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365 results for Lawrence, Kansas Territory:
Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, c. 1856
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1856
A photographic view of Massachusetts Street, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, c. 1856.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets


Eldridge Hotel, Floor plans (2 sheets)
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
These hand drawn floor plans for the Eldridge Hotel show the room layout and approximate size of the rooms on the first and second floors. The Eldridge Hotel was the site of numerous free state meetings and the target of attacks by proslavery forces.

Keywords: Eldridge House; Free state supporters; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Circular, Lawrence University
Authors: Lawrence University
Date: c. 1859
This circular was written by the Board of Trustees of Lawrence University to inform the people of Kansas of the establishment of a university in Lawrence. Included in the letter are courses of study for various departments, tuition costs, board and lodging costs, scholarship information, faculty, and description of the school. The Board of Trustees also emphasized the fact that Lawrence was a thriving city, and it was "already distinguished in the Territory for its superior educational advantages." For further information about the college, the circular referred readers to William Bishop, corresponding secretary, or to Dr. C. E. Miner, president of the Board of Trustees.

Keywords: Bishop, William; Blood, James; Circulars; Education; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence University; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; School buildings; Universities and colleges


Surveying Equipment
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1845-1855
Albert D. Searl used this equipment to survey Kansas Territory town sites in 1854. Lawrence was surveyed on Sept. 25th and Topeka on Dec. 20th. Searl's efforts to set town limits for free-staters in Lawrence were met with violence from pro-slavery forces nearby. Searl would later survey Manhattan, Osawatomie, Burlington, & El Dorado.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Skirmishing; Surveyors; Topeka, Kansas; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Letter, Robert Gilbert to My dear Parents
Authors: Gilbert, Robert L.
Date: December 5, 1849
Robert Gilbert, a young Englishman studying at Yoxford Academy in England anticipating the Christmas holiday, wrote to his parents summarizing his studies of the past half-year. He was born in Sibton, Suffolk County, England. After graduating from Yoxford, he became a gardener in the Crystal Palace Gardens in London. Gilbert emigrated to the U.S. in 1855 and began farming nine miles north of Lawrence the same year.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; England; Farmers; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


Photograph, William H. R. Lykins house, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Authors: Leonard, 613 Kansas Ave., Topeka, KS.
Date: 1854
A view of the William H. R. Lykins house, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. This probably is the second house built by Lykins on the future site of Lawrence. He settled in the area on May 26, 1854, many weeks before the first Emigrant Aid Society party arrived. Lykins built one house northwest of the present-day Lawrence in May 1854. In August of that year, he built another house near the future site of the Emigrant Aid Company's sawmill on the south bank of the Kansas River. The photograph is from a cabinet card made by Leonard, 613 Kansas Ave., Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Houses; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leonard, J. H.; Lykins, William H. R.; Photographs and Illustrations


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Mr. [Amos Adams] Lawrence
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: September 22, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Samuel Pomeroy wrote from a settlement, which would come to be called Lawrence, in Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Lawrence was an investor who sponsored the emigrant group who would settle the town of Lawrence. Pomeroy reported that Charles Robinson had been elected President of the Lawrence Association, the first governing body of the town. He was enthusiastic about the abundance of timber resources in the area, which, once secured from the Indians, would make for a good business enterprise. Emigrants were arriving in droves, filling the hotels and increasing demand for land claims. Though he remained positive, Pomeroy warned "Don't make yourselves believe that the slave holders have given up Kansas!" and anticipated a political battle during the upcoming Territorial Legislature election.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Branscomb, Charles H.; Business enterprises; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Hotels; Illness; Indian lands; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Timber; Town development


Letter, C. Robinson to A. A. Lawrence Esq.
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: October 16, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society.Charles Robinson wrote from Kansas Territory to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Robinson recounted to Lawrence the recent discussion of the new settlement's name, believing "Wakarusa" to be inappropriate and rejecting the names of Eastern cities already in existence. There appeared to be unanimous support for the name "Lawrence", which had fallen into common use, though it had not been officially adopted. Robinson advised Lawrence that a naming committee would be in contact with him soon to give him formal notice of the adoption of "Lawrence" as the settlement's official name.

Keywords: Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Town development


Letter, John Doy to Mr. Strong
Authors: Doy, John
Date: October 19, 1854
John Doy, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to a Mr. Strong, described an incident in which a Westport, Missouri man charged him extra money for notary services because he "was a Yankee."

Keywords: Antislavery; Doy, John; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Notaries; Proslavery


Letter, [Cyrus Kurtz] Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: November 18, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. This letter was to be delivered by Mr. Ingrams, and Holliday expressed the possibilities of following shortly or of staying in Lawrence to make business arrangements and put up a building in the spring. He expressed his delight in the country of Kansas and the site of a new city (not named, but likely Topeka). A Pennsylvania company of emigrants, unprepared for the journey and now suffering, had settled in Lawrence and Council Grove.

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Morris County, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Shalor Eldridge Family
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November, 1854
This portrait of Shalor Eldridge, his wife and their four daughters was taken in Westfield, Massachusetts in November 1854. Eldridge was involved with the New England Emigrant Aid Company and operated a company hotel in Lawrence, Kansas Territory which was a center for the free state movement.

Keywords: Businessmen; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographs and Illustrations


Letter, [Cyrus Kurtz] Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 3, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, the founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He told her of his planned trip up the Kansas River, his pleasure in the people of Kansas Territory, and a Thanksgiving dinner he attended. Unwilling to return to Pennsylvania, Holliday expressed desire that Mary come to Kansas Territory and described the construction of a friend's sod-covered "mansion," one such as Clarina I. H. Nichols, a lecturer and writer, inhabited.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holidays; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Houses; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Thanksgiving Day; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation


Letter, C. Robinson to A. A. Lawrence Esq.
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: December 18, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Charles Robinson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Robinson thanked Lawrence for his unfailing support of the enterprise of the Territory and claimed his devotion to work done in his interest. He discussed Lawrence's development, having secured the offices of three free state newspapers, but expressed anxiety about the upcoming territorial election. However, Robinson vowed that his men would not resort to fraudulent voting to win the majority over proslavery supporters.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Business enterprises; Election fraud; Elections; Elliott, Robert G.; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspapers; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sawmills; Speer, John, 1817-1906; Town development


Letter, [C. K. Holliday] to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 24, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. After three weeks at the future site of Topeka, Holliday was glad for city comforts. He mentioned the site's beauty, the prospect of building a house on his farm claim, and his personal success since leaving Meadville. On December 18, 1854, he had been unanimously elected President of the Topeka Town Association and appointed temporary agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. The bottom two-thirds of page 3 and 4 (which contained Holliday's signature) have been cut and removed.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Town Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town sites


Letter, I. T. Goodnow to Stephen French Jr, Esq.
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: December 16, 1854
Isaac Goodnow wrote from East Greenwich, Massachusetts, to Stephen French Jr. Goodnow communicated his excitement of having decided to emigrate to Kansas Territory the coming March, inspired by a conversation with Eli Thayer two weeks before. His motivations were varied, as he expressed his desire to see that slavery was prohibited in the Territory. However, he also mentioned that emigration to the Territory was a good way to get rich, and hoped that the climate there would be more suitable for his ailing wife, Ellen.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Emigration and immigration; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Town settlement


Illustration, Lawrence, Kansas, 1854-5
Authors: Rice, J. E.
Date: 1854 - 1855
This sketch of Lawrence, Kansas, circa 1854-5 was made by J. E. Rice. It is a view of Massachusetts and Vermont Streets facing North towards the Kansas River; a ferry is landing on the pier on New Hampshire Street. The illustration includes several homes and establishments of Lawrence's noteworthy first settlers.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Brooks, Paul R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Ferries; Fry, Samuel; Herald of Freedom; Hoyt, David Starr; Illustrations; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Kimball, S. & F.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Miller, Josiah; Pioneer House; Rice, J.E.; Sampson, Turner; Sands, J.G.; Settlement; Simpson, Samuel Newell; St. Nicholas House; Stearns, Charles


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Authors: Rice, J. E.
Date: 1855
Photograph of a sketch showing part of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855 by J. E. Rice. The sketch was photographed by H. T. Martin, 237 Kansas Ave., Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Martin, H. T.; Photographs and Illustrations; Sketches


Letter, Josiah Miller to Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: January 4, 1855
Josiah Miller, having arrived in Kansas Territory in August 1854, wrote to his father and mother in South Carolina about their impending journey to Kansas Territory. He offered them various suggestions on what provisions to bring and what routes to take, as they would be making the trip by wagon and not by railroad and boat. Miller also discussed his parents' options regarding land purchase and rent once they arrive in the new territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land claims; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Railroads; Squatters; Town lots; Travel; Wagon trains


Articles of Agreement, Hiram Hill and Thaddeus L. Whitney
Authors: Hill, Hiram ; Whitney, Thaddeus L.
Date: January 6, 1855
Thaddeus L. Whitney of Lawrence, Kansas Territory agreed to build a house in Lawrence for Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. Dimensions and materials were described in detail. Construction was to be completed "in good workmanlike manner." The time and amount of payment also were established. The articles of agreement were signed by Whitney, Hill, and S. N. Simpson as witness.

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Houses; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Expense Account, C. H. Branscomb to N. E. Emigrant Aid Co.
Authors: Branscomb, Charles H.
Date: January 1, 1855 - May 1, 1856
A typical expense report submitted by Charles H. Branscomb, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory, detailing his expenditures for 1855 and part of 1856. Among the expenses Branscomb listed were travel, postage, paper, and telegraph costs.

Keywords: Account books; Branscomb, Charles H.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Financial statements; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Postal service


Territorial Census, 1855, District 1
Authors: Babcock, Carmi William
Date: January-February, 1855
This census was taken in order to determine eligible voters for elections to be held as proclaimed by Governor Andrew Reeder on November 10, 1854. The categories for information in the census were name, occupation, age, male, female, emigrated from, native of United States, naturalized citizen, declarant (intention to become a citizen), Negro, slave, and voter. Only white males over 21 were eligible to vote. The districts used for the census were the same as the election districts. A statistical summary of the census follows the enumeration pages. For District 1, the place of election was the office of Dr. Charles Robinson in Lawrence. The boundaries of each district were described in Governor Reeder's proclamation and it is difficult to determine what counties were in each district. The description of the First District follows: "Commencing at the Missouri State line, on the south bank of the Kansas River; thence along the south bank of said river to the first tributary or watered ravine running into the Kansas above the town of Lawrence, thence up that tributary to the head thereof; thence in a direct line to the west side of __Rolf's house; thence, by a due south line, to the Santa Fe Road; thence by the middle of said road to the Missouri State line; and thence by said State line to the place of beginning."

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Shall Kansas be free?
Authors: Barker, Stephen
Date: February 7, 1855
Letter written about the Kansas Herald Of Freedom newspaper, and how it supported Kansas' entrance into the Union as a free state. It attempted to persuade other Bostonians to support the newspaper and its work on behalf of the free state cause.

Keywords: Barker, Stephen; Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Newspapers - Free State


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 11, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, where he had stopped on his way to visit Governor Andrew H. Reeder at the Shawnee Indian Mission. Holliday hoped to make the growing Topeka the capital of Kansas Territory. In Lawrence, a hotel keeper had died and George W. Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom, was ill. Despite mail-delaying winter storms further east, the weather continued mildly. Holliday described his financial investments and requested money for his trip to Meadville, more urgent as the birth of their first child approached.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Capitals (cities); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town settlement


Worcester County Kanzas League promotional brochure
Authors: Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909
Date: February 13, 1855
This circular letter was written by Edward E. Hale on behalf of the Worcester County Kanzas League. It was probably affiliated with the New England Emigrant Aid Company as many of the officers are the same. The document provided detailed information about how emigrants would get to Kansasand tips for settling once they got there. He also provided information on how to support the League through the purchase of stock.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Branscomb, Charles H.; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Railroads; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; St. Louis, Missouri; Steamboats; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Williams, John M. S.; Worcester County Kansas League; Worcester, Massachusetts


Diary, Franklin L. Crane
Authors: Crane, Franklin L.
Date: February 23, 1855 - September 29, 1856
The entries pertaining to Kansas Territory began on page 18, with Franklin Crane leaving his home in Easton, Pennsylvania with his son, Franklin Jr. He described their journey to Kansas and their initial impressions and travels while in the territory. In June 1855, he returned to Easton to sell his property so he could then return to Kansas. The later entries began in September of 1856 and described tensions in Topeka with efforts to build a fort and rumors of armed Missourians in the area.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Davis County, Kansas Territory; Easton, Pennsylvania; Geary County, Kansas; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town shares; Travel; Updegraff, E.; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: March 18, 1855
Writing from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday in Meadville, Pennsylvania, Cyrus K. Holliday joyfully reported receiving a letter from her. He planned to return to Meadville by the middle of April. He encouraged their friend Mr. Ingram to consider returning to Kansas Territory, but cautioned that investing in property was like buying lottery tickets. Holliday described cold weather, with snow indoors and out, and also inquired after family members' health.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Houses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Property disputes; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, T. [Thomas] C. Wells to Dear Mother, [Sarah Elizabeth Clarke Wells]
Authors: Wells, Thomas Clarke
Date: April 1, 1855
Born and raised in Rhode Island, twenty-three-year-old Thomas C. Wells apparently was a reluctant Kansas immigrant; his initial ambivalence was reflected in his first letter from Providence, RI, March 12, 1855, where he wrote: "I may yet see it best to return [home from Boston] and not go [to Kansas] at all." This, Clarke's first letter from "the far famed Kanzas Territory," was written from Topeka, but describes the journey from the boarder via Lawrence and reported is intention to "start for Big Blue, where Mr. Goodnow is tomorrow." Part of the journey was made in the company of some well-armed Missourians "who were going to Lawrence to vote," presumably in the March 30 legislative election. All Clarke's extensive correspondence from KT (March 24, 1855 to October 19, 1860) was published in 1936 in the KHQ and is now available digitally at http://www.kshs.org/library/khq/1936/36_2_wells.htm.

Keywords: Big Blue, Kansas Territory; Border ruffians; Elections; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Page's Hotel; Shawnee Indians; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wells, Thomas Clarke; Westport, Missouri


Letter, C. Robinson to E. Thayer
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 2, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts, described voting irregularities in the March 30, 1855 election of members to the territorial legislature. Robinson maintained that the election was "controlled entirely by Missourians" who came to the territory, took over the polling places, and cast illegal ballots to ensure that proslavery supporters were elected to the legislature. Robinson also reported that free staters in Lawrence had formed themselves into four military companies, and urged Thayer to send Sharps rifles and cannons for these forces.

Keywords: Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Free state perspective; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, C. Robinson to Rev. E. E. Hale
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 9, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Edward Everett Hale, commented that Free State supporters were forming military companies in response to perceived "outrageous conduct" by Missourians during the March 30, 1855, election of representatives for the territorial legislature. Robinson asked Hale to send two hundred Sharp's rifles and two cannon for the use of Lawrence settlers.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state; Guns; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Stubbs Militia Company Constitution, By-laws, and Charter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 16, 1855
The Stubbs militia company was organized on April 16, 1855, to protect Lawrence and the people of Kansas Territory. The constitution limited membership to 64 "rank and file" members and listed the duties of the various officers. The by-laws called for weekly drills, public parades once each three months, and indicated that prospective members had to be voted upon as well as paying ten dollars. Other expectations for members were detailed in the by-laws. The charter was the draft of a bill to be passed by the territorial legislature and listed the following as the incorporators of the Stubbs, a volunteer military company: Joseph Cracklin, A. Cutler, George F. Earle, John G. Crocker, Caleb S. Pratt, A. Gunther, and A. D. Searl. Although the document included the date of April 16, 1855, a date of 1858 was penciled above the title Constitution.

Keywords: Cracklin, Joseph; Crocker, John G.; Cutler, A.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Earle, Geroge F.; Free state activities; Gunther, A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Pratt, Caleb S.; Searl, Albert D.; Stubbs militia company


Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence
Authors: Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence: Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, et.al.
Date: June 2 1855
Quit-Claim Deed of the Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, turning ownership of lot #12 of Massachusetts Street over to Josiah Miller and Robert G. Elliott, of Miller and Elliott, publishers of the Kansas Free State newspaper.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Grover, Joel; Hutchinson, George W.; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Lykins, William H. R.; Miller, Josiah; Snyder, Samuel S.; Town development


Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Samuel Pomeroy
Authors: Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence: Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, et.al.
Date: June 2, 1855
This Quit-Claim deed documented Samuel C. Pomeroy's purchase of property in Lawrence, K.T., including lots on Vermont, Tennessee, Rhode Island, and several other streets, from the Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence, comprised of Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, John P. Wood, William H. R. Lykins, and George W. Hutchinson (S.N. Wood's name is printed on the document but crossed out by hand and Hutchinson's name written in).

Keywords: Grover, Joel; Hutchinson, George W.; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins, William H. R.; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Snyder, Samuel S.; Town lots; Wood, John P.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Education, temperance, freedom, religion in Kanzas
Authors: Beecher, Lyman , 1775-1863
Date: July 2, 1855
This letter, written by Lyman Beecher, encouraged clergymen to become life members in New England Emigrant Aid Society and to make statements about the four topics of freedom, education, temperance, and religion, as mentioned in the title. He also asked for investments in the New England Emigrant Aid Company.

Keywords: Antislavery; Baptists; Beecher, Lyman, 1775-1863; Catholic Church Missions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for the Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence
Authors: Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence: Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, et.al.
Date: July 7, 1855
This Quit-Claim Deed and Bond documented the investment of $1.00 made by Josiah Miller and Robert G. Elliot, publishers of the Kansas Free State newspaper, into Lawrence town shares.

Keywords: Allen, N.; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins, William H. R.; Miller, Josiah; Real estate investment; Snyder, Samuel S.; Town shares; Wood, John P.


Letter, E. Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Jones, Edmund
Date: July 26, 1855
Edmund Jones wrote to Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to report expenses, update Hill of construction progress, and request money. At this time, S. N. Simpson had returned east, and Jones oversaw the building of Hill's house in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Jones was in debt, unable to pay workers or buy supplies. Mr. Fuller, who seems to have rented another house owned by Hill (implied in S. N. Simpson's letter to Hill written September 4, 1855), refused to pay rent until the roof was repaired. Jones closed with concern for the security of lots in Lawrence.

Keywords: Construction; Cost and standard of living; Financial statements; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Town development; Town lots


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Mr. [Eli] Thayer
Authors: Branscomb, Charles H.; Robinson, Charles
Date: July 26, 1855
Charles Robinson, free state leader and activist, wrote to Eli Thayer, organizer of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, introducing James Abbott to him. Robinson described Abbott as trustworthy and "true as steel to the cause of Freedom in Kansas". He also expressed to Thayer that the rifles previously shipped to Lawrence had had a "very good effect", and suggested he procure more. At the end of Robinson's letter, Charles Branscomb, Secretary pro tempore of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, endorsed Robinson, an agent for the Company, and his support of Abbott.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Branscomb, Charles H.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: July 29, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote letters from several cities to his wife, Mary Holliday, after leaving their home at Meadville, Pennsylvania to return to business at Topeka, Kansas Territory. Once in Lawrence, K. T., he reported the political situation to his wife. Governor Andrew H. Reeder, who expected violence, and the fraudulently elected Territorial Legislature were at loggerheads. (Holliday had been elected to the Legislature in a reelection called by Governor Reeder during Holliday's absence, but the reelection results were rejected by the Legislature.) Holliday also mentioned the good corn crop and warm weather and expressed his love for his wife and daughter, Lillie, born March 18.

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence; Weather


Letter, Edmund Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Jones, Edmund
Date: July 29, 1855
Well before Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts could have received Edmund Jones' previous letter from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Jones received a bank draft from Hill. In this letter, Jones thanked him for the draft. He shortly expected two renters, Mrs. Herd and Mrs. Hall, to move into Hill's house in Lawrence. These renters wanted to build a house for their own borders on the lot behind. A store and an office were going up on either side of Hill's new house. James mentioned controversy over city lots but did not identify the source of this "new movement." He encouraged Hill to visit Lawrence a second time in early fall.

Keywords: Construction; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Town development; Town lots


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: August 12, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania of his journey to Kansas City to obtain a land warrant for Topeka and to attend the Free State Convention. Two of his articles had been published in The Herald of Freedom, a Lawrence newspaper, and he sent copies. Mentioning political difficulties, Holliday suggested that his wife wait until fall to travel to Kansas. He rented out his cabin in Topeka for profit. A deadly cholera epidemic at Fort Riley had ended.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free State Convention; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather; Wyandot Float


Letter, Edmund Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Jones, Edmund
Date: August 21, 1855
Edmund Jones wrote briefly from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. He referred to the security of town lots and a previously sent newspaper. Mr. Fuller, a delinquent renter, was "selling liquor" in Hill's house. Jones suggested that Hill come soon.

Keywords: Construction; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Liquor (see Alcoholic beverages); Massachusetts


Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [T. W. Higginson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: August 27, 1855
This letter, written by free state governor Charles Robinson, was sent to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist. Robinson discussed in rather general terms the troubles facing Kansas, stating that he believed this struggle did not only involve Kansas, "but I regard it as one in which the whole nation is involved." Robinson also expressed doubts that the North would support the free state settlers in the territory, writing that they can only "hope" for reinforcements, not take them for granted. He asked Higginson to stir up Northerners against the bogus legislature, and made mention of ex-Governor Reeder and opposition to the bogus legislature. In general, this letter eloquently demonstrates the passion of this free state leader and his dedication to the cause of liberty.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Bogus legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee Manual Labor School


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: August 29, 1855
Josiah Miller, making arrangements for his parents' journey from South Carolina to Kansas Territory, wrote to his father and mother from his office at the Kansas Free State newspaper. He told them of his need to purchase personal arms for his own protection and described to them a recent situation of election fraud. Miller also wrote that his goal, as a newspaper editor, was to "move men to support the Free State ticket." He added that he was having a falling out with Robert Elliott, his business partner.

