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22 results for Kansas Nebraska Act:|
Authors: United States. Congress
Date: March 1, 1820
This legislation admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a non-slave state at the same time, so as not to upset the balance between slave and free states in the nation. It also outlawed slavery above the 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude line in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory. With the purchase of the Louisiana Territory and the application of Missouri for statehood, the long-standing balance between the number of slave states and the number of free states would be changed. Controversy arose within Congress over the issue of slavery. Congress adopted this legislation and admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a non-slave state at the same time, so that the balance between slave and free states in the nation would remain equal. The Missouri compromise also proposed that slavery be prohibited above the 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude line in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory. This provision held for 34 years, until it was repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The document featured here is the conference committee's report on the Missouri Compromise. Images, transcription, and document description courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration, Our Documents web site, http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=22.
Keywords: Kansas Nebraska Act; Missouri compromise; United States. Congress
Constitution and Bylaws
Authors: Union Emigration Society
Date: May 29, 1854
This document was the Constitution and bylaws of the Union Emigration Society. It included the purpose of the society and information about how to become a member of the organization.
Keywords: Antislavery; Emigrant aid companies; Goodrich, J. Z.; Kansas Nebraska Act; Union Emigration Society; Washington, D.C.
Authors: United States. Congress
Date: May 30, 1854
Officially titled "An Act to Organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas," this act repealed the Missouri Compromise, which had outlawed slavery above the 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude in the Louisiana Territory and reopened the national struggle over slavery in the western territories. In January 1854, Senator Stephen Douglas introduced a bill that divided the land west of Missouri into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. He argued for popular sovereignty, which would allow the settlers of the new territories to decide if slavery would be legal there. Antislavery supporters were outraged because, under the terms of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, slavery would have been outlawed in both territories. After months of debate, the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed on May 30, 1854. Images and document description courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration, Our Documents web site, http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=28. Transcription courtesy of the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/avalon.htm.
Keywords: Kansas Nebraska Act; Missouri compromise; Slavery; United States. Congress; Westward expansion
Kansas Territorial Seal
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 30, 1854
The Kansas territorial seal supposedly was engraved by Robert Lovett of Philadelphia from a design developed by Andrew H. Reeder, the first Territorial Governor of Kansas. Encircling the border of the two-inch brass die is the text, "SEAL OF THE TERRITORY OF KANSAS / ERECTED MAY 30, 1854." The face features a pioneer holding a rifle and hatchet opposite Ceres (the goddess of agriculture) who stands next to a sheaf of grain. At their feet lie a tree and the axe that felled it. Between these two figures is a shield with a plow in the top compartment and a hunter stalking a buffalo below. Above the shield is a banner reading, "POPULI VOCE NATA." This Latin motto has been translated to read "Born by the voice of the people" or "Born of the popular will." The motto speaks directly to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, creating the territory and establishing popular sovereignty whereby voting residents would decide if Kansas became a slave or free state.
Keywords: Agricultural implements; Agriculture; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas Territory; Objects; Popular sovereignty; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Territorial government
Letter, J. Z. Goodrich to Dear Sir
Authors: Goodrich, J. Z.
Date: June 29, 1854
This printed letter, on letterhead from the House of Representatives in Washington, D. C., was written by John Zacheus Goodrich, a representative from Massachusetts. He informed the recipient that members of Congress and regular citizens of the city had formed the Union Emigration Society--these citizens opposed both the repeal of the Missouri Compromise and the opening of the territories to slavery. It included details about the Missouri Compromise, the designs of Slave Power, and stated that "our watchword is Constitutional Freedom everywhere within the jurisdiction of the United States."
Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Goodrich, J. Z.; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Missouri compromise; Nebraska Territory; Sectionalism (United States); Slave power; Slavery; United States. Congress. House
To the citizens of Missouri
Authors: Brown, John Carter, 1797-1874
Date: September 1855
This letter was written by the directors of New England Emigrant Aid Company responding to various charges made against them by the citizens of Missouri.
Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John Carter; Cabot, Samuel; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Slavery; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Williams, John M. S.
Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 26, 1855
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 26, 1855
On Friday, October 26, 1855, the convention conducted some routine business but also entertained a motion by Mark W. Delahay of Leavenworth: "Resolved--That this Convention, approve the principles of non intervention in the local affairs of Kansas, as enunciated by the 'Nebraska, Kansas Act,' and that this Convention recommend to the people of Kansas a strict observance of the principles laid down in said act." In other words, he opposed the creation of a provisional government to rival the federally recognized territorial government--see Delahay's speech on this subject, as reported in "Kansas Freeman," November 14, 1855. The resolution was tabled.
Keywords: Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Nebraska Act; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory
History of Kanzas, also, Information Regarding Routes, Laws, etc.
Authors: Walter, George
This history was written by George Walter, agent for the New York Kanzas League. The purpose of the League was to assist individuals and families to emigrate to Kansas and help provides reduced prices and other assistance. The office of the New York Kanzas League was located on the 3rd floor of No. 110 Broadway, New York City. Walter provided the information he thought emigrants to Kansas would need including descriptions of the situation in the territory, its climate, soil, rivers, and native products. He also gave information about industry in Kansas Territory, particularly the milling industry. He provided information on routes and supplies needed as well as a copy of the reemption law. The text of the Bill to organize the territories of Kansas and Nebraska was included on pages 24 through 48 of the pamphlet.
