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39 results for Geary, John White, 1819-1873:
Diary, Franklin L. Crane
Authors: Crane, Franklin L.
Date: February 23, 1855 - September 29, 1856
The entries pertaining to Kansas Territory began on page 18, with Franklin Crane leaving his home in Easton, Pennsylvania with his son, Franklin Jr. He described their journey to Kansas and their initial impressions and travels while in the territory. In June 1855, he returned to Easton to sell his property so he could then return to Kansas. The later entries began in September of 1856 and described tensions in Topeka with efforts to build a fort and rumors of armed Missourians in the area.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Davis County, Kansas Territory; Easton, Pennsylvania; Geary County, Kansas; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town shares; Travel; Updegraff, E.; Weather


Senate Executive Documents, 34th Congress, 3rd session, Report of the Secretary of War
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 23, 1856 - November 12, 1856
Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, submitted a number of documents in his report to the President that was submitted to the "Two Houses of Congress" on December 2, 1856. There were three sections of documents. Part 1 consisted of letters from the Secretary of War (Davis) and the Adjutant General ( S. Cooper) (pp. 27--35) to Colonel E.V. Sumner, General P. F. Smith, the governors of Kentucky and Illinois, and Major Emery, in relation to a militia force to be employed to aid the legitimate Territorial Government in Kansas Territory. Part 2 (pp.35--61) contained various reports from Colonel E. V. Sumner, commaning officer of the 1st Cavalry at Fort Leavenworth about events in Kansas. The reports include correspondence from Wilson Shannon, territorial governor, and various officers of the 1st Cavalry from Lecompton, Tecumseh, and other locations in the territory. Part 3 (pp. 62-146) was headed "Reports for the Department of the West" and included correspondence from various military officers about the activities of United States troops at various locations in Kansas Territory. This section contained several letters from Daniel Woodson and John Geary, territorial officials. A few non-Kansas items relating to dealings with Native Americans were interspersed among the Kansas Territory correspondence.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Cooke, Philip St. George; Davis, Jefferson; Deas, George; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Military; Sackett, Delos B.; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, N. McCracken to Judge [John A.] Halderman
Authors: McCracken, Nelson
Date: September 4, 1856
Writing from the "Missouri River" on September 4, 1856, Nelson McCracken, reportedly one of Leavenworth's leading free-state businessmen, asked J. A. Halderman if it would be safe for him "to Return to Leavenworth to do Business or Settle my unfinished Business." McCracken and several others had recently been forced to leave the city for St. Louis by proslave partisans there, and they petitioned Governor John W. Geary for assistance in reclaiming their property and lawful place in the community.

Keywords: Business; Businessmen; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; McCracken, Nelson; Missouri River; St. Louis, Missouri


Letter, Your Affectionate Son & brother [John Brown, Jr.?] to Dear Father [John Brown] & Brother
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: September 8, 1856
Still in the custody of territorial officials, John Brown, Jr., wrote to express his remorse upon learning of the death of his brother Frederick--at least he was relieved to learn that his father and Jason were safe, as early reports had them dead or missing. "Poor Frederick has perished in a good cause!" wrote John, Jr., "the success of which cause I trust will yet bring joy to millions." He then wrote of his forthcoming trial and possible plan to "escape in case it should appear best."

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Wealthy; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Sickness (see Illness); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Pamphlet, "A Ride Through Kanzas"
Authors: Higginson, Thomas Wentworth
Date: 1856
These "letters", function as diary entries and were published collectively under the above title, written by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, an ardent Northern abolitionist and agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee. Higginson describes his travels through Kansas in the aftermath of the Battle of Hickory Point and includes accounts of the experience of free state prisoners held in Lecompton, as well as those of various citizens of the territory, free state and proslavery alike. He concludes his entries with an assessment of the future in Kanzas, stating that "the more thorough an Abolitionist any man is, the more correct are his prophecies as to American affairs".