Keywords: Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state activities; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspapers; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: September 4, 1855
S. N. Simpson of Lawrence, Kansas Territory wrote to Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts concerning the improvement of the town and Hill's property. He alluded to "outsiders" who had made "a little stir." Simpson had demanded rent payment from Mr. Fuller, who agreed to pay part. Hill's distance from the situation had encouraged Fuller's delinquency. Simpson planned to attend the free state convention on the 5th. On page 2, written after the convention, Simpson reported that Governor Reeder was living in Hill's new house. He also mentioned that one of Simpson's Sabbath schools had stopped meeting.

Keywords: Free State Convention; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development


Letter, E. [Edmund] Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Jones, Edmund
Date: September 4, 1855
Edmund Jones oversaw the building of a house in Lawrence, Kansas Territory for Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. He wrote to update Hill on construction progress. Jones was frustrated with the plasterer, Mr. Johnson, who was sick and whose work was poor and rate too high. S. N. Simpson had returned to town. Jones mentioned the health of Mrs. Whitney and Mrs. Herd. Page 2 is primarily a list of expenses for materials and labor and a list of amounts received, including rent income.

Keywords: Construction; Cost and standard of living; Financial statements; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to A. A. Lawrence
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 28, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Amos A. Lawrence, expressed his optimism about the prospects of Kansas entering the union as a free state within one year. Robinson also informed Lawrence that he had drawn upon him for $1000 to cover New England Emigrant Aid Company expenses.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Indian floats; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Election, location of capitol of Kansas, Topeka Convention, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 23, 1855
The Free-State government held a constitutional convention in Topeka from October 23 through November 11, 1855, and one of its actions was to vote on the capital of Kansas. According to these tally sheets, Topeka defeated Lawrence on the second ballot, 20 to 16. Numerous other towns received votes from the convention delegates on the first ballot.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state government; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: October 1, 1855
S. N. Simpson wrote concerning his attempts to collect rent from Mr. Fuller, who had not yet paid up, to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. The undefined "outside movement" was at rest. Lawrence property values were rising; Hill had bought several lots and a house for the price of a single lot on Massachusetts Street at the current rate.

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Town lots


Letter, [Hiram Hill] to Edmund Jones Esq
Authors: Jones, Edmund
Date: October 1, 1855
Hiram Hill wrote to Edmund Jones in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, where Jones was completing construction on Hill's new house. Hill was surprised by the amount of Jones' expenses, and he insisted that Jones negotiate payment of Mr. Johnson, the plasterer. Hill planned to visit Lawrence, but was delayed by his oldest brother's illness. Hill relayed the health of Hill family members and others. He had advised Mrs. Hill to go to Kansas to improve her health. The letter ends abruptly, without a signature, and it possibly lacks pages.

Keywords: Construction; Health; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Town development


Letter, E. Nute, Jr. to Rev. E. E. Hale
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: October 3, 1855
Ephraim Nute, a Unitarian minister writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Edward Everett Hale, described the natural environment, economic developments, politics, religious affairs, and daily life in Kansas Territory. Nute commented on the need for more saw mills, efforts to construct a church, prospects for "free-thinking Christianity," and the possibility of armed conflict in the territory.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Churches; Construction; Daily life; Economic development; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Houses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Sawmills; Timber; Unitarian churches; Violence


Legal Document, Abandonment of Land near Lawrence
Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.; Updegraff, E.
Date: October 15, 1855
This document dated October 15, 1855, and signed by Caleb S. Pratt, Levin B. Dennis, Joshia Smith, and R. T. Hooton, appeared to be their statement of abandonment for any claim to "lands situated in the vicinity of Lawrence" (640 acres) as defined within the agreement. It seemed that Charles Robinson was to locate "a Wyandotte Indian Float" on this same section of land.

Keywords: Dennis, Levin B.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hooten, R. T.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pratt, Caleb S.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Joshia; Updegraff, E.; Wyandot Float; Wyandot Indians


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: October 15, 1855
Josiah Miller, at his office at the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his Father and Mother in South Carolina regarding recent events. He supported Reeder in the October 9th election over the pro-slavery candidate, John W. Whitfield, and suspected that Reeder would be elected regardless of any fraudulently cast votes. Miller elaborated on his problems with Robert Elliott, his business partner, who had no money to invest further in their newspaper. He also mentioned that the most debated topic at the recently convened Nebraska Territorial Legislature was the location of their capital, not the slavery question.

Keywords: Contested elections; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Nebraska Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 31, 1855
During the afternoon session of Wednesday, October 31, 1855, Jim Lane presented a "Resolution which was ordered to be entered upon the Journal of the convention--said Resolution being the instructions given by the people of the 2nd Representative District" at a Lawrence meeting of October 7. The "instructions" and Lane's resolution provided that "the question of excluding Free Negroes from the Territory" be submitted to a vote of the people on the day they voted on the constitution itself.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Expense Sheet, Edmund Jones to H. Hill Jr
Authors: Hill, Hiram ; Jones, Edmund
Date: November 8, 1855
This expense sheet, signed by Edmund Jones, was apparently written by Hiram Hill. It includes amounts received by Jones during his oversight of the construction of Hill's house in Lawrence, the amount paid to Jones and Mr. Johnson (the plasterer), and the balance. The last column shows Hill's total expense for materials, labor, and land.

Keywords: Construction; Cost and standard of living; Finance; Financial statements; Hill, Hiram; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Town development


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, Afternoon Session
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: November 9, 1855
During the course of the proceedings recorded for the afternoon of November 9, 1855, discussion turned to the effort by Jim Lane to first include a provision for the "removal" of all blacks and then all "slaves" from Kansas by July 4, 1860. Charles Robinson supported an amendment which changed the effective date to July 4, 1857. All other provisions were to take effect immediately upon the adoption of the constitution.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Kansas Rifles Number 1 Military Festival
Authors: Kansas Rifles Number 1
Date: November 15, 1855
This document was an invitation to a military festival held on November 15, 1855, at 7:00 p.m. at the Free State Hotel in Lawrence, Kansas. The committee of arrangements consisted of Lieut> J. B. Conway, E. E. Lenhart, J. Mack, J. G. Crocker, and J. W. Colborn. The members of the committee of invitation were Theo. Clemens, Lieut. A. Cutler, and Geo. Earl (Earle?).

Keywords: Balls (parties); Clemens, Theo.; Colborn, J. W.; Conway, J. B.; Crocker, John G.; Cutler, A.; Earle, Geroge F.; Entertainment; Free State Hotel; Kansas Rifles Number 1; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lenhart, C. E.; Mack, J; Military


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Mr Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: November 20, 1855
S. N. Simpson wrote from Kansas City, Missouri to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, where Edmund Jones had recently returned (see Hill's letter to Jones of October 11, 1855). Simpson described development and rising property values in Lawrence. He detailed his attempts to collect rent from Mrs. Hall, who had cleaned in exchange for a month's rent. In language reminiscent of documents from the American Revolution, the last paragraph declared that Kansas could but would not break ties with the United States, partly because Kansas needed financial assistance. As evidence, Simpson asked Hill for church-building funds.

Keywords: Domestics; Hill, Hiram; Jones, Edmund; Kansas City, Missouri; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Rent; Simpson, H.M; Town development; Town lots; Women


Letter, W. E. G. [William Goodnow] to My Dear Wife [Harriet Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, William E.
Date: November 22, 1855
William Goodnow, recently arrived in Shannon, Kansas Territory, wrote to his wife, Harriet, who had remained in New England. Goodnow related his experiences traveling from Westport, Missouri, where he received quality hospitality from a slaveholder, to Lawrence, and finally to Shannon, where he met his brother, Isaac, and sister-in law. Goodnow also mentioned his recent subscription to the Herald of Freedom newspaper, which would be sent to her; he implored her to save all of them, as he wished them preserved. He added that they expected a rush of emigrants in the following spring.

Keywords: Goodnow, Harriet; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Goodnow, William E.; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory; Slaveholders; Travel; Westport, Missouri


Militia Commission, issue by James H. Lane to Joel Grover
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: November 27, 1855
This printed document, headed with the name "James H. Lane," announced the election and certification of Joel Grover as colonel of the 6th Regiment, First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers, raised "to defend the City of Lawrence from threatened destruction by foreign invaders." It is dated November 27, 1855, and signed "J. H. Lane," general commanding.

Keywords: Border ruffians; First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers; Free state militia; Grover, Joel; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 6, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote briefly from Free State Headquarters in Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, describing the number and location of surrounding Proslavery forces and of Free State forces gathered in Lawrence. Cyrus had been working for peace, but was prepared to fight in a shortly expected attack.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 7, 1855
Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts en route to Kansas City and ultimately to Lawrence, Kansas Territory, wrote from Richmond, Missouri to his brother. He relayed the murder of an unnamed free state man (likely Charles W. Dow), the gathering of 1,100 free state and 800 proslavery men at Lawrence, and other Wakarusa War events. Hill, a free state supporter, felt that the information he received from Missourians was inaccurate or exaggerated. He doubted reports that 60 proslavery men had been killed at Lawrence, or of abolitionists driving proslavery settlers from their homes. Hill reported the arrests of free state men including Judge Johnson and General Pomeroy, who he heard had escaped.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Cannons; Dow, Charles W.; Free state perspective; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery perspective; Sharps rifles; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, [Hiram Hill] to Dear Wife
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 8, 1855 - December 9, 1855
Hiram Hill wrote from Westport, Missouri to his wife as he received new information concerning the Wakarusa War at Lawrence. Hill was frustrated by these reports, which conflicted and were from the proslavery perspective, and which concerned the number of free state and proslavery soldiers, the status of the war, and government action taken to prevent conflict. Hill was also troubled by shameless "traveling and drinking and swearing" and gunshots on the Sabbath. The last page of the letter expresses his relief at news of peace in Lawrence, where he would learn "the other syde of the story" upon arrival. The murder of Thomas W. Barber, who rode outside Lawrence and was shot by a proslavery supporter on December 6th, was mentioned. Hill also described an eventful stagecoach journey.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Cannons; Daily life; Free state militia; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery perspective; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Stagecoaches; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Wakarusa Treaty
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles ; Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 8, 1855
A draft of an agreement between Governor Wilson Shannon, representing the territorial government, and Charles Robinson and James Lane, representing the free state movement, settling the dispute that resulted in the Wakarusa War. In essence, Robinson and Lane pledged to "aid in the execution of any legal process" against individuals involved in rescuing free state supporter Jacob Branson provided that these individuals received a hearing before a U.S. District Court judge. This compromise ended the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter/Order, Wilson Shannon to C. Robinson and J. H. Lane
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 9, 1855
According to D. W. Wilder, Governor Wilson Shannon arrived in Lawrence on December 7, 1855, and on December 8 made "a treaty with the Free-State Generals" ending the Wakarusa War. The paper was signed by Shannon, Robinson and Lane. With the document represented here, dated Lawrence, December 9, 1855, Governor Shannon "authorized & directed [Robinson and Lane] to take such measures & use the enrolled force under your command in such manner for the preservation of the peace & the protection of the persons & property of the people in Lawrence & vicinity as in your judgment shall best secure that end." ( A subsequent notation indicated that the order was written in Robinson's hand, but signed by Shannon.)

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Certificate, Head Quarters Kansas Volunteers
Authors: Kansas Volunteers
Date: December 12, 1855
This certificate, signed by Charles Robinson and James Lane, was issued by the Head Quarters of the Kansas Volunteers, a Free state militia group led by Robinson. It documented Robert Gilbert's service "in defending the City of Lawrence. . .from demolition by foreign invaders" during the Wakarusa War. Gilbert had arrived in Kansas Territory only weeks before, having traveled from his native England.

Keywords: Battles; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Free state regiment; Gilbert, Robert L.; Hunt, Morris; Immigrants; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wilder, Solomon


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 13, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday, who had been appointed colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Kansas Troops, hoped that the Wakarusa War would be the last armed conflict in Kansas Territory. Writing from Free State Headquarters in Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, he described the preparations of troops in Lawrence during the War. He told Mary of his receipt of a draft and the sale of a bond, and assured her that the boats to Kansas were still running.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state regiment; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Proslavery activities; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, unsigned [Marc Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: December 15, 1855
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus recounted the events of the Wakarusa War, and described the actions of the Missourians prior to their attack, which supported his idea that it was premeditated. He told about his experience as a prisoner in the Missourians' camp and his interview with Governor Shannon regarding a peace treaty between the two groups. Marcus was pleased with the terms of the treaty, but was wary of Shannon's motives, saying that he was trying to "ring in" the free state party.

Keywords: Ammunition; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Barber, Thomas W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weapons (see also Guns)


The Vote on the Constitution
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. December 15, 1855
This article, printed in the Kansas Freeman newspaper, gave a preliminary count of the votes cast in the election to ratify the Topeka Constitution. The other two issues on the ballot were whether or not slaves should be excluded from the territory, and whether or not the territory should have a general banking law. The returns from Lawrence, Topeka, and Tecumseh are all listed, but not all the returns had been tallied.

Keywords: African Americans; Banks and banking; Constitutions; Elections; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Slaves; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka, Kansas


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: December 16, 1855
Soon after his return from Lawrence, where he and other volunteers had successfully defended that place, John Brown wrote from Osawatomie to give his family "a brief account of the invasion," the so-called Wakarusa War. As it turned out, Brown provided some interesting details about their preparations and arrival in the besieged city and the negotiations that were ongoing when the Browns came on the scene. The Free State leaders, according to Brown, skillfully accomplished and signed an agreement with Governor Shannon that was "much to their own liking."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Barber, Thomas W.; Bogus legislature; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Coleman, Franklin M.; Dow, Charles W.; Free state cause; Free state militia; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery supporters; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Wife
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 12, 1855
Hiram Hill arrived in Lawrence, Kansas Territory shortly after the end of the Wakarusa War. This letter to his wife reviewed the events of the war, made mention of women's assistance, described Hill's journey from Leavenworth with Mr. Conway, and gave an account of Thomas W. Barber's funeral, at which Charles Robinson and James Lane spoke. Barber was killed south of Lawrence on the 6th. Hill had met Mr. Whitney, Judge Johnson, Mr. Haskell, and Mr. Simpson, and planned to visit Charles Robinson. Hill also detailed Governor Shannon's settlement with free state leaders at Lawrence.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Funerals; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Town development; Travel; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Women


Daily diary, Isaac Goodnow
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: July 1855 - January 1856
Isaac Goodnow, a free state supporter and founder of Bluemont College in Manhattan, Kansas Territory, recorded news of political events and military skirmishes from July 1855-January 1856. Goodnow's diary makes mention of the details of his daily life, such as home maintenance, crop harvests, prairie fires, and extended illness.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Daily life; Denison, Joseph; Elections; Free state activities; Free state support; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Schuyler, Philip Church; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Constitution; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Quilt, New England Emigrant Aid Company
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
Fragment of comforter made by women from the Boston-based New England Emigrant Aid Society. The comforter was sold at a charity raffle in Lawrence in 1855. Proceeds were given to free-state settlers. The fabric is believed to have been taken from Revolutionary War uniforms. Dr. Sylvester B. Prentiss purchased the comforter, which was later divided into sections and distributed among his family members.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Emigrant aid companies; Free state; Free state cause; House furnishings; Immigration and early settlement; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Objects; Prentiss, S.B.


Directory, City of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
This transcript of the 1855 City of Lawrence Directory not only lists landowners and landholdings by street address, but also includes an index of landholdings by last name of the landowner.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


Directory, City Directory of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
Early directory lists landowners and landholdings by street address and includes names of prominent political figures of Kansas' Territorial period. The settlement previously known as "Wakarusa" had only been known as Lawrence for less than a year.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


Photograph, First House in Lawrence
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1855
This was the first house in Lawrence, a log cabin, belonging to Clark Stearns (also known as Charles Stearns). It was located at 620 Massachusetts Street.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Stearns, Charles; Town development


Portrait, Andrew H. Reeder
Authors: Hall, Cyrenius
Date: 1855
Portrait of Andrew H. Reeder, first territorial governor. In 1855 Reeder was removed from office by President Pierce and was forced to leave Kansas when threatened by a pro-slavery grand jury. He escaped with the help of Thomas and Julia Stinson, who dressed him in women's clothing. Later, Reeder disguised himself as a woodcutter (as depicted in this painting) and escaped via a steamer on the Missouri River. Artist Cyrenius Hall painted this portrait in 1880.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Stinson, Julia; Stinson, Thomas N.; Violence


Circular, Informational Letter regarding Emigration to Kansas
Authors: Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909
Date: 1855
Edward Hale was the author of this printed letter describing the services provided by the [New England] Emigrant Aid Company and the conditions of settlement in Kansas Territory. Hale included information regarding cost of travel and settlement, conditions of land acquisition, job opportunities, and relations with local Indians. He also addressed the slavery question, and already mentioned occurrences of election fraud on the part of proslavery supporters, but concluded that, in his own opinion "there is no danger whatever for Kanzas".

Keywords: Business enterprises; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Libraries; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement; Slavery; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Travel; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Williams, John M. S.


Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to A. H. Shurtleff
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1856
William Hutchinson, secretary of the Kansas Central Committee, wrote from Lawrence to A. Havington Shurtleff, agent for the New York State Kansas Committee. Hutchinson was responding to Shutleff's request for an assessment of the efforts to send emigrant parties and relief to Kansas Territory. Overall, Hutchinson offered a fairly negative view of the efforts of the eastern emigrant aid societies to send relief and emigrants to the territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Relief; Shurtleff, A. Havington


Photograph, Ruins of the Free State Hotel
Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: 1856
An illustration of the Free State Hotel ruins, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856, copied from Kansas: Its Interior and Exterior Life by Mrs. Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
View of Massachusetts Street from Fort to Ave, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, March, 1856.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets


Photograph, Pioneers near Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Unidentified pioneers near Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Pioneers


Lawrence Land Agency
Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: 1856
Advertisement about the Lawrence Land Agency, which provided information about the services the agency offered to settlers.

Keywords: Bonds; Land acquisition; Land sales; Land surveys; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Loans; Pratt, Caleb S.; Real estate


An appeal from the merchants of Lawrence, Kansas territory, to the Chamber of Commerce, St. Louis, Mo.
Authors: Merchants of Lawrence
Date: 1856
Lawrence merchants appealed to the St. Louis business community to take steps to prevent Missourians from invading Kansas Territory. They based their request on the negative impact that the invasions would have on commerce between Missouri and Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Commerce; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Merchants; St. Louis, Missouri


Bill of Plastering, Hiram Hill to B. Johnson
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 5, 1856
This handwritten bill charged Hiram Hill for plastering work (presumably in his new home in Lawrence, Kansas Territory) done by B. Johnson. Johnson initialed the document, and noted his receipt of Hill's payment in full.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Labor; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment


Statement on the Central Committee
Authors: Undersigned Citizens of Kansas Territory, John Stroup (first signature)
Date: January 8, 1856
This document, signed by Kansas citizens from the Lawrence area, deplores the condition of the Central Committee's room and office. These citizens claim that they were mistreated and that the relief effort should be placed in more benevolent hands. They ask that the National Kansas Committee "remove the present incumbents and apoint persons Who have Some feeling for poor Suffering humanity." It concludes with a list of signatures.

Keywords: Central Relief Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief


Stock Certificate, New England Emigrant Aid Company
Authors: New England Emigrant Aid Company
Date: January 15, 1856
Dated January 15, 1856, this certificate of stock--one share--in the New England Emigrant Aid Company was issued to "John Brown Lawrence K.T."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Stock certificates; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Ledger, Cost of House Bill at Lawrence, Kansas
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 1856
This informal ledger provides a list of amounts Hiram Hill paid for home building materials and one year of insurance for his new home in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Hill immigrated to the Territory from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment


Ledger, Accounts Paid
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 1856
This informal ledger documents expenses paid and monies lent by Hiram Hill during a visit to Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Included on his provisions list are prices for buffalo skins and overshoes.

Keywords: Account books; Debt; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Money; Prices


Excerpt from letter, I. T. G [Isaac Goodnow] to [unknown]
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: January/February 1856
In the wake of the Wakarusa War, Isaac Goodnow wrote to an unknown recipient regarding recent skirmishes and negotiations between proslavery and free state supporters. According to Goodnow, Governor Shannon had demanded that the free state men surrender their Sharp's rifles and obey the laws of the "bogus" legislature. Governor Robinson had responded, telling his men to "keep the rifles, but surrender their contents." Goodnow also commented on the "determined heroism" of the free state women, and recounted the incident of voter fraud which occurred in the Delegate to Congress election between former Governor Reeder and J. W. Whitfield.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Election fraud; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879; Women


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every One
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: February 1, 1856
From Osawatomie, Brown wrote of the continued severe winter and "the fierce Winds of Kansas," as well as his desire to visit the family at North Elba, New York. But he also mentioned that they had "just learned of some new, & shocking outrages at Leavenworth; & that the Free State people there have fled to Lawrence." Although more conflict threatened, Brown expected little action until the weather improved.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Salmon; Free state supporters; Household activities; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; North Elba, New York; Proslavery activities; Weather


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: February 9, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott. Marcus described the events of his ride home from a business meeting in Lawrence, where he encountered a funeral procession for his friend T. C. Shoemaker, who had been beaten to death for "abusing" Mayor William E. Murphy. Marcus equated this murder to the assault on William Phillips in May 1855, and anticipated that there would only be a "so-called" trial for the men responsible. He also told his brother to be prepared to come to Kansas Territory in April.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Land claim disputes; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Murphey, William E; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Washington Birth-Day Ball by the Kansas Rifles No. One.
Authors: Kansas Rifles No. One
Date: February 22, 1856
The Kansas Rifles No. One sponsored this ball to be held at the Free State Hotel in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, "in honor of the Day which gave birth to th Immortal Washington." The committee of arrangements consisted of J. W. Colburn, James H. Lane, A. Cutler, A. D. Searl, W. L. Brigden, Chas. Robinson, John G. Cropsker, James R. White, E. Emmerson, and B. F. Swift. Tickets to the event were $2.00.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Community life; Cutler, George A.; Daily life; Dance parties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parties; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Searl, Albert D.