Keywords: Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Free state cause; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Nebraska Act; Land acquisition; Landscape; New York; Preemption law United States; Settlement
Pamphlet, Miscellaneous State Legislative Resolutions
Authors: No authors specified.
Includes Resolutions from various State Legislatures concerning the extension of slavery into Kansas Territory, disturbances in Kansas Territory, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the admission of Kansas into the Union as a state.
Keywords: Iowa; Kansas Nebraska Act; Legal documents; Maine; Massachusetts; National politics; New Hampshire; Ohio; Rhode Island; Slavery; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Texas; Violence
Letter, J. R. Giddings to My Dear Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed) , 1795-1864
Date: March 17, 1856
Congressman Joshua R. Giddings an abolitionist Republican from Ohio and good friend of the Brown family there, wrote from the U.S. "Hall of Reps" regarding his desire to provide support for Brown and his cause in Kansas and of his belief that the federal troops there would not be used "to shoot the Citizens of Kansas." Although he indicated a need for more "men and arms" in the territory to insure victory, Giddings was "confident there will be no war in Kansas."
Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Free state support; Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed), 1795-1864; Kansas Nebraska Act; Pierce administration; United States. Army; United States. Congress. House
Resolutions, State of Maine
Authors: Maine. House of Representatives; Maine. Senate
Date: April 23, 1856
The full title of this document was "State of Maine Resolves relating to the extension of slavery, the territory of Kansas, and secret political associations." The state legislature of Maine issued this statement listing their five resolutions about the state of affairs in Kansas Territory. The state legislature was against the expansion of slavery and they wanted the fate of Kansas Territory to be decided by the people living in the territory, without outside interference from hostile political organizations. The document was signed by Josiah S. Little of Maine's House of Representatives, Lot. M. Morrill of the Senate, and Samuel Wells of the Secretary's Office. Caleb Ayer certified that this copy of the original document was fully accurate.
Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Maine; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas)
Newspaper article, Journal of Commerce
Authors: Journal of Commerce
Date: September 22, 1856
This clipping, enclosed in a letter from A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt dated September 22, 1856, argued that the emigration sponsored by New England emigrant aid societies was "indiscreet," although not illegal. The article placed the blame for the current troubles on the free-state settlers in Kansas, stating that Missouri settlers were only responding to the provocation of anti-slavery supporters.
Keywords: Bills, legislative; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state cause; Immigrants; Kansas Nebraska Act; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Missouri; Missouri compromise; Pierce administration; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery; Topeka Constitution; United States Government; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution
Speech, The Progress of Tyranny
Authors: Martin, John A., 1839-1889
Date: December 10, 1856
This "essay," presumably by John Alexander Martin, was "Read before the 'Franklin Literary Institute,' of Brownsville [Pennsylvania], Dec. 10th 1856," about a year before Martin moved to Kansas Territory. It was an interesting statement of the young journalist's emerging philosophy on many of the troubling questions of the day, including a discussion of their historical context. According to the "essayist," America's early opponents of "tyrany," both Northern and Southern, "looked forward to the day when it [slavery] would be abolished," and he pointed to the Constitutions and the Ordinance of 1787 as proof "that the founders of the Republic, in all their acts, strove to circumscribe the limits of slavery, and extend the area of Freedom." Subsequent generations of Americans placed greater emphasis on the economic value of slave production and the current generation was aggressively advocating its expansion and taking whatever action was necessary to insure the institution's survival and continue "the march of tyrany."
Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Crime Against Kansas; Election, Presidential, 1856; Fugitive Slave Law; Kansas Nebraska Act; Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Missouri compromise; Ordinance of 1787 (see United States. Ordinance of 1787); Slave power; Slavery; Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; United States. Ordinance of 1787
Speech of Senator Douglas, of Illinois, on the President's Message
Authors: Douglas, Stephen
Date: December 9, 1857
Senator Stephen Douglas delivered this speech in the United States Senate, responding to President Buchanan's decision to let Congress determine whether or not to admit Kansas into the Union. Douglas approved of the decision, as he believed it was not an Executive matter. Douglas reiterated the point that the members of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention were appointed to frame a sample government, subject to the approval of the Territory's citizens, not to make a government themselves. Although he disapproved of the means used to submit the Lecompton Constitution to Congress, Douglas judged that the free state government in Topeka was an unlawful legislative body.
Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election fraud; Free state legislature; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Missouri compromise; Popular sovereignty; Slavery; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869
Letter, [S. F.] Burdick to Dear Brother, Oscar [Learnard]
Authors: Burdick, S.F.
Date: January 6, 1858
S. F. Burdick, referring to his friend, Oscar Learnard, as "brother", wrote to him from Learnard's home state of Vermont. Burdick asked Learnard if there was anything he might do "to advance the cause of liberty and justice", and told him that he had heard of troubles at Fort Scott, referring to an incident taking place on December 17, 1857, when free state men, who had been displaced from their claims in 1856, returned to take possession of them again. Firing was done on both sides, though no one was killed or arrested.
Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Burdick, S.F.; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Kansas Nebraska Act; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Missourians; National politics; Popular sovereignty
General Lane's answer to the President's message
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: February 13, 1858
Address by General Lane in response to the President's message about Lane and Kansas. Lane rebukes the President's message about him and Kansas. Described the many elections that Kansas had gone through and the intrusion of Missourians into Kansas to rig the elections.
Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Antislavery; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature)
Minority Report of Senator Douglas of Illinios on the Kansas-Lecompton Constitution
Authors: Douglas, Stephen
Date: February 18, 1858
Senator Stephen Douglas, as a member of the Committee on the Territories, presented this report, which analyzed the Lecompton and Topeka constitutional rivalry, for the consideration of the President. Douglas found that, under the Kansas-Nebraska Act, no government of Kansas, Territorial or otherwise, had the power to draft any constitution without the intital consent of Congress; the territories, though "self-governed" were not sovereign entities, and still were to defer to the direction of the federal government. He argued that even the recognized territorial government had no right to convene a constitutional convention without Congressional approval, and the vote the Lecompton Convention presented to the people offered no opportunity to fully reject the Lecompton Constitution, but only to accept or reject the slavery provision; a person could not vote against making Kansas a slave state unless he was also willing to vote for the Lecompton Constitution. Douglas, however, in his report likened this unauthorized act of Lecompton Constitutional Convention as much "revolution" and "treasonable pertinacity" as those actions of the free state government in Topeka; neither group held legitimate authority to draft or present their constitutions.
Keywords: Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Free state legislature; Illinois; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Popular sovereignty; Slavery; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869
Speech of Hon. James H. Hammond of South Carolina on the Admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution
Authors: Hammond, James H.
Date: March 4, 1858
Senator James Hammond offered this speech as a rebuttal to those recently presented by Senators in oppositon to his perspective, questioning their argument that the Lecompton Constitutional Convention was a tool of the Territorial Government to maintain the dominance of proslavery policy. Hammond maintained instead that the Convention was "an assembly of the people in their highest sovereign capacity" and thus acted with the will of the majority of Kansas citizens. He also indicated that the South did not feel threated by the possibility of Kansas becoming a free state, as their exports and businesses were well off even without the increased foreign slave trade that Kansas potentially could bring.
Keywords: Adams, Zu; Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Business enterprises; Hammond, James H.; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Popular sovereignty; South Carolina; Southerners; Speeches, addresses, etc.; Territorial government
Report of General H.J. Strickler, Commissioner for Auditing Claims for Kansas Territory
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: March 7, 1858
Hiram Strickler, Commissioner for Auditing Claims for Kansas Territory, penned this report from Lecompton, Kansas Territory, directing it to the current members of Congress. Strickler had served as the territorial Claims Auditor for nearly a year, considering and investigating Kansas citizens' claims of property and monetary loss due to "difficulties" in the Territory. Finding that the Territorial Government had no money appropriated to pay these claims, Strickler turned to the Federal Government, whose policies and legislation he blamed for instigating political conflict in the Territory. He attached a table listing the name of each claimant, the amount claimed, the amount proven lost, and the type of loss they reported.
Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Damage claims; Finance; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lawsuits; Missouri compromise; Popular sovereignty; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Speech of Hon. John Crittenden of Kentucky on the Admission of the State of Kansas
Authors: Crittenden, John
Date: March 17, 1858
John J. Crittenden, a Senator of Kentucky, delivered this speech, which addressed the debate over Kansas Territory's admission to the Union under the Lecompton Constitution, on the floor of the Senate. Crittenden, himself a Southerner, contended that there was enough evidence to indicate that the Constitution that had been submitted was not well supported by the citizens of Kansas Territory, and proposed an idea which would become known as the "Crittenden Amendment" which called for the ratification of the whole Lecompton Constitution by a popular vote in the Territory before Kansas could be admitted as a state under it.
Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Crittenden Amendment; Crittenden, John J. (John Jordan), 1787-1863; Election fraud; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lecompton Constitution; Popular sovereignty; Slavery
Photograph, Stephen A. Douglas
Authors: No authors specified.
Stephen A. Douglas introduced a bill which created the two territories of Kansas and Nebraska. The bill specifically repealed the Missouri compromise of 1820. The Kansas-Nebraska bill called for the use of "popular sovereignty" which allowed voters to decide for themselves whether or not slavery would be allowed in the territories.
Keywords: Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Kansas Nebraska Act; Popular sovereignty
Portrait, Stephen Douglas
Authors: Lussier, Louis
Portrait of Stephen Douglas by Louis Lussier. Douglas helped write the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which called for the repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Kansas and Nebraska were opened up for settlement but the people living there, not the national government, would determine whether these states would be free or slave. Douglas had been a member of Congress and a United States Senator from Illinois from 1847 until his death in 1861. He ran for President, unsuccessfully, against Abraham Lincoln in 1860.
Keywords: Art; Artist; Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Lussier, Louis; Objects; Popular sovereignty