Keywords: American Anti-Slavery Society; Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Law and Order Party; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Prisoners; Travel


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 13, 1856
Charles Robinson wrote to John Brown from Lawrence on September 13, 1856, a short note encouraging Brown to give Governor Geary, who "talks of letting the past be forgotten," a chance and to come to town to "see us." A note from John Brown, Jr., on the bottom of the page, however, advised caution, as he had "no doubt an attempt will be made to arrest you as well as Lane."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 19, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote to his brother, Edwin Parrott, from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Marcus described to his brother the situation in the area stemming from the Battle of Hickory Point, which occurred six days earlier. He said that the free state men involved in the battle were arrested and held in prison in Lecompton without examination, while the proslavery men met no consequence. Marcus mentioned other incidents that led him to believe crimes and schemes were taking place against free state supporters. He also brought up money and land investments again, requesting money.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Real estate investment; Town development


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 20, 1856
From Lawrence Charles Robinson writes to update his wife on developments in and around Lawrence since her departure. Governor John W. Geary had arrived and promised to see that the Missouri militia then threatening Lawrence "were disbanded." Robinson goes on to describe a very tense few days in September, beginning on Friday the 12th, involving militia of both sides and the governor. After a brief skirmish on the prairie east of Lawrence, Geary and some U.S. troops arrived and "the Missourians agreed to go home. It was all a farce. . . ."

Keywords: Buffum, David C.; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stubbs militia company; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; Westport, Missouri


Proclamation
Authors: Murphey, William E.
Date: September 29, 1856
This proclamation was written by the mayor of Leavenworth, William E. Murphy, announcing that he would use the forces of the law against any person who sent an anonymous communication requesting that a citizen of Leavenworth leave the territory. Murphy encouraged the citizens of the city to "frown down any secret Conspiracy against law." It also mentioned that such action was contrary to the interests of both the government and the Law and Order Party.

Keywords: Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Law and Order Party; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Murphey, William E


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 29, 1856
Again from Lawrence, Charles Robinson wrote to his wife was traveling east via Chicago. After kidding her about how well-known she was becoming, he commented unfavorably on Governor John W. Geary, who "thinks he is awful smart & is getting rediculous fast." Robinson also mentioned the forthcoming legislative election (October 6, 1856)--"We shall not vote."

Keywords: Elections; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara Tappan Doolittle (see Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911)


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 29, 1856
Marcus Parrot wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, regarding the aftermath of the Battle of Hickory Point, which had occurred on September 13. Marcus told him that border ruffians had seized his personal letters, home, and furniture, and were questioning him about a phrase Edwin had written to him in a letter, which suggested the assassination of Judge Lecompte. Marcus stated that Governor Geary had done more damage to the Free State cause than all of his predecessors together, and feared that, if Fremont was defeated in the upcoming Presidential election, their cause would be completely lost.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brindle, William; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free soil; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879


Letter, George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et al
Authors: Hunt, George W.; Stearns, C.
Date: September 29, 1856
On behalf of a committee of Lawrence citizens, Hunt and Stearns wrote the State Central Committee of Kansas "to urge upon your attention several important points in reference to the present condition of Kansas." They were convinced that a "storm" from Missouri was about "to burst upon the devoted heads of the freemen of Kansas" and "perhaps to deluge Kansas with rivers of blood." The committee urged the state and national organization to help them prepare for the storm, while things were relatively calm, with an adequate supply of arms and ammunition and men. But, with a veiled reference, perhaps, to John Brown, they called only for "moral heroes" who would not follow the "principles of Border Ruffianism."

Keywords: Ammunition; Beecher Bibles; Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; State Central Committee of Kansas; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 30, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father, Thomas Parrott. In this letter, Marcus told his father about the events that had befallen him, his letters and possessions being seized by border ruffians. He added that a letter from his brother, Edwin, in which Edwin suggested the assassination of Judge Lecompte, was drawing attention to the two of them. Marcus describes Lawrence as a dangerous place for free state supporters at this time, stating that Governor Geary "has failed to accomplish anything" in his consideration of the uprisings between free state and proslavery men.

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas


Letter, R. P. Bourn to Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Bourn, R. P.
Date: October 18, 1856
R. P. Bourn, writing from Nicholasville, Kentucky, addressed this letter to Franklin Crane of Topeka. Bourn discussed politics both in Kansas and at the national level, including the Presidential election of 1860. He made his anti slavery beliefs clear.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Slavery