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 26, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday reported an uncertain peace from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. President Franklin Pierce's January 24th announcement had commanded assemblies organized against the constitutional territorial government to disperse, and whether Missourians would carry out a threatened attack at the March 4th meeting in Topeka was unknown. Cyrus hoped to visit Meadville and sent a message to Professor Hammett. He also told Mary of his commission as Brigadier General of the Free State military.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Missourians; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Invitation to Washington's Birth-day Ball
Authors: Kansas Rifles Number 1
Date: February 1856
A printed invitation to a Washington's birthday ball hosted by the Kansas Rifles No. 1 at the Free State Hotel on February 22, 1856.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Entertainment; Free State Hotel; Invitation; Kansas Rifles Number 1; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, Hiram Hill to E. B. Whitman
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: March 28, 1856
Hiram Hill wrote from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to E.B. Whitman, presumably in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Hill asked him for the news of Lawrence, including the progress of several buildings' construction and the development of Whitman's map. Hill also inquired about Wyandotte and Shawnee Indian lands in the area, and expressed his interest in investing in them, as long as the land was good.

Keywords: Free State Hotel; Hill, Hiram; Indian lands; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Maps; Shawnee Indians; Wyandot Indians


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to My Dear Parents and Sister
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: April 6, 1856
In this, his first extant letter from Kansas Territory, Oscar Learnard wrote his parents and sister in Vermont that Lawrence was now his "distant and strangely romantic retreat." This letter recorded Learnard's early impressions of "unfortunate abused Kansas." The situation was bad, but the reality of "Kansas affairs" was being distorted in the Eastern press. Learnard made reference to the bogus laws, the Free State movement, and the anticipated congressional investigation.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Vermont


Letter, G. W. Deitzler to Bradford R. Wood
Authors: Deitzler, George W.
Date: April 7, 1856
Deitzler, writing from Lawrence, offered recommendations to Wood, a New York State Kansas Committee representative, on the best emigration route to Kansas. Deitzler suggested that New York emigrants consider settling on Shawnee Reserve land in Kansas as soon as it was opened to settlement. He also requested monetary aid from the New York State Kansas Committee for free state settlers already in Kansas.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Wood, Bradford R.


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr.
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: April 9, 1856
Samuel N. Simpson wrote to Hiram Hill from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, updating him on the status of Hill's rents and outlining the rental agreements he had arranged with the various tenants. Simpson mentioned he had raised the $5000 for the church, as promised, and that Hill's money could not be invested in Wyandotte lands until they were properly surveyed. He added that he had recently brought firearms to Kansas Territory, stating " I think our trouble in Kansas has only begun -- but let the war and even dissolution come -- the quicker the better."

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: April 30, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, regarding recent land propositions and "excitement": U.S. Troops had been in and out of Lawrence daily, looking to arrest various citizens. Simpson also described his attempts to negotiate land ownership with others who were interested in developing West Lawrence, and sought the approval of Hill in the matter.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Military; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; United States. Army


Letter, Noah Cameron to Bradford R. Wood
Authors: Cameron, Noah
Date: April 30, 1856
Noah Cameron, writing from Lawrence, expressed his views on the economic prospects for persons interested in migrating to Kansas. He advised Bradford Wood, a New York State Kansas Committee representative, to emphasize the economic opportunities in Kansas while also being realistic about the hardships that settlers would face in Kansas.

Keywords: Cameron, Noah; Economic conditions; Economic development; Emigration and immigration; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Wood, Bradford R.


Photograph, Free State Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Authors: Gibbons, Robert O.
Date: 1856
A painting of the Free State Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas Territory by Robert O. Gibbons. In May 1856, the proslavery sheriff of Douglas County, Samuel Jones, led a posse into Lawrence, the major Free-State stronghold. The chief damage was the burning of the Free-state Hotel shown in this painting.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Gibbons, Robert O.; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Public letter with Interrogatories
Authors: Whitman and Searl
Date: May 8, 1856
Edmund A. Whitman and Albert D. Searl established an Emigrants' Intelligence Office in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. They stressed the importance of finding out information about the country before making a decision about acquiring land in a particular area. This printed letter outlines several issues to be considered and also presents a series of twenty-two questions that they recommend be answered when considering where to settle. While a few of the questions relate to the slave versus free state controversy, most are general concerns to be considered in selecting a place to live. Whitman and Searl produced at least one early Kansas map.

Keywords: Business; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrants' Intelligence Office; Emigration and immigration; Immigrants; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Immigration and early settlement; Land acquisition; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Settlement; Whitman and Searl; Whitman, E. B.


Rules and Regulations, Eldridge House
Authors: Eldridge, T. B.; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899
Date: May 10, 1856
The Eldridge House (or hotel) was built in Lawrence, Kansas Territory by the New England Emigrant Aid Society. It was something of a headquarters for the free state movement and as such it was targeted for destruction by Sheriff Jones' proslavery posse, which sacked Lawrence on May 21, 1856, less than two weeks after this document was created. This pocket-sized card contained twelve "rules and regulations" for residents, including the admonition to "lock and bolt the door when you retire," a prohibition against "all kinds of Gaming," and the notice that "persons without Baggage are expected to pay in advance."

Keywords: Boardinghouses; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Eldridge, Thomas B.; Gaming restrictions; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: May 15, 1856
Expecting a clash between free state and proslavery forces at Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Cyrus K. Holliday wrote last instructions to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Despite the threat of violence, Mary was to travel to Topeka, K. T. with Mr. Nichols, where Cyrus had traded shares to Milton C. Dickey for a house. He told her of a debt to E. S. Dexter of Massachusetts and a share in Centropolis, established that year in Franklin County. While emphasizing business matters, Cyrus did not neglect to express his love.

Keywords: Centropolis, Kansas Territory; Dickey, Milton C.; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Senate Executive Documents, Reports from Colonel E.V. Sumner
Authors: Sumner, Edwin Vose
Date: May 16, 1856 - August 31, 1856
Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner, leader of a Kansas Territory cavalry regiment, corresponded primarily with Territorial Governer Wilson Shannon and the Secretary of War's Adjutant General regarding military action taken in response to the Sack of Lawrence and the subsequent retaliatory skirmishes between free state and proslavery men. Sumner maintained that safety in the Territory could not be guaranteed "unless the posse of the U.S. Marshal was dismissed" in favor of local troops. Fearing civil war, Sumner and his correspondents discussed the convening of the Topeka Legislature, which they dubbed "bogus".

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Skirmishing; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States marshals; Violence; Woodson, Daniel


"Southern Rights" flag
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 21, 1856
Pro-slavery forces carried this flag while attacking the anti-slavery stronghold of Lawrence. Sheriff Samuel Jones led the group in sacking the town on May 21, 1856. A group of South Carolinians known as the Palmetto Guards participated in the attack, and flew their "Southern Rights" flag over the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper offices and the Free State Hotel before destroying the buildings.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Flags and banners; Free State Hotel; Herald of Freedom; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Palmetto Guards; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; South Carolina; Violence


Speech, David R. Atchison to Pro-Slavery "Soldiers"
Authors: Atchison, David R.; Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: May 21, 1856
According to a note on the top of page one made later by R. J. Hinton, "this report was made for me [Hinton] by or under the direction of Lt. Gov. (Dr.) Root [Joseph Pomeroy Root, subsequently elected the state's first lieutenant governor under the Wyandotte Constitution], who was a prisoner, heard & reported the speech" made by David Atchison to the assembled proslave "Soldiers" camped two miles west of Lawrence before they marched on and sacked the town on May 21, 1856. The transcript is labeled "Hon. David R. Atchison's Speech . . ." and begins, "This is the most glorious day of my life! This day I am a border-ruffian!" Amidst "Yells" and "Cheers," Atchison rallied the "true sons of the noble South," encouraging them to "tear down their Free State Hotel" and "thow into the Kanzas their printing presses," and to bravely follow their "worthy . . . Leader, Col. [John H.] Stringfellow!"

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Beecher Bibles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free State Hotel; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers - Free State; Pierce administration; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Southerners; Stringfellow, John H.


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: May 23, 1856
Written just two days after the sack of Lawrence, this letter contained Learnard's observations of and reflections on "the fearful disaster to which this unfortunate town has been subjected." The town's citizens, wrote Learnard, chose not to resist the authority of the U.S. marshal but were nevertheless brutalized by Sheriff Jones and a posse of Missourians. He also mentioned Governor Reeder, Governor Shannon and David R. Atchison, who "made a speech."

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Missourians; Proslavery support; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence


Letter, Jas Finley to Dear Sister
Authors: Finley, James Agnew
Date: May 24, 1856
James A. Finley, a Lawrence resident at the time of the Sack of Lawrence, wrote to his sister recounting the events that had transpired only three days before. Concisely but vividly he described events as they unfolded from the morning of May 21st, when David Atchison "planted 2 cannon upon the hill above town." Finley, a more fortunate man than many in Lawrence that day, claimed to have suffered no losses in the incident.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Finley, James Agnew; Free state perspective; Guns; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Smith, George W.; United States marshals; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, S. P. Hanscom to Mrs. Sara T. D. Robinson
Authors: Hanscom, S. P.
Date: May 25, 1856
On Sunday, May 25, 1856, "at the request of Gov. Robinson," S. P. Hanscom wrote Sara Robinson to assure her that her "esteemed and gallant husband" was well. This remarkably detailed letter describes the governor's captivity, the bogus charges filed against him, and circumstances that brought him to Leavenworth. Hanscom found that Robinson was receiving many visitors, including Congressman William A. Howard, chair of the congressional committee investigating Kansas troubles.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus laws; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Hanscom, S. P.; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Howard, William Alanson; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Martin, John W.; Preston, Colonel; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stringfellow, John H.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Treason; Westport, Missouri


Letter, Wm Phillips to Respected Madam [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Phillips, William
Date: May 26, 1856
William Phillips, after visiting Charles Robinson in jail, wrote to Sara Robinson updating her on her husband's situation. Phillips reported to her that Charles was being held on two counts: one for high treason and the other for usurping office. He also related to her the events of the sack of Lawrence and the resulting destruction of her home.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Phillips, William; Preston, Colonel; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: June 6, 1856
From an embattled Lawrence, Learnard again wrote of near daily "occurrences of exciting interest," including skirmishes between the two "antagonistic parties" and actions of federal troops to "quell disturbances." The problem was with Missourians who had crossed over the border, not "actual settlers." Learnard claimed to be ready to do battle with them over the issue of "slavery or liberty in this country," and predicted that if things continued in this same direction, the entire country would soon be "embroiled in civil war."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Civil war; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Federal troops; Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Skirmishing; Slavery; Vermont; Violence


Letter, Mr. [William B.] Hutchinson to Friend [Cyrus K.] Holliday
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: June 6, 1856
William B. Hutchinson of Lawrence, Kansas Territory wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, K. T., requesting support for a People's Mass Convention in Topeka on July 4. The gathering Free-Staters would be armed in case of opposition. Colonel Edwin V. Sumner had received orders on June 4th from K. T. Governor Wilson Shannon to disband unlawful military forces. The camp from which Hutchinson wrote had complied, but John W. Whitfield and his troops, camped at Bull Creek, refused. Hutchinson described northern enthusiasm to aid financially the free state cause. John H. Reeder and James H. Lane were speaking in northern states.

Keywords: Free State Convention; Free state support; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Advertisement, Emigrant's Intelligence Office
Authors: Whitman and Searl
Date: June 15, 1856
This advertisement by Whitman and Searl, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, stated that they were proposing to open an Emigrant's Intelligence Office to "meet the urgent demands by emigrants, for accurate and reliable information in regard to the different sections of the Territory." Apparently, they had worked to create a map of Kansas, which made them qualified for this task. They also offered their services as general land agents and wrote that they "are also prepared to lay out town sites and to survey farm claims," to "negotiate the sale and transfer of town property," and to "investigate the validity of titles."

Keywords: Advertisements; Emigrants' Intelligence Office; Emigration and immigration; Land; Land acquisition; Land sales; Land surveys; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Settlement; Town sites; Whitman and Searl; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: June 17, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported the recent shooting death of a free state man by a proslavery Tennessee man. Despite this and other eruptions of violence, Simpson declared that " Lawrence as a city is yet in existence and from the character of the people I think we shall long exist" and that "slavery will cut her own life". He displayed little faith that the Territory's present government could produce and uphold a proslavery constitution. Simpson also mentioned Hill's property holdings, all full and paying rent.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Violent deaths; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to S. N. Simpson
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: June 17, 1856
Hiram Hill wrote from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts to Samuel Simpson in Kansas Territory, responding to the news of recent violence there. Hill reported that the public was excited over the Kansas troubles and the Kansas question in Congress. Hill demonstrated his resolve in supporting the free state cause, stating that "Slavery has got us so close in her embrase [sic] that it will take a mighty struggle to throw her off if we cannot change our government in no other way than by Revolution I don't care how soon it comes". He also responded to Simpson's reports regarding the construction of his home in KT, trouble with delinquent tenants, and the market for land sales.

Keywords: Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National politics; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town lots; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Daybook
Authors: Emery, James Stanley
Date: July 4, 1856 through June 19, 1857
Account book entries recorded Emery's loss of personal property as a result of July 1856 violence between free state and proslavery advocates. Emery also recorded his expenses for making repairs to his damaged law office.

Keywords: Account books; Arson; Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Fires; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lawyers; Violence


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr.
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: July 7, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported to Hill that the Topeka Legislature had recently been dispersed by U.S. Troops under order of President Pierce, and that southern emigrants were coming into Kansas Territory by "hundreds" while the northern emigrants found themselves forced out by proslavery supporters. Short on time, Simpson kept his report regarding Hill's properties short; Whitney had almost finished his home, offers had been made on various lots, Mr. Fuller continued to be a problem.

Keywords: Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell


Letter, G. W. Smith, Jr., to Gentlemen of the Kansas Central Committee
Authors: Smith, Jr., George W.
Date: July 17, 1857
George W. Smith, Jr., Lawrence, signed this letter, requesting a supply of "arms . . . for distribution among the Free State men who have formed themselves into Companies," Captain, "Munger Battalion, Free State Forces." Smith wrote that he led "a force of 32 mounted" men, most of whom were veterans of the "wars of Kansas," and requested the loan of "32 sabres [sic] and any revolvers that you may have to give them."

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Free state militia; Guns; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, O.E. Learnard to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: July 23, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote his father, S.T. Learnard, that he was disappointed in the attitude of people in Vermont and throughout the North who continued to support the Pierce administration. If they did so because they were Democrats, they should learn from Andrew H. Reeder, J. H. Lane, William Y. Roberts, and others who had seen the light. Learnard admitted "a few cases" of free state retaliation "upon their oppressors," and then gave some "facts" about the "Patawotamie" incident, while not mentioning John Brown by name. Learnard believed that the reports about mangled bodies were untrue.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Northern Democrats; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Roberts, William Young; Vermont; Violence; Violent deaths


Bill, Gaius Jenkins to Kansas State Central Committee
Authors: Jenkins, Gaius
Date: June 24, 1856
Most of the items on this itemized bill, presented to the Kansas State Central Committee by Gaius Jenkins of Lawrence (a free-state man who was subsequently shot and killed by Jim Lane), are related to armaments (powder, lead, etc.) or other necessities for supplying a militia force.

Keywords: Ammunition; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Kansas State Central Committee; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: July 24, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill, reporting on the status of Hill's various real estate investments, "all doing well". Simpson was able to take possession of a town lot owned by tenant Fuller instead of a rent payment. The majority of the lots of West Lawrence were allotted to Simpson, who intended to build an avenue through it immediately. Simpson expressed for old times back in Massachusetts at the Hill's home, and predicted that the "dark times" in Kansas would pass by the next spring. Meanwhile, he said border ruffians still killed and robbed, only to seek the protection of U.S. Troops and escape punishment.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Skirmishing; Town development; Town lots


Receipt, D. A. Clayton, Jr. to G. W. Hutchinson and William Hutchinson
Authors: Clayton, D. A., Jr.
Date: July 25, 1856
D. A. Clayton, Jr., of Topeka had received and promised to deliver to G. W. and William Hutchinson of Lawrence $134.95 worth of articles: sugar, candles, pepper, mustard, cinnamon, and flour. Under Clayton's signature is a note indicating that the provisions were supplied to "Company B.," which was under the command of H. A. Burgess.

Keywords: Free state cause; Free state militia; Hutchinson, George W.; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Receipts; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: August 10, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote from Lawrence of his continued commitment to the "Sacked City," insisting that he would not be "bullied or frightened" by those committing outrages in Kansas Territory. He commented on the political composition of the territory and Lawrence, where he found many Douglas Democrats. Although there were some "fanatics" and "abolitionists," most residents of Lawrence were "western men" who had been driven to oppose the administration by the outrages. He insisted that the significance of the New England Emigrant Company had been exaggerated and that although more violent confrontations were likely, Kansas would eventually be free.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Douglas Democrats; Dragoons; Free State Party; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pierce administration; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Sir [J. A. Halderman]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
The former governor wrote this letter from Easton, Pennsylvania, to his former secretary and attorney, J. A. Halderman, in order to secure his services in an effort to retrieve some personal papers and settle some matters of business pertaining to town lots and shares. According to Reeder, "the Sheriff posse at the sacking of Lawrence broke open my trunk and stole the contents. The clothing is probably by this time worn out" and he was not concerned about other contents, with the exception of "some private papers" that someone had informed him could be retrieved. He asked Halderman to get the papers, which included "certificates of stock in Leavenworth, Tecumseh, Lecompton, Lawrence, Easton, Pawnee" etc., and then take care of business matters that were reflected therein--"some obligations for money, leases contracts Receipts & etc." Reeder also asked Halderman "to attend to my Leavenworth lots" and went into considerable detail about these matters.

Keywords: Businessmen; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Easton, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leases; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Stock certificates; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town shares


Letter, H. [Harris] Stratton to Mr. Brown [John Brown]
Authors: Stratton, Harris
Date: August 12, 1856
In this brief note from Topeka, Harris Stratton told John Brown that "Gen Joe Cook" (Jim Lane) wanted Brown to come to Lawrence as they were expecting "a fight on Washington Creek."

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stratton, Harris; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory


Circular, Kansas -- Help! Help!
Authors: Hurd, H. B.; Lawrence Citizens
Date: August 13, 1856
This circular was composed of two parts. The first section was a letter written from Lawrence to the National Kansas Committee, asked for help because of the conflict in Kansas, stating that "instant action alone can save our people from destruction." The letter briefly mentioned the recent attack on Lawrence and the proslavery forces which were gathering and organizing. Although there was a lull in the fighting, the citizens of Lawrence were looking for assistance and relief. The second part was a response written by H. B. Hurd, secretary of the National Kansas Committee, encouraging emigration to Kansas but raising the possibility that free state settlers in the territory must at times defend their rights. He wrote that "Kansas is now in a state of open war."

Keywords: Circulars; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Hurd, H. B.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; National Kansas Committee; Proslavery activities; Relief; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Letter, [John Brown, Jr.] to [John Brown]
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: August 14, 1856
Although this document is unsigned, it is almost certainly a letter from John Brown, Jr., to his father. The former was at a "camp" near Lecompton, still in the custody of territorial officials, and he wanted his father to come for a visit. John, Jr. provides instructions on how this might be done safely; he believed it could be, but warned, "don't let them get you."

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners


Letter, A. D. Searl to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Searl, Albert D.
Date: August 21, 1856
The author wrote from Tabor, Iowa to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. He began the letter by mentioning a skirmish between pro-slavery and free state forces somewhere between Lawrence and Topeka. This correspondence also deals with emigrant settlements within the territory, the shipment of weapons and provisions, and the morale among the emigrants as they struggled to make ends meet. Furthermore, Searl mentioned a great deal about James Lane and his activities within Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Big Blue, Kansas Territory; Blanchard, A. J.; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa City, Iowa; Lane Trail; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Law and Order Party; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Plattsmouth, Nebraska; Relief funds; Searl, Albert D.; Skirmishing; Topeka, Kansas


Titus Sword
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Three months after the sack of Lawrence, the Free State Milita attacked the pro-slavery stronghold of Fort Titus. Free State forces were lead by Colonel James A. Harvey. Named after Colonel Henry T. Titus, a local pro-slavery commander, Fort Titus actually was a cabin located in Lecompton. After the Free State victory on August 16th, 1856, Colonel Titus surrendered this sword to Colonel Harvey.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Harvey, James A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Objects; Swords and daggers; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "Dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: September 4, 1856
From Topeka, Kagi wrote his father about his (Kagi's) personal situation and more generally about the civil war in Kansas. Several thousand "armed Missourians" had been committing outrages against free state citizens with the support of proslave leaders--Wilson Shannon, Samuel Lecompte, and Daniel Woodson. Freestaters, according to Kagi, were just then mounting an effective defense of both Lawrence and Topeka, both primary targets of the proslavery forces--"the enemy are determined to 'wipe out', as they say, both these towns."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Militia; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 7, 1856
Just over a week after the Battle of Osawatomie, John Brown wrote his family from Lawrence about the death of "our dear Frederick" and the ensuing engagement, in which Brown himself was slightly wounded. Brown's small force "killed & wounded from 70 to 80 of the enemy" before escaping, and through it all "Jason fought bravely by my side."

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state militia; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie, Battle of; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: September 9, 1856
From Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Oscar Learnard wrote briefly to some Vermont friends of his recent "military" experience as "Lieutenant Colonel of the 4th regiment (cavalry) of Kansas Volunteers." At the time, Learnard said "the whole Territory presents a scene of wide spread desolation," but he also claimed Kansas was a beautiful place full of opportunity for agriculturalists and real estate investors. At present, however, one should only come if well armed and via "the new road" [Lane Trail].

Keywords: Agriculture; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state regiment; Lane Trail; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Militia; Real estate investment; Vermont


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 13, 1856
Charles Robinson wrote to John Brown from Lawrence on September 13, 1856, a short note encouraging Brown to give Governor Geary, who "talks of letting the past be forgotten," a chance and to come to town to "see us." A note from John Brown, Jr., on the bottom of the page, however, advised caution, as he had "no doubt an attempt will be made to arrest you as well as Lane."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Whitman, E. B.


