house "disguised in female attire."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Canada; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, John; Fisher, Charley; Free state cause; Fugitive slaves; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Nute, Ephraim; Platte City, Missouri; Proslavery settlers; Underground railroad


Letter, C. Robinson to Geo. R. Morton Esq
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: March 9, 1859
In this typed "transcript" of a letter from Lawrence dated March 9, 1859, Charles Robinson confirmed Morton apparent conclusion that Robinson preferred Governor Salmon P. Chase for president in 1860. Robinson considered Chase "the purest & best Statesman in the country," and thought he was "more available than any other man of whatever shade of political faith," including William Seward. Robinson also comments on the Kansas scene which was "badly cursed with the most unscrupulous demagogues that ever afflicted any people, & there is at present but little union of effort or harmony of action among the free State men."

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Antislavery perspective; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Conway, Martin Franklin; Herald of Freedom; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Morton, George R.; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; Vaughan, Champion; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Milton Fithion]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: March 14, 1859
Recently back in Leavenworth after spending the winter in Washington conducting railroad business, Thomas Ewing, Jr., wrote to Milton Fithion [?] of Urbana, Ohio, regarding payment for what was apparently a bogus "Wyandot float." Such a claim, if valid, "would be worth from $1,500 to $2,000," but Marcus Parrott, who had agreed to buy the float had discovered that the named "Wyandot" was not included in the "treaties as entitled to land."

Keywords: Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Fithion, Milton; Indian treaties; Land claims; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Urbana, Ohio; Wyandot Float


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: March 15, 1859
Although Ingalls began this relatively brief letter from Sumner with comments on the local election (he won the race for city attorney), he devoted most of it to the Pike's Peak Gold Rush--"the amount and character of the emigration to Pike's Peak is truly astonishing. . . . [T] military roads are already thronged with anxious hundreds, on foot, dragging hand carts, on mules, and with ox teams."

Keywords: Business; Cities and towns; Economic conditions; Elections; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Pettit, John; Pikes Peak gold rush; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation; Travel


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dir Sir [William F. Roelofson]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: March 26, 1859
In this March 26, 1859, letter to William F. Roelofson, London, England, T. Ewing, Jr., discussed an investment but also observed: "The city streets are black with the swarms of Pikes Peakers and our prospects are better now than ever. We are getting 2/3rds of the whole of this emigration: and our merchants are doing an enormous business in outfitting for the mines."

Keywords: Commerce; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Gold mines and mining; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; London, England; Merchants; Pikes Peak gold rush; Railroads; Roelofson, William F.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr. to Dear Sir [E. Peabody]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: April 9, 1859
Although Thomas Ewing, Jr., was heavily involved the promotion and development of the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company from his arrival in K.T., this seems to be one of few letter in the letter press books containing fairly substantial reference to those concerns to this date. Here, Ewing wrote E. Peabody of St. Louis regarding a recent company board meeting there in Leavenworth and plans "to connect with the Hannibal & St Jos: rail road, by the shortest & cheapest route to Bucklin or Easton," bypassing Platte City and Plattesburgh.

Keywords: Bucklin, Missouri; Easton, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western Railroad Company; Platte City, Missouri; Platte County, Missouri; Plattesburgh, Missouri; Railroad promotion; Railroads; Railroads finance; St. Louis, Missouri


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [J. M. Winchell]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: April 13, 1859
This letter from Ewing in Leavenworth to James M. Winchell at "Wyandott" addressed a question regarding real estate in the latter's city and the upcoming Osawatomie convention for the founding of the Republican Party in Kansas. Ewing believed the "opposition" would "have no difficulty in carrying the county: but if the party is badly managed at Osawattomie [sic], & at subsequent conventions, our county is surely gone and probably the Territory."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Land speculation; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Real estate; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, Isaac T. Goodnow to Rev. C. E. Blood
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: May 5, 1859
Isaac Goodnow, writing from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, on his way to New England, related his experiences with a Mr. Vivaldi, a newspaper editor in Wyandotte, to C. E. Blood in Manhattan. Goodnow told Blood that Vivaldi would run a series of articles and advertisements about Manhattan in short order, and that promotional articles needed to be submitted as soon as possible. Goodnow also emphasized that, upon his arrival to Manhattan, Vivaldi should have his "expectations" met, and that all efforts should be taken to impress him.