Report of a trip to Kansas by W. F. M. Arny
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 20, 1856
William F. M. Arny was the general agent of the National Kansas Committee. He submitted this report describing the "wants and sufferings" of settlers in Kansas Territory. It included references to border ruffians, land sales, and the suffering in various districts of Kansas. He requested that aid be sent to the Kansas Central Committee.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blood, James; Border ruffians; Chicago, Illinois; Clothing and dress; Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Food; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Illness; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Martin, Samuel E. (Dr.); National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Letter, W. F. M. Arny to Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 23, 1856
W. F. M. Arny, an agent of the National Kansas Committee, wrote this letter to Thaddeus Hyatt while traveling on the Missouri River. The main focus of this letter revolved around committee business and the state of affairs in Kansas. During this visit to Kansas, Arny had reorganized the Kansas Central Committee in order to increase its efficiency, and he included in this letter a revised list of its officers and members. He also wrote about his conversation with Governor Geary concerning the various volunteer companies created by free state men. The letter ends with a brief description of the suffering of the settlers, their meager diet, and their desperate need for more provisions.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Chicago, Illinois; Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Election, Presidential, 1856; Firearms; Food; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Illness; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Money; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Relief funds; Sickness (see Illness); Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Dunn to Mr. T. W. Higginson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 23, 1856
In this letter to Thomas W. Higginson, an agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, Mr. Dunn wrote from Oskaloosa, Iowa, regarding the current troubles in Kansas Territory. He was attempting to gather together a company as a response to Gov. Gary's [sic] election and the U. S. Army's efforts to arrest many prominent free state men. According to the author, "the U. S. troops by the order of Gary are taking every free State man they can get hold of." He was eager to hear advice from Higginson about the best way to proceed, and he laid out his plan to amass about 60 men to fight against the border ruffians who had invaded the territory. He hoped that Higginson would support him in this matter by obtaining provisions. Dunn maintained that this plan came from his sense of duty; it did not arise from a warlike spirit.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; United States. Army


Letter, W.F.M. Arny to Wm. Barnes
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 25, 1856
Arny, general agent of the National Kansas Committee, wrote from a steamboat traveling on the Missouri River to inform William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, about conditions in Kansas. Arny reported on the state of the Kansas State Central Committee, the efforts by free state supporters in Kansas to prepare for possible proslavery attacks if Buchanan won the 1856 presidential election, and the relief needs of free state settlers in Kansas.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Border ruffians; Food; Free state support; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kansas State Central Committee; National Kansas Committee; New York State Kansas Committee; Relief


Letter, R. J. Hinton to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Authors: Hinton, R. J.
Date: November 6, 1856
This letter from R. J. Hinton was written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory and was addressed to Rev. Higginson, a radical abolitionist and agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee. The letter is filled with information about the struggle for Kansas. Hinton mentioned the trials of the free state prisoners at Lecompton and Governor Geary's order to arrest other free state figures. Colonel Titus was also threatening to help the U. S. troops arrest free state men. Apparently a Captain Homes [sic] from New York had become so frustrated that he had collected several followers and was determined to administer his own brand of justice. Hinton did not completely approve of such action, claiming that while it was understandable, it was "not generally beneficial to our cause." Hinton had experienced some personal troubles as well, when some thieves who claimed to be free state men carried off the belongings of his company, settled at Lexington. The letter concluded with updates about the various men in his company.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dunning, John; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Lexington Township, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Proslavery activities; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; White, Martin


Complaint about seizure of Briscoe Davis's house and family in Linn County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November 18, 1856
According to an explanation written by Edward Hoogland on the outside of the document, Briscoe Davis' sister (unnamed) wrote this complaint describing the October 24, 1856 looting of Mr. Davis' house in Linn County by free state supporters led by a Captain Holmes (likely James R. Holmes, a Free State Militia captain). The seizure of Davis' home took place shortly after Governor John Geary's October 1856 visit to southeastern Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Davis, Briscoe; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Holmes, James H.; Hoogland, Edward; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery perspective; Violence


Letter, Samuel C. Smith to Dear Friend [Rev. T. W. Higginson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: November 26, 1856
This letter, written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory by Samuel Smith, was addressed to Rev. T. W. Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts. The letter began with several small matters regarding aid for Kansas, and then turned quickly to the most recent events in the struggle between proslavery and free state forces. Apparently, thirty two of the free state prisoners held by U. S. troops at Tecumseh had managed to escape, and Smith rather sarcastically commented that the troops had done a favor to "Uncle Sam" by relieving the government of the cost of supporting all those prisoners. The author also spoke of [Thaddeus] Hyatt's presence in the territory, and of George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom. He also informed Higginson that Col. Eldridge and Thomas Eldridge have had complaints filed against them, stating that "nature never designed them for distributions of charity." The letter concludes with information regarding land sales in Leavenworth, and the founding of a new city, Quindaro. In general, Smith's writing style is quite humorous, as well as informative.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Donalson, Israel B.; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Eldridge, Thomas B.; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Relief; Smith, Samuel C.; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Town development; United States. Army; Worcester, Massachusetts


Letter, G. S. Lewis to Bro. [Samuel] Adair
Authors: Lewis, G. S.
Date: December 12, 1856
Mr. Lewis was a friend of Samuel Adair and wrote to him from Albany, Athens Co., Ohio. Mr. Lewis was concerned about the safety of the Adair family and commented on the trials they must be suffering. He commented on the bravery of Charley, the Adair's son who helped warn Osawatomie of the coming of proslavery forces prior to the Battle of Osawatomie. Mr. Lewis commented on John Brown, Gov. Geary, John Freemont, and the political situation in Kansas and nationally. He also reported on rumors of slave insurrections in Kentucky and Tennessee.