Buffum Tombstone
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Sept. 17, 1856
Tombstone of David C. Buffum, a free-stater from Massachusetts who was killed by the pro-slavery Kickapoo Rangers on Sept. 17, 1856. Buffum was plowing a field on his farm near Lawrence when the Rangers (including Henry Titus and Sheriff Samuel Jones) stole his horse and shot him. Before he died, Buffum was heard to express the sentiments chiseled on his tombstone: "I am willing to die for the cause of Freedom in Kansas."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buffum, David C.; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state perspective; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kickapoo Rangers (militia); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Proslavery activities; Titus, Henry Theodore; Tombstones; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 19, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote to his brother, Edwin Parrott, from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Marcus described to his brother the situation in the area stemming from the Battle of Hickory Point, which occurred six days earlier. He said that the free state men involved in the battle were arrested and held in prison in Lecompton without examination, while the proslavery men met no consequence. Marcus mentioned other incidents that led him to believe crimes and schemes were taking place against free state supporters. He also brought up money and land investments again, requesting money.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Real estate investment; Town development


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 20, 1856
From Lawrence Charles Robinson writes to update his wife on developments in and around Lawrence since her departure. Governor John W. Geary had arrived and promised to see that the Missouri militia then threatening Lawrence "were disbanded." Robinson goes on to describe a very tense few days in September, beginning on Friday the 12th, involving militia of both sides and the governor. After a brief skirmish on the prairie east of Lawrence, Geary and some U.S. troops arrived and "the Missourians agreed to go home. It was all a farce. . . ."

Keywords: Buffum, David C.; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stubbs militia company; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; Westport, Missouri


Letter, Chas. H. Branscomb to John Brown Esq.
Authors: Branscomb, Charles H.
Date: September 22, 1856
From Boston, Massachusetts, Charles Branscomb wrote Brown a brief note conveying "fifty or one hundred dolls as a testimonial" from those who admired Brown's "conduct during the war."

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Branscomb, Charles H.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, Thomas M. Webb to Friend [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: September 24, 1856
In this letter, written in Boston, Massachusetts by Thomas Webb, the author stated his concerns about the outcome of the situation in Kansas. He did applaud the efforts of free state settlers to ensure the existence of liberty; however, he felt that not enough New Englanders were serious about keeping slavery out of Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Emigrant aid companies; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; New York; Relief; Sectionalism (United States)


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 29, 1856
Marcus Parrot wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, regarding the aftermath of the Battle of Hickory Point, which had occurred on September 13. Marcus told him that border ruffians had seized his personal letters, home, and furniture, and were questioning him about a phrase Edwin had written to him in a letter, which suggested the assassination of Judge Lecompte. Marcus stated that Governor Geary had done more damage to the Free State cause than all of his predecessors together, and feared that, if Fremont was defeated in the upcoming Presidential election, their cause would be completely lost.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brindle, William; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free soil; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879


Letter, George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et al
Authors: Hunt, George W.; Stearns, C.
Date: September 29, 1856
On behalf of a committee of Lawrence citizens, Hunt and Stearns wrote the State Central Committee of Kansas "to urge upon your attention several important points in reference to the present condition of Kansas." They were convinced that a "storm" from Missouri was about "to burst upon the devoted heads of the freemen of Kansas" and "perhaps to deluge Kansas with rivers of blood." The committee urged the state and national organization to help them prepare for the storm, while things were relatively calm, with an adequate supply of arms and ammunition and men. But, with a veiled reference, perhaps, to John Brown, they called only for "moral heroes" who would not follow the "principles of Border Ruffianism."

Keywords: Ammunition; Beecher Bibles; Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; State Central Committee of Kansas; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 30, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father, Thomas Parrott. In this letter, Marcus told his father about the events that had befallen him, his letters and possessions being seized by border ruffians. He added that a letter from his brother, Edwin, in which Edwin suggested the assassination of Judge Lecompte, was drawing attention to the two of them. Marcus describes Lawrence as a dangerous place for free state supporters at this time, stating that Governor Geary "has failed to accomplish anything" in his consideration of the uprisings between free state and proslavery men.

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas


Letter, L. B. Russell and C. J. Higginson to Charles H. Branscomb
Authors: Higginson, Charles J.; Russell, Le Baron
Date: October 1, 1856
Le Baron Russell and Charles J. Higginson, members of the New England Emigrant Aid Company Executive Committee, wrote from Boston to Charles H. Branscomb in Kansas. Russell and Higginson informed Branscomb, an agents for the company, that he would oversee the rebuilding of the Free State Hotel in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. The hotel had been destroyed during the May 21, 1856 sack of Lawrence.

Keywords: Branscomb, Charles H.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Free State Hotel; Higginson, Charles J.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Russell, Le Baron


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 7, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his father, Thomas Parrott. Marcus told him of his preparation to defend the free state men accused of murder for their role in the recent skirmishes surrounding the Battle of Hickory Point; he was not optimistic of the outcome, calling his position "embarrassing". Marcus added news of the recent election of a new Territorial Legislature, and shared poll statistics that showed a vast majority of free state supporters in several voting areas. Though this was a positive turn, he stated again that the free state cause would be in the hands of the new President.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Proslavery activities


Letter, J. D. Webster to James Blood
Authors: Webster, J. D.
Date: October 10, 1856
From Chicago, headquarters of the National Kansas Committee, the committee's vice president wrote to authorize Blood to draw on the treasurer for $3,000 "to be expended under authority of the State Kansas Committee." The purpose was to offer "provisions" to needy free state settlers; this was to be the committee's focus, "rather than to aid emigrants to go there."

Keywords: Blood, James; Chicago, Illinois; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief funds; State Central Committee of Kansas


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Friend [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: October 11, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, reporting that free staters were "still live" in Lawrence, and that most border ruffians had retreated for the time being. Simpson updated Hill on the status of his properties and new construction in the town. Thaddeus Whitney, he said, was "absent from town", however, and Missourians had stolen some valuable building materials. Simpson added that he had helped many destitute families with the monetary aid Hill had sent.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development


Letter, Augustus Wattles to Mr. [George W.?] Brown
Authors: Wattles, Augustus
Date: October 15, 1856
Augustus Wattles, a loyal defender of John Brown, wrote to [George W.?] Brown requesting reimbursement for some $700 he had lost in the cause. Although Wattles had not expected to recoup his losses, and in fact had planned "to give all these items gratis to the free state cause," he had heard "a committee" had funds for that purpose, and he was ill and in need of money. His claim included a couple horses, a mule, and room and board for various free state people he had taken in when they were in need of shelter.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wattles, Augustus


Account balance sheet, Hiram Hill in asc. with S.N. Simpson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 15, 1856
This balance sheet lists amounts paid into and received from Hiram Hill's various real estate investments in Lawrence, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Account books; Construction; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Report of a trip to Kansas by W. F. M. Arny
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 20, 1856
William F. M. Arny was the general agent of the National Kansas Committee. He submitted this report describing the "wants and sufferings" of settlers in Kansas Territory. It included references to border ruffians, land sales, and the suffering in various districts of Kansas. He requested that aid be sent to the Kansas Central Committee.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blood, James; Border ruffians; Chicago, Illinois; Clothing and dress; Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Food; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Illness; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Martin, Samuel E. (Dr.); National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Minutes of Executive Committee, Kansas State Central Committee
Authors: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: October 22, 1856
Dated Lawrence, October 22, 1856, these are apparently the minutes of the first meeting the Kansas State Central Committee's executive committee, chaired by James M. Winchell with George S. Hillyer as secretary. Eight resolutions are recorded, authorizing the committee to provide assistance, etc.

Keywords: Free state cause; Hillyer, George S.; Horses; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Minutes; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Receipt, Kansas State Central Committee
Authors: Colburn, Willard
Date: October 22, 1856
In light of the receipts that precede this one, dated Lawrence, October 22, 1856, it might be assumed that the provisions and clothing listed here were intended for the Lecompton prisoners. The list was signed by Willard Colburn and included shirts, pants, quilts, etc.

Keywords: Free state support; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Receipts


Letter, W. F. M. Arny to Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 23, 1856
W. F. M. Arny, an agent of the National Kansas Committee, wrote this letter to Thaddeus Hyatt while traveling on the Missouri River. The main focus of this letter revolved around committee business and the state of affairs in Kansas. During this visit to Kansas, Arny had reorganized the Kansas Central Committee in order to increase its efficiency, and he included in this letter a revised list of its officers and members. He also wrote about his conversation with Governor Geary concerning the various volunteer companies created by free state men. The letter ends with a brief description of the suffering of the settlers, their meager diet, and their desperate need for more provisions.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Chicago, Illinois; Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Election, Presidential, 1856; Firearms; Food; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Illness; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Money; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Relief funds; Sickness (see Illness); Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, James Gillpatrick to Gen. [Samuel C.] Pomeroy
Authors: Gillpatrick, James
Date: October 24, 1856
From Brownville, K.T., Gillpatrick wrote seeking compensation for his losses to the "border ruffins," or specifically at the hand of "a miserable horse thief from Missouri." Gillpatrick had been advised by a Chicago friend that all such aid was being distributed through the Lawrence based committee, thus his letter to Pomeroy, who would "doubtless know who they are."

Keywords: Border ruffians; Chicago, Illinois; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief funds; State Central Committee of Kansas


Letter, George W. Bell to [William] Hutchinson and [James] Blood
Authors: Bell, George W.
Date: October 26, 1856
From Hickory Point in Jefferson County, George Bell, an agent for the Kansas Central Committee, wrote William Hutchinson and James Blood at Lawrence regarding the condition of the "Burr family" and their specific relief needs. They were described as "destitute" of food and clothing.

Keywords: Blood, James; Clothing and dress; Free state settlers; Hickory Point, Kansas Territory; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief


Letter, W. F. M. Arny to W. Hutchinson
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 28, 1856
From Chicago, William F. M. Arny, general agent for the National Kansas Committee, wrote to inform Hutchinson of a shipment of relief goods that would arrive soon at Leavenworth. Arny had also given James Blood several thousand dollars "to purchase goods in St. Louis," and Arny was on his way East to raise more.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blood, James; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Herald of Freedom; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief; St. Louis, Missouri; Wattles, Augustus


Deed for Nathaniel S. Higgins
Authors: Emery, James Stanley
Date: November 5, 1856
Nathaniel S. Higgins of Fair Haven, Massachusetts purchased half of an undivided lot (Number 30) and the stone or concrete building currently occupied by Emery on Massachusetts Street, Lawrence, from James S. Emery for $500. If Emery was able to acquire title to share number 97 of the town of Lawrence from the government, the sale of the half lot and the building would not take effect.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Higgins, Nathaniel S.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate transactions; Town shares


Receipt, N. M'Cracken to William Hutchinson
Authors: Morgan, J. F.
Date: November 27, 1856
Unlike most of the other receipts for money or merchandise saved by James Blood for the Kansas State Central Committee, this one was on a pre-printed form and issued by "N'Mcracken" of Leavenworth for merchandise to be delivered to William Hutchinson at Lawrence. It was actually signed by J. F. Morgan, who apparently delivered the goods from Leavenworth to Lawrence and "received pay of J. Blood" on January 26, 1857.

Keywords: Blood, James; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Receipts; Relief; Transportation


Account Book, 1856-57
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: December 1856 - April 1857
This cloth bound journal, identified as "Dr. Chas Robinson Account Book, 1856-1866," contains territorial entries for 1856 and 1857 only--entries such as, "S. W. Simpson To Joel Walker For Draft (for the purchase of land)" for $500 and "Notes Receivable // To Sales of Stock // For Thaddeus Hyatt's Note . . . The understanding is that Hyatt shall not receive his certificate for shares until he has put on the Kaw River a Steamboat of 40 tons buthen, worth $5000., and suitable to navigating the Kaw River."

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Financial statements; Grover, Joel; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Steamboats; Walker, Joel; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Testimony of S. P. Hand
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 2, 1856
This testimony, a part of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, was apparently collected by the president of the National Kansas Committee, Thaddeus Hyatt. It relates the tale of S. P. Hand, a soldier in the free state militia who took part in the battle of Fort Titus and was captured at the battle of Hickory Point. His account provides a great deal of information regarding troop movements and the workings of the free state militia.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Central Relief Committee; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Hand, S. P.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Titus, Henry Theodore


Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [John Calhoun, Esq.]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: December 3, 1856
Charles Robinson wrote to John Calhoun, the Surveyor General in Lecompton, about the paperwork that he himself had filed the last year regarding a "float" ownership in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Robinson had found that the ownership notice was not on file with the government, and was sending Calhoun proof of ownership in an attempt to correct the problem. John Calhoun was an avid pro-slavery supporter, having once said that he was "too lazy to work" and "wanted the negroes to do it for him".

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land claim disputes; Land surveys; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Tennery, William M.; Wyandot Float


Testimony of Capt. Thomas Bickerton
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 12, 1856
This testimony, taken down by Thaddeus Hyatt as part of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, is divided into two parts. It begins with descriptions of his life before he came to Kansas Territory and his efforts to set up a claim outside of Lawrence, including his technique for building his sod house. Thomas Bickerton was a well traveled individual and an influential commander of a free state artillery company. He was involved in skirmishes with border ruffians and in the attack on Franklin. Also, General James Lane sent him to Kansas City to obtain a brass howitzer (later known as the Abbott howitzer) for use against the proslavery forces.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Barber, Thomas W.; Bickerton, Thomas; Border disputes and warfare; Buffum, David C.; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Franklin buildings; Free state militia; Houses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Roberts, William Young; Sawmills; Skirmishing; Topliff, Charles W.


Testimonies of Nathaniel Parker, Horace L. Dunnell, Hinton S. Dunnell, Alexander MacArthur, James Hall, Jerome Hazen, and Charles Henry Caulkins
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 7, 1856
These testimonies, presumably taken down on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, include personal information about each settler, such as their age, occupation, etc., as well as their experiences in Kansas and their involvement in border warfare and skirmishes with pro-slavery settlers. Each account is descriptive and provides tremendous detail about their individual experiences. The testimonies of MacArthur, Hall, and Hazen are combined into one, with this group testimony split into two separate sections.

Keywords: Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Caulkins, Charles Henry; Cutter, Calvin M.; Dunnell, Hinton S.; Dunnell, Horace L.; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Guns; Hall, James; Harvey, James A.; Hazen, Jerome; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; MacArthur, Alexander; Missouri River; Parker, Nathaniel; Prisoners; Prisons; Proslavery activities; Skirmishing; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns); Weston, Missouri; Wounds and injuries


Experiences of R. S. Griffithe, N. W. Spicer, and J. A. Harvey
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 6, 1856
These testimonies, collected by the National Kansas Committee, record the experiences of these three settlers during the turbulent times of Bleeding Kansas. These testimonies focus on each settler's involvement in free state activities and their interaction with border ruffians. Griffithe and Spicer both served in the free state militia, and Harvey, who had commanded an emigrant train from Chicago, was the commander of a free state company.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Griffithe, R. S.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Spicer, N.W.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Topeka, Kansas; Violence


Testimony of James H. Holmes
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 8, 1856
This testimony of James Holmes is a portion of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, a collection of personal stories recorded by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Mr. Holmes had studied agricultural chemistry before entering Kansas Territory, and his initial reason for emigrating was his desire to undertake agricultural experiments. He had also intended to join with Clubbs Vegetarian Settlement, which was located on the Neosho River near the north line of the Osage Reserve. He goes into detail about the Neosho valley and its vegetation, mineral deposits, etc. The rest of his account deals with his involvement in the free state militia and his role in defending Osawatomie.

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cline, Captain; Emigration and immigration; Free state militia; Harvey, James A.; Holmes, James H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Violence


Quit-Claim Deed, Charles A. Wright to George W. Collamore
Authors: Wright, Charles A.
Date: December 25, 1856
Quit Claim Deed for Charles Wright, signing ownership of land on New Hampshire and Rhode Island streets in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to George W. Collamore. Collamore would become mayor of Lawrence in 1863.

Keywords: Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Wright, Charles A.


Receipt, James M. Arthur to Kansas State Central Committee
Authors: Arthur, James M.
Date: December 27, 1856
This receipt, dated Lawrence, December 27, 1856, read as follows: "Received . . . Of Kansas Central Committee six U S. Breach loading Rifles and two U S Muskets one Box U S Caps and six Bullet molds for Rifles Said arms to be returned on the order of said Kansas Central Committee."

Keywords: Ammunition; Blood, James; Free state militia; Guns; Kansas Central Committee; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Weapons (see also Guns)


Abbott Howitzer
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Major James Burnett Abbott traveled east to raise funds and purchase arms for the free-state cause. In New York Abbott met Frederick Law Olmsted, who assisted in raising funds for the howitzer from the Ames Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts. The howitzer was taken to Lawrence, where it was captured by proslavery forces on May 21, 1856. It was recaptured at Fort Titus on August 16, 1856. Afterwards the howitzer was used in Linn County and by James H. Lane's brigade during the Civil War.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Ames Manufacturing Company; Border disputes and warfare; Cannons; Civil war; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


James Lane Telescope
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855-1857
Spyglass used by James Lane and other free-state leaders of Lawrence in observing the movements of Missourians.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects


Brief for Applicant in the matter of the "Wyandott Robitaille Float."
Authors: Weer, William
Date: Circa 1856
William Weer served as legal counsel for the Wyandotte Reserve and presented this brief on behalf of William Lykins and Robert Robitaille apparently to the Commissioner of the Land Office at Lecompton, Kansas Territory. Lykins and Robitaille were attempting to receive a patent for land that was also claimed by the Lawrence Association, Gaius Jenkins, Charles Robinson, S. J. Livingston, George G. Mathews, and William Savage. The brief contained a short history of the Wyandot tribes removal west and various treaties involving land. The claim involved parts of the city of Lawrence. The brief cited various cases and laws upon which Mr. Weer based his arguments.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Indian floats; Indian lands; Jenkins, Gaius; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Livingston, S. J.; Lykins, William H. R.; Mathews, George G.; Native Americans; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robitaille, Robert; Savage, William; United States. General Land Office; Weer, William; Wyandot Float; Wyandot Indians


John Brown Sword
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
The sword is believed to have been brought to Kansas Territory from Ohio by John Brown in 1856. That year, pro-slavery forces destroyed the homes of John Brown's sons in Franklin County. While leaving the state, the Brown family camped at the home of Otis Potter, near Lawrence. In gratitude, the Browns presented this sword to Potter.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Ohio; Potter, Otis; Swords and daggers; Weapons (see also Guns)


Pamphlet, "Affairs in Kansas"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This pamphlet contains a proclamation made by President Franklin Pierce and a speech by Senator Isaac Toucey. Also included are printed copies of letters and papers which date from December 1, 1855 to February 18, 1856, and communicate between Governor Wilson Shannon and other officials in Kansas Territory and the President and officials of the federal government which relate to "difficulties" in Kansas Territory. In this document, free state efforts are described as those of a "secret military organization" working against the legitimate Territorial Government.

Keywords: Buckley, H.H.; Calhoun, John; Clarke, George W.; Davis, Jefferson; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Hargis, S.N.; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marcy, William L.; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Richardson, William P.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee Mission; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Toucey, Isaac; Weapons (see also Guns); Westport, Missouri


Photograph, Ferry crossing the Kansas River
Authors: Hogan, Thomas
Date: 1857
Drawing of a ferry crossing the Kansas River with a view of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1857, copied from Beyond the Mississippi by Albert D. Richardson, 1867.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Ferries; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Wagons


Kansas Experience of George Cutter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: January 1, 1857
This reminiscence is presumably from the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, which was compiled by the National Kansas Committee under the leadership of Thaddeus Hyatt. George Cutter was with Frederick Brown shortly before the Battle of Osawatomie, and like Brown, he was wounded during an altercation with border ruffians. While he was not directly involved in this battle, this reminiscence is still a rather fascinating account.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Cutter, George; Darrach, Barstow; Everett, John R.; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Gillpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reid, John W.; Sears, W. A.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns); White, Martin; Wounds and injuries


Letter, C. A. Wright to Mr Hill
Authors: Wright, Charles A.
Date: January 4, 1857
Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, having recently recovered from an extended illness. Wright told him that "peace and quietness seam [sic] to reign throughout the Territory" and anticipated that Kansas would become a free state without too much more trouble from the border ruffians. He added that two new hotels were being built in town, one by Thaddeus Whitney, in order to accommodate the spring emigration rush. Wright directed Hill to write him in New York, as he would be traveling East for the next two months.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Whitney, Thaddeus L.; Wright, Charles A.


Letter, Ephm. Nute to Dear Fr. [Amos A. Lawrence]
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: January 5, 1857
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts, regarding the subject of a college. A well-attended town meeting had been held in which the idea had been discussed, though all seemed only "a castle in the air" but for Lawrence's "liberal offer" (presumably of funding) which was the "first step toward the realization of his project." The general opinion of the people was that the college should be constructed outside the town limits "on the high prairie or table land." Nute also mentioned the steps being taken to establish free public schools in the city, of upper and lower grades.

Keywords: Education; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; School buildings; Teachers; Town development; Universities and colleges


Report of the Treasurer, Kansas State Central Committee
Authors: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: January 6, 1857
Dated Topeka, January 6, 1857, this document claimed to be a "report of Money & goods received and Paid out, by Treasurer." Its initial entry was for July 24, 1856, and the last October 29, 1856, and it includes the names of Charles Robinson, W. F. M. Arny, and S. W. Eldridge.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Horses; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, H. M. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, H.M
Date: January 18, 1857
H. M. Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported that, since two new hotels were being built in addition to the Emigrant Aid Hotel, Hill's fellow investors in the Cincinnati House (hotel), may want to discontinue its use as a hotel. He suggested that the building might better serve as a store or shop.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Retail businesses; Simpson, H.M; Simpson, Samuel Newell


Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to H. M. Simpson, Esq.
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 31, 1857
Hiram Hill drafted a letter from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to H. M. Simpson, brother of Samuel N. Simpson, in Kansas Territory. Hill responded to H. M.'s favorable impressions of property investments in K.T., and hoped that his anticipations would come to pass. Hill planned to travel to the Territory as soon as his affairs were in order, and inquired about further investment prospects and the going wage for construction tradesmen. He spoke favorably of Governor Gerry (sic, Geary), but feared that the "bogus legislature" would impede his ability to govern.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment; Simpson, H.M; Town development


Letter, Henry Campbell to Friend Colmore [George Collamore]
Authors: Campbell, Henry
Date: February 4, 1857
Henry Campbell wrote to his friend George Collamore, a future mayor of Lawrence, regarding recent trends in real estate sales. Campbell expressed disapproval of the "Bogus Legislature" and referred to a recent shooting in Tecumseh where Judge Rush Elmore, an associate justice of the Territorial Supreme Court, a leading delegate at the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, and a slave holder, was seriously wounded. Campbell also mentioned the upcoming sale of Wyandotte.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Campbell, Henry; Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town development; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Henry Campbell and H.M. Simpson to C. Robinson
Authors: Campbell, Henry ; Simpson, H.M
Date: 13 February 1857
Quit-Claim Deed for Henry Campbell and H.M. Simpson, passing ownership of part of a lot on Massachusetts street on to Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Campbell, Henry; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Simpson, H.M


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Charles Robinson and S.C. Pomeroy
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: February 14, 1857
A. A. Lawrence, writing from Boston, sent a letter along with notes and stock valued at $12,696.14 to Charles Robinson and S.C. Pomeroy, who were acting as Trustees of Lawrence University. He instructed that the money be held in trust, with the intrest income to be used "for the advancement of religious and intellectual education of the young in Kansas." However, Lawrence added that he wanted the funds returned to him if Kansas should not become a free state after its acceptance into the Union.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Lawrence University; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Universities and colleges


Letter, J. Henry Muzzy to Dear Sir [Eli Thayer]
Authors: Muzzy, J. Henry
Date: March 3, 1857
J. Henry Muzzy wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts. Muzzy informed Thayer that free state supporters in Kansas were not, as Thayer had predicted, discouraged by James Buchanan's election as president in November 1856. He observed that the territory had been quiet during the winter of 1856-1857, but warned that the "ruffians" likely would engage in efforts during the spring of 1857 to discourage eastern emigration to Kansas. Muzzy also commented on the dilemma that free staters faced in deciding whether to pay the taxes levied by the proslavery "bogus legislature." He and his fellow free state supporters were not inclined to pay taxes imposed by a "foreign power," but they also realized that if Governor Geary called in U.S. troops to enforce the law they would have no choice but to pay. Muzzy concluded by stating that he was thankful for the end of the "reign of Frank Pierce," contending that "any change at Washington can hardly be for the worse."

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Muzzy, J. Henry; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Relief; Taxation; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Speech, John Brown
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: ca. March 1857
During the spring of 1857, John Brown traveled to several Northeastern cities (specifically, in Brown's home state of Connecticut) to solicit financial support for the Kansas crusade. In the speech delivered from these handwritten notes, Brown outlined some of the many sacrifices he and others had made to give his audience a sense of what was needed and discussed the unfolding situation in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Buford expedition; Cato, Sterling G.; Crops; Finance; Free state cause; Hartford, Connecticut; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Proslavery activities; Speeches, addresses, etc.


Letter, E. [Ephraim] Nute to Rev. E. E. [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: April 6, 1857
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute included a list of books that he wished to add to his Unitarian church library. Nute commented on the difficulties experienced by those attempting to spread Christianity in Kansas. He also observed that immigration to Kansas was increasing.

Keywords: Books; Churches; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Entertainment; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Libraries; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Reading; Relief; Religion


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Rev. E. E. [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 7, 1857
Charles Robinson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Robinson complained about the lack of respect he had received from New England Emigrant Aid Company leaders. He was particularly upset about criticisms of his financial ability. Robinson expressed anger at what he perceived as Eli Thayer's and the New England Emigrant Aid Company's opposition to the development of the town of Quindaro. Robinson included excerpts from a letter he received from James Redpath outlining Thayer's criticisms of Robinson's involvement with Quindaro.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Letter, William Henry Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: April 1, 1857
One of several letters in this collection written by young William Leeman, a native of Maine, to members of his family (mother, father, and sisters) during his travels with one of John Brown's company through Iowa and Nebraska, back to Kansas. Several letters were written late in 1856 and early 1857 from Archer, Nebraska Territory, but this one, dated April 7, 1857, was sent from Plymouth, presumably in Brown County, Kansas Territory. Leeman wrote of his plan to return home and bring his family to Kansas, perhaps as early as the summer, if there were no more "trouble" in the territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state settlers; Houses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leeman, William H.


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: April 14, 1857
Having finally made and returned from his long-delayed trip to Nebraska City, Kagi wrote his father from Lawrence, where he had gone almost immediately "on business." Although he can't discuss the particulars for fear of "bribed P.M. [post master?] spies," Kagi makes some interesting observations about freestate "prospects" throughout the territory, which "look much more hopeful now than when I left." Kagi mentions some land investment opportunities and the expected arrival of Governor Robert Walker, who would not last long if he tried to enforce the "bogus laws."

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Land speculation; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Postal service; Stringfellow, John H.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Report of Accounts Received, S.N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: April 27, 1857
Samuel Simpson prepared this list of rents and monies from business transactions he had collected in the name of Hiram Hill since the previous summer.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development


Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Samuel I. Jones to Josiah Miller
Authors: Jones, Samuel I.
Date: April 30, 1857
This quit-claim deed, executed by Samuel I. Jones as administrator for Thomas Connelly [deceased?], turned ownership of lots 62 and 64 on Rhode Island street to Josiah Miller.

Keywords: Blord, S.H.; Connelly, Thomas; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jones, Samuel I.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Real estate transactions; Sampson, Turner


Letter, [E. B. Whitman?] to [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: May 10, 1857
E. B. Whitman (letter not signed, but author's identity is pretty clear), an agent in Lawrence for the National Kansas Committee, wrote Franklin Sanborn in Massachusetts regarding his disappointment with the lack of support being given by "our professed friends" in the East. To their discredit, according to Whitman, Massachusetts "supporters" had refused to provide assistance which was desperately needed for the Kansas settlers who had just endured a very "severe winter." He believed false information was being circulated for political purposes by individuals within the Free State movement: "Kansas, bleeding Kansas, is of value to them only so far as it subserves their selfish ends."

Keywords: Dred Scott decision; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Settlement; Vermont; Whitman, E. B.


The Lykins or Robitaille Float
Authors: Moore, Ely
Date: May 14, 1857
This printed form was sent to the agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Company to inform him of a land claim by Robert Robitaille, a Wyandot Indian, to a portion of the city of Lawrence. It was sent by the General Land Office in Lecompton, Kansas Territory, and was signed by Ely Moore, register and William Brindle, receiver. William Lykins and Achilles Ward are mentioned in the description of the property being disputed.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Brindle, William; Immigration and early settlement; Land claim disputes; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Lykins, William H. R.; Moore, Ely; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robitaille, Robert; United States. General Land Office; Wade, Achilles B.; Wyandot Indians


Letter, E. B. Whitman to S. L. Adair
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: May 15, 1857
Whitman, located in Lawrence, was the general agent for the National Kansas Committee that was distributing relief supplies in Kansas Territory. He wrote that he was sending Adair potatoes and corn to be distributed for planting. Evidently Adair had written him previously about some boxes of supplies he expected and Whitman speculated they were either in Wyandotte or St. Louis on the Steamer Light Foot on the Kansas River.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lightfoot (steamboat); National Kansas Committee; Relief; Steamboats; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My dear [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: May 18, 1857
In his May 18 report to Franklin Sanborn, agent Whitman of Lawrence again cast shame on Massachusetts for its failure to provided needed financial support for the cause in Kansas but focused on his efforts to provide aid for "the school project." Whitman claimed credit for establishing both an elementary school and a high school, the latter of which "is fast becoming a Model," and he hoped his financing would not disappear. He also comments on the political situation, especially the fact that Charles Robinson had "to a large extent" lost the "confidence" of the people.

Keywords: Chicago, Illinois; Education; Free state support; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; National Kansas Committee; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sister"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: May 20, 1857
On May 20, 1857, Kagi wrote his sister from Lawrence, explaining that he had been sick with the measles for some time but was now just busy writing for the newspaper and "preparing laws for the Free State Legislature," which was scheduled to convene in June. "We shall try hard to put the State Government into operation."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state legislature; Illness; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness)


Finance Committee's Schedule of Kanzas Property owned by the N. E. Em. Aid Co.
Authors: New England Emigrant Aid Company Finance Committee
Date: May 26, 1857
A summary listing of the real property owned by the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas. The report lists the estimated value of each property, with the total value being $112, 400.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Burlington, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Financial statements; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company Finance Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town shares; Wabaunsee, Kansas Territory


Page from Harper's Weekly, "Famous Places in Kansas"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: June 6, 1857
This page, taken from an issue of Harper's Weekly, features engraving illustrations of the Governor's Mansion in Lecompton, Kansas Territory, and James Lane's fort on Mount Oread, near Lawrence, Kansas Territory. A caption explains the history of each structure and the personalities who frequent them.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Mount Oread; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter [transcript], Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: June 15, 1857
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother in Chester, South Carolina, before their departure for Kansas Territory. Miller informed them of banking practices and his new business enterprise-- raising stock. He also discussed the value of prairie land versus timbered land. Miller referred to the "bogus" election of the day before, which elected delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Lecompton. Free state men did not vote, and only 2,071 votes were polled. This clearly showing that, had the election been conducted fairly, the free state men would have won the majority.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Business enterprises; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Illinois; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Receipt, Received of J. Blood for Boarding . . . Mary Jones
Authors: Jones, Mary
Date: June 15, 1857
The Kansas State Central Committee/Blood receipt was to Mary Jones of Lawrence for "boarding and taking care of Mr. Leggs [Charles Legge?] destitute children." The total paid was $19.85.

Keywords: Blood, James; Children; Free state support; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Relief


Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to Mesrs Ladd [E. D.] & Prentiss [S. B.]
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: July 13, 1857
Hiram Hill wrote to E. D. Ladd and S. B. Prentiss in Kansas Territory, requesting that they send information about the drawing for West Lawrence town shares when available, and asking about the prospect of selling town lots there. Hill also inquired about a share of Emporia stock that he had given to Mr. Whitney to pass on to them. He answered their questions regarding maintenance of his rental properties, and confirmed that only "necessary repairs" were to be completed at his expense.

Keywords: Emporia, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prentiss, S.B.; Real estate investment; Steamboats; Town shares; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Notice!! to the public!
Authors: Realf, Richard , 1834-1878
Date: July 14, 1857
In this poster, Richard Realf publicly declared that G. W. Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom, was a liar, slanderer, and coward. The context of the situation is necessary to determine the accuracy of this claim.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Newspaper publishing


Proclamation, To the people of Lawrence
Authors: Walker, Robert J. (John), 1801-1869
Date: July 15, 1857
This open letter from Gov. Walker concerned the differences between the city charter of Lawrence approved by legislature, and the charter approved by citizens of Lawrence.

Keywords: Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Town development; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Proclamation, No. 2, To my rebellious subjects at Lawrence
Authors: Walkerus, Robertus J.
Date: July 17, 1857
Satirical proclamation against Walker's opposition to the Lawrence city charter.

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


To the people of Lawrence, A Proclamation
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 17, 1857
Quotes from the governor's proclamation against the independent city charter and includes rebuttals to his arguments.

Keywords: Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


General Order No. 1, Headquarters of Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: July 18, 1857
This printed document was issued by James H. Lane and indicated that Lane had been authorized by the Free State government in Topeka to organize militia companies in order to protect ballot boxes on election day. It included instructions on how to organize the companies.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, T. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 18, 1857
Thomas J. Marsh, who arrived in the Kansas Territory on July 11, 1857, made Lawrence his base of operation. He had made the journey as an agent for the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. His objective was to observe and financially support free state efforts to capture the legislature at the polls in early October (this included conducting a census). During his first week in Kansas Territory, Marsh attended the "entirely harmonious" Free State Party convention in Topeka and reported on initial efforts to organize the campaign. He also seemed very concerned about "petty, personal feuds" among the leadership in the territory. Marsh had personally discussed this issue with the men involved and believed the "discordant elements have been harmonized." Upon his return to Lawrence, Marsh found "U. S. Dragoons parading the streets" and Governor Walker threatening to make numerous arrests because of the unauthorized election of city officials the previous Monday.

Keywords: Blood, James; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dragoons; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Constitution; Travel; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: July 20, 1857
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his father, Thomas Parrott. Marcus began by telling him of new land sales near Paola, Kansas Territory, the extreme heat they had been having lately, and news about family friends. He spoke about a recent proclamation given by Governor Walker, who had set up camp near Lawrence, which condemned the municipal government in that city as unauthorized. Marcus added that the Free State Convention in Topeka had delegated him as their representative to Congress; he had accepted, despite worries that his private business would suffer because of the appointment.

Keywords: Free state activities; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Paola, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Railroads; Territorial politics; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Weather


General Order No. 2, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: July 20, 1857
General Order No. 2 established divisions and brigades which were to protect the ballot box in Topeka. It lists the divisions, brigades, and the superintendents of the divisions and brigades. James Lane was organizing the Kansas Volunteers and Martin Conway was the Adjutant General for the K.V.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Stewart, John E.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting; Williams, Henry H.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: July 20 [1857]
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother, recently settled in Illinois. He discussed with them family news, and attached a postscript regarding their land warrants in Kansas Territory. Miller also referred to the free state supporters' rejection of a charter put in place by the "bogus legislature" in Lecompton, and the subsequent meeting of the free state legislature in Topeka. A census had been taken by free state men in the largest pro-slavery localities. According to Miller, this census found that free state men outnumbered proslavery supporters by at least 1 to 7.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Miller, Josiah; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 21, 1857
From Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Marsh wrote his third letter in four days to keep his Massachusetts colleague informed about Gov. Walker's occupation of Lawrence. Marsh, who knew the governor when he was secretary of the treasury under President James K. Polk, had a chance to visit with Walker but found out nothing regarding his current intentions. And the city's residents were "attending to their ordinary affairs as though he were not in their midst"--with some 600 dragoons. Marsh then mentioned, among other things, his visit with G. W. Brown, one of the "hostile chiefs." As with the others, Marsh reportedly emphasized the importance of harmony through the elections and the fact "that their differences was a source of grief to all their friends East, no matter who was right, or who was wrong."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dragoons; Factionalism; Free State Party; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Railroads; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Travel; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Broadside, Mass Convention!
Authors: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: July 25, 1857
J. B. Abbott as secretary of the 10th district committee of the Free State party prepared this broadside to advertise a meeting to nominate 2 Senators and 7Representatives for the Legislature. Abbott wrote that the district invluded the following precincts: "Fish's Hotel, Palmyra, Blanton, Willow Springs, Franklin, Lawrence, and Benicia. The meeting was to be held in Lawrence on July 25, 1857. Note: The broadside did not include a time for the meeting.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Benicia Precinct, Kansas Territory; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Broadsides; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Kansas Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`; Willow Springs, Kansas Territory


Statement of votes polled and tally sheet for election of officers under the Topeka Constitution, Lawrence precinct
Authors: Blackman, William I. R.; Mallory, A. H.; Robinson, Alfred
Date: August 3, 1857
An official statement and accompanying tally sheet detaling the results of the "State Election" held under the authority of the Topeka Constitution. This document was from the Lawrence precinct and was certified by election judges W. I. R. Blackman, A. H. Mallory, and Alfred Robinson. Election participants were primarily free state supporters who cast votes for state officials, representatives to the U.S. Congress, and U.S. senators; they also indicated whether they were for or against the Topeka Constitution.

Keywords: Blackman, William I. R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Elections; Free state constitutions; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mallory, Anson H.; Robinson, Alfred; Topeka Constitution


Letter, E. [Ephraim] Nute to [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: August 3, 1857
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute described efforts to establish a high school in Lawrence as well as a university in Kansas Territory. He also advised Hale to pay close attention to the activities of Francis Serenbetz, a German Congregational minister who was the leader of a group of German immigrants who settled in Humboldt, Kansas Territory. In Nute's opinion, Serenbetz was an "unmitigated humbug and nuisance" who came to Kansas for self-interested reasons. Nute urged Hale to stop sending settlers to Kansas who lacked financial resources or a willingness to work to support themselves.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Elections; Emigrant aid companies; Germans; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Schools; Serenbetz, Francis M.; Topeka Constitution; Universities and colleges


Letter, [Tho. Ewing, Jr.] to Dear Father [Hon. T. Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: August 5, 1857
The first letter in this letter press book mainly concerned with political affairs in the territory was addressed to Ewing, Sr., in Lancaster, Ohio, and dated Leavenworth, Kansas, August 5, 1857. Responding to the father's observations about the situation in Kansas, Ewing, Jr., wrote "I have all along regarded the attempt at an organization of a State Government, while we are a Territory, as the extreme of folly . . ." and some additional observations about the Topeka movement. Ewing "intend[ed] to stand clear of the political arena in Kansas while the leaders of the Democracy are made up of political murderers, and while the free state party is but the football for the Free soilers in the Northern States."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free Soil Party; Free State Party; Free soil; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lancaster, Ohio; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, Thos. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 5, 1857
Again from Lawrence, Marsh wrote Stearns on August 5 to ask for clarification about an order he had received from Amos Lawrence to pay John Brown $335. Brown was not in Kansas at that time and could "not be of much service if he is away from the Territory."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cheyenne Indians; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 11, 1857
On August 11, 1857, Marsh reported from Lawrence that the governor was "still here with his Troops, but nobody pays any regard to him, or them." According to D. W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas, however, all but forty troops left on August 3, the day of the election under the Topeka Constitution, which Marsh also mentioned. His primary concern remained the October election, which many feared would not be fairly conducted despite the governor's promises, and the growing talk of another Free State Party boycott of the polls.

Keywords: Cato, Sterling G.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Free State Party; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Constitution; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Owen Brown to Dear Mother [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown, Owen
Date: August 27, [1856]
On August 27, 1856, from Tabor, Iowa, Owen Brown wrote to tell his mother that according to all accounts "Father is the most daring courageous man in Kansas" and to relate other happenings in K.T. involving Jim Lane and Governor Shannon. Another invasion from Missouri was rumored, but free state recruits were assembling and "the Missourians are trembling in their Boots."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Brown, Owen; Crops; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Weapons (see also Guns); Woodson, Daniel


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 27, 1857
In this letter from Lawrence, K.T., Marsh reported that despite opposition from Judge Martin Conway, the delegates at the Grasshopper Falls Convention on August 26 "voted to go into the [October] Election with all the power they have." So, the stage was set for the campaign that needed all the financial support Stearns's committee could give it through Marsh.

Keywords: Congressional delegate; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Convention; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Letter, [Thomas J.] Marsh to Dear Sir [George L. Stearns]
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 29, 1857
From Lawrence, K.T., Thomas J. Marsh wrote to George Stearns on August 29, 1857, to describe the political situation in the territory and the results of the Grasshopper Falls Convention which had taken place three days before. Those favoring participation in the October legislative election carried the day (see Annals of Kansas, 176) and subsequently "a Grand Ratification meeting" endorse the conventions action, including the nomination of Marcus J. Parrott for delegate to Congress.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Music; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Schuyler, Philip Church; Smith, George W.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, E. D. Ladd to Mr. H. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Ladd, Erastus D
Date: September 3, 1857
Erastus Ladd wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Ladd asked for Hill's suggestion as to what to do about a delinquent renter. He updated Hill regarding the status of various land investments, and included a note about Samuel Simpson's sale of half of his investment in West Lawrence. Ladd anticipated a free state election, and the development of a railroad line between Lawrence and the Delaware lands.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: September 7, 1857
Nearly two months into his K.T. assignment and stay in Lawrence, Marsh reported several significant observations about the Free State Party: Governor Walker's apparent commitment to a fair canvas, the rapidly approaching territorial election (October 1857), and the money so far spent and needed for the campaign. He also observed that the Constitutional Convention was opening in Lecompton, and wrote: "If you could see the town, and people of Lecompton, and had the opportunity that I have had to witness their Plantation Manners--I think you would at once be reminded of the Scriptural inquiry, 'Can any good thing, come out of Nazareth?'"

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 7, 1857
This very personal letter by Charles Robinson in Lawrence was written to his wife Sara Robinson, who was visiting family and friends back East. It briefly mentions the Quindaro land company business that was occupying some of Robinson's time and the fact that "political matters are comparatively quiet." Mainly, the "governor" just missed his wife and urged her to write soon and often.

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro Town Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Wyandot Float


Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: September 7, 1857
James H. Lane, whose extant correspondence is scarce, here wrote from Lawrence to John Brown regarding his (Lane's) efforts "in perfecting an organization for the protection of the ballot box at the October Election," and Lane encouraged Brown to come "with all the materials you have." Lane was confident Brown could enter the territory safely but offered all required assistance--protection, transport, etc.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 13, 1857
This very personal letter from Charles Robinson in Lawrence to his wife Sara visiting back east touches on a number of things such as "keeping house on the hill," business and financial interests, and being "tired" of the turmoil in Kansas Territory, but mostly it expresses the husband's longing for the wife to return.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Domestics; Houses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Panic of 1857; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911


Commission, James Montgomery, captain
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 16, 1857
This printed commission, issued from the "Head-Quarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot-Box," was given to James Montgomery and signed by J.H. Lane and M. F. Conway, adjutant general, on September 16, 1857. Montgomery was commissioned captain of the "Little Sugar Creek Company." This would have been specifically for the territorial election, October 5, 1857.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Letter, William Hutchinson, Secretary to Dear Sir [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: October 26, 1857
William B. Hutchinson, an abolitionist from Lawrence, Kansas Territory and secretary of the Freemen of Kansas, wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday, free state activist and president of the Topeka Town Association, informing him of his appointment to a secret committee. The fifty-two members were to gather and turn in evidence against those responsible for election fraud. Holliday had also been appointed to the fund-raising subcommittee. In a later written response, Holliday refused these appointments, referring to time-consuming family and business responsibilities.

Keywords: Election fraud; Free state activities; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: September 28, 1857
In this letter to Stearns, Marsh expressed confidence that the October election would turn in favor of the Free State Party. Marsh had been traveling in the "Southern Counties" and was encouraged: "You may rest assured, that the people are united and earnest." He predicted a victory for Marcus Parrott and "a good working majority" for the Free State Party in both houses of the legislature. Unless he received further instructions from the committee, Marsh planned to leave Kansas about three days after the election.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Crusader of Freedom; Doniphan, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Receipt, John D. Hicks to A. A. Lawrence
Authors: Hicks, John D.
Date: September 29, 1857
This receipt and accompanying sales contract documents the purchase of $7113.30 worth of hardware and household items by A.A. Lawrence from John D. Hicks. George Collamore signed the sales contract as witness to the deal. Ingle Barker, of the Mammoth Hardware and Stove Store, was named as the Executor and Administrator of the "goods and chattels" in the name of A.A. Lawrence, and would be responsible for the sale of these goods to settlers in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Barker, Ingle; Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hicks, John D.; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store; Merchandise; Merchants; Receipts; Retail businesses


Letter, W. B. Edmonds [E. B. Whitman?] to Hawkins [John Brown]
Authors: Edmonds, W. B.; Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 5, 1857
From Lawrence, October 5, 1857 (election day), "W. B. Edmonds" (appears to have been assumed name of E. B. Whitman) wrote to tell Brown that he hoped to see Brown in Kansas "soon," but he was unable to fulfill all Brown's requests, for funds and teams--the latter being especially hard to come by.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Edmonds, W. B.; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Finance; Free state prospects; Hawkins, N.; Horses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Panic of 1857; Sickness (see Illness); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Dear Sir [Samuel Adair, presumably]
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 5, 1857
Whitman wrote from Lawrence, presumably, to Samuel Adair to ask for his assistance in distributing remaining clothing before winter. He included instructions for notifying the public of the availability of relief goods and indicated that the first priority for receiving materials is for who Adair "knows to be in absolute want." Whitman felt the task of distribution should not take more than one week. He also wanted Adair to estimate the number of poor families in his community.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Sir [G. L. Stearns]
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 11, 1857
E. B. Whitman, an agent of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee, reported from Lawrence about money problems and his efforts to provide assistance to John Brown, etc. He also observed that free state men seemed to have won the election, said all was "peaceful in the territory" right then, and reported less than favorably on the organizational work done by T. J. Marsh.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Henry H. Williams to Capt'n. [John] Brown
Authors: Williams, Henry H.
Date: October 12, 1857
With regard to the recent legislative election, Henry Williams of Osawatomie informed Brown that "it went off right" largely because the Free State men were throughly organized for their protection and the protection of the ballot box. Williams himself led a company of 80 men and believe word of the preparedness contributed to a quiet and successful election day.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state militia; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Stubbs militia company; Tabor, Iowa; Weapons (see also Guns); Williams, Henry H.


Order No. 2, Quartermaster's Department, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, Lawrence, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 19, 1857
This printed letter written by E. B. Whitman concerned the success of Kansas volunteers in organizing to help freemen and the lack of success with voting lists.

Keywords: Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Mr. [G. L.] Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 25, 1857
In this report from Lawrence, Whitman complained about his money problem and wrote that John Brown, who, according to Sanborn, had been in Iowa for some weeks, would be in Lawrence for "a very important council" of the military organization. "Look for something decisive this winter and Satisfactory." He informed Stearns that he (Whitman) would take care of "J. B.'s wants" as soon as he could, but there was a limit to what he could borrow on his own account. "I am willing to work, wear out, die if need be in the cause, but I cannot send a brick always without straw."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state militia; Iowa; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Illustration, St. Nicholas Hotel, Lawrence, KS
Authors: Watson, B.I.
Date: November 15, 1857
An unknown artist drew this pencil sketch of St. Nicholas House, a wagon stop built in 1854 in Lawrence, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hotels; Illustrations; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; St. Nicholas House; Town development


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: December 2, 1857
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother, in Sparta, Illinois. Miller spoke of political unrest surrounding the existence of both the Lecompton Constitution and the Topeka Constitution. He demanded that judges in the territory have the power to arrest border ruffians, who "were responsible for everything to do with the Lecompton Constitution." Miller also expressed his concern over a letter he had received from a relative, concerning the manner in which he himself was handling the family's financial investments in the Territory.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Free State Party; Gold mines and mining; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: December 18, 1857
Upon his return to the East (Boston), Marsh wrote to Stearns on December 18, 1857, to provide a relatively brief outline of his experience and accomplishments since leaving for Kansas Territory on committee business the previous June. He said others could be the judge of the success of the "mission," but "a Free State Legislature was secured by the election" and Governor Charles Robinson had been "quite complimentary" of Marsh in a letter to Amos A. Lawrence.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Cato, Sterling G.; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Steamboats; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Territorial politics and government; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Walter Oakley, et al, to Charles Robinson
Authors: Oakley, Walter ; Ritchie, John , 1817-1887; Ross, William Wallace
Date: December 26, 1857
Walter Oakley, W. W. Ross, and John Richey wrote from Topeka to invited Robinson to attend and address the "Mass Meeting" to be held in their city on Monday, December 28, for the purpose of endorsing "the action of the Convention at Lawrence. These men and the community held Robinson in the highest "esteem" but they differed with him "upon the question of voting for state officers under the Lecompton Constitution."

Keywords: Free State Convention; Free State Party; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Oakley, Walter; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Ross, William Wallace, 1828-1889; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday, et al, to Charles Robinson
Authors: Crane, Franklin L.; Dickey, Milton C.; Farnsworth, Loring ; Giles, Frye W.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 26, 1857
In this brief letter from Topeka, signed by C. K. Holiday, M. C. Dickey, F. L. Crane, Loring Farnsworth, and F. W. Giles, "Governor" Robinson was "respecfully and cordially" invited to participate in a "mass convention" at Topeka (December 28, 1857) convened "to deliberate upon the political questions of the day; and more especially upon the action of the late 'Lawrence Convention.'"

Keywords: Crane, Franklin Loomis; Dickey, Milton C.; Farnsworth, Loring; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Giles, Frye W.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka, Kansas


Circular, The Lawrence Landing
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1857
This circular advertised that the Lawrence landing was in Delaware City, Kansas Territory. Delaware City lay on the Missouri River and it was closer to Lawrence than either Leavenworth or Quindaro; therefore, the most convenient way to ship goods over the river route would be to have them land at Delaware City. Delaware City had recently come into the hands of free state settlers, who wrote this circular to improve the town and to encourage emigration.

Keywords: Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Freight and freightage; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Town promotion; Transportation


Letter, Chas. Robinson (on behalf of the citizens of Lawrence) to Hon. F. P. Stanton
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: 1857
This letter by Charles Robinson, free state leader and future Governor of the state of Kansas, appears here in published form. Robinson wrote to F. P. Stanton, the acting governor of Kansas Territory, expressing his opinion that the people of the Territory were not getting their fair say in electing officers or administrating territorial laws. He referred to the upcoming Lecompton Constitutional Convention, which would take place in September 1857, and outlined some procedural guidelines by which the Convention should be run if the free state men were to participate.

Keywords: Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894


Letter, E. R. Falley to Kansas Central Committee
Authors: Falley, Edwin R.
Date: c. 1857
In this undated letter from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, E. R. Falley informed the Kansas Central Committee that he lost a gun loaned to him by "Mr. Wilder" (D. W. Wilder?) while serving with a free-state militia company at Blanton's bridge (Napoleon B. Blanton, on the Wakarusa in Douglas County) in June 1856. Wilder was demanding payment, and Falley asked the committee to reimburse "Mr. Wilder for said gun."

Keywords: Blantons Bridge; Falley, Edwin R.; Guns; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Wilder, Daniel Webster, 1832-1911


Charter of the City of Lawrence
Authors: Hutchinson, George W.
Date: c. 1857
This reports that a meeting was held to approve the charter of the city of Lawrence, Kansas Territory. The text of the charter was included. In addition, this report included a message from five citizens regarding reasons for establishing city government.

Keywords: Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Town development


Invitation to a ball at the Free State Hotel
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1858
An invitation to a ball held on January 29, 1859, at the Free State hotel with proceeds going toward refurnishing the hotel.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Blood, James; Branscomb, Charles H.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Emery, James Stanley; Entertainment; Free State Hotel; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; McClure, W. M.; Mead, Andrew J.; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Searl, Albert D.; Smith, George W.; Winchell, J. M.


Beware of frauds! Down with the disorganizers!
Authors: Central Committee
Date: 1858
Discussion of the slate of candidates for a constitutional convention (Leavenworth?), cautioning free state men to beware of attempts to divide them and thus weaken their ability to challenge the pro-slavery force. It also warns about split Free State tickets.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Emery, James Stanley; Free State Convention; Free State Party; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Authors: Lamon, W. H.
Date: c. 1858
A view of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, looking southeast from Mt. Oread, late 1850s or early 1860s. The photograph was taken by W. H. Lamon.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lamon, W. H.; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Stereographs


Account Book, 1858-59
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: January 1858 - June 1859
This cloth bound journal, identified as "Account Book of Gov. Charles Robinson, January 1, 1858--June 15, 1872," began with an "Inventory of Property belonging to C. Robinson," land and shares, as well as a list of people to whom he owed money. The inventory referred to Lawrence property, a "Wyandotte Float," and shares in the towns of Topeka, Quindaro, etc.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Financial statements; Fitchburg, Massachusetts; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Wyandot Float; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, R.C. Brant to Hiram Hill
Authors: Brant, R.C.
Date: January 5, 1858
R.C. Brant, a Baptist missionary who had settled in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, wrote to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, regarding the use of Hill's land. Brant owned a town lot next to Hill's, and wished to make improvements to his land, which would require that he use Hill's lot. Brant explained that he had many visitors coming and going who would see the beauty of the area and might be inclined to settle in the area if he be allowed to improve his own lot. A note at the end of the letter supports Brant's credibility as a permanent citizen of Lawrence who had already made improvements to the town.

Keywords: Baptists; Brant, R.C.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missionaries; Real estate investment; Town development


Letter, S.C.S. [most likely Samuel C. Smith] to "Doctor" [Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: January 11, 1858
This letter, dated Lawrence, January 11, 1858, most likely from Samuel C. Smith, mentions many of the Free State Party's main actors and issues at this critical time in Kansas politics. He described the activities of the Legislature, which assembled in Lawrence in January, and devotes considerable attention to the machinations of the "villain" Jim Lane.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Free State Party; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Railroad companies; Railroad legislation; Railroad promotion; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Temperance movement; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion


Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: February 3, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported that money had been scarce that season, that the float of West Lawrence was still being investigated by Washington, and discussed town lot values related to the "float" status of the land. Parker also updated Hill on recent political events; the Legislature had convened and was discussing moving the Territorial capital. More significantly, a box of votes from the recent Lecompton Constitution election had been discovered under a woodpile, and the Legislature was busy making "stringent" laws to curb future acts of election fraud.

Keywords: Capitals (cities); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Hill, Hiram; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate investment; Temperance movement; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: February 11, 1858
Josiah Miller, serving as Probate Judge for Douglas County, wrote to his Father and Mother in Illinois. He offered them more advice as to their financial investments in Kansas and their journey to the Territory. Miller commented that, even though the laws put in place by the bogus legislature had been repealed, it was "hard to tell whose laws are in force." He also voiced his support for a bill which would make accepting a position under the Lecompton Constitution a felony punishable by death.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Judges; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Miller, Josiah; Travel


General Lane's answer to the President's message
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: February 13, 1858
Address by General Lane in response to the President's message about Lane and Kansas. Lane rebukes the President's message about him and Kansas. Described the many elections that Kansas had gone through and the intrusion of Missourians into Kansas to rig the elections.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Antislavery; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature)


Letter, R. G. Elliott to Dear Sister
Authors: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: February 15, 1858
Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his sister from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, regarding his financial investments. Elliott told her that he was a person who had had both good and bad fortune and, though he was not immediately wealthy and might have to wait to build a house, he had many shares in town properties that should be worth at least $3000-4000.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Elliott, Robert G.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Travel


Letter, J. G. Anderson to "Dear Brother"
Authors: Anderson, J. G.
Date: February 17, 1858
From "Camp near Luella K.T." on February 17, 1858, J. G. Anderson wrote to his brother regarding the "considerable excitement" that had recently resulted after a free state man was robbed in Fort Scott. Two companies of "Kansas Militia" were called out to arrest the thieves, "our company under Capt. [O.P.] Bayne and the Sugar Creek company under Capt. [James] Montgomery. When they arrived at "the Fort" on the 11th "the bloody villains" had already fled to Missouri. The letter is a "typical" mix of news about the Kansas troubles, work on the claim, and pleasantries about the folks back home. [Before the end of the year, Anderson would sign on with John Brown and follow him to Harpers Ferry.]

Keywords: Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, E. B. Whitman to George L. Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: February 20, 1858
This rather lengthy report from Lawrence addressed many issues, especially those surrounding the Lecompton constitutional controversy. With "the Topeka Movement . . . abandoned," the question was what would take its place to resist the Lecompton Constitution if it were accepted by the Congress. The territorial legislature had formally "protested against the admission of Kansas into the Union under the Lecompton Constitution," and "the Mass of the people are determined" to resist its imposition. Whitman went on to make many other interesting observations about the political situation, regarding Democrats and Republicans and even abolitionists: "men who seek here and now, on this issue, to break the back bone of slavery forever." In addition to the political, Whitman described his "labor of distributing the clothing . . . for the relief of Kansas," and discussed in some detail the financial situation regarding the Committee, his personal debt, and Kansas relief and support to John Brown.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Buchanan administration; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Whitman, E. B.


Account Book, 1858-1872
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: March 1858
Charles Robinson's March 1858 "Account Book" entries included land deals involving James Blood and another with Alfred Gray of Quindaro.

Keywords: Account books; Blood, James; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Gray, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Dear [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: March 6, 1858
This letter from Pomeroy to Hyatt was written from the Planters House hotel in Leavenworth on March 6, 1858 (not 1859, as marked) and deals with a variety of subjects, financial and political. Pomeroy began with comments on banking, property, and railroad promotion, and ends with observations about Kansas politics and the Lecompton Constitution, which he believed was finished. "Kansas is as sure to freedom as Plymouth Rock." Even if the proslave constitution passed Congress, all it would do is re-ignite the forces of freedom: "Kansas is safe to the free state party. So don't spend any more time , strength or money about it. The victory is won! . . .The millennium for the free labor interests of the Country will begin in 1860!"

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Banks and banking; Free State Party; Free labor; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Squatter Sovereign; Town lots


Letter, Nathan Starks to Hiram Hill Esq
Authors: Starks, Nathan
Date: March 8, 1858
Nathan Starks wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, asking for Hill's assistance in securing his old homestead in Massachusetts. Starks described his situation: he had moved to K.T. seeking better health and business, but had been disappointed in both of those, the social scene, and the lawlessness of the land. He hoped to return to his old homestead in Massachusetts after a year of life in Kansas Territory, provided that it had not been sold.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Mills and mill-work; Real estate investment; Starks, Nathan


Letter, F. G. Kimble to Mr. [George] Collamore
Authors: Kimble, F. G.
Date: April 11, 1858
F. G. Kimble of Damascoville, Columbiana County, Ohio, wrote to George Collamore enquiring about an advertisement he had seen for a room to let. Kimble, owner of a photography business, wanted to know if the conditions of the room were suitable for the operation of a studio and darkroom. He also asked about the condition of life in Lawrence, and if it the population there would be able to support him economically.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Collamore, George W.; Emigration and immigration; Kimble, F.G.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Ohio; Photographers


Letter, John P. Wheeler to Geo. W. Collamor, Esq.
Authors: Wheeler, John P.
Date: April 13, 1858
John Wheeler, Secretary of the Sumner Company, wrote to George Collamore, future mayor of Lawrence, from Sumner, Kansas Territory, inviting Collamore to purchase an interest in the developing town, named for the Massachusetts Republican, Charles Sumner.

Keywords: Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sumner Town Company; Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Wheeler, John P.


Receipt, Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store to George Collamore
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 14, 1858
George Collamore, Lawrence resident and future mayor, purchased various metal containers at Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Collamore would later be killed during Quantrill's raid on Lawrence in 1863.

Keywords: Barker, Ingle; Business; Collamore, George W.; Commerce; Domestics; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Ethnic groups; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store; Receipts


Minutes of the Third Session of the Kansas and Nebraska Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church
Authors: Kansas and Nebraska Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church
Date: April 15-19, 1858
The annual conference was held in Topeka, Kansas Territory from April 15 through 19, 1858. The minutes included the names of those attending as well as the business conducted. It listed the various ministerial appointments in Kansas and Nebraska as well as the membership of the committees. The minutes reported on educational efforts at Baker University and Blue Mount Central College. It contained information on the church's stand on slavery and temperance. The constitution of the Kansas and Nebraska Conference Missionary Society was included in the report as were statistics for the various churches.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Baker University; Baldwin, Kansas Territory; Big Springs, Kansas Territory; Bluemont Central College; Burlingame, Kansas Territory; Churches; Community life; Denison, Joseph; Dennis, Levin B.; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Holton, Kansas Territory; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Methodist Church; Methodists; Oskaloosa, Kansas Territory; Paddock, G. W.; Palermo, Kansas Territory; Prairie City, Kansas Territory; Religion; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Temperance; Topeka, Kansas Territory; White Cloud, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to M. [Martin] F. Conway
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: April 30, 1858
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory. Webb provided Conway with a detailed description of the property owned by the company in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Webb was quite critical of Charles Branscomb's, the company's previous general agent, administration of company property in the town.

Keywords: Branscomb, Charles H.; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Real estate; Town development; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, John S. Brown to Rev. Mr. [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Brown, John S.
Date: May 2, 1858
John S. Brown wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Brown informed Hale that he had substituted for Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, for the previous six months while Nute lectured in the East. Brown stated that he wanted to serve in Kansas as a missionary but lacked financial resources. He asked Hale for funds to support his missionary efforts.

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Unitarian churches


Letter, H.J. Parker to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: May 2, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker included a list of accounts paid and received on the first page. He looked forward to Hill's visit to K.T. in the fall, but was afraid he would be disappointed as "everybody has the blues"; the scarcity of money was taking its toll on the community. However, Parker said many new houses were being built, though the builders themselves were paid in town lots or lumber instead of money.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Prices; Real estate investment; Rent


Letter, E. Nute to [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: May 10, 1858
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute inquired about the possibility of Hale arranging a loan of $2000 at reasonable interest for the completion of the Unitarian Church in Lawrence. He reported on the high rates of interest being charged for loans in Kansas Territory and on the general effects of the panic of 1857 on the territorial economy. Nute also expressed his dissatisfaction with the Buchanan administration's handling of the Lecompton Constitution and his hope that a change in presidential administration in 1860 would result in Kansas' admission as a free state.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Blood, James; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Loans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Panic of 1857; Religion; Unitarian church buildings


Benefit Ball
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 21, 1858
This invitation was to a ball to be held on the anniversary of the destruction of the Free State Hotel. It was to celebrate the opening of the Eldridge House, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Tickets cost $5.00 and the proceeds were to be used for furnshing the new hotel. Thirty nine men from 17 different communities were listed on the invitation.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Community life; Daily life; Dance parties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Free State Hotel; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parties


Letter, P. R. Brooks, Lawrence, K. T. to his father
Authors: Brooks, P. R.
Date: June 6, 1858
This letter described the land claim dispute between James Lane and Gaius Jenkins, which ended with Lane killing Jenkins. Brooks wrote that Jenkins was well respected, mentioned his widow and children and indicated that his funeral was well attended. He also made passing reference to the "Linn county tragedy."

Keywords: Brooks, Paul R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, Ms. Maria Felt to Dear Mr. [Thomas W.] Higginson
Authors: Felt, Maria
Date: June 25, 1858
Miss Felt wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson, telling of her journey from Clinton, Massachusetts to Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Apparently, she was emigrating to Kansas in order to teach school. Miss Felt and her party traveled by train until they reached Alton, Illinois, where they took a steamer along the Mississippi to St. Louis. From there they traveled to Jefferson City and finally reached Leavenworth, Kansas Territory. At that point they traveled to Lawrence by stagecoach and Indian canoe. Once she had arrived in Lawrence, which she found to be a pretty town, she became acquainted with James Redpath, R. J. Hinton, Samuel Tappan, and George Stearns. She also called on Ephraim Nute, but she disliked both him and his wife, writing that they "sat up like two icicles." This letter appears to have been edited at some later date.

Keywords: Felt, Maria; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Railroads; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Schools; St. Louis, Missouri; Stagecoaches; Steamboats; Transportation; Travel; Water transportation; Weather; Women


Letter, John F. King to Tho. Ewing Jr
Authors: King, John F.
Date: July 1, 1858
Ewing's correspondent, John F. King of Lawrence, had just given testimony in the Lane-Jenkins hearing that supported Lane's testimony that he shot Gaius Jenkins in self-defense on June 3, 1858, and wrote to provide Ewing (one of Lane's attorneys) with some information regarding "the exact position of the court." In the preliminary hearing, conducted by three justices of the peace (Erastus D. Ladd and two others) beginning on June 15, the decision was that no murder had been committed.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Jenkins, Gaius; Justices of the peace; King, John F.; Ladd, Erastus D.; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Shooting of Gaius Jenkins
Authors: Unknown
Date: July 24, 1858
A page from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 24, 1858, showing the shooting of Gaius Jenkins by James H. Lane, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, June 3, 1858. The page also contains portraits of James H. Lane and Gaius Jenkins.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations


Letter, G. W. Brown to Dear Sir & Brother
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 28, 1858
Writing on International Order of Oddfellows letterhead, George W. Brown of Lawrence informed his correspondent, apparently of White Cloud, Doniphan County, that he had enclosed an application for a subordinate lodge charter. The recipient of this letter might have been Sol Miller.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Clubs; Community life; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; Independent Order of Odd Fellows; International Order of Odd Fellows; Kansas Chief; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; White Cloud, Kansas Territory


Account Book, 1858-1872
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: August - September 1858
Robinson's August and September 1858 "Account Book" entries included several for the "Quindaro Company," which was being actively promoted and developed at this time. Specific items included reference to the purchase of "2 yoke cattle" for $150, "expenses of C.R. at Washington," and an itemized list of supplies and services for the infant river town.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Financial statements; Gray, Alfred; Kansas Land Trust Company; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro Town Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Schools; Stevens, Robert S.; Town companies; Washington, D.C.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Financial Statements, M. F. Conway to N. E. Emigrant Aid Company
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: August 1, 1858 - January 1, 1859
These monthly financial statements, submitted by Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory, detailed company income and expenditures for a six month period between July and December 1858. Conway provided particularly full accounts of his traveling expenses during frequent trips around the territory.