Keywords: Advertisements; Blood, C.E.; Bluemont Central College; Business enterprises; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Newspaper buildings; Newspapers; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Steamboats; Town development; Town promotion; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory; de Vivaldi, Charles F.


Letter, I. T. Goodnow to My Dear Brother [Joseph] Denison
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: May 7, 1859
Isaac Goodnow wrote en route to New England from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to Joseph Denison in Manhattan. Goodnow told Denison to expect a shipment of 36 tons of lumber and building supplies to be brought on the steamboat "Gus Linn", which was build specifically to navigate the Kansas River. He also wished that Denison dispose of two yokes of steers, in order to pay on the College.

Keywords: Bluemont Central College; Business enterprises; Construction; Denison, Joseph; Freight and freightage; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Steamboats


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Father [Thomas Ewing, Sr]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: May 11, 1859
Among other rather mundane items, Ewing told his father back in Ohio that the Democrats had just held a convention at Tecumseh, "which Hugh [Ewing] and Hamp attended," and about the economic conditions in Leavenworth, which were much tied to the success of the "Pikes Peak movement."

Keywords: Construction; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Physicians; Pikes Peak gold rush; Railroads; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; St. Joseph, Missouri; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [E. Peabody]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: June 9, 1859
To E. Peabody of St. Joseph, Ewing, Jr. wrote with regard to the construction of the railroad from that city to Leavenworth. "I think that by the time you & Maj Osborn come down, we shall be able to satisfy you that whatever is then promised on the part of this City & County will be done--bonds."

Keywords: Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Railroads; St. Joseph, Missouri


Letter, [Marc Parrott] to Dr. Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: c. 1859
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, of Ohio. Marcus inquired about the "mixed politics" he had heard about in Ohio. He also remarked that he anticipated being a candidate for Congress, and expressed his interest in visiting Pike's Peak. Marcus added that he would leave the following morning for Wyandotte in order to attend the Constitutional Convention there, and projected that there would be trouble since the Republicans held a heavy majority.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; National politics; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pikes Peak, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Correspondence, Champion Vaughan to S.O. Thacher, et al
Authors: Vaughan, Champion
Date: July 7, 1859
Vaughan, editor of the Leavenworth Times, wrote this letter soon after the convention convened to introduce and lend his support to three "Delegates elect from Southern Nebraska to the Kansas Convention." They had convinced Vaughan that efforts toward annexation were not just more Democratic politics.

Keywords: Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Times; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Thacher, Solon O. (Solon Otis), 1830-1895; Vaughan, Champion; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Hugh [Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: July 27, 1859
In this letter to Hugh Ewing in Washington, D.C., Ewing, Jr. sought his brother's consent to donate "a lot" to Leavenworth's German Catholic to help with the construction of a "new building" (the pastor wanted to hold a raffle for the property to raise money). Perhaps more importantly, Ewing, Jr. wrote of political developments in which their business associate Hamp Denman was a likely Democratic nominee for governor, and he (T.E., Jr.) felt "strongly inclined to take the place on our [the Republican] ticket of Chief Justice of Supreme Court (a nomination he received in October; Ewing subsequently won election to that office in the December general election). Ewing also observed that the Republican Party was weaker in Leavenworth County than he anticipated and predicted that "the new Constitution [Wyandotte] will be unpopular in this County & and lose us many votes--not so much for its failure to exclude negroes as for its unjust & dishonest apportionment . . ."

Keywords: African Americans; Apportionment; Catholic Church; Churches; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Hugh; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Halderman, John Adams; Johnston, Sanders W.; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Miege, John Baptist; Mitchell, Robert Byington; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, Wm Taylor to S. S. Cox
Authors: Taylor, William
Date: July 31, 1859
William Taylor wrote to S. S. Cox regarding his impressions of the Wyandotte Constitution, which had been recently submitted to Congress. He then added details praising the peace and fertility of the land in Kansas Territory. Taylor concluded by supposing "that there will not any disturbance"caused by the border ruffians in the Territory.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Cox, S.S.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Landscape; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Taylor, William; Women Suffrage; Womens rights; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: August 14, 1859
Back in Sumer on August 14, 1859, Ingalls wrote regarding the convention's recently completed work and the prospects for the Wyandotte Constitution, now "before the people." The Democrats were "taking strong ground against it" because of the state boundaries set by the delegates (excluded "Southern Nebraska & Pike's Peak"), there was to be no exclusion of "free negroes" from Kansas, and of the "apportionment," which gave the Republicans, and thus their proposed constitution, a big advantage. "The democracy are furious about it [the apportionment] of course and some temporizing Republicans are inclined to smooth the matter over by explanations and euphimisms. I adopt a different ground . . . ." Ingalls argued that he "was not aware of any extreme favors or kindnesses extended to the people of Kansas in the last four years by the democratic party which warranted any very delicate considerations form the party in power today."

Keywords: Apportionment; Boundaries; Buchanan administration; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Wyandotte Constitution ratification, October 1859; Exclusion, African Americans; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Land speculation; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Pikes Peak, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Miss Maria Maher
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: September 14, 1859
Although not specifically stated, it seems clear that this letter to Maria Maher, "a first rate servant" girl who had "served us [the Ewings] so long and so well," addressed her unfortunate condition--becoming pregnant out of wedlock. She was sent to the Catholic charitable institution in St. Louis and advised to seek legal assistance from a particular attorney there "if the young man will not honorably fulfil his promise. . . . If the young man means to marry you, he will do it at once."

Keywords: Catholic Church; Domestics; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Miege, John Baptist; Servants; St. Louis, Missouri; Unmarried mothers


Letter, H. Miles Moore to Major J. [Jesse] Morin
Authors: Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826
Date: October 12, 1859
Moore, an anti-slavery Democrat wrote to Jesse Morin, register of the federal land office in Fort Scott, K. T., to seek Morin's support in his bid for the Democratic Party nomination for attorney general. Moore was unsuccessful at the October 25, 1859, Democratic Convention in his effort to secure the nomination.

Keywords: Attorneys general; Democratic Party (U.S.); Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Morin, Jesse; Northern Democrats


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: October 13, 1859
Marcus Parrott wrote from Manhattan, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott. Marcus had been traveling around Fort Riley and prepared for a trip from Manhattan to Topeka. He asked his brother how his election went, and contrasted what must be Edwin's election experience with his own, over which the "fear of a fraudulent defeat" always hovered. Despite this fear of fraud, Marcus stated that his Black Republican friends would support him, "ready to correct any errors".

Keywords: Black Republicans; Election fraud; Elections; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Hunting; Junction City, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Mormon Church; Ohio; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: November 11, 1859
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott. Marcus, up for reelection as delegate to Congress and anxious to receive the voter returns, shared his feelings with his brother. He mentioned a problem in Pikes Peak that was delaying the results, and advised Edwin that he should look for him in Ohio in two weeks. Marcus also suggested that Edwin accompany him to Washington, stating "it would be good training ground for the Ohio Legislature".

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ohio; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879


Letter, [M. W.] Delahay to Dear Sam [Wood]
Authors: Delahay, Mark W.
Date: November 18, 1859
From Leavenworth, Delahay wrote in response to Sam Wood's November 14 request that Delahay come to "the Grove" [Council Grove] to assist with the election campaign. Delahay was not sure he could make this long trip, since "our court commences" on the first Monday of December, and he expected to be busy with the local campaign. Delahay ended by asking Wood to help secure for him the position of "chief clerk" in the territorial legislature, "the office that I was by base treachery last winter swindled out of . . ."

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Delahay, Mark W.; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Morris County, Kansas Territory; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, John A. Halderman to S. N. Wood
Authors: Halderman, John Adams
Date: November 20, 1859
In this brief but cordial letter from Leavenworth, Halderman asked Wood to reprint an "enclosed" article from the Herald of Freedom in the Kansas Press; the piece "seems to have been written by a political opponent who is inclined to do me justice." He then mentions "the meeting of the squatters on the Kaw Reserve" and his sympathy for their plight.

Keywords: Halderman, John Adams; Herald of Freedom; Kansa Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Kansas Press; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Squatters


Letter, S. [Samuel] Medary to My Dear Sir [John A. Halderman]
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: December 10, 1859
From Lecompton, territorial Governor Samuel Medary wrote to J. A. Halderman to express his disappointment with his (Medary's) and the Democratic Party's showing in the December 6 elections for state offices under the Wyandotte Constitution. Medary ran against Charles Robinson in the "state's" first gubernatorial contest and lost 7,908 to 5,395. Medary made a number of interesting observations in what amounted to a post election analysis of the outcome. The party should have won, in Medary's estimation, but as a result they would "have to submit to the eternal disgrace of having it [Kansas] go forth as a Black Old John Brown state."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [Hon. John Sherman]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: December 16, 1859
Ewing wrote Republican Congressman John Sherman in Washington, D.C., to implore him not to support the appointment of William Montgomery (D., Pa.) to the Committee on Public Lands. The Pennsylvania congressman was heavily invested in Atchison and could be expected to continue to support an inequitable Public Land bill.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Land acquisition; Land speculation; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, William; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Sherman, John, 1823-1900; United States. Congress; United States. Congress. House. Committee on Public Lands; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Olin Thurston to Friend [John A.] Halderman
Authors: Thurston, Olin
Date: December 30, 1859
Olin Thurston of Humbolt, Kansas, wrote J. A. Halderman to comment on the past election for state offices, to thank him for "your gallant fight in behalf of the Democracy, and to assure him that "we of southern Kansas are always ready to co-operate with our friends in Leavenworth."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Humboldt, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Thurston, Olin


Barclay's Business Directory of Leavenworth for 1859
Authors: Pierse, Allen
Date: 1859
In addition to a listing of businesses and advertisements, the directory included the elected officials for the city of Leavenworth for 1858-59 and the newspapers published in Leavenworth. A few women are listed as owners of businesses. The information for the directory was compiled by Allen Pierse.

Keywords: Business; Business enterprises; Commerce; Community life; Economic development; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Pierse, Allen; Retail businesses; Town development; Women


Leavenworth City Directory, and Business Mirror for 1859-60, Containing the Name and Residence of Every Male Citizen, a Business Mirror, and an Appendix of Much Useful Information
Authors: Sutherland & McEvoy
Date: 1859
In addition to advertisements, and information about various civic institutions in Leavenworth, this city directory also contained an historical sketch of the city attributed to H. Miles Moore, one of Leavenworth's early settlers. Some women are listed in the directory if they operated a business such as a boarding house, if they had a job, or, apparently, if they were widowed or unmarried. The "business mirror" section listed individual businesses grouped by the type of business or profession. The appendix included a listing of city and county officials and community institutions. The volume contained a number of ads for businesses in St. Louis, Missouri. The item referenced a map that was supposed to serve as a street guide but it was not contained in the KSHS copy of this item.

Keywords: Advertisements; Business; Business enterprises; Commerce; Community life; Economic development; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Retail businesses; St. Louis, Missouri; Town development; Women


Photograph, Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, 1860
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1860
An illustration of Leavenworth when it was six years old, Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, c. 1860.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Photographs and Illustrations; Steamboats


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [John Hanna]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 26, 1860
In this letter to a friend in Greencastle, Indiana, Ewing made numerous observations about the state of Kansas politics, of which he wrote: "Politics in Kansas you know are a business to those caught in the whirlpool." Ewing thought the state government was "pretty well officered" but was concerned about prospects for the senatorial contest. "Lane is nearly dead with the politicians. . . But he is a power with the people. . . . I look on Lane as a decidedly bad man," even though he recognized Lane's positive "service to the cause before the [Lawrence free-state] Convention in Decr 1857."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state cause; Hanna, John; Journalism; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Congress. Senate; Vaughan, Champion


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Father [Thomas Ewing Sr.]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: February 2, 1860
In a lengthy letter to his father back in Lancaster, Ohio, Thomas Ewing, Jr., provided some observations and analysis of the Kansas political scene, especially as it pertained to the forthcoming election of U.S. senators. The counties north of the Kansas River would likely get either Marcus J. Parrott or Samuel C. Pomeroy, and the latter worried Ewing primarily because he was an Atchison promoter.

Keywords: Apprenticeship; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Lancaster, Ohio; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Machinists; Moore, Ely; Ohio; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pikes Peak gold rush; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Russell, William H (of Russell, Majors and Waddell); United States. Congress. Senate; United States. General Land Office


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Hamp B. Denman
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: February 23, 1860
Ewing's friend and business associate, Hamp B. Denman, went to Washington, D.C., to seek appointment as register of the U.S. Land Office in Lecompton. President Buchanan "--that damned old scoundrel!"--rejected Denman.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; United States. General Land Office


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Father [Thomas Ewing, Sr.]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: March 9, 1860
Thomas Ewing, Jr., wrote from Leavenworth to his father in Ohio seeking his assistance with a legal matter involving claims to the land "reserved to certain half breeds of the Kansas tribe." Most of this land was occupied by squatters and questions of legal title and transfer were being litigated in the territorial and federal courts.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Courts; Elmore, Rush; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Kansa Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Kansa Indians; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Land claim disputes; Land speculation; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Ohio; Pettit, John; Squatters; Territorial Supreme Court (see Kansas Territory. Supreme Court)


Letter, Theodore Hyatt to My good friend [W. F. M.] Arny
Authors: Hyatt, Theodore
Date: March 21, 1860
Theodore Hyatt of New York wrote this letter to W. F. M. Arny, an agent of the National Kansas Committee and friend of his brother, Thaddeus Hyatt. The main focus of the letter revolved around his brother Thaddeus, who was currently involved in a struggle with the government over whether or not he would testify in court regarding his support of John Brown. Theodore wrote, "I much fear my good brother has an exaggerated conception of the importance of his position." Apparently, he felt that his brother was attempting to make himself a martyr. The letter also included a brief mention of problems with freightage to Atchison and the competition between Atchison and Leavenworth.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Freight and freightage; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Hyatt, Theodore; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Prisons; Railroads; Russell, Majors, and Waddell


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to A. J. Isacks
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: March 22, 1860
Ewing addressed a number of issues in this letter to former territorial Kansas attorney general Andrew J. Isacks (1854-1857), who was in Washington, D.C. presumably lobbying Congress on behalf of Kansas admission, etc., but closed with some interesting comments on Leavenworth's interest in the promotion and development of the Smoky Hill route to the Pikes Peak region. Isacks was one of Ewing's principle partners in the Leavenworth, Pawnee, & Western Railroad venture and was undoubtedly busy lobbying for a railroad land grant from Congress.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Colorado City, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Homestead law; Isacks, Andrew Jackson; Land grants; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western Railroad Company; Pikes Peak gold rush; Railroads; Smoky Hill Trail, Kansas Territory; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Gov'r [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: March 30, 1860
In response to a letter of March 27 from Charles Robinson, Lawrence, Ewing wrote regarding the governor's forthcoming trip to Washington. Ewing mentioned several issues but was mainly concerned about the lobbying effort for the railroad bill and the future state's federal land grant.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Deitzler, George W.; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Land grants; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Times; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Railroad promotion; Railroads; Railroads finance; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Vaughan, John C.; Washington, D.C.