Keywords: Adair, Charles; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Albany, Ohio; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lewis, G. S.; Ohio; Osawatomie, Battle of; Proslavery activities; Slave insurrections


Experiences of R. S. Griffithe, N. W. Spicer, and J. A. Harvey
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 6, 1856
These testimonies, collected by the National Kansas Committee, record the experiences of these three settlers during the turbulent times of Bleeding Kansas. These testimonies focus on each settler's involvement in free state activities and their interaction with border ruffians. Griffithe and Spicer both served in the free state militia, and Harvey, who had commanded an emigrant train from Chicago, was the commander of a free state company.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Griffithe, R. S.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Spicer, N.W.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Topeka, Kansas; Violence


Letter, W. F. M. Arny to Governor [John White] Geary
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: December 8, 1856
This broadside of a letter by W. F. M. Arny was written to Governor Geary about the need for education in Kansas. Arny, an agent with the National Kansas Committee, proposed the creation of three funds: a university fund, a seminary fund, and a common school fund. Within the university structure, he proposed a normal school, an agricultural and horticultural school, and a mechanical school. He thought that it would be best to ask Congress for land for schools.

Keywords: Agriculture; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Congress (See United States. Congress); Education; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; National Kansas Committee; Schools; Teachers; Teaching; Universities and colleges


Invitation, Mrs. Charles Robinson to the Citizens' Ball
Authors: McAllister, Richard
Date: January 15, 1857
This invitation was sent to Sara Robinson by Richard McAllister, Deputy Secretary to Governor Geary, enclosing it with a letter sent to her on January 9th. Governors Geary and Shannon were to be in attendance at the ball in Lecompton City, along with several other distinguished guests who supported the Territorial Legislature (considered "bogus" by free state supporters).

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; McAllister, Richard; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stevens, Robert S.; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, O. [Owen] C. Brown to My dear Brother [Samuel Adair]
Authors: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904
Date: January 21, 1857
O. C. Brown wrote from Utica, New York, to Samuel Adair, in Osawatomie, KansasTerritory. He wrote about speaking engagements on behalf of Kansas. He mentioned Gov. Geary and President Pierce.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904; Free state support; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); National politics; New York; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Relief; Utica, New York


Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to H. M. Simpson, Esq.
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 31, 1857
Hiram Hill drafted a letter from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to H. M. Simpson, brother of Samuel N. Simpson, in Kansas Territory. Hill responded to H. M.'s favorable impressions of property investments in K.T., and hoped that his anticipations would come to pass. Hill planned to travel to the Territory as soon as his affairs were in order, and inquired about further investment prospects and the going wage for construction tradesmen. He spoke favorably of Governor Gerry (sic, Geary), but feared that the "bogus legislature" would impede his ability to govern.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment; Simpson, H.M; Town development


Letter, Henry Campbell to Friend Colmore [George Collamore]
Authors: Campbell, Henry
Date: February 4, 1857
Henry Campbell wrote to his friend George Collamore, a future mayor of Lawrence, regarding recent trends in real estate sales. Campbell expressed disapproval of the "Bogus Legislature" and referred to a recent shooting in Tecumseh where Judge Rush Elmore, an associate justice of the Territorial Supreme Court, a leading delegate at the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, and a slave holder, was seriously wounded. Campbell also mentioned the upcoming sale of Wyandotte.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Campbell, Henry; Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town development; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. Henry Muzzy to Dear Sir [Eli Thayer]
Authors: Muzzy, J. Henry
Date: March 3, 1857
J. Henry Muzzy wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts. Muzzy informed Thayer that free state supporters in Kansas were not, as Thayer had predicted, discouraged by James Buchanan's election as president in November 1856. He observed that the territory had been quiet during the winter of 1856-1857, but warned that the "ruffians" likely would engage in efforts during the spring of 1857 to discourage eastern emigration to Kansas. Muzzy also commented on the dilemma that free staters faced in deciding whether to pay the taxes levied by the proslavery "bogus legislature." He and his fellow free state supporters were not inclined to pