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150 results for Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866:
Journal. Miscellaneous Records of the Free State Executive Committee
Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler
Date: 1855-1856
This journal, compiled by Joel K. Goodin, secretary of the Executive Committee of the Topeka free-state movement, began with a statement explaining the reason the Topeka Movement formed and the call for a Mass Meeting at Big Springs, August 15, 1855. It included notes of numerous meetings, proclamations, etc. These committee records were published in their entirety in the Kansas Historical Collections Vol. 13:125-158.

Keywords: Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Goodin, Joel Kishler; Journals; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 24, 1855
According to a copy of the 1902 cover letter written by Samuel C. Smith of Lawrence, secretary/chief clerk for the convention, this incomplete "copy of the Journal of the Topeka Constitutional Convention" was made at Lawrence in November 1855. It began with the opening of the second day's session, October 24, 1855, and continued daily, except for Sunday, October 28 and November 4, through Saturday, November 10 (the convention officially adjourned, according to Wilder, "Annals," November 11 during the very early hours of that Sunday morning). The first few pages of the journal detailed organizational matters, including the election of James H. Lane as president of the convention and the creation of standing committees.

Keywords: Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 30, 1855
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 30, 1855
During this session of the constitutional convention, delegates dealt briefly with the question of "an immediate organization of a State Government," a highly controversial issue, and considered a report on the militia. Lively debate on the latter issue seems to have followed, although not much detail is given here, with Charles Robinson offering an amendment "striking out the word white--" This presumably would have had the effect of making African Americans and Indians eligible for service, but the amendment failed seven to twenty-four.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Suffrage; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 31, 1855
During the afternoon session of Wednesday, October 31, 1855, Jim Lane presented a "Resolution which was ordered to be entered upon the Journal of the convention--said Resolution being the instructions given by the people of the 2nd Representative District" at a Lawrence meeting of October 7. The "instructions" and Lane's resolution provided that "the question of excluding Free Negroes from the Territory" be submitted to a vote of the people on the day they voted on the constitution itself.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, Afternoon Session
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: November 9, 1855
During the course of the proceedings recorded for the afternoon of November 9, 1855, discussion turned to the effort by Jim Lane to first include a provision for the "removal" of all blacks and then all "slaves" from Kansas by July 4, 1860. Charles Robinson supported an amendment which changed the effective date to July 4, 1857. All other provisions were to take effect immediately upon the adoption of the constitution.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Topeka Constitution (as printed in D.W. Wilder's Annals of Kansas (1868)).
Authors: Topeka Constitutional Convention
Date: November 11, 1855
The Topeka Constitution, the first one written for Kansas Territory, was drafted by free state supporters in reaction to contested elections that gave the proslavery party initial control of Kansas' territorial government. Free-staters gathered in convention at Lawrence on August 14 and Big Spring on September 5, 1855 and delegates assembled at Topeka on October 23, 1855, to draft a constitution. The document was approved on December 15 by a vote of 1,731 to 46. The Topeka Constitution prohibited slavery and limited suffrage to white males and "every civilized male Indian who has adopted the habits of the white man." Congress rejected this constitution and the accompanying request for Kansas to be admitted to the Union. This version of the document was published December 26, 1855 in the Kickapoo Pioneer newspaper.

Keywords: Constitutions; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Slavery; Smith, Samuel C.; Suffrage; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Proclamation, General Constitution and Banking Law
Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: c. November 24, 1855
This article, published in the Kansas Freeman newspaper, called for an election over the constitution framed by the Topeka Convention in October 1855. "Qualified voters of said Territory will meet at the several precincts hereinafter mentioned, on the 15th day of December, A. D., 1855." In that same election, the voters would be called upon to consider a general banking law. The article also outlined the election precincts and miscellaneous details.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Elections; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Laws; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855


Militia Commission, issue by James H. Lane to Joel Grover
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: November 27, 1855
This printed document, headed with the name "James H. Lane," announced the election and certification of Joel Grover as colonel of the 6th Regiment, First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers, raised "to defend the City of Lawrence from threatened destruction by foreign invaders." It is dated November 27, 1855, and signed "J. H. Lane," general commanding.

Keywords: Border ruffians; First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers; Free state militia; Grover, Joel; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


List of Companies
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November-December, 1855
This document listed general information about militia recruited by free state leaders during the Wakarusa War, November-December, 1855. These troops gathered to defend Lawrence against an estimated 2000 Missourians. Details on the number of commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers and rank and file are provided for Companies A through I, Horse Company No. 1, and the headquarters company. The documents also listed the weapons available ("Sharpe's Rifles," "Other Arms," and "Cartridges"). All of the officers were listed. A total of 349 men with 156 Sharpe's Rifles and 169 other weapons and 6807 cartridges were recruited. James H. Lane served as the brigadier general and William Y. Roberts was the adjutant general. Colonels were Lyman Allen, M. A. Hunt, and C, K. Holliday. Majors were Jno. A. Wakefield, David Dodge, J. M Mitchell, Geo. W. Smith, Sr., Milton C. Dickey and men with the last names of Thomas, Tuton, Sampson, and Yates.. George W. Smith, Jr. was the Sergeant Major, A. H. Malory, Quartermaster; Jno. G. Crocker, Quartermaster Sergeant; Mr. Hunt, Commisary; and Dr. S. B. Prentiss and Dr. Foles, surgeons.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Crocker, John G.; Dickey, Milton C.; Dodge, David; Free state activities; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hunt, Morris; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Mallory, Anson H.; Militia; Mitchell, J. M.; Prentiss, S.B.; Roberts, William Young; Smith, George W.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wakefield, John A.


Letter, C. Robinson to Capt. G. P. Lowrey
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: December 8, 1855
Charles Robinson, Commander-in-Chief of the free state military forces, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Grosvenor P. Lowry, captain of a free state militia regiment, instructing him to attach his command to the newly organized regiment under the command of James Lane, Robinson's second-in-command.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lowrey, G.P. (Grosvenor P.); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Wakarusa Treaty
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles ; Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 8, 1855
A draft of an agreement between Governor Wilson Shannon, representing the territorial government, and Charles Robinson and James Lane, representing the free state movement, settling the dispute that resulted in the Wakarusa War. In essence, Robinson and Lane pledged to "aid in the execution of any legal process" against individuals involved in rescuing free state supporter Jacob Branson provided that these individuals received a hearing before a U.S. District Court judge. This compromise ended the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter/Order, Wilson Shannon to C. Robinson and J. H. Lane
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 9, 1855
According to D. W. Wilder, Governor Wilson Shannon arrived in Lawrence on December 7, 1855, and on December 8 made "a treaty with the Free-State Generals" ending the Wakarusa War. The paper was signed by Shannon, Robinson and Lane. With the document represented here, dated Lawrence, December 9, 1855, Governor Shannon "authorized & directed [Robinson and Lane] to take such measures & use the enrolled force under your command in such manner for the preservation of the peace & the protection of the persons & property of the people in Lawrence & vicinity as in your judgment shall best secure that end." ( A subsequent notation indicated that the order was written in Robinson's hand, but signed by Shannon.)

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Certificate of appointment of G.W. Brown as agent for the Kansas Executive Committee
Authors: Free State Executive Committee
Date: December 10, 1855
Certificate issued by the Free State Executive Committee appointing George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, as its agent to pursue immediate admission of Kansas as a state under the provisions of the Topeka Constitution. James H. Lane signed the certificate as chairman of the Executive Committee.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Certificates; Free state cause; Free state government; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Topeka Constitution


Certificate of Service, Franklin L. Crane, Jr.
Authors: Headquarters, Kansas Volunteers
Date: December 11, 1855
Franklin L. Crane, Jr., son of a prominent citizen in Topeka, served as a private from November 27 to Dec. 11, 1855 in defense of Lawrence. This certificate of service was signed by several people active in the free state cause, including James H. Lane and Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Certificates; Crane, Franklin L., Jr.; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Military; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Certificate, Head Quarters Kansas Volunteers
Authors: Kansas Volunteers
Date: December 12, 1855
This certificate, signed by Charles Robinson and James Lane, was issued by the Head Quarters of the Kansas Volunteers, a Free state militia group led by Robinson. It documented Robert Gilbert's service "in defending the City of Lawrence. . .from demolition by foreign invaders" during the Wakarusa War. Gilbert had arrived in Kansas Territory only weeks before, having traveled from his native England.

Keywords: Battles; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Free state regiment; Gilbert, Robert L.; Hunt, Morris; Immigrants; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wilder, Solomon


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Wife
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 12, 1855
Hiram Hill arrived in Lawrence, Kansas Territory shortly after the end of the Wakarusa War. This letter to his wife reviewed the events of the war, made mention of women's assistance, described Hill's journey from Leavenworth with Mr. Conway, and gave an account of Thomas W. Barber's funeral, at which Charles Robinson and James Lane spoke. Barber was killed south of Lawrence on the 6th. Hill had met Mr. Whitney, Judge Johnson, Mr. Haskell, and Mr. Simpson, and planned to visit Charles Robinson. Hill also detailed Governor Shannon's settlement with free state leaders at Lawrence.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Funerals; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Town development; Travel; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Women


People's Proclamation
Authors: Emery, James Stanley; Foster, Charles A.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Roberts, William Y.; Robinson, Charles ; Smith, George W.; Sylvester, S. D.; Wakefield, J. A.
Date: 1855
This broadside represented the efforts of free state supporters to encourage residents to vote in the election for the delegate to represent Kansas Territory in Congress that was held October 9, 1855. It listed the polling places, the instructions to judges, and the qualifications for "lawful" voters. This document was probably related to a circular letter signed by Charles Robinson that encouraged free state supporters to see that elections were conducted according to the printed procedures for both the election for delegates to Congress and for delegates to the constitutional convention. The broadside indicated that it had been signed by nearly 1000 persons but space allowed for the printing of the following names only: C. K Holliday, J. A. Wakefield, C. Robinson, J. H. Lane, C. A. Foster, M. J. Parrott, S. D. Sylvester, W. Y. Roberts, G. W. Smith and J. S. Emery. This election was held under the auspices of the Topeka Movement.