Minutes of the Kansas and Nebraska Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Fifth Session
Authors: Kansas and Nebraska Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church
Date: March, 1860
The annual conference was held in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, on March 15, 1860. The report contained a great deal more information than the Third Session from 1858 and included information about Methodist Churches in all parts of Kansas (as well as Nebraska) Territory. Its committee reports included education, slavery, temperance, the conference missionary society, etc.

Keywords: Baker University; Bluemont Central College; Churches; Community life; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Methodist Church; Methodists; Religion; Slavery; Temperance


Statement, Rev. W. R. Davis for Bluemont College
Authors: Davis, W.R.
Date: May 20, 1860
W. R. Davis, President of Baker University in Baldwin City, Kansas Territory, composed this statement, which declared that Bluemont College, founded by Isaac Goodnow, would "not interfere with the legitimate work of Baker University." Davis too believed that the College fulfilled a "great want" in the new Territory.

Keywords: Baker University; Bluemont Central College; Davis, W. R.; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Universities and colleges


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Father [Thomas Ewing, Sr.]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: April 21, 1860
Three days after he argued for the defense in a fugitive slave case, Ewing, Jr., reported to his father (Thomas Ewing, Sr., Ohio) that his "argument on the motion [i.e., to quash the indictment against one of the nine Leavenworth citizens, including D.R. Anthony, charged with the violation] added greatly to my stature as a lawyer in the public view." This opportunity arose in connection with the so-called "Charley Fisher rescue cases." (See coverage in the Daily Times, Leavenworth, April 19, 1860, and April 24, 1860.)

Keywords: Anthony, Daniel R.; Courts; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Fisher, Charley; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pettit, John; Territorial Supreme Court (see Kansas Territory. Supreme Court); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory); Vaughan, Champion


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Abraham Lincoln]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: May 6, 1860
On May 6, 1860, ten days before the Republican convention convened in Chicago, Illinois, Ewing wrote to Abraham Lincoln at Springfield, Ill., regarding the fact that the Kansas Republican delegation had been "instructed by the Convention by which they were selected to cast their votes (if they should have any) for Mr. Seward [considered by most a more radical candidate]. . ." Ewing wanted to explain how this happened and why D.W. Wilder, a strong Seward man, was the Leavenworth delegate rather than "Col. Delahay who was understood to be strongly in favor of your nomination."

Keywords: Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Chicago, Illinois; Delahay, Mark W.; Election, Presidential, 1860; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Illinois; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Political conventions; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; Wilder, Daniel Webster, 1832-1911


Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to the New York Tribune (Copy No. 1)
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: August 24, 1860
This copy was titled "Thaddeus Hyatt's Letters from Kansas, The fact of the Drougth. Introduction of the facts, an appeal and an apology!" Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, was trying to dispel information coming from Leavenworth that reported that conditions in Kansas were being exaggerated. He felt efforts to deny "the present deplorable condition of things" were motivated by economic concerns. Hyatt wrote that they suffered because of the drought, not their own actions, and that the free North should aid them. The letter was well written and contained a great deal of emotional rhetoric. The letter was copied (by hand) by W. F. M. Arny. The last page of the letter elaborated on its origins.

Keywords: Droughts; Economic conditions; Famines; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Herald; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; National politics; New York Tribune; Newspapers; Relief; Relief funds


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Parrott [Marcus J. Parrott]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: September 27, 1860
In late September 1860, Ewing wrote Marcus J. Parrott, the territory's delegate to Congress (Washington, D.C.) regarding prospective railroad legislation. Ewing thought it was time Parrott made himself "heard on this momentous question"--specifically, the focus was then on the "Vandiver bill" in Congress and the influence the Topeka (Railroad) Convention might have on congressional action.