Keywords: Account books; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Financial statements; Food; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Stagecoaches; Transportation; Travel


Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister, father and others"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: August 13, 1858
By June 28, 1858, J. H. Kagi was back in K.T. at Lawrence, and on August 13 he was writing the family from Moneka, Linn County, where he had "been very busily engaged in fortifying along the State line to prevent further inroads from Missouri." [See J.B. letter of August 3 to Wm. Hutchinson in which he speaks of building the fort on the site of the Marie des Cygnes Massacre.] In an unusually open and frank few lines, Kagi wrote: "C. W. Moffet and two of the other boys (whom you have not seen) are in Ashtabula Co., Ohio. Some have gone to Harpers Ferry. We are all ready and in good spirits. Things are working rightly, here, and brightening elsewhere for our final work. Those who once thought us the most foolish, now think most cheerfully of the whole plan." He closed by asking that they write him at the "Whitney House" in Lawrence.

Keywords: Ashtabula County, Ohio; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Moffett, Charles; Moneka, Kansas Territory


Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: August 25, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker described the situation in K.T. as "dull. . .every man you se [sic] here Looks blue and no Business and allmost [sic] Every Family are Sick". He told Hill that the Cincinnati House was the only property of his that was occupied, all other of Hill's homes and buildings were vacant; many people were selling their property. Parker closed his letter with a mention of the recent election to ratify the Lecompton Constitution under the English bill.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; English Bill; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to M. F. Conway
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: August 28, 1858
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory. Webb gave instructions to Conway on several New England Emigrant Aid Company business matters including the potential sale of the mill in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Webb comments on the decline in real estate values in Kansas Territory in the aftermath of the Panic of 1857.

Keywords: Batcheller, Kansas Territory; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Real estate; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town lots; Wabaunsee County, Kansas Territory; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Minutes, First Meeting of Territorial Central Committee of the Free State Party
Authors: Free State Executive Committee
Date: September 23, 1858
The first meeting of the Free State Party's territorial central committee was convened in Lawrence on September 23, 1858, with, according to the minutes, the following individuals in attendance: James Blood, temporary chair; P. H. Townsend; W. F. M. Arny, and James M. Winchell, along with J. C. Douglas who held proxy for John McKee. Among other things, the committee resolved to nominate Samuel W. Greer for territorial superintendent of public instruction.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blood, James; Free State Convention; Free State Party; Greer, Samuel Wiley; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Political conventions; Superintendent of Public Instruction; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: November 6, 1858
S.T. Learnard wrote from Montpelier, Vermont, to his son Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. The author commended Oscar for his honorable conduct in supporting right and justice, while expressing his dissatisfaction with his fellow Vermont State Legislators who "appear to be ignorant of the nature and effect of Laws and pay but little attention to their passage." He also asked his son to dispose of his land interests in Lawrence and requested that Oscar update him on his business and future prospects.

Keywords: Business; Business enterprises; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Real estate investment; Vermont


Letter, H. F. Parker to Hiram Hill Esq
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: November 15, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported that currently he was only able to collect $33.33 in rent from Hill's tenants, a small fraction of what was owed. He added that many settlers were leaving for California and hopes for gold mining in the West; many homes and businesses were vacated. Parker closed by stating "I am sick of Kansas if Business is to go as it has the Last year".

Keywords: California; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Gold mines and mining; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate business


Letter, Samuel C. [Smith] to "Dear Doctor" [C. Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: December 1, 1858
Samuel Smith, Robinson's attorney and associate in matters having to do especially with the Quindaro venture, wrote from Lawrence on December 1, 1858, about certain farm issues--presumably having to do with the governor's home and property in Douglas County--which he was managing during Robinson's absence (Robinson was in Washington, D.C.). Smith also wrote: "We formed another Board of Trade at Quindaro and shall probably have the Chindowan [newspaper] issued in two weeks."

Keywords: Agriculture; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Quindaro Chindowan; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad legislation; Railroad promotion; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Smith, Samuel C.; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Washington, D.C.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: December 14, 1858
After returning to Lawrence from a trip east, Whitman wrote Franklin B. Sanborn a mostly personal letter regarding the preparations for the winter and need to extend the loan owed to Sanborn--he had crops enough for subsistence but little cash. Near the end, Whitman commented briefly on the political situation, which was "quiet" at present, but "the difficulties in Linn & Bourbon Counties are renewed" and "J. B. is on the ground and engaged in 'Regulating.'"

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Crops; Farmers; Free state legislature; Insurance; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Leslie's Illustrated, Panoramic view of Lawrence.
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 25, 1858
Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 25, 1858, showing a panoramic view of Lawrence. The scene includes businesses, homes, and cattle and sheep grazing on a hill overlooking Lawrence. The illustration is captioned, "City of Lawrence, Kansas Territory."

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Town settlement


Pamphlet, Report of Samuel W. Greer, Territorial Superintendent of Common Schools
Authors: Greer, Samuel W
Date: December 30, 1858
Samuel Greer, having been appointed Territorial Superintendent of Public Instruction by the Free State Party's Central Committee only four months before, reported on the status of the public education system in the Territory. Greer emphasized that perfection should not be anticipated as K.T. had little financial revenue to contribute at that time. He proposed dividing the school system by municipal townships and sub-districts for easier management. Greer did however find praise for the school in Lawrence, relating that "the best order prevails. . .the scholars. . .are advancing rapidly in their studies", and referring to the school as example to "awaken a spirit of generous emulation in other parts of the Territory."

Keywords: Economic conditions; Education; Greer, Samuel Wiley; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Schools; Superintendent of Public Instruction; Taxation


Announcement, Grand Opening Ball at the Eldridge House, New Year's Eve
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 31, 1858
This announcement advertises a Grand Opening Ball held at the Eldridge House in Lawrence, Kansas on December 31, 1858. It lists committee of arrangement and floor managers.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Balls (parties); Blood, James; Branscomb, Charles H.; Davis, Alson C.; Deitzler, George W.; Eldridge House; Entertainment; Farnsworth, Loring; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Pratt, Caleb S.; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Stinson, Thomas N.; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Circular, Lawrence University
Authors: Bishop, William ; Board of Trustees of Lawrence University; Miner, Dr. C. E.
Date: ca. 1858
Advertisement for the development and opening of Lawrence University. Outlines Faculty members, subjects, and academic programs that will be available, as well as fee schedules.

Keywords: Bishop, William; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Landscape; Lawrence University; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Teachers


Shooting of Gaius Jenkins
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 24, 1858
Newspaper clipping from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 24, 1858, describing the shooting of Gauis Jenkins by Jim Lane. The two men were claiming rights to the same portion of land. Lane shot Jenkins when he tried to get water from the well on this contested property.

Keywords: Jenkins, Gaius; Land acquisition; Land claim disputes; Land speculation; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Violence


Leslie's Illustrated, Stories of Kansas Cities
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1858
Article from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 25, 1858. Entitled "The Cities of Kansas," it includes accounts of Lawrence, Leavenworth, Lecompton, and Topeka.

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Objects; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: January 2, 1859
From Lawrence, K.T., where he went to lobby the territorial legislature on behalf of Sumner's city charter and a "Pikes Peak Express Company," John J. Ingalls wrote to tell his father about the journey that took him through Leavenworth. He made some interesting observations about the condition of the roads and the general discomfort involved in overland travel ("The coaches are constructed with special reference to safety in passing over corduroy roads, through sloughs and ravines, having no regard whatever to the comfort of the passengers."), as well as nice descriptions of both cities, Leavenworth and Lawrence.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Delaware Indians; Eldridge House; Ferries; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Legislature; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pikes Peak gold rush; Roads; Stagecoaches; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Territorial government; Transportation; Wakarusa River


Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: January 5, 1859
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported the amount of city, country, township, institutional, and school taxes that Hill would owe. He told Hill he would pay the city tax for now, and wait to hear from him regarding the others. Parker observed that current sales of lots were slow, but that he had received an offer on one of Hill's lots.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Starks, Nathan; Taxation; Town lots


Letter, S. C. S. [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: January 6, 1859
Samuel Smith wrote to Dr. Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, regarding the latest election events within the Kansas Territorial Legislature. The positions of Speaker and Clerk were not secured by William Roberts and himself, as had been expected, but had been filled by Alfred Larzalere and Byron P. Ayres as a consequence of some questionable internal party politics, so described by Smith. Smith also wrote Robinson of George Deitzler's desire to resume correspondence with him, and of a recent incident in which James Lane's portrait was defaced.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Ayres, Byron P.; Babcock, Carmi William; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Branscomb, Charles H.; Deitzler, George W.; Delahay, Mark W.; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elder, P.P.; Elections; Free State Party; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Hutchinson, George W.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); McLane, George W.; Methodist Church; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion; Wright, John W.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, S. Medary to My Dear Sir
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: January 12, 1859
Samuel Medary wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to an unknown recipient in Washington, D. C. Medary expressed his disapproval at the way the U. S. Marshall handled the "troubles" in Linn and Bourbon counties that were brought on by free-state radical James Montgomery and his men. He added that the legislature, newly in session, was difficult to work with, as there very few "reliable democrats" in it. Medary also described the legislature's debate over Montgomery's fate.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Danford, Addison; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Roberts, T.R.; Violence; Wright, John W.


Letter, J. G. Anderson to "Dear brother," J. Q. Anderson
Authors: Anderson, J. G.
Date: January 14, 1859
From near Lawrence, Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote about his recent call "into the service," whick took him to Fort Scott and into Missouri with "Old [John] Brown as they call him," where they liberate "ten slaves." Anderson provides some interesting details of their current action and journey, and he observed: "Brown has drawn a paralel [sic] which will be published in the Tribune."

Keywords: Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Jayhawking; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Rice, Benjamin; Slaves; Underground railroad


Letter, J. P. Root to Hon. Charles Robinson
Authors: Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: January 17, 1859
Joseph Root wrote to Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, informing him of a development that was splitting the Republican (anti-slavery) Party. Root mentioned that a large majority of the free state House members had begun to call themselves "Radicals," or extreme Republicans. He stated that he would leave the party if, in order to be a Republican, he had to be a member of the "Jim Lane Montgomery Men." Root also informed Robinson that a court had been established in Lawrence in order to try violent offenders from Linn, Lykins, and Bourbon counties.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Smith, Samuel C.


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: January 26, 1859
From Lawrence, January 26, 1859, Ingalls began this letter with a description of the territory's pleasant weather, but focused on the activities of the legislature and the status of slavery in Kansas. He was serving as clerk of the "Senate," while looking after Sumner affairs.

Keywords: African Americans; Boundaries - Kansas Territory; Civil rights; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Territorial government; Weather


Letter, R. Harding to Mr. [John] Bayless
Authors: Harding, R.
Date: January 22, 1859
R. Harding wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to John Bayless regarding the recent business discussed in the Territorial Legislature. Harding indicated that many members of the Legislature were intent on "Stealing Thunder", or receiving the glory for policies first introduced by others. He thought that, in light of recent difficulties with skirmishes in Linn and Bourbon Counties, Governor Medary would soon lose his. Harding seemed to support James Montgomery, who was responsible for many of those skirmishes, stating that "the provocation was evidently great and now he certainly has the sympathies of a large majority of the community best acquainted with the facts."

Keywords: Bayless, John; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Harding, R.; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871


Letter, M. F. Conway to Dear Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: January 23, 1859
Martin F. Conway of Lawrence wrote to Brown on January 23, 1859, to explain that he (Conway) had not seen E. B. Whitman, but Conway did not think Brown could depend on Whitman, who was "dissatisfied with your proceedings in Lawrence," for any more financial support. Conway offered his full support ("I am at your service"), but he was rather pressed for cash at that time.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: January 30, 1859
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, who, accompanied by Mrs. Edward C. K. Garvey, had returned to Meadville, Pennsylvania to give birth to her second child. Meanwhile, Cyrus Holliday (who was Vice President of the upper territorial legislative body, the Council) had passed four bills, including one establishing Topeka as the Shawnee county seat. He bought new clothes for the session, since Lawrence had become more refined, with a new hotel. Holliday mentioned emigration to Pikes Peak, the Topeka bridge, trouble in L[i]nn county, and meeting three women, Mrs. Smith, Mrs. [Robert] Morrow, and Mrs. O'Donell (possibly Mrs. William O'Donnall) in Lawrence. He proposed that Liz, Mary Holliday's younger sister, return with her.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; County seats; Garvey, Edward C. K.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Hoogland, Edward; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka bridge


Diary
Authors: Hubbell, Willard Orvis
Date: February 1, 1859 - April 30, 1859
This three month excerpt from a personal diary probably was written by Willard O. Hubbell. The diary described Hubbell's routine daily activities as a twenty-five year old bachelor working as a tinner in Lawrence. Hubbell was active in fraternal organizations and frequently attended dances and other social gatherings.

Keywords: Clubs; Community life; Dance parties; Diaries; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; Freemasons; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 6, 1859
Cyrus K. Holliday, soon to return to Topeka after a productive territorial legislative session in Lawrence, wrote to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He wrote about a festival held at the Eldridge House, and reported on several other incidents of note: the arrest of John W. Doy, captured by Missourians while helping former slaves travel to Iowa; John Brown's avoidance of capture by [John P.] Woods (at the Battle of the Spurs on January 31, 1859); and Charles Fischer's escape after being twice arrested as "a fugitive slave." Holliday also wrote that the legislature had passed and Governor Samuel Medary would approve a bill granting Josephine Branscomb a divorce. Despite Holliday's efforts, the constitutional convention would be held at Wyandotte in July. He had refused [Alfred L.] Winans' request for a recommendation.

Keywords: Branscomb, Josephine; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Divorce; Doy, John; Fisher, Charley; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Spurs, Battle of the; Winans, A. L.; Wood, John P.; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, John James Ingalls to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: February 11, 1859
In this brief letter from the Senate Chamber, Lawrence, Kansas, February 11, 1859, Ingalls writes about the bill abolishing slavery in Kansas Territory; it was passed too late to give the legislature a chance to override an almost certain veto by Governor Medary. The bill only passed after a "spirited and angry debate."

Keywords: Civil rights; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, [E. Nute] to [Unidentified recipient]
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: February 14, 1859
Ephraim Nute wrote from Lawrence on February 14, 1859, regarding "the disaster that befel the last expedition from this place with fugitives." The party, led by Dr. John Doy, was in route to Oskaloosa when captured and taken to Missouri, where "the colored people, both free and slaves, have been shipped for the New Orleans market." Doy and his son had been jailed at Platte City, Missouri, and were to be tried for "stealing a slave from Weston." Nute was quite sure this operation had been betrayed from within, as "Great rewards were offered, spies sent out & men hired in this place to watch & aid in recovering the run away property."

Keywords: African Americans; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Holton, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Nute, Ephraim; Oskaloosa, Kansas Territory; Spurs, Battle of the; Underground railroad; United States marshals; United States. Army


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to M. F. Conway
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: February 19, 1859
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory. Webb provided instructions to Conway on several New England Emigrant Aid Company business matters including the sale of property in Atchison, Kansas Territory. Webb state that it would be desirable to hold the Atchison property until real estate values increased, but he informed Conway that the Company needed cash immediately and that the properties should be sold as soon as possible.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Branscomb, Charles H.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Real estate; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, E. N. [Ephraim Nute] to Unidentified recipient
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: February 24, 1859
Ephaim Nute of Lawrence provides an interesting description of the plight of one of the Doy party's fugitive slaves, captured and jailed at Platte City until his escape and dangerous flight back to Lawrence. "We have him now hid & are to day making arrangements to have him set forward tomorrow 30 miles to another depot. I think they (there are 2 others to go) will not be taken again without bloodshed." Nute also mentioned his involvement in the "Charley Fisher affair in Leavenworth." Fisher, a black fugitive, had actually come to Nute's house "disguised in female attire."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Canada; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, John; Fisher, Charley; Free state cause; Fugitive slaves; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Nute, Ephraim; Platte City, Missouri; Proslavery settlers; Underground railroad


To the voters of Lawrence
Authors: Many Tax Payers
Date: Feb. 25, 1859
This document urged the voters of Lawrence to vote against a new charter. It gave seven reasons why Lawrence citizens should vote against the new charter.

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Voting


Letter, C. Robinson to Geo. R. Morton Esq
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: March 9, 1859
In this typed "transcript" of a letter from Lawrence dated March 9, 1859, Charles Robinson confirmed Morton apparent conclusion that Robinson preferred Governor Salmon P. Chase for president in 1860. Robinson considered Chase "the purest & best Statesman in the country," and thought he was "more available than any other man of whatever shade of political faith," including William Seward. Robinson also comments on the Kansas scene which was "badly cursed with the most unscrupulous demagogues that ever afflicted any people, & there is at present but little union of effort or harmony of action among the free State men."

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Antislavery perspective; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Conway, Martin Franklin; Herald of Freedom; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Morton, George R.; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; Vaughan, Champion; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Geo. L. Stearns Esq.
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: March 1859
Here Whitman wrote about his support on behalf of the National Kansas Committee of several activities: Dr. Doy's defense, John Brown (despite the fact that he had obtained additional funds "under false pretences"), and the organization of the Republican Party which was to be undertaken at convention in Osawatomie later that spring. Whitman feared that without some effort "the genuine standard Republicans" would fail to control the movement. He also mentioned an "unfortunate" altercation between Martin Conway and Charles Robinson on the streets of Lawrence.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Factionalism; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie convention; Railroad land grants; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: April 10, 1859
Hiram Hill wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his brother. Hill traveled to Lawrence to settle various business matters, but found himself preoccupied with repairing rat damage to the foundation of one of his homes. He had found renters for all of his buildings himself, as he was not inclined to trust anyone to do the business for him since "they are a promising set of cutthroats". Hill would not travel to Manhattan or Topeka but would stop in Quindaro before heading back to Massachusetts.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [G. W. Brown]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: April 13, 1859
With regard to the formation of the Republican Party at the forthcoming Osawatomie convention, Ewing told George W. Brown, editor of Lawrence's Herald of Freedom, why he believed this was the right course for the "opposition" to take at this time. The Free State Party had, in his opinion, accomplished its objectives, and the Democratic Party contained a proslave faction and was affiliated with the administration. Ewing's objective was "to secure an organization of the Republican or opposition party at Osawattomie [sic], on a just and rational platform, and led by honest & conservative men."

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie convention; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Proslavery; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Anniversary Ball
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 20, 1859
The citizens of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, were giving this ball to benefit the fire department but the event was to be held on the anniversary of the destruction of the Free State Hotel on May 20, 1856. The event was to be held at the Eldridge House and music was provided by the Lawrence Quadrille Band.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Community life; Daily life; Dance parties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Free State Hotel; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parties


Letter, William A. Phillips, State Marshall, to Joel Grover
Authors: Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893
Date: June 24, 1859
William A. Phillips, Kansas State Marshall, wrote to Joel Grover, at the time a Douglas County Commissioner, appointing him to take the census in a township northwest of Lawrence. Grover had previously served in the Wakarusa War as captain of the first military company in Lawrence. Later, he became active in local government and held various positions until his death in 1879.

Keywords: Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Grover, Joel; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement


Letter, C. [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: July 4, 1859
From Quindaro, Charles Robinson wrote to inform his wife about matters of business pertaining to this young city on the Kaw. He believed "railroad matters look[ed] very well for Quindaro, for example. Robinson also takes this opportunity to scold his wife about her attitude toward the people of Lawrence, some of whom she apparently thought were 'aristocratic or exclusive but I know of no one more exclusive than yourself; I do not know whether from pride of Character or circumstance or something else."

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Stevens, Robert S.


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to M. F. Conway
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: August 17, 1859
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory. Webb expressed disappointment about the manner in which a territorial claims committee viewed New England Emigrant Aid Company claims for damages. He also stated his concern about seeing the Company listed as a delinquent taxpayer in the Lawrence Republican newspaper.

Keywords: Claims (see Damage claims or Land claims); Conway, Martin Franklin; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Property tax; Taxation; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Financial Statement, Mssrs Simpson Brothers to H. Hill
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: August 1859
This document, prepared by the Simpson brothers (possibly Samuel Newell, H.M., and/or W.A.) for Hiram Hill, shows the amount of rent collected for each of Hill's tenants from May 1858 to March 1859. Hill owned several properties in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, which he rented to people and businesses.

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell


Letter, Simpson Brothers to Hiram Hill Esq.
Authors: Simpson, W.A.
Date: October 7, 1859
W.A. Simpson wrote for the Simpson Brothers from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Simpson reported that the Lawrence City Council had passed a sidewalk ordinance, and had received a reasonable estimate for the work and materials to place them on Hill's properties.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, W.A.; Town development


Letter, L. [Leigh] R. Webber to Miss Brown [daughter of John Stillman Brown]
Authors: Webber, L. R.
Date: October 22, 1859
This letter, written by Leigh R. Webber from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, was addressed to Miss Brown, a daughter of John Stillman Brown. Webber wrote about sickness in the Brown family and about other personal matters, such as her father's work as a minister. He also kept her apprised of politics, both in Kansas and on the national scene, and spoke briefly of John Brown's "insane undertaking."

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fires; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Religion; Sickness (see Illness); Slave power; Webber, Leigh R.