Keywords: Elections; Emery, James Stanley; Foster, Charles A.; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Sylvester, S. D.; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Wakefield, John A.


Constitutional Convention Proclamation
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: 1855
This broadside signed by J. H. Lane was addressed "to the legal voters of Kansas Territory." It contained a great deal of free state rhetoric about the failure of the territorial government. The proclamation was issued in support of the elections that were to be held by the Topeka Movement to elect delegates to a constitutional convention. This document listed the polling places, instructions to elections judges and qualification for legal voters. J. K. Goodin was listed as secretary.

Keywords: Election, Topeka Constitution delegates to convention, October 1855; Elections; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Letter, J. H. Lane to Gov. of Minnesota [Willis A. Gorman]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles
Date: January 22, 1856
This "Appeal of Gen. Lane & Gov. Robinson" to Willis A. Gorman, the territorial governor of Minnesota, was a call for assistance during Kansas Territory's present crisis: the territory face, wrote Lane and Robinson from Lawrence, K.T., on January 22, 1856, "an overwhelming force of the Citizens of Missouri" organized for invasion on the Missouri border.

Keywords: Free state cause; Gorman, Willis A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Minnesota; Missouri; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, [Josiah Miller] to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: January 25, 1856
Josiah Miller, responding to his family's concerns about traveling West, wrote to his Father and Mother in South Carolina. He told them that they would be better off leaving the South, and that they should begin their travels west as soon as they were ready, in spite of any violent conflict that might be taking place in Kansas Territory. Miller referred to a specific incident occurring a few days earlier on January 17, when free state men, on their way home from an election of State officers under the Topeka Constitution, were attacked by a group of Missourians. Miller also communicated that, although he was a free state man, he did not like the "Yankees' " approach to the conflict with the proslavery supporters.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Reese P.; Emigration and immigration; Free state perspective; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; South Carolina; Southerners


Excerpt from letter, I. T. G [Isaac Goodnow] to [unknown]
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: January/February 1856
In the wake of the Wakarusa War, Isaac Goodnow wrote to an unknown recipient regarding recent skirmishes and negotiations between proslavery and free state supporters. According to Goodnow, Governor Shannon had demanded that the free state men surrender their Sharp's rifles and obey the laws of the "bogus" legislature. Governor Robinson had responded, telling his men to "keep the rifles, but surrender their contents." Goodnow also commented on the "determined heroism" of the free state women, and recounted the incident of voter fraud which occurred in the Delegate to Congress election between former Governor Reeder and J. W. Whitfield.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Election fraud; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879; Women


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: February 11, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother Edwin Parrott in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus described his experiences mixing his social engagements with politics, having to navigate through discussions with members of different parties. He mentioned the distrust he had for certain acquaintances that were also active in the government, and seemed frustrated by his only modestly successful attempts to discuss the Kansas question with them.

Keywords: Iverson, Alfred; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Medill, William; National politics; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shoemaker, Tom C.; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, M. W. Delahay to Genl. C. Robinson, Col. J. H. Lane & Others
Authors: Delahay, Mark W.
Date: February 16, 1856
From Washington, D.C., on February 16, 1856, Mark Delahay, the Free State Party's would be representative to the 34th Congress, wrote to his free state colleagues regarding President Franklin Pierce's directive to Governor Wilson Shannon. The latter was "to arrest and punish all who may take part in the making and putting inforce any law in oposition to the Territorial laws now upon the Statute Book." Delahay warned against "the organization of an independent State Government" and wrote "we are upon the brink of a crisis of serious import." (See D.W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas, 109-110.)

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Free state government; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Pierce administration; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, W. A. Gorman to Speaker of the House of Reps [Minnesota Territory]
Authors: Phillips, Wendell
Date: February 18, 1856
In response to a January 22, 1856, appeal from free-state leaders in Kansas, the governor of Minnesota Territory, Willis A. Gorman (St. Paul, February 18, 1856), conveyed the appeal to his territory's House of Representatives and encouraged Minnesota officials to follow a policy of "Non intervention." Governor Gorman refused to recognize Lane and Robinson as "officers in the Territory of Kansas, under any authority of the laws of the United States or of that Territory."

Keywords: Border ruffians; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Gorman, Willis A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Minnesota; Missouri; Popular sovereignty; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Certificate of election, James Abbott, Representative to the General Assembly of Kansas
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: February 19, 1856
This certificate documented James Abbott's December 1855 election to the post of Representative for the First Senatorial District in the General Assembly of Kansas under the provisions of the Topeka Constitution. The certificate is signed by James Lane and Joel Goodin, Chairman and Secretary of the Executive Committee, respectively.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Elections; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Topeka; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866


Washington Birth-Day Ball by the Kansas Rifles No. One.
Authors: Kansas Rifles No. One
Date: February 22, 1856
The Kansas Rifles No. One sponsored this ball to be held at the Free State Hotel in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, "in honor of the Day which gave birth to th Immortal Washington." The committee of arrangements consisted of J. W. Colburn, James H. Lane, A. Cutler, A. D. Searl, W. L. Brigden, Chas. Robinson, John G. Cropsker, James R. White, E. Emmerson, and B. F. Swift. Tickets to the event were $2.00.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Community life; Cutler, George A.; Daily life; Dance parties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parties; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Searl, Albert D.


Letter, J. H. Lane & C. K. Holliday to General Assembly of Kansas member
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: February 25, 1856
This printed letter, addressed to all newly-elected members of the General Assembly, accompanied James Abbott's certificate of election to his seat. The Executive Committee of the General Assembly, which included James Lane and Cyrus Holliday, urged the newly elected representatives to "promptly and early" attend their next meeting at Topeka on March 4.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Elections; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Topeka; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866


Journal, House of Representatives, Topeka (1856)
Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler
Date: 1856-1857
This Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Kansas was, apparently, the original record of the Free State Provisional Government of Kansas, which was organized at the Big Springs Convention September 5, 1855. Joel K. Goodin was chief clerk of the House and felt the journal was "a flat contradiction of the pro-slavery inuendo, that we were all abolitionists from Boston, Massachusetts, and hired to come to Kansas by the Emigrant Aid Society." The first two pages of the original bound journal have been scanned. The original is oversized with the pages measuring 9.5 inches wide and 14 inches high. The journal, as published in its entirety in the Kansas Historical Collections volume 13 pages 166-249, follows the two pages from the original.

Keywords: Free State Party; Free state government; Free state legislature; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Prohibition; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States. Congress; United States. Congress. House


Organization of the Free State Government in Kansas with the Inaugural Speech and Message of Governor Robinson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 4, 1856
This pamphlet provides a vivid description of the scene, players, and proceedings of the initial sessions of the Free State Government convened in Topeka. From Governor Charles Robinson's inaugural speech, the intent of the new Legislature was clear: they convened in order to formulate a State government which would serve their political interests and would reflect the principle of "squatter [popular] sovereignty", since the existing Territorial government was merely provisional and furthermore did not advance their free-state aspirations.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Free state legislature; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Speeches, addresses, etc.; Squatter sovereignty; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Proclamation, Results of the Free State Election
Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: March 7, 1856
This proclamation, published in the Kansas Daily Tribune on March 7, 1856, announced to the public the results of the election for senators and representatives in the Topeka legislature. These members of the free state legislature had been asked to meet in Topeka on March 4, 1856 (three days earlier). The proclamation was issued by James Lane and Joel Goodin.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Allen, Lyman; Blood, James; Brown, John, Jr.; Curtiss, John; Dickey, Milton C.; Elections; Free state legislature; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; McClure, W. M.; Newspapers; Shore, Samuel T.; Thornton, Thomas G.; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas; Updegraff, W. W.


Senate Miscellaneous Documents, 34th Congress, 1st and 2nd sessions Document No. 32, Three Memorials of the Citizens of . . .Leavenworth County. . .Praying the immediate admission of Kansas Territory into the Union as a State
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 24, 1856
These "memorials" presented by various citizens or Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory, to the United States Congress and referred by them to the Committee on Territories, were written in a petition style, with the names of supporters signed at their conclusion, and requested the immediate admission of Kansas Territory to the Union under the Constitution framed by the Topeka Legislature. Following the three memorials is a copy of the proposed Constitution, as approved by James Lane and Joel Goodin, respectively President and Secretary of the Topeka Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Election fraud; Foster, Charles A.; Free state activities; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; United States. Congress. Senate


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: May 9, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, regarding recent events, which were "unfathomably deep in the waters of territorial trouble". He described the movement of armed men towards Lawrence, a mix of U.S. troops and militiamen from Missouri. Marcus also referred to the current situations of Robinson, Reeder, Lane, and other men who were to play important roles in the imminent Sack of Lawrence. Despite these threats, Marcus still commented on his own economic situation and again asked for money from his brother and father.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Neosho, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Real estate investment; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Telegraph; Town development


Letter, F. D. Kimball to Eli Thayer, Esq.
Authors: Kimball, F. D.
Date: May 30, 1856
F. D. Kimball, Attorney General of Ohio, wrote from Columbus, Ohio to Eli Thayer. Kimball reported on James Lane's recent visit to Ohio and described Lane's plans to establish a "line of communication with Kansas via Iowa & Nebraska" for the passage of emigrants and supplies. This line of communication, which allowed free state supporters to bypass Missouri in travelling to Kansas, became known as the Lane Trail.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state support; Iowa; Kimball, F. D.; Lane Trail; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Nebraska Territory; Ohio; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Circular, Members of the Kansas Settlers Society
Authors: Walsh, Benjamin J.
Date: June 2, 1856
This circular was written by Benjamin J. Walsh to members of the Kansas Settler's Society concerning emigration to Kansas and efforts to raise needed funds to complete the trip to Kansas. A meeting of the emigrant aid society was organized in Chicago. The circular also discussed attempts to form similar groups in other states. Walsh went to Cleveland to try to organize an emigrant aid society in that location.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Chicago, Illinois; Circulars; Clark, W. Penn; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Iowa City, Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Money; Topeka Constitution; Walsh, Benjamin J.


Letter, Mr. [William B.] Hutchinson to Friend [Cyrus K.] Holliday
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: June 6, 1856
William B. Hutchinson of Lawrence, Kansas Territory wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, K. T., requesting support for a People's Mass Convention in Topeka on July 4. The gathering Free-Staters would be armed in case of opposition. Colonel Edwin V. Sumner had received orders on June 4th from K. T. Governor Wilson Shannon to disband unlawful military forces. The camp from which Hutchinson wrote had complied, but John W. Whitfield and his troops, camped at Bull Creek, refused. Hutchinson described northern enthusiasm to aid financially the free state cause. John H. Reeder and James H. Lane were speaking in northern states.

Keywords: Free State Convention; Free state support; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Letter, Peter Page to Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: Page, Peter
Date: July 6, 1856
Peter Page wrote from Chicago, Illinois to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, concerning the shipment of relief to free-state settlers in Kansas Territory and the emigration of settlers into Kansas. The author wrote a lengthy account of the committee's frustrated attempts to arrange suitable transportation into the territory, since the water route on the Missouri River was unsafe due to persistent harassment from border ruffians.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Chicago, Illinois; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lexington, Missouri; Missouri; Page, Peter; Violence


Letter, O.E. Learnard to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: July 23, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote his father, S.T. Learnard, that he was disappointed in the attitude of people in Vermont and throughout the North who continued to support the Pierce administration. If they did so because they were Democrats, they should learn from Andrew H. Reeder, J. H. Lane, William Y. Roberts, and others who had seen the light. Learnard admitted "a few cases" of free state retaliation "upon their oppressors," and then gave some "facts" about the "Patawotamie" incident, while not mentioning John Brown by name. Learnard believed that the reports about mangled bodies were untrue.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Northern Democrats; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Roberts, William Young; Vermont; Violence; Violent deaths


Bill, Gaius Jenkins to Kansas State Central Committee
Authors: Jenkins, Gaius
Date: June 24, 1856
Most of the items on this itemized bill, presented to the Kansas State Central Committee by Gaius Jenkins of Lawrence (a free-state man who was subsequently shot and killed by Jim Lane), are related to armaments (powder, lead, etc.) or other necessities for supplying a militia force.

Keywords: Ammunition; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Kansas State Central Committee; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, [J.H. Lane] to His Excellancy C. [Charles] Robinson, et al
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: August 10, 1856
In a brief letter from Topeka that is very difficult to decipher, Jim Lane informs Robinson, Gen. George W. Deitzler, George W. Brown, John Brown, "& others" of his arrival with "a sufficient force" to do battle for the free state cause. He seems to counsel quick and decisive action.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Deitzler, George W.; Free state cause; Free state government; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: August 10, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote from Lawrence of his continued commitment to the "Sacked City," insisting that he would not be "bullied or frightened" by those committing outrages in Kansas Territory. He commented on the political composition of the territory and Lawrence, where he found many Douglas Democrats. Although there were some "fanatics" and "abolitionists," most residents of Lawrence were "western men" who had been driven to oppose the administration by the outrages. He insisted that the significance of the New England Emigrant Company had been exaggerated and that although more violent confrontations were likely, Kansas would eventually be free.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Douglas Democrats; Dragoons; Free State Party; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pierce administration; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.


Letters, J. H. Lane to "Friends" [Robinson and others] and C. Robinson to "Dear Sir" [J.H. Lane]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles
Date: August 11, 1856
Copied by R. J. Hinton from his journal in preparation of one of his publications on the Kansas war, the first letter is Jim Lane's offer to rescue the Lecompton prisoners (Robinson, George W. Brown, Gaius Jenkins, et al) and Charles Robinson's reply, suggesting that in light of current congressional activity the plan was ill-advised. Both were dated August 11, 1856.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Congress (See United States. Congress); Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.


Letter, H. [Harris] Stratton to Mr. Brown [John Brown]
Authors: Stratton, Harris
Date: August 12, 1856
In this brief note from Topeka, Harris Stratton told John Brown that "Gen Joe Cook" (Jim Lane) wanted Brown to come to Lawrence as they were expecting "a fight on Washington Creek."

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stratton, Harris; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory


Letter, [James H.] Lane to Dr. Gaston
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: August 16, 1856
Written while Lane was somewhere in Kansas, this letter demonstrates some of the issues on Lane's mind during the conflict in Kansas. One of his main concerns was to make sure that emigrants (and weapons) had a safe route that was free from harassment by border ruffians. This is a copy of Lane's original letter.

Keywords: Blanchard, A. J.; Emigration and immigration; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866


Letter, A. D. Searl to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Searl, Albert D.
Date: August 21, 1856
The author wrote from Tabor, Iowa to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. He began the letter by mentioning a skirmish between pro-slavery and free state forces somewhere between Lawrence and Topeka. This correspondence also deals with emigrant settlements within the territory, the shipment of weapons and provisions, and the morale among the emigrants as they struggled to make ends meet. Furthermore, Searl mentioned a great deal about James Lane and his activities within Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Big Blue, Kansas Territory; Blanchard, A. J.; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa City, Iowa; Lane Trail; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Law and Order Party; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Plattsmouth, Nebraska; Relief funds; Searl, Albert D.; Skirmishing; Topeka, Kansas


Startling news, our border in danger, Missouri to be invaded
Authors: Bent, William M.
Date: September 3, 1856
Call to arms for Missourians against an expected attack from Lane and "3,000 lawless abolitionists."

Keywords: Boone, Albert G.; Independence, Missouri; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lexington, Missouri; Missouri; Westport, Missouri


Painting, Battle of Hickory Point
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: September 13, 1856
Painting by Samuel Reader depicting the Battle of Hickory Point. Reader, an early settler of Shawnee County, was a member of a volunteer Free State company. On September 13, 1856, General James Lane heard that proslavery men were committing outrages in the town of Grasshopper Falls (Valley Falls). Lane marched to Ozawkie and recruited Free State settlers. Shortly thereafter, he heard that the proslavery forces were at Hickory Point, north of Oskaloosa, and so redirected his men there. The proslavery forces, which included about 40 South Carolinians, were under the command of Captain H. A. Lowe. According to Reader's accounts, only one Free State man was injured, but between 5-6 proslavery men were killed when these forces collided.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Free state; Hickory Point, Battle of; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lowe, H. A.; Objects; Reader, Samuel James; South Carolina; Violence


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 13, 1856
Charles Robinson wrote to John Brown from Lawrence on September 13, 1856, a short note encouraging Brown to give Governor Geary, who "talks of letting the past be forgotten," a chance and to come to town to "see us." A note from John Brown, Jr., on the bottom of the page, however, advised caution, as he had "no doubt an attempt will be made to arrest you as well as Lane."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 19, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote to his brother, Edwin Parrott, from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Marcus described to his brother the situation in the area stemming from the Battle of Hickory Point, which occurred six days earlier. He said that the free state men involved in the battle were arrested and held in prison in Lecompton without examination, while the proslavery men met no consequence. Marcus mentioned other incidents that led him to believe crimes and schemes were taking place against free state supporters. He also brought up money and land investments again, requesting money.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Real estate investment; Town development


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 30, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father, Thomas Parrott. In this letter, Marcus told his father about the events that had befallen him, his letters and possessions being seized by border ruffians. He added that a letter from his brother, Edwin, in which Edwin suggested the assassination of Judge Lecompte, was drawing attention to the two of them. Marcus describes Lawrence as a dangerous place for free state supporters at this time, stating that Governor Geary "has failed to accomplish anything" in his consideration of the uprisings between free state and proslavery men.

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas


Letter, Augustus Wattles to Mr. [George W.?] Brown
Authors: Wattles, Augustus
Date: October 15, 1856
Augustus Wattles, a loyal defender of John Brown, wrote to [George W.?] Brown requesting reimbursement for some $700 he had lost in the cause. Although Wattles had not expected to recoup his losses, and in fact had planned "to give all these items gratis to the free state cause," he had heard "a committee" had funds for that purpose, and he was ill and in need of money. His claim included a couple horses, a mule, and room and board for various free state people he had taken in when they were in need of shelter.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wattles, Augustus


Testimony of S. P. Hand
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 2, 1856
This testimony, a part of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, was apparently collected by the president of the National Kansas Committee, Thaddeus Hyatt. It relates the tale of S. P. Hand, a soldier in the free state militia who took part in the battle of Fort Titus and was captured at the battle of Hickory Point. His account provides a great deal of information regarding troop movements and the workings of the free state militia.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Central Relief Committee; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Hand, S. P.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Titus, Henry Theodore


Testimony of Capt. Thomas Bickerton
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 12, 1856
This testimony, taken down by Thaddeus Hyatt as part of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, is divided into two parts. It begins with descriptions of his life before he came to Kansas Territory and his efforts to set up a claim outside of Lawrence, including his technique for building his sod house. Thomas Bickerton was a well traveled individual and an influential commander of a free state artillery company. He was involved in skirmishes with border ruffians and in the attack on Franklin. Also, General James Lane sent him to Kansas City to obtain a brass howitzer (later known as the Abbott howitzer) for use against the proslavery forces.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Barber, Thomas W.; Bickerton, Thomas; Border disputes and warfare; Buffum, David C.; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Franklin buildings; Free state militia; Houses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Roberts, William Young; Sawmills; Skirmishing; Topliff, Charles W.


Testimonies of Nathaniel Parker, Horace L. Dunnell, Hinton S. Dunnell, Alexander MacArthur, James Hall, Jerome Hazen, and Charles Henry Caulkins
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 7, 1856
These testimonies, presumably taken down on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, include personal information about each settler, such as their age, occupation, etc., as well as their experiences in Kansas and their involvement in border warfare and skirmishes with pro-slavery settlers. Each account is descriptive and provides tremendous detail about their individual experiences. The testimonies of MacArthur, Hall, and Hazen are combined into one, with this group testimony split into two separate sections.

Keywords: Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Caulkins, Charles Henry; Cutter, Calvin M.; Dunnell, Hinton S.; Dunnell, Horace L.; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Guns; Hall, James; Harvey, James A.; Hazen, Jerome; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; MacArthur, Alexander; Missouri River; Parker, Nathaniel; Prisoners; Prisons; Proslavery activities; Skirmishing; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns); Weston, Missouri; Wounds and injuries


Experiences of R. S. Griffithe, N. W. Spicer, and J. A. Harvey
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 6, 1856
These testimonies, collected by the National Kansas Committee, record the experiences of these three settlers during the turbulent times of Bleeding Kansas. These testimonies focus on each settler's involvement in free state activities and their interaction with border ruffians. Griffithe and Spicer both served in the free state militia, and Harvey, who had commanded an emigrant train from Chicago, was the commander of a free state company.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Griffithe, R. S.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Spicer, N.W.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Topeka, Kansas; Violence


Pamphlet, "Affairs in Kansas"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This pamphlet contains a proclamation made by President Franklin Pierce and a speech by Senator Isaac Toucey. Also included are printed copies of letters and papers which date from December 1, 1855 to February 18, 1856, and communicate between Governor Wilson Shannon and other officials in Kansas Territory and the President and officials of the federal government which relate to "difficulties" in Kansas Territory. In this document, free state efforts are described as those of a "secret military organization" working against the legitimate Territorial Government.

Keywords: Buckley, H.H.; Calhoun, John; Clarke, George W.; Davis, Jefferson; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Hargis, S.N.; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marcy, William L.; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Richardson, William P.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee Mission; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Toucey, Isaac; Weapons (see also Guns); Westport, Missouri


Account of the Battle of Osawatomie
Authors: Brown, Spencer Kellogg
Date: c. 1856
This account of the battle and its aftermath, written by Spencer Kellogg Brown, was compiled from his shorthand diary. It describes the battle and his experiences as a young teenager taken prisoner by pro-slavery forces. He traveled with the Missouri troops and their other prisoners, and then for several weeks he lived under house arrest with Dr. James Keith from Lexington, Missouri. This particular account is unique because it gives very detailed descriptions of how ordinary citizens became entangled in the fighting.

Keywords: Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Spencer; Garrison, David R.; Keith, James; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sears, W. A.; Westport, Missouri; White, Martin


Narrative, the Murder of Charles Dow, by Isaac Goodnow
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: 1856
This written account reports on the incidents surrounding the murder of Charles Dow, including various skirmishes and military action which followed, leading up to the Wakarusa War. Dow was a free state supporter and was murdered by Franklin Coleman, who, according to Goodnow, had turned proslavery only after coming to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dow, Charles W.; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Skirmishing; Violence; Violent deaths


Abbott Howitzer
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Major James Burnett Abbott traveled east to raise funds and purchase arms for the free-state cause. In New York Abbott met Frederick Law Olmsted, who assisted in raising funds for the howitzer from the Ames Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts. The howitzer was taken to Lawrence, where it was captured by proslavery forces on May 21, 1856. It was recaptured at Fort Titus on August 16, 1856. Afterwards the howitzer was used in Linn County and by James H. Lane's brigade during the Civil War.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Ames Manufacturing Company; Border disputes and warfare; Cannons; Civil war; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


James Lane Telescope
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855-1857
Spyglass used by James Lane and other free-state leaders of Lawrence in observing the movements of Missourians.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects


Photograph, James Henry Lane
Authors: Rohe, A.
Date: 1857
Photograph of an illustration of James Henry Lane "shouting defiance into the convention's ears and the battery's muzzles at Constitution Hall," Lecompton, Kansas Territory. The illustration is copied from Life of General James H. Lane by John I. Speer.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Lecompton buildings; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Kansas Experience of George Cutter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: January 1, 1857
This reminiscence is presumably from the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, which was compiled by the National Kansas Committee under the leadership of Thaddeus Hyatt. George Cutter was with Frederick Brown shortly before the Battle of Osawatomie, and like Brown, he was wounded during an altercation with border ruffians. While he was not directly involved in this battle, this reminiscence is still a rather fascinating account.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Cutter, George; Darrach, Barstow; Everett, John R.; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Gillpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reid, John W.; Sears, W. A.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns); White, Martin; Wounds and injuries


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: April 14, 1857
Having finally made and returned from his long-delayed trip to Nebraska City, Kagi wrote his father from Lawrence, where he had gone almost immediately "on business." Although he can't discuss the particulars for fear of "bribed P.M. [post master?] spies," Kagi makes some interesting observations about freestate "prospects" throughout the territory, which "look much more hopeful now than when I left." Kagi mentions some land investment opportunities and the expected arrival of Governor Robert Walker, who would not last long if he tried to enforce the "bogus laws."

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Land speculation; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Postal service; Stringfellow, John H.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Page from Harper's Weekly, "Famous Places in Kansas"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: June 6, 1857
This page, taken from an issue of Harper's Weekly, features engraving illustrations of the Governor's Mansion in Lecompton, Kansas Territory, and James Lane's fort on Mount Oread, near Lawrence, Kansas Territory. A caption explains the history of each structure and the personalities who frequent them.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Mount Oread; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Certificate, James Abbott as Brigadier General
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 15, 1857
James Lane, from the Headquarters of the Kansas Volunteers free state militia, issued this certificate that appointed James Abbott, as Brigadier General of the 1st Brigade, to protect the ballot boxes during the upcoming elections. Election fraud, in the form of multiple votes cast by proslavery men, was a constant concern of free state supporters.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Free state cause; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866


General Order No. 1, Headquarters of Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: July 18, 1857
This printed document was issued by James H. Lane and indicated that Lane had been authorized by the Free State government in Topeka to organize militia companies in order to protect ballot boxes on election day. It included instructions on how to organize the companies.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting; Whitman, E. B.


General Order No. 2, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: July 20, 1857
General Order No. 2 established divisions and brigades which were to protect the ballot box in Topeka. It lists the divisions, brigades, and the superintendents of the divisions and brigades. James Lane was organizing the Kansas Volunteers and Martin Conway was the Adjutant General for the K.V.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Stewart, John E.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting; Williams, Henry H.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: July 20 [1857]
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother, recently settled in Illinois. He discussed with them family news, and attached a postscript regarding their land warrants in Kansas Territory. Miller also referred to the free state supporters' rejection of a charter put in place by the "bogus legislature" in Lecompton, and the subsequent meeting of the free state legislature in Topeka. A census had been taken by free state men in the largest pro-slavery localities. According to Miller, this census found that free state men outnumbered proslavery supporters by at least 1 to 7.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Miller, Josiah; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Very Dear Sir, Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: July 24, 1857
Writing from Atchison, Pomeroy reported to Hyatt on matters to do with land investments and/or transactions in Atchison and Quindaro and elsewhere. He also commented on the progress of their railroad project and General Calhoun's interest in the same.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Calhoun, John; Doniphan, Kansas Territory; Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, Thos. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 24, 1857
Agent Thomas Marsh, Mass. State Kansas Committee, wrote another of his frequent and detailed letters to George Stearns on July 24, 1857, describing the census and other preparations that were being made for the upcoming election (most importantly, the legislative election in October of that year). Of special interest were the activities of Jim Lane by the Free State Convention to organize militarily for "the protection of the Ballot Boxes."

Keywords: African Americans; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speculation; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, J. A. Andrew to Dear [George] Collamore
Authors: Andrew, J. A.
Date: July 7, 1857
J. A. Andrew wrote to George Collamore with advice to the people of Lawrence regarding the bogus legislature. Andrew suggested that the free state men continue to vote down any constitution that is not the one drawn in Topeka. He also described his impressions of the free state leaders, such as Charles Robinson, James Lane, and others.

Keywords: Andrew, J.A.; Bogus legislature; Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Conway, Martin Franklin; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Charles; Taxation; Topeka Constitution


Order No. 1, from the Headquarters of the Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: August 3, 1857
E.B. Whitman, Quarter-Master General of the Kansas Volunteers, composed this formal order in response to the Topeka Legislature's adoption of James Lane's resolution to organize the people in protection of the ballot boxes during the next elections. Whitman, who had just been appointed as Quarter-Master General by Lane under the Ballot Box resolution, requested that each Company of the Volunteers elect their own Quarter-Master to take an inventory of firearms held by their own Company.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 20, 1857
In his August 20, 1857, report to Stearns, Marsh again asked for some clarification on a couple payment issues and described his role for the committee (Mass. State Kansas Committee) with regard to Jim Lane's efforts to organize protection for free state voters. For a short while, things looked good for the Free State cause, but Governor Walker's conduct to date had been disruptive and Judge Cato and friends began to issue arrest warrants.

Keywords: Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, A. [Augustus] Wattles to Dear Sir [John Brown?]
Authors: Wattles, Augustus
Date: August 21, 1857
Augustus Wattles wrote to John Brown from Lawrence, August 21, 1857, regarding several matters but focused again on problems within the Free State movement because of a loss of confidence in Charles Robinson's leadership. Robinson had openly criticized G. W. Brown and the Herald of Freedom and the factious party could accomplish little, but Wattles was confident that free staters would vote in and win the October election for territorial legislature.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Herald of Freedom; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, Owen Brown to Dear Mother [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown, Owen
Date: August 27, [1856]
On August 27, 1856, from Tabor, Iowa, Owen Brown wrote to tell his mother that according to all accounts "Father is the most daring courageous man in Kansas" and to relate other happenings in K.T. involving Jim Lane and Governor Shannon. Another invasion from Missouri was rumored, but free state recruits were assembling and "the Missourians are trembling in their Boots."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Brown, Owen; Crops; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Weapons (see also Guns); Woodson, Daniel


Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to Gen. J. H. Lane
Authors: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: September 7, 1857
James Abbott, wrote from his travels in Hartford, Connecticut, to James Lane, General of the Kansas free state militia. Abbott was attempting to raise money and supplies for the free state cause by soliciting donations from supporters in the East. However, he reported that "this season of the year is always unfavorable for all benevolent enterprises" and that the "bank and brokers panic" was making matters even more difficult. Abbott longed for "one more big fight in Kansas" even if it should cost him his life or the lives of others as "the object is worth all it will cost."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Economic conditions; Finance; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866


Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: September 7, 1857
James H. Lane, whose extant correspondence is scarce, here wrote from Lawrence to John Brown regarding his (Lane's) efforts "in perfecting an organization for the protection of the ballot box at the October Election," and Lane encouraged Brown to come "with all the materials you have." Lane was confident Brown could enter the territory safely but offered all required assistance--protection, transport, etc.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, John Brown to Genl. J. [James] H. Lane
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 16, 1857
In response to Jim Lane's September 7 call for assistance, John Brown wrote from Tabor, Iowa, on September 16, 1857: "I suppose that three good teams with well covered waggons, & ten really ingenious industrious men with about $150 in cash, could bring it about in the course of eight or ten days."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Horses; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Tabor, Iowa; Wagons


Commission, James Montgomery, captain
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 16, 1857
This printed commission, issued from the "Head-Quarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot-Box," was given to James Montgomery and signed by J.H. Lane and M. F. Conway, adjutant general, on September 16, 1857. Montgomery was commissioned captain of the "Little Sugar Creek Company." This would have been specifically for the territorial election, October 5, 1857.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Dear Genl. [John Brown]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: September 29, 1857
James H. Lane wrote from Falls City, Nebraska Territory, to John Brown in Tabor, Iowa, urging Brown to get guns and ammunition to Kansas as soon as possible. Lane wanted Brown's help in preventing proslavery supporters from disrupting the October 7, 1857, election for representatives to the territorial legislature.

Keywords: Ammunition; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Guns; Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Nebraska Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John Brown to Genl. Jas. H. Lane
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 30, 1857
At the end of September 1857, Brown wrote to tell Lane that it would "be next to impossible in my poor state of health" to travel to K.T. "on such very short notice. I think, considering all the uncertainties of the case, want of teams, &c, that I should do wrong to set out. I am disappointed in the extreme."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Tabor, Iowa; Transportation; Travel


Letter, J. H. Lane to Genl. J. B. Abbott
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: October 15, 1857
James Lane ordered James Abbott to gather his brigade and have them in Lecompton by the following Monday. Lane perhaps responded to the results of the early October election of the Territorial Legislature, in which free state men questioned the validity of votes cast by U.S. troops, or to the meeting of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, which would reconvene on October 20.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia


Order No. 2, Quartermaster's Department, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, Lawrence, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 19, 1857
This printed letter written by E. B. Whitman concerned the success of Kansas volunteers in organizing to help freemen and the lack of success with voting lists.

Keywords: Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Dr Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: October 30, 1857
On October 30, 1857, from Falls City [Nebraska Territory ? ], Jim Lane wrote to urge Brown to do all he could "to get the guns to Kansas." He actually believed they would probably not be needed, but "One thing is certain if they are to do her any good it will be in the next few days."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Guns; Jayhawkers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, J. H. Lane to Genl. A. W. Philips
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: December 17, 1857
James Lane, Major General of the free state militia forces, wrote to General A. W. Philips, ordering him to Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to help "our friends who are there. . .defending themselves against an invading force."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Philips, A.W.; Skirmishing; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory


General Staff Roll, Officers on duty at Sugar Mound
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 19, 1857
This roll list documents the attendance of various Kansas Militia officers to a skirmish at Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory , including Major General James Lane. The list appears to be incomplete, as age, stature, and equipment notes for each man are only provided on the list's first page.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Blunt, James G.; Free state militia; Gilpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leonhardt, Charles F. W., 1827-1884; Linn County, Kansas Territory; McCannon, John; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Shore, Samuel T.; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.; Williams, Henry H.


Letter, Your affectionate Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: December 21, 1857
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego, in addition to elaborating on hunting and mill work, described at length the skirmishing between local free state and proslavery men, which had been continuous throughout the summer and fall. He reported the manner in which Missourians had seized and occupied lands in the absence of their owners, who were free state men. "Bogus courts" had brought the free state men who defended their lands to court, which resulted in so many fees owed that the men had to sell their land to pay them; the new owners were usually Missourians. Trego accused proslavery supporters of fabricating stories about destruction caused by warring Abolitionists in order to draw the support of the U.S. troops. Controversy over the Lecompton Constitution flourished in free state circles; the Free State Legislature in Topeka had repealed the "bogus laws" of the Territorial Legislature and appointed James Lane the head of a free state militia.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Business enterprises; Free state legislature; Free state militia; Hunting; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Military; Mills and mill-work; Missourians; Proslavery supporters; Sharps rifles; Skirmishing; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to My Dear Wife
Authors: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: December 22, 1857
James Abbott, serving as a Colonel in the Kansas free state militia wrote from a military skirmish in Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife back in Lawrence. He had hoped to return home within a week from his departure, but now received word from James Lane, Major General of the militia, that he could start home the following Saturday. Abbott reported the events of the skirmish, which thus far had only resulted in the arrests of some men; no deaths had been reported.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Skirmishing; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory


Broadside, Cowardly assassination: Lecompton Union Extra!
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
This broadside, a special report of the Weekly Lecompton Union newspaper, recounted the assassination of William T. Sherrard, which had occurred earlier that same day. Sherrard had been appointed Sheriff of Douglas County by the County Board of Commissoners after the resignation of Samuel J. Jones. Sherrard's appointment was not supported by Governor Geary, who allegedly made slanderous remarks on Sherrard's character. The broadside report supposed, since Sherrard was decidely a proslavery man, that free state Legislators, among other freestateman, had plotted against him on behalf of Geary, which lead to Sherrard's death at the hand of J.A.W. Jones.

Keywords: Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, J.A.W.; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; McAllister, Richard; Newspapers; Proslavery support; Sherrard, William T.; Violent deaths; Woodson, Daniel


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited from the city of Leavenworth. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. All of the members are from Leavenworth and their ages range from 22 to 38. The captain was William Kempf. With the exception of the 1st Lieutenant Joseph Mrosowsky who was born in Poland, all of the members of the company were born in Germany though they had lived various places before coming to Kansas.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Germans; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Kempf, William; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth City; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Law Brief, Gaius Jenkins vs. the Robetaille Float, James H. Lane
Authors: Unknown
Date: c. 1858
This law brief was prepared on the behalf of Gaius Jenkins by his attorneys, defending his ownership of land that was also claimed by James Lane. This composition stated that Jenkins settled on his claim during October 1854, while Lane settled next to him in 1855, and that Lane sold Jenkins half of his land shortly thereafter for $800. These points, added to various witness testimonies, show that Jenkins was the rightful owner of the land in dispute. Lane killed Jenkins in June 1858 in an argument over this same matter.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Robitaille, Robert; United States. General Land Office


Pamphlet, Address to the American People on the Affairs of Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
This address recounted the history and purpose of the formation of the Kansas State Government of Topeka, in peaceful opposition to that of the Territory. The free state message accused the systems of the Territorial Government of encouraging influence from abroad in their election process, and indicated that they had nothing inherently against Missouri's citizens as a whole, but implored that they not attempt to violate the rights of Kansas settlers. The address stated that the Territory was "organized for defence" by a pledge from Governor Walker, and appealed that outsiders remain in their homes for the benefit of all.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Big Springs Convention; Border disputes and warfare; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Election fraud; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Missourians; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Schuyler, Philip Church; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Invitation to a ball at the Free State Hotel
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1858
An invitation to a ball held on January 29, 1859, at the Free State hotel with proceeds going toward refurnishing the hotel.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Blood, James; Branscomb, Charles H.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Emery, James Stanley; Entertainment; Free State Hotel; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; McClure, W. M.; Mead, Andrew J.; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Searl, Albert D.; Smith, George W.; Winchell, J. M.


Account Book, 1858-59
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: January 1858 - June 1859
This cloth bound journal, identified as "Account Book of Gov. Charles Robinson, January 1, 1858--June 15, 1872," began with an "Inventory of Property belonging to C. Robinson," land and shares, as well as a list of people to whom he owed money. The inventory referred to Lawrence property, a "Wyandotte Float," and shares in the towns of Topeka, Quindaro, etc.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Financial statements; Fitchburg, Massachusetts; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Wyandot Float; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, I. T. Goodnow to Friend Sherman
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: April 1 & 3, 1858
Isaac Goodnow wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to a friend, expressing his excitement and support for the Leavenworth Constitution. The status of the Lecompton Constitution was currently being debated in Congress, but Goodnow predicted its "destruction". Goodnow described the events of the Constitutional Convention, which had first convened in Minneola, but had been removed to Leavenworth. He stated that the finished constitution was" the best Constitution in existence", and remarked at James Lane's leading role in its development.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Prohibition; Topeka Constitution


Letter, S.C.S. [most likely Samuel C. Smith] to "Doctor" [Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: January 11, 1858
This letter, dated Lawrence, January 11, 1858, most likely from Samuel C. Smith, mentions many of the Free State Party's main actors and issues at this critical time in Kansas politics. He described the activities of the Legislature, which assembled in Lawrence in January, and devotes considerable attention to the machinations of the "villain" Jim Lane.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Free State Party; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Railroad companies; Railroad legislation; Railroad promotion; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Temperance movement; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion


Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to Capt. Bayne
Authors: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: February 3, 1858
James Abbott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Captain O. P. Bayne, explaining his delay in responding to Bayne's request for military aid. Abbott told him that his engagement with the committee investigating election fraud in the December 21 and January 4 elections had caused him to pass the request to General Phillips (possiblity William A. Phillips). Phillips, instead of responding directly, waited for Major General James Lane to return to town and approve the action. Abbott was apologetic, stating "if I had been at liberty I would have started at once. . .entirely independent of the Territorial Militia."

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Bayne, O. P.; Election fraud; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891


General Lane's answer to the President's message
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: February 13, 1858
Address by General Lane in response to the President's message about Lane and Kansas. Lane rebukes the President's message about him and Kansas. Described the many elections that Kansas had gone through and the intrusion of Missourians into Kansas to rig the elections.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Antislavery; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature)


Letter, J. G. Anderson to "Dear Brother"
Authors: Anderson, J. G.
Date: February 17, 1858
From "Camp near Luella K.T." on February 17, 1858, J. G. Anderson wrote to his brother regarding the "considerable excitement" that had recently resulted after a free state man was robbed in Fort Scott. Two companies of "Kansas Militia" were called out to arrest the thieves, "our company under Capt. [O.P.] Bayne and the Sugar Creek company under Capt. [James] Montgomery. When they arrived at "the Fort" on the 11th "the bloody villains" had already fled to Missouri. The letter is a "typical" mix of news about the Kansas troubles, work on the claim, and pleasantries about the folks back home. [Before the end of the year, Anderson would sign on with John Brown and follow him to Harpers Ferry.]

Keywords: Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John Brown, Jr. to My Dear General [E. B.] Whitman
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: February 26, 1858
To his Kansas friend "General Whitman," John Brown Jr. wrote from his farm in Ashtabula, Ohio, regarding his continued commitment to the cause of Kansas and the state of his health. Brown wanted Whitman to know the reason for his sudden departure in October 1856: "the symptoms of mental abberation were again manifest to myself at least, and I knew that I must change scenes & circumstances, or again loose my balance entirely." But despite the hardships endured and the resulting illness, "Kansas is deguerotyped upon my heart, a stormy yet glorious picture."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Illness; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Topeka; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slavery; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, [Samuel] Tappan to Gen. T. W. Higginson
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: March 15, 1858
In this letter, written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Samuel Tappan informed Thomas W. Higginson of the state of affairs in Kansas. He began the letter by mentioning the constitutional convention that would soon meet at Minneola, and the hope that the free state side will be triumphant. Tappan also mentioned the recent election for mayor of Lawrence, stating that Carmi Babcock won over James Blood. The last page, tacked on as if it were a separate note, gave a brief summary of where influential leaders were currently located, so Higginson would know of their whereabouts.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Blood, James; Branscomb, Charles H.; Constitutional conventions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state perspective; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Roberts, William Young; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913


Letter, H. J. Marshall to Governor [James] Denver
Authors: Marshall, H.J.
Date: March 15, 1858
H. J. Marshall wrote from Washington, D. C. to Governor Denver regarding recent Congressional proceedings. Marshall supposed that the Lecompton Constitution would be defeated, and that the election returns of the past January 4 would be thrown out due to fraudulent activities. He also expressed the majority support for Denver's proclamation of February 26, which denied James Lane's authority to organize the territorial militia, and "show[ed] the base conduct of the same and his party of out-laws."

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Election fraud; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Marshall, H.J.; United States. Congress


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, Afternoon Session
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: March 26, 1858
Kansas's third constitutional convention, convened at Minneola, Franklin County, on March 23, 1858, elected officers (including Samuel F. Tappan, secretary), and then adjourned to reconvene at Leavenworth on March 25. During the afternoon session, March 26, 1858, some interesting debate occurred regarding the viability of the Topeka Constitution, and a minority of the Leavenworth delegates reaffirmed their support for the 1855 instrument. (The Leavenworth Convention nevertheless drafted and adopted a new constitution, and adjourned on April 3, 1858.)

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Constitutions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free State Party; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Constitution; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: March 31, 1858
During the course of the convention's business on Wednesday, March 31, 1858, the delegates took up the article on "elective Franchise reported back from Committee on Phraseology." Samuel N. Wood's motion "to strike out the word 'male'" failed, 21 to 35, but interestingly, the yeas and nays were recorded. The votes for the unsuccessful effort to insert the word "white" were also recorded.

Keywords: Constitutions; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 1, 1858
The delegates considered the "Homestead Exemption" during the morning session, April 1, 1858. The provision was amended so as to make the basic exemption 160 acres or not over $2,000. The vote on this was recorded, and the yeas and nays are followed by numerous explanations--delegates who voted nay but not because they opposed the concept.

Keywords: Constitutions; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Homestead exemptions; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Winans, A. L.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, April 1, 1858
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 1, 1858
On Thursday afternoon, April 1, the delegates began considering the proposed constitution in its entirety. When they reached Article II, the elective franchise, Hampton P. Johnson of Leavenworth, "moved to insert the word 'white' before the word 'male'." Jim Lane's motion to refer the matter to a special committee failed, as did B.B. Newton's motion to table "the whole subject"--yeas 35, nays 41. The yeas and nays were recorded. Among those voting to table, and thus to stifle the effort to add the word "white," were Lane, Ritchie, Preston B. Plumb, Thacher, and Amasa Soule.

Keywords: Constitutions; Johnson, Hampton P.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Newton, B. B.; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Soule, Amasa; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, April 2, 1858
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 2, 1858
After considering a few other issues, such as the selection of Topeka as "the temporary seat of Government," the convention took up the motion from the previous day on the elective franchise, with T. D. Thacher explaining that his select committee had considered the insertion of the word "white" and "unanimously report against its insertion." After some debate over procedure, Thacher offered an amendment that instructed the first legislature to put "the question of universal suffrage to the people at the general elections." The amendment passed, 50 to 29.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Capitals (cities); Constitutions; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Roberts, William Young; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Letter, Thos. A Hendricks to Dear Sir [Gov. James W. Denver]
Authors: Hendricks, Thomas A.
Date: April 3, 1858
Thomas Hendricks wrote from Washington D. C. to Governor James Denver in Lecompton, Kansas Territory, providing his reaction to news of recent events in Kansas Territory. Hendricks referred to James Lane's duel challenge to Denver, and advised Denver to "give him a thrashing" should he have trouble with Lane again. Hendricks expressed his wish that the "Kansas question" should be resolved as soon as possible, and he speculated on the outcome of the bill in Congress which proposed the recognition of the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Brindle, William; Crittenden Amendment; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Hendricks, Thomas A.; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; National politics; United States. Congress


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Geo. L. Stearns Esq.
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: April 30, 1858
Whitman's April 30, 1858, letter to Stearns described the harmonious work conducted by the "State Convention" and its nomination of state officers under the Leavenworth Constitution. That movement, he told Stearns, would probably not "amount to much if the Lecompton Constitution is rejected. He also mentioned continued tension in Bourbon County and the route of U.S. troops by "the free State boys" of Fort Scott.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Convention; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Territorial government; United States. Army; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, P. R. Brooks, Lawrence, K. T. to his father
Authors: Brooks, P. R.
Date: June 6, 1858
This letter described the land claim dispute between James Lane and Gaius Jenkins, which ended with Lane killing Jenkins. Brooks wrote that Jenkins was well respected, mentioned his widow and children and indicated that his funeral was well attended. He also made passing reference to the "Linn county tragedy."

Keywords: Brooks, Paul R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, Marc Parrott to O. E. Learnard
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: June 12, 1858
Marcus Parrott, Representative of Kansas Territory to the U. S. Congress, wrote to Oscar Learnard from Washington, D. C. reacting to the news of Gaius Jenkins' death at the hand of fellow free state man, James Lane. He referred to several friends and colleagues with whom he was eager to reunite upon his return to Lawrence soon after the 25th of the month.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Free state activities; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, J. [John] S. [Stillman] Brown to Dear Willie
Authors: Brown, John S.
Date: June 13, 1858
This letter, written from Lawrence by John Stillman Brown, was addressed to his son William, who was studying at Phillips Exeter Academy. The letter included information about their local church meetings and the talk surrounding the murder of Gaius Jenkins. Brown also mentioned a sermon he preached, which outlined the beliefs of the Unitarians. He admonished his son to immerse himself in the Scriptures, and to stop drinking tea and other stimulants. The letter concluded with a discussion of politics, particularly the Lecompton and Leavenworth Constitutions.

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Churches; Community life; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitution; Lecompton Constitution; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Unitarian churches; Weather


Letter, M. F. Conway to My dear Sir [George L. Stearns]
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: June 13, 1858
Somewhat disturbed that Stearns of Boston had published his (Conway's) letter regarding "money for the Leavenworth Constitution," Martin F. Conway, Lawrence, wrote to say that there was nothing "improper or dishonorable in this transaction" and went on to reflect on the nature of the Free State Party/movement at that time. Charles Robinson was "at work to destroy the influence of the Republican wing of the Free State Party," but people back East should not conclude "that the bottom is going to fall out of Kansas because there is division in the Free State Party." Conway expected both Robinson and James H. Lane to fall from prominence because of changing circumstances in Kansas.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Letter, John F. King to Tho. Ewing Jr
Authors: King, John F.
Date: July 1, 1858
Ewing's correspondent, John F. King of Lawrence, had just given testimony in the Lane-Jenkins hearing that supported Lane's testimony that he shot Gaius Jenkins in self-defense on June 3, 1858, and wrote to provide Ewing (one of Lane's attorneys) with some information regarding "the exact position of the court." In the preliminary hearing, conducted by three justices of the peace (Erastus D. Ladd and two others) beginning on June 15, the decision was that no murder had been committed.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Jenkins, Gaius; Justices of the peace; King, John F.; Ladd, Erastus D.; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Shooting of Gaius Jenkins
Authors: Unknown
Date: July 24, 1858
A page from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 24, 1858, showing the shooting of Gaius Jenkins by James H. Lane, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, June 3, 1858. The page also contains portraits of James H. Lane and Gaius Jenkins.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations


Law Brief, Lane vs. Jenkins
Authors: Almond, W.B.
Date: December 20, 1858
W. B. Almond, attorney for James Lane, composed this law brief at the General Land Office in Lecompton, Kansas Territory. Almond enumerated various points which supported the fact that Lane was the rightful owner of the land over which he and Gaius Jenkins were in dispute, and which ultimately led to Jenkins' death on June 3, 1858. In sum, Almond stated that Lane had purchased the disputed land directly from a man, Chapman, who had sold half to Lane and the other half to the Float.

Keywords: Almond, W.B; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lykins, William H. R.


Shooting of Gaius Jenkins
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 24, 1858
Newspaper clipping from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 24, 1858, describing the shooting of Gauis Jenkins by Jim Lane. The two men were claiming rights to the same portion of land. Lane shot Jenkins when he tried to get water from the well on this contested property.

Keywords: Jenkins, Gaius; Land acquisition; Land claim disputes; Land speculation; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Violence


Letter, S. C. S. [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: January 6, 1859
Samuel Smith wrote to Dr. Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, regarding the latest election events within the Kansas Territorial Legislature. The positions of Speaker and Clerk were not secured by William Roberts and himself, as had been expected, but had been filled by Alfred Larzalere and Byron P. Ayres as a consequence of some questionable internal party politics, so described by Smith. Smith also wrote Robinson of George Deitzler's desire to resume correspondence with him, and of a recent incident in which James Lane's portrait was defaced.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Ayres, Byron P.; Babcock, Carmi William; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Branscomb, Charles H.; Deitzler, George W.; Delahay, Mark W.; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elder, P.P.; Elections; Free State Party; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Hutchinson, George W.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); McLane, George W.; Methodist Church; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion; Wright, John W.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, S. Medary to My Dear Sir
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: January 12, 1859
Samuel Medary wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to an unknown recipient in Washington, D. C. Medary expressed his disapproval at the way the U. S. Marshall handled the "troubles" in Linn and Bourbon counties that were brought on by free-state radical James Montgomery and his men. He added that the legislature, newly in session, was difficult to work with, as there very few "reliable democrats" in it. Medary also described the legislature's debate over Montgomery's fate.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Danford, Addison; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Roberts, T.R.; Violence; Wright, John W.


Letter, [Governor] S. [Samuel] Medary to My Dear Sir [former governor James W. Denver]
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: January 13, 1859
Governor Samuel Medary, writing from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to former governor James W. Denver, reported on his successful effort to convince the Territorial House of Representatives to pass a bill establishing a special court to try James Montgomery and other free state supporters allegedly engaged in violence in southeast Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Jayhawkers; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Violence


Letter, J. P. Root to Hon. Charles Robinson
Authors: Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: January 17, 1859
Joseph Root wrote to Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, informing him of a development that was splitting the Republican (anti-slavery) Party. Root mentioned that a large majority of the free state House members had begun to call themselves "Radicals," or extreme Republicans. He stated that he would leave the party if, in order to be a Republican, he had to be a member of the "Jim Lane Montgomery Men." Root also informed Robinson that a court had been established in Lawrence in order to try violent offenders from Linn, Lykins, and Bourbon counties.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Smith, Samuel C.


Letter, C. Robinson to Geo. R. Morton Esq
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: March 9, 1859
In this typed "transcript" of a letter from Lawrence dated March 9, 1859, Charles Robinson confirmed Morton apparent conclusion that Robinson preferred Governor Salmon P. Chase for president in 1860. Robinson considered Chase "the purest & best Statesman in the country," and thought he was "more available than any other man of whatever shade of political faith," including William Seward. Robinson also comments on the Kansas scene which was "badly cursed with the most unscrupulous demagogues that ever afflicted any people, & there is at present but little union of effort or harmony of action among the free State men."

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Antislavery perspective; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Conway, Martin Franklin; Herald of Freedom; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Morton, George R.; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; Vaughan, Champion; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Gentlemen [J. B. Abbott, et al]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: October 24, 1859
In response to an October 17 letter from "the Seward Club of Lawrence," Ewing said that he was not prepared "to say whether or no" he intended to support James H. Lane for the U.S. Senate. This was a decision best left to the first legislature, which he hoped would contain "our best men," chosen "without regard to their preferences for United States Senators."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Kansas. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Seward Club; United States. Congress. Senate


Letter, F. M. Cummins to S. N. Wood
Authors: Cummins, F. M.
Date: November 13, 1859
Writing from El Mendaro, Madison County, K. T., F. M. Cummins speculated about Wood's November 8, 1859, election defeat. (Interestingly, when the territorial legislature convened in January 1860, Wood and not his Democratic opponent, T. S. Huffaker, represented the 23rd District.) In a faded letter, Cummins wrote that "the ill timed article in your [Wood's] issue of Oct 31st [the Kansas Press, Council Grove] on Jim Lane pretty effectively "cooked" your prospects in Madison County. . . ." Cummins went on to mention Wood's candidacy for the state senate (election of December 6, the first under the Wyandotte Constitution) and wrote: "Being a Lane man myself and knowing your opposition to him I cannot wish you success. . . ."

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Cummins, F. M.; Democratic Party (U.S.); El Mendaro, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, November 1859; Factionalism; Huffaker, T. S.; Kansas Press; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Madison County, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, C. G. Allen to Redpath and Hinton
Authors: Allen, C. G.
Date: December 1859
Allen, a "minister of the Gospel" at Cottonwood Falls, K.T., wrote in response to the Redpath/Hinton call for "anecdotes & reminiscences" concerning "the brave & philanthropic [John] Brown," who the preacher first met in Lawrence in 1856. Allen left Lawrence when a call came for volunteers to aid in the defense of Osawatomie in August of that year and while there engaged saw his first "Border Ruffians," who he described as "miserable specimens of humanity. They were ragged & dirty. Their cloths & faces were to a considerable extent covered with tobacco spit." Allen and the men he was with actually missed the Battle of Osawatomie by moving south before the attack in an effort to find the attackers before they reached the town.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Stanton, Kansas Territory


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
R. D. McCamish submitted this claim (No. 46) for damages and losses to a hotel, storehouse, and other property on September 4, 1856. James Lane commanded the troops that did the damage to Mr. McCamish's property. Mr. McCamish lived in Johnson County. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; McCamish, R. D.; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Benjamin D. Castleman, Tecumseh, Shawnee County, presented claim #216 for losses suffered in August and September, 1856. He operated as a merchant so his claim listed groceries, clothing, dry goods, medicines, guns, hardware, books and stationery, and tin and glassware. He stated that the damage was caused by about 50 well armed men under the command of James H. Lane and another group of 200 men under the command of "Captains A. Jameson, Cleveland, and Charles Moffet." Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Alcoholic beverages; Castleman, Benjamin D.; Clothing and dress; Damage claims; Food; Groceries; Jameson, A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Moffett, Charles; Retail businesses; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Robert A. Edwards submitted claim #221 for losses and damages suffered at the hands of James Lane's men under the command of Captain Jameson in August and September, 1856. His list was detailed and included livestock, furniture, food, and household goods. He lived in Shawnee County. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Agricultural implements; Damage claims; Edwards, Robert A.; Food; Free state militia; Furniture; House furnishings; Household equipment; Jameson, A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Livestock; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [John Hanna]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 26, 1860
In this letter to a friend in Greencastle, Indiana, Ewing made numerous observations about the state of Kansas politics, of which he wrote: "Politics in Kansas you know are a business to those caught in the whirlpool." Ewing thought the state government was "pretty well officered" but was concerned about prospects for the senatorial contest. "Lane is nearly dead with the politicians. . . But he is a power with the people. . . . I look on Lane as a decidedly bad man," even though he recognized Lane's positive "service to the cause before the [Lawrence free-state] Convention in Decr 1857."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state cause; Hanna, John; Journalism; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Congress. Senate; Vaughan, Champion


Letter, Harrison Anderson to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Anderson, Harrison
Date: January 27, 1860
The elder brother of Harpers Ferry raider Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote Hinton to provide information on his brothers activities in Kansas Territory, beginning in "June or July 1857," when he settle in norther Bourbon County. J.G. Anderson was actively engaged in free-state activities in southern Kansas, including efforts to defy the bogus authority through the establishment of what was called a "Squaters court." (According to a January 29, 1860, letter--also in this folder--from another brother, John Q. Anderson of Eddyville, Iowa, brother Harrison was still living in at Little Osage, KT, and he had "frequently entertained" John Brown.)

Keywords: Abolitionists; Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Proslavery activities; Squatters


Legal document, Survey of Lane and Chapman plots
Authors: Searl, Albert D.
Date: January 1860
This document contains a certified survey by A. D. Searl, Deputy Surveyor of Douglas County, of the land plots disputed by James Lane and Gaius Jenkins. In this assessment, taken after the death of Jenkins at the hand of Lane in June 1858, Jenkins' property is shown as belonging to a man Chapman. A. N. Blackledge, clerk for the U.S. District Court, 2nd Judicial district, Douglas County, signed the document as a witness.

Keywords: Blackledge, A.N.; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Legal documents; Maps; Searl, Albert D.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to A. J. Isacks
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: March 22, 1860
Ewing addressed a number of issues in this letter to former territorial Kansas attorney general Andrew J. Isacks (1854-1857), who was in Washington, D.C. presumably lobbying Congress on behalf of Kansas admission, etc., but closed with some interesting comments on Leavenworth's interest in the promotion and development of the Smoky Hill route to the Pikes Peak region. Isacks was one of Ewing's principle partners in the Leavenworth, Pawnee, & Western Railroad venture and was undoubtedly busy lobbying for a railroad land grant from Congress.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Colorado City, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Homestead law; Isacks, Andrew Jackson; Land grants; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western Railroad Company; Pikes Peak gold rush; Railroads; Smoky Hill Trail, Kansas Territory; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to S. N. Wood
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: April 17, 1860
From Washington, D.C., Pomeroy wrote to express his concern for the Woods who had just lost their "'House & Effect'" in a fire. But as consolation Pomeroy informed Wood that Kansas was "going to be admitted 'into the family of States,' this season." Then, making reference to the 1856 dispersal of the Topeka free state legislature, Pomeroy wrote: "I wonder if our State Legislature could not be called together at Topeka upon the 4th of July, to commemorate the day of our being 'dispersed' by the United States Soldiers!!" Although optimistic, Pomeroy conceded politics might still hold up admission, if the anti-Seward forces thought Kansas votes might influence the decision of the upcoming Chicago convention.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Atchison, Kansas Territory; Deitzler, George W.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Fires; Free state legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; United States. Congress


Letter, Geo. W. Deitzler to Friend [Samuel N.] Wood
Authors: Deitzler, George W.
Date: August 18, 1860
In the wake of Abraham Lincoln's nomination, May 16, 1860, as the Republican presidential nominee, Deitzler wrote from Lawrence that Mark W. Delahay had gone to Springfield, Illinois, on behalf of "our Gen'l J. H. Lane," and the latter was going East soon, "to howl frightfully against Democracy & in favor of 'Old Abe' & so secure, if possible, the confidence of that good man." Deitzler was worried about the new administration, if it was to be controlled by the likes of Lane and Delahay. On another subject, in behalf of a friend, Deitzler asked about the new territorial divorce law, and Wood's availability to handle such a case "in a quiet way."

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Delahay, Mark W.; Divorce law and legislation; Election, Presidential, 1860; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lincoln administration; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, [Jim] Lane to [M. W.] Delahay
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: December 18, 1860
Writing on "Christian & Lane" attorneys letterhead, Jim Lane (at least it certainly appeared to be Lane) informed Delahay in a "Strictly confidential" letter of his plan to help John Speer, Lawrence editor and "faithful friend," take control of the Republican, another Lawrence newspaper. To do so he needed to raise $500, but the political payoff would be worth the effort." Lane felt control of the Republican, Times [Leavenworth] & Record [Topeka] would lead to success for the free state cause.

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Free state cause; Kansas State Record; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Leavenworth Times; Newspapers; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Speer, John, 1817-1906


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Honl. Amos A. Lawrence
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: December 22, 1860
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Samuel N. Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts regarding the poverty in which Gaius Jenkins' family found themselves. James Lane had killed Jenkins in 1858 over a land claim, and it appeared that he was now taking measures to "keep her [Mrs. Jenkins] poor as long as possible." Simpson reminded Lawrence of his request to pay Jenkins fifty dollars as compensation for his imprisonment by federal troops at Camp Sackett, near Lecompton, in 1856. Jenkins had declined the payment at the time, but Simpson now solicited it on behalf of his widow and family.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, Jr.; Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Deitzler, George W.; Economic conditions; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Relief; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Smith, George W.


Pamphlet, James H. Lane vs. Heirs of Gauis Jenkins
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1860
This document, prepared by Mssrs. Mitchell and Weer, attorneys for James Lane who represented him in his infamous land ownership conflict with Gauis Jenkins, recounts a detailed chronology surrounding the circumstances of each man's ownership of the float. Lane, who ultimately shot and killed fellow freestateman Jenkins as a result of the dispute, maintained that he was the legitimate owner of the float, despite his extended absences from it. Within the details of the conflict, as described in this pamphlet, are included chronologies of Lane's service as a free state representative in Washington and as a General of the free state militia.

Keywords: Free state activities; Free state government; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawsuits; United States. General Land Office; Violent deaths; Wyandot Float


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: January 11, 1861
From Lawrence, K.T., Robinson wrote his wife Sara, who was still in the East, concerning Jim Lane's efforts to destroy Robinson's influence. The governor was not too worried, however, and wrote that he could "by paying a little attention to the matter make him smell worse than ever. He and his friends are already beginning to falter in their course for fear that I will turn the tables on them which I can do with ease.

Keywords: Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Kansas Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lincoln administration; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; United States. Senate; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Hugh [Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 17, 1861
To his brother Hugh Ewing, who was apparently visiting family in Lancaster, Ohio, Thomas Ewing wrote concerning his upcoming trip to New York and Washington. His major focus was the prospect of Charles Robinson being appointed Commissioner of Indian affairs in the new administration, and his (Ewing's) likely selection to the U.S. Senate if Robinson captured that position.

Keywords: Civil war; Ewing, Hugh; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lancaster, Ohio; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; New York, New York; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Presidential appointments; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; United States. Congress. Senate; Washington, D.C.


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: January 19, 1861
Charles Robinson wrote his wife Sara again on January 19, 1861, from Lawrence, confident that things still looked good from him in Washington. Robinson mentioned numerous men of political influence who he believed would be supportive and thus insure his appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

Keywords: Eldridge House; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lincoln administration; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Father [Thomas Ewing, Sr.]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 20, 1861
As with the January 17 letter to his brother, Ewing, Jr., stressed the significance of Robinson's appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs in this letter to his father in Lancaster, Ohio. Ewing expressed high regard for Robinson's abilities and believed he had wide support, from virtually every "republican of note in Kansas save Jim: Lane."

Keywords: Civil war; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lancaster, Ohio; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; New York, New York; Ohio; Presidential appointments; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; United States. Congress. Senate; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear [Joseph J.] Coombs
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 22, 1861
In January 1861 Ewing wrote several letters to members of Congress and others of influence in Washington on behalf of Charles Robinson's appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. This one, marked "Private," to J. J. Coombs is one example. Not only was Robinson well qualified for this important position, according to Ewing, but Robinson's appointment to this influential post would increase Ewing's chance to capture a Senate seat--"If he can get the appt before the State Legislature sits it will so greatly strengthen his influence that my election will be certain."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Coombs, Joseph J.; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Presidential appointments; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; United States. Congress. Senate; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Hon. John Sherman]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 22, 1861
To Congressman, soon to be U.S. senator, John Sherman of Ohio, Ewing wrote to encourage Sherman to support Charles Robinson's appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. "It is a matter of very great importance to the people of Kansas that a Comr should be apptd who would exert himself to have the numerous reserves in our borders reduced, and such of the Tribes removed southward as wish to get out of our way . . . ." Ewing also mentioned the pending bill for "the admission of Kansas."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Courts; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Native Americans; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pettit, John; Presidential appointments; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear General [James H. Lane]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 25, 1861
In this "Private" reply to his political rival, Ewing apparently responded to a request from Jim Lane for information about troops and munitions at Fort Leavenworth. Ewing provided some detailed information about this and about the local militia's readiness and strength. The troop strength at the fort was weak, but "Dragoons" from Fort Scott were expected soon: "If the Cavalry Companies come, all will be safe at the Fort. But we must have a force prepared to defend the City--& such preparation is our best guaranty for peace with our neighbors.

Keywords: Ammunition; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Firearms; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Military; Militia; United States. Army


Letter, Sol Miller to Gov. [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Miller, Solomon
Date: February 28, 1861
Written less than a month after Kansas became a state, Miller comments on the developing political situation as a carry over from the territorial period, reflecting, for example, on the conflict between the governor and James H. Lane and the selection of U.S. senators for Kansas. Miller had supported Robinson in the past and was now seeking appointment to a particular "Agency," but he refused "sell" his support to anyone for such a position.

Keywords: Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Solomon (Sol); Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Patronage, political; Political corruption; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Senate (see Unites States. Congress. Senate); Smith, Samuel C.; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Congress. Senate


Photograph, James H. Lane
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1861
This is a copy of an original photograph taken of Lane in New York City, 1861. James Lane was a leader of the free state cause, serving as an aid to emigrants. He was also the first United States senator for Kansas. Mrs. John Ingalls had an original of this photograph, and she loaned it to W. E. Connelley who had six copies made. Connelley presented one copy to the Kansas State Historical Society in 1912.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Lane Trail; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Photographs and Illustrations; United States. Senate


Lane Lithograph
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1861
Lithograph of James Henry Lane, probably done shortly after he became a United States Senator.

Keywords: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Objects; Photographs and Illustrations


Autobiography, Volume 2
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: Circa 1896
These sections of this volume of the autobiography were titled "Border War, Kansas Territory, 1856," and "Hickory Point." Sketches and watercolors by Reader accompanied portions of the text. The Border War section described events in which Reader participated as part of a free state militia. This section provided detail about militia activities as well as contact with John Brown and Aaron Stevens (Captain Whipple). The second section described the Battle of Hickory Point which occurred on September 13, 1856. The accounts in the autobiography were based on Reader's diaries.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hickory Point, Kansas Territory; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles)


Narrative, Account of the Life of Fredrick Brown
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: c. 1857
In this undated document, Samuel Adair related significant events in the life of Frederick Brown, one of John Brown's five sons. Frederick, alongside his father, participated in the Pottawatomie Massacre and other raids against proslavery supporters in Kansas Territory until his roadside murder by Martin White in August of 1856. This document also contains part of a letter to the Rev. S. S. Jocelyn recounting the winter's hardships.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state constitutions; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Violence; Violent deaths; Weather; White, Martin


Photograph, Gaius Jenkins
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Gaius Jenkins was born in New York state in 1812. He and his wife came to Kansas City, Missouri in 1853. He moved to Lawrence, Kansas Territory, in 1854 and was active in the free state cause, serving as a Colonel in the Free State Militia. He was taken prisoner along with John Brown, Jr.; Charles Robinson and several others and held near Lecompton. He was killed in Lawrence on June 3, 1858, by James Lane over a land dispute.

Keywords: Ambrotypes; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Prisoners


Experience of John E. Stewart
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856?
This undated document, presumably written by John E. Stewart, relates the author's experiences in Kansas Territory. The reminiscence begins with a description of how he entered the territory and the manner in which he constructed a house. Then, intermixed with accounts of his agricultural efforts and other day-to-day activities, there are brief mentions of the political situation in the territory. The main focus of the document then turns to when Stewart was a member of the Wakarusa Liberty Guard, including a description of the murder of Charles Dow, the murder of Hoyt, the Branson rescue, and other encounters with border ruffians.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Construction; Dow, Charles W.; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state militia; House furnishings; Houses; Hoyt, David Starr; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Skirmishing; Stewart, John E.; Titus, Henry Theodore


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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