Keywords: Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pawnee and Western Railroad; Railroad conventions; Railroads; United States. Congress


Article, "The Drouth and Famine in Kansas"
Authors: New York Daily Tribune
Date: October 10, 1860
This newspaper article, published in the New York Daily Tribune from October 10, 1860, outlined the basic details of the suffering and destitution of settlers in Kansas. It also included reprints of two circulars originating from Kansas Territory. One was from the Presbytery of Highland, and the other was from the Central Relief Committee based in Leavenworth. The first reprinted circular provided information about the dire situation and gave the names of the members of this committee. The second circular requested that the elders and deacons of each church in Kansas ascertain how many families needed immediate assistance in order to present a full report to the Central Relief Committee.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Central Relief Committee; Churches; Clothing and dress; Crops; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Droughts; Economic conditions; Famines; Food; Grain; Highland, Kansas Territory; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Presbyterian Church; Reaser, Rev. J. G.; Relief; Relief funds; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Dear [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: November 2, 1860
This letter was written to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, by S. C. Pomeroy regarding their relief efforts during the drought of 1860. Pomeroy mentioned in this letter a convention that was called to meet in Lawrence on November 14, 1860. He pasted the advertisement for this convention to the first page of the letter, it had been published in the (Leavenworth?) Daily Times on October 31, 1860.

Keywords: Droughts; Famines; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Hyatt, Theodore; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief


Letter, James Montgomery to George L. Stearns
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: November 27, 1860
From Mound City, James Montgomery wrote Stearns about recent trouble at Fort Scott and acting governor George M. Beebe's visit. He came, according to Montgomery, to ascertain for himself if the rumors about Montgomery's activities were correct. He left satisfied that the free staters were acting properly and "promising to do what he could to reform abuses" in the federal courts and protect their rights. Although things were quiet at present and Montgomery mentioned the arrival of more fugitive slaves, who could now stay safely in Kansas, he warned that the introduction of federal troops into southern Kansas would create an explosive situation.

Keywords: Beebe, George Monroe; Bowie knife; Democratic Party (U.S.); Firearms; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Fugitive slaves; Guns; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, M. W. Delahay to My Dear Sir
Authors: Delahay, Mark W.
Date: December 1, 1860
In response to an inquiry about a presidential appointment, Delahay wrote from Leavenworth that it was too soon to bother the president elect with such matters. When the time came, perhaps in April or May, Delahay believed Lincoln would treat Kansas fairly and might "consult his friends in Kansas and I may be one of them . . . I have been an old friend of Mr. Lincoln and he is a relative of my wife." (This is identified as a "circular letter," so perhaps it was mailed to a number of individuals with similar interests.)

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Patronage, political; Presidential appointments; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Hints and Information for the use of Emigrants to Pike's Peak Embracing a Concise and Comprehensive Sketch of the Gold Region, the Best Routes, Points of Outfit, etc.
Authors: Drake, Samuel Adams
Date: 1860
This printed guide to those intending to go the the gold fields near Pike's Peak included a short history of the region since the discovery of the gold and a list of distances from Leavenworth via various locations to Denver City. It contained various tips about how to prepare for the trip. The pamphlet also promoted Leavenworth as "superior to any point on the border" and contained information about the city and the businesses there. For example, the pamphlet listed the number of various kinds of businesses, manufacturers, occupations, and social institutions in Leavenworth. A hand written note on the item indicated the information in the pamphlet was published in the Leavenworth Daily Times on February 14, 1860.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Denver City, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pikes Peak gold rush; Retail businesses; Town promotion; Travel


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear [Joseph J.] Coombs
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 22, 1861
In January 1861 Ewing wrote several letters to members of Congress and others of influence in Washington on behalf of Charles Robinson's appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. This one, marked "Private," to J. J. Coombs is one example. Not only was Robinson well qualified for this important position, according to Ewing, but Robinson's appointment to this influential post would increase Ewing's chance to capture a Senate seat--"If he can get the appt before the State Legislature sits it will so greatly strengthen his influence that my election will be certain."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Coombs, Joseph J.; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Presidential appointments; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; United States. Congress. Senate; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Govr [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 24, 1861
This brief letter to Charles Robinson in Lawrence was to inform the "governor" of Ewing's activities on his behalf and to send him a copy of one of the half dozen or so letters Ewing had written in support of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs appointment. Letters reportedly went to Caleb B. Smith; John Sherman; Governors T. Corwin, William Dennison, and Salmon Chase; Joseph J. Coombs; and "Father," Thomas Ewing, Sr.