Letter, C. Robinson to My Dear Sir [Amos A. Lawrence]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: November 12, 1859
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Charles Robinson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts, expressing his concern that Lawrence's name was not included on a college proposal submitted by S.N. Simpson, which indicated he was not among the supporters of the enterprise. Robinson mentioned the upcoming election for Territorial delegate to Congress, in which Marcus Parrott, a Republican, was a favorite. He also sought advice from Lawrence about a complicated financial matter.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Elections; Finance; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pikes Peak, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Universities and colleges


Letter, E. S. Whitney to Uncle Hiram
Authors: Whitney, E.S.
Date: November 24, 1859
E. S. Whitney, niece of Hiram Hill, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to her uncle in Massachusetts. Whitney reported that money was scarce; the family was living in a hotel in town and they had begun renting their house. Her husband, Thaddeus Whitney, was unable to collect debts owed to him in order to travel to Pikes Peak. They all had recently suffered from an illness, but Thaddeus had begun building a new home on New Hampshire street.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Hill, Hiram; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pikes Peak gold rush; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Whitney, E.S.; Whitney, Thaddeus L.; Women


Anti-Slavery Mass Meeting
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November 26, 1859
Advertisement of an anti-slavery meeting which was to be held on December 2, 1859, in Lawrence on the day that John Brown was executed.. This advertisement is on display in the Kansas Museum of History, Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, James Hanway to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Hanway, James
Date: December 5, 1859
In response to the Redpath/Hinton notice in the Lawrence Republican, Hanway wrote from his home in Shermansville, Franklin County, to share his story about "our friend John Brown," and he hoped their efforts would convey to all Brown's "the character" and "motives" and "place him in his true light before the world." Hanway highlights the attempted "rescue of Lawrence" in May 1856; the subsequent "'Tragedy'" on Pottawatomie Creek, about which Brown personal told Hanaway, "it was a just act, to take the lives of those 5 pro-slave ruffians"; how John Brown was a surveyor who used his profession to gather intellegence among proslavery settlers; the fact, according to Hanway, that the Doyles and others were actively engaged in efforts to run free state settlers out of the area; and specifically denies the story that Frederick Brown was "insane."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hanway, James; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Proslavery settlers; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shermansville, Kansas Territory; Slave power; Surveyors


Announcement of Masonic Festival
Authors: Ancient Free and Accepted Masons Lawrence Lodge No. 6
Date: December 27, 1859
Announcement of a Masonic Festival to be held at Masonic Hall, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, for the public installation of the officers of Lawrence Lodge No. 6 Ancient Free and Accepted Masons (AFAM).

Keywords: Clubs; Community life; Fraternal Organizations; Freemasons; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. G. Allen to Redpath and Hinton
Authors: Allen, C. G.
Date: December 1859
Allen, a "minister of the Gospel" at Cottonwood Falls, K.T., wrote in response to the Redpath/Hinton call for "anecdotes & reminiscences" concerning "the brave & philanthropic [John] Brown," who the preacher first met in Lawrence in 1856. Allen left Lawrence when a call came for volunteers to aid in the defense of Osawatomie in August of that year and while there engaged saw his first "Border Ruffians," who he described as "miserable specimens of humanity. They were ragged & dirty. Their cloths & faces were to a considerable extent covered with tobacco spit." Allen and the men he was with actually missed the Battle of Osawatomie by moving south before the attack in an effort to find the attackers before they reached the town.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Stanton, Kansas Territory


Illustration, Lawrence, Kansas in 1859
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1859
A drawing of Lawrence, Kansas Territory as it appeared in 1859, looking northeast from Mount Oread. It specifically includes Eldridge House, Lawrence University, and various churches.

Keywords: Churches; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Illustrations; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mount Oread; Universities and colleges


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Claim #240 was filed on behalf of Ann Hooper, who lived with her son John L. Hooper, near Lawrence. The items listed were destroyed or stolen in August and September, 1856, and included animals, crops and household items. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Crops; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hooper, Ann; Hooper, John L.; Horses; House furnishings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Livestock; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Women


Citizens of Lawrence! L. Arms in area for negro hunting
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1860
This document warned the citizens of Lawrence that a U.S Marshal named L[eonard] Arms was searching Lawrence for slaves and that they had the right to keep him out of their homes.

Keywords: African Americans; Arms, Leonard; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Slaves; United States marshals


Photograph, Edward Payson Fitch
Authors: Clark's Daguerreotype Rooms, No. 59 Court Street, Boston.
Date: c. 1860
Portrait of Edward Payson Fitch, a native of Massachusetts, who arrived in Kansas Territory in 1854. He was member of the third group of settlers sponsored by the New England Emigrant Aid Company. On August 21, 1863, he was killed in his house by one of Quantrill's raiders. The daguerreotype was made by Clark's Daguerreotype Rooms, No. 59 Court Street, Boston, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Daguerreotypes; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fassett's Gallery; Fitch, Edward Payson; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Authors: Lamon, W. H.
Date: c. 1860
A view of Massachusetts Street looking north from Henry Street, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, early 1860s. The photograph was taken by W. H. Lamon.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Covered wagons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Horses; Lamon, W. H.; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Stereographs; Streets; Wagons


Letter, R. G. Elliott to Dear Sister
Authors: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: January 24, 1860
Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his sister from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Elliott told her that the Territorial legislature had just began its session, and he explained how it came to be held in Lawrence. He updated his sister on his current occupation as a Deputy at the Treasurer's office and cleared up a rumor that he had received $40,000 compensation for damages during the sack of Lawrence. He had only received $4,000, and he had immediately invested it in Territorial land warrants.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Pikes Peak gold rush; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Telegraph


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Gov'r [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: March 30, 1860
In response to a letter of March 27 from Charles Robinson, Lawrence, Ewing wrote regarding the governor's forthcoming trip to Washington. Ewing mentioned several issues but was mainly concerned about the lobbying effort for the railroad bill and the future state's federal land grant.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Deitzler, George W.; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Land grants; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Times; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Railroad promotion; Railroads; Railroads finance; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Vaughan, John C.; Washington, D.C.


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to S. N. Wood
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: April 17, 1860
From Washington, D.C., Pomeroy wrote to express his concern for the Woods who had just lost their "'House & Effect'" in a fire. But as consolation Pomeroy informed Wood that Kansas was "going to be admitted 'into the family of States,' this season." Then, making reference to the 1856 dispersal of the Topeka free state legislature, Pomeroy wrote: "I wonder if our State Legislature could not be called together at Topeka upon the 4th of July, to commemorate the day of our being 'dispersed' by the United States Soldiers!!" Although optimistic, Pomeroy conceded politics might still hold up admission, if the anti-Seward forces thought Kansas votes might influence the decision of the upcoming Chicago convention.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Atchison, Kansas Territory; Deitzler, George W.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Fires; Free state legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; United States. Congress


Public Meeting! Opposing John Ritchey in his recent act of killing of Leonard Arms
Authors: Lawrence Citizens
Date: April 28, 1860
This broadside calls for Lawrence citizens to attend a public meeting to express opposition to John Ritchey's killing of U.S. Marshal Leonard Arms. The broadside included a list of 140 citizens of Lawrence and vicinity who condemned Ritchey's actions.

Keywords: Arms, Leonard; Casualties; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John kills Leonard Arms; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Violence


Letter, S. [Sara Robinson] to "My own dear Husband" [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: April 29, 1860
From Lawrence, Sara Robinson wrote a mostly personal letter to her husband upon her return from a visit to the KC area (Quindaro, etc.)--apparently to see Charles Robinson before his departure for the East.

Keywords: Kansas City, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911


Letter, S. [Sara Robinson] to "My Dearly loved Husband" [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: May 7, 1860
Another very personal letter from Sara in Lawrence to Charles back East. She wrote mostly of mundane matters but does mention speculation about Kansas admission and the Charleston convention.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911


Letter, Joseph Gardner to George L. Stearns
Authors: Gardner, Joseph
Date: May 29, 1860
Joseph Gardner, a free-state partisan of Douglas County and member of the Doy rescue party, wrote Stearns requesting firearms and ammunition as there were people in the vicinity of St. Joseph, Mo., who reportedly were preparing to "make war upon my house." Word had reportedly gone out that Gardner was "harboring fugitives" [fugitive slaves).

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Firearms; Fugitive slaves; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; St. Joseph, Missouri; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Underground railroad


Letter, Caleb S. Pratt to George L. Stearns
Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: May 30, 1860
Pratt, who seemed to have been acting as Stearns' agent in Lawrence at this time, wrote regarding the Joseph Gardner request for firearms. On his own initiative, Pratt "allowed him [Gardner] to take 7 Rifles and 4 sabres to his house with permission to use the same if necessary . . ." This was a temporary loan that awaited Stearns' endorsement.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Firearms; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Pratt, Caleb S.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Letter, Joseph Gardner to George L. Stearns
Authors: Gardner, Joseph
Date: June 9, 1860
From Lawrence, Kansas, Joseph Gardner described one of the last battles of the border war. The attack Gardner had feared came "last night between 12 & 1." With the arms Stearns had made available, the attackers were repulsed, but "one of my [Gardner's] colored men, who had fought most nobly," took "a tremendous charge of buck shot" and died. His last words were "fight, fight hard!!"

Keywords: African Americans; Battles; Border ruffians; Clinton, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Firearms; Fugitive slaves; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory


Speech, Charles Robinson
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 26, 1860
This handwritten copy of Charles Robinson's September 26, 1860, speech welcoming William H. Seward to Lawrence contains some additional comments by Robinson to some friends to whom he was sending this copy.

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Dear [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: November 2, 1860
This letter was written to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, by S. C. Pomeroy regarding their relief efforts during the drought of 1860. Pomeroy mentioned in this letter a convention that was called to meet in Lawrence on November 14, 1860. He pasted the advertisement for this convention to the first page of the letter, it had been published in the (Leavenworth?) Daily Times on October 31, 1860.

Keywords: Droughts; Famines; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Hyatt, Theodore; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: November 15, 1860
In this typically long letter/report to Franklin Sanborn in Boston, Whitman wrote from Lawrence on November 15, 1860, regarding the difficult situation facing Kansas settlers/farmers as another winter approached--as "the stock of old corn is exhausted and the grass fails, the prospect is dreary enough and without aid from abroad in some form to supply bread stuffs many of our people must suffer severely for want of food."

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Droughts; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Relief; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Whitman, E. B.


Circular, An appeal from Kansas!
Authors: Byrd, J. H.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Reynolds, Charles ; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877
Date: December 14, 1860
This circular detailed the beginnings of the Territorial Executive Committee, which was in charge of collecting relief to aid the struggling settlers of Kansas during the drought of 1860. This committee met in Lawrence, Kansas Territory on November 14, 1860 and passed several resolutions. From 24 Kansas counties 101 delegates were present, and out of this number four men were elected officers, including Samuel Pomeroy. The circular concluded with "Suggestions and Directions to those who purpose Aiding us in our Distress."

Keywords: Bodwell, Lewis; Byrd, J. H.; Circulars; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fairchild, George H.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lines, C. B.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Reynolds, Charles; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Advertisement calendar produced of O. Wilmath Books and Stationery
Authors: Wilmarth, O.
Date: 1860
O. Wilmarth's business was located in the Eldridge House, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. This advertisement calendar for 1860 indicated that Wilmarth was a wholesale and retail dealer in books and stationery. He also sold newspapers, magazines, and periodicals as well as wall paper and window shades.

Keywords: Advertisements; Books; Business; Business enterprises; Commerce; Community life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Retail businesses


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: January 19, 1861
In Lawrence on January 19, 1861, attending the meeting of what proved to be the last territorial legislature, Ingalls wrote about everyone's interest in happenings outside the territory: namely, congressional action on the "Kansas Admission Bill" and the "Pacific Rail Road Bill," as well as "the condition of affairs of the South ['the secession movement']. Especially bad weather--"the snow is quite deep and the temperature below zero constantly"--had left Kansas somewhat isolated, and as they waited for news the legislature was "not doing much except discussing Union resolutions, endorsing Major [Robert] Anderson [commander of U.S. troops at Fort Sumter], and divorcing Every body that applies for rupture of the bonds of matrimony."

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Anderson, Major Robert; Divorce; Divorce law and legislation; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Secession; Sectionalism (United States)


Extract of Letter, by Mrs. Holmes
Authors: Holmes, Mrs.
Date: March 4, 1861
This moving letter, presumably written by Mrs. Holmes, related the daily experiences of her family during 1861. They were struggling to make ends met, and her father did not want to seek help from back East. They had lived in Lawrence for five years, and she briefly mentioned their sickness and suffering during 1856. She applauded the work of Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, and his willingness to obtain provisions and assistance for the impoverished settlers in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Daily life; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Poor; Poverty; Relief


Court document conveying property to James S. Emery
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 16, 1861
This document settled a court case from the Second District Court of the Territory of Kansas, decided in November 1860. Emery was successful in getting a judgment against the Delaware Town Company of Lawrence which resulted in his acquiring property in Leavenworth County. Repine was the sheriff of Leavenworth County when the land was conveyed to Emery.

Keywords: Courts; Delaware Town Company of Lawrence; Emery, James Stanley; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Repine, Alexander; Town companies


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1863
A view of Massachusetts Street looking north , Lawrence, Kansas, 1863-1864. This carte-de-visite shows buildings constructed during the Kansas territorial period.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets


Photo, Business Street with Covered Wagons
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Summer 1863
View West on 7th Street, Lawrence, KS.

Keywords: Business; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Town development; Wagons


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1865
A view of Massachusetts Street looking south, Lawrence, Kansas, 1865-1866. This carte-de-visite shows buildings constructed during the territorial period of Kansas history.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Horses; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets; Wagons


Recollections of 1854
Authors: Savage, Joseph
Date: June 23, 1870 - September 29, 1870
Originally published as an almost weekly column in the Western Home Journal, Lawrence, Kansas, beginning June 23, 1870, "Recollections of 1854" were written by Joseph Savage. Savage was born in Hartford, Vermont, on July 28, 1823, and came to Kansas Territory with the New England Emigrant Aid Company's second party. The "Recollections" provide a detailed and personal account of Savage's journey from Boston to Kansas Territory, and the first few months of settlement in Lawrence. The original Savage narrative, which appeared in twelve installments (June 23, 30, July 7, 14, 21, 28, August 4, 11, 18, September 8, 22, 29, 1870), has been faithfully transcribe in its entirety by Shelley Hickman Clark, University of Kansas Law School. The text version provides the content of these newspaper columns but images of the original newspaper columns are not available. See also 'Lawrence in 1854: Recollections of Joseph Savage," Kansas History 27 (Spring-Summer 2004), http://www.kshs.org/publicat/history/2004spring_clark.pdf.

Keywords: Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Savage, Joseph; Travel


John Speer's Reminiscences of Jas. Skaggs, formerly a slave owner near Lecompton
Authors: Speer, John
Date: July 13, 1895
Mr. Speer described his knowledge of the slaves owned by James Skaggs. Mr. Skaggs lived on Kaw half-breed lands about a mile from Lecompton. Speer also described an encounter he had in 1870 or 1871 with a former slave of Mr. Skaggs who owned property near Parker in Montgomery County. The former slave apparently rented a house and some farm land to his former owner Mr. Skaggs. Speer also described slaves owned by Judge Rush Elmore. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Skaggs, James; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speer, John, 1817-1906


Photograph, James S. Emery
Authors: Bowman, photographer
Date: 
James Stanley Emery had a law practice in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He was associated with the New England Emigrant Aid Company, but he also worked as a journalist for the New York Daily Times. He was involved in numerous free state activities both in Kansas and in the East.

Keywords: Bowman, photographer; Cabinet photographs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Free state supporters; Journalists; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lawyers; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographs and Illustrations


Leslie's Illustrated, Lecompton and Lawrence
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Dec. 25th, 1858
Brief descriptions of territorial towns Lawrence and Lecompton, published in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly Newspaper in 1858. The article mentions constuction of a state capital in Lecompton and the destruction of the Free State Hotel in Lawrence.

Keywords: Free State Hotel; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Objects; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement


Photograph, Rev. John H. Byrd
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Rev. John H. Byrd was active in efforts to secure aid for residents of Kansas Territory who were suffering from the drought in 1860. He lived in Lawrence, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Byrd, J. H.; Card photographs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Carmi William Babcock
Authors: Fassett's Gallery
Date: 
Carmi Babcock was an active free state supporter and early resident of Lawrence. He was a lawyer and a banker, as well as being the first postmaster of Lawrence and the second mayor of the city. He was involved in Lawrence civic and social activities.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Cartes de visite; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fassett's Gallery; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Postal service


Photograph, Albert Dwight Searl
Authors: Storm, F. D.
Date: 
Albert Dwight Searl was a surveyor and map maker in Kansas Territory. He was a resident of Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas Territory. This image was taken a number of years after the territorial era.

Keywords: Card photographs; Cartographers; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Searl, Albert D.; Storm, F. D.; Surveyors


Photograph, Samuel F. Tappan
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Samuel F. Tappan was born in Massachusetts and came to Kansas when he was in his twenties. He listed his occupation as a journalist but was best known as secretary at the Leavenworth and Wyandotte Constitutional conventions. He was a free state supporter and settled in Lawrence. This image was taken a number of years after the territorial era.

Keywords: Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitution; Photographs and Illustrations; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Wyandotte Constitution


Photograph, John Speer
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Speer was a free state supporter and early resident of Lawrence. He was a journalist and editor. He was also involved in numerous free state activities.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Engravings; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Journalists; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Speer, John, 1817-1906


Narrative, Account of the Life of Fredrick Brown
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: c. 1857
In this undated document, Samuel Adair related significant events in the life of Frederick Brown, one of John Brown's five sons. Frederick, alongside his father, participated in the Pottawatomie Massacre and other raids against proslavery supporters in Kansas Territory until his roadside murder by Martin White in August of 1856. This document also contains part of a letter to the Rev. S. S. Jocelyn recounting the winter's hardships.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state constitutions; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Violence; Violent deaths; Weather; White, Martin


Circular, Defense Strategies for Lawrence
Authors: Committee of Safety, Lawrence, Kansas
Date: after 1863
This printed document, published by the Committee of Safety, outlines emergency procedures for the citizens of Lawrence in case of a "hostile demonstration." It also lists points of rendezvous within the city and suggests that a man always "take his side-arms with him."

Keywords: Bushwackers; Churches; Committee of Safety, Lawrence, Kansas; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Free state activities; Guns; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Skirmishing; Weapons (see also Guns)


Stereograph, Eldridge Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1860s
Photo images featuring the Eldridge Hotel, located "323 miles West of St. Louis, Missouri". The Eldridge House (or Hotel) was built in Lawrence, Kansas Territory by the New England Emigrant Aid Society. It was something of a headquarters for the free state movement and as such it was targeted for destruction by Sheriff Jones' proslavery posse, which sacked Lawrence on May 21, 1856.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stereographs


Photograph, Willaim Hutchinson
Authors: Clinedinst Photography
Date: 
William Hutchinson served as secretary of the Kansas Central Committee and assisted with efforts to send emigrant parties and relief to Kansas Territory. He settled in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He served as a delegate to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state supporters; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Reminiscence, Account of obtaining Sharp's rifles
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: unknown
James Abbott recalled his experiences as a free state activist who participated in several Territorial conflicts. This transcribed version of the events is either a copy of an original handwritten manuscript or a compilation based on a personal oral interview. Abbott related a brief history of the Territory's political conflicts between free state and proslavery men and recounted the events of his own trip back East to secure funds and rifles for the free state cause. His purchases included a mountain howitzer and 117 sharp's rifles, all of which were smuggled under cover of disguise back to Kansas Territory and into the arms of free state militia.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Cracklin, Joseph; Free state activities; Free state militia; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Proslavery activities; Saunders, Henry F.; Sharps rifles; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns)


Reminiscence, Branson rescue
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: unknown
James Abbott, a free state activist who participated in several Territorial conflicts, including the rescues of John Doy and Jacob Branson, chronicled his account of the rescue of Jacob Branson by handwritten manuscript or personal interview, here presented as a typed transcript. Sheriff Jones, supported by the proslavery "bogus" legislature, had arrested Jacob Branson, a free state man who witnessed the murder of Dow. Abbott and his cohorts endeavored to rescue him, and were successful, though their actions were controversial even among fellow free state supporters.Certain aspects of Abbott's account of these events, however, are in contention with an earlier account by Samuel Wood; Abbott actively addressed these discrepancies in this document.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Big Springs Convention; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Dixon, Howard; Dow, Charles W.; Free state militia; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Land claim disputes; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lock, Fred; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Saunders, Henry F.; Smith, Samuel C.; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Photograph, Gaius Jenkins
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Gaius Jenkins was born in New York state in 1812. He and his wife came to Kansas City, Missouri in 1853. He moved to Lawrence, Kansas Territory, in 1854 and was active in the free state cause, serving as a Colonel in the Free State Militia. He was taken prisoner along with John Brown, Jr.; Charles Robinson and several others and held near Lecompton. He was killed in Lawrence on June 3, 1858, by James Lane over a land dispute.

Keywords: Ambrotypes; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Prisoners


Photograph, Oscar E. Learnard
Authors: Mettner Studios of Lawrence
Date: 
Oscar E. Learnard came to Kansas from Vermont in the fall of 1855. He first settled in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, but later was one of the founders of Burlington in Coffey County, Kansas Territory in the spring of 1857. He served on the territorial council. He was president of the May 18, 1859, convention at Osawatimie where the Republican Part was organized. This photograph was taken later in his life by Mettner's Studio, Lawrence, Kansas.

Keywords: Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Council; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Photographs and Illustrations; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Photograph, Josiah Miller
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Although born in South Carolina, Josiah Miller was a free state supporter. He attended college in Indiana and law school in New York. He came to Kansas in 1854 and on January 5, 1855, established the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence. The newspaper office was destroyed by order of the territorial government on May 21, 1856 because is was deemed a nuisance. He was capturned by Buford's proslavery forces and was tried for treason against the state of South Carolina. He supported John C. Fremont. In 1857, he was elected probate judge of Douglas County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state supporters; Journalists; Judges; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspaper publishing; Photographs and Illustrations


Doy Rifle
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1859
Dr. John Doy used this Sharps rifle fighting border disputes in Franklin County and at Ft. Titus. In Jan. 1859, Doy was captured near Lawrence by pro-slavery Missouri forces and charged with aiding in the abduction of fugitive slaves. For six months Doy was held in a St. Joseph, MO, jail. Doy was rescued by ten of his free-state friends, lead by Major James Abbott. Engraved in the rifle's stock is the phase, "Successful Agent of the Irrepressible Conflict."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Antislavery; Border disputes and warfare; Doy, John; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Objects; Sharps rifles; St. Joseph, Missouri; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Photograph, George W. Deitzler
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
George W. Deitzler was a free state supporter and resident of Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He was an officer in the Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box. He was also part of a free state group, along with Charles Robinson and John Brown, Jr., that was arrested and held prisoner near Lecompton. He was active in social activities in Lawrence.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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