Keywords: Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Coombs, Joseph J.; Corwin, Thomas; Dennison, William, 1815-1882; Ewing, Faith; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Presidential appointments; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sherman, John, 1823-1900; Smith, Caleb B.; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; Washington, D.C.


Memoranda, Records of Reeder's Stock in Towns
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: [1855]
This document was an undated "Mem. Of Stock in Towns," which appeared to have been written in longhand by Reeder himself and included the number of shares he had purchased (and how they were acquired) in fifteen different towns: Leavenworth, Pawnee, Tecumseh, Marysville, Lecompton, Montgomery (Dickinson Co.), Reeder (Dickinson Co.), Richmond, Whitfield (Shawnee Co.), Topeka, Douglas, Omaha City, Chetolah (Davis/Geary Co.), Grasshopper Falls, and Easton. Interestingly, he held thirty-four shares in Pawnee, his most famous (or infamous) investment venture, but he had thirty-six shares in Montgomery, twenty in Douglas and there appears to be a good number in Omaha City.

Keywords: Chetolah, Kansas Territory; Douglas, Kansas Territory; Easton, Kansas Territory; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marysville, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, Kansas Territory; Omaha City, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Reeder, Kansas Territory; Richmond, Kansas Territory; Speculation; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Town shares; Town site speculation; Whitfield, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Lucian Eastin
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Lucian Eastin was a proslavery supporter. He was the head of the proslavery militia and the editor of the Herald in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory for a period of time. This image is a copy from a painting.

Keywords: Eastin, Lucian J.; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters


Photograph, John A. Halderman
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Halderman grew up in Kentucky and was trained as a lawyer. He came to Kansas Territory in 1854 and served as the personal secretary to the first territorial governor Andrew Reeder. In 1855, he served as secretary to the first territorial council. He ultimately separated himself from the pro-slavery Lecompton movement. He was the first probate judge of Leavenworth County. He served as a major of the First Kansas volunteers during the Civil War and lived most of the rest of his life in Leavenworth.

Keywords: Halderman, John Adams; Kansas Territory. Council; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Reader, A. H.


Photograph, William Tecumseh Sherman
Authors: Kuhn Bros.
Date: 
William Tecumseh Sherman was involved in Leavenworth during the territorial period. He was a partner in a law firm with Thomas Ewing, Jr., who was also his brother-in-law. He was involved in promoting the interests of Leavenworth. He later gained fame as a Civil War General. This photograph was taken after his time in Kansas.

Keywords: Card photographs; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Kuhn Bros.; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Sherman & Ewing; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; Town development; Town promotion


Photograph, John C. Vaughan
Authors: Aldrich's Studio
Date: 
John C. Vaughn came to Leavenworth, Kansas Territory in 1859. He served as the editor and publisher of the Leavenworth Times.

Keywords: Aldrich's Studio; Cabinet photographs; Journalism; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Times; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Photographs and Illustrations; Vaughan, John C.


Photograph, Thomas Ewing, Jr.
Authors: Brady's National Portrait Galleries
Date: 
Thomas Ewing, Jr. moved to Kansas Territory in 1856 and established a law practice in Leavenworth. He was an active free state supporter and a delegate at the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. He had numerous business and land interests. He was one of James H. Lane's attorney's in his trial concerning the death of Gaius Jenkins.

Keywords: Brady's National Portrait Galleries; Cartes de visite; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Lawyers; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Daniel Webster Wilder
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Daniel Webster Wilder was an early Kansas resident and one of its first historians. During the territorial era, he was a resident of Leavenworth and was one of the Kansans at the 1860 Republican National convention in Chicago, Illinois. He compiled the Annals of Kansas, and the territorial portion of this work is available elsewhere on this site.

Keywords: Card photographs; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Wilder, Daniel Webster, 1832-1911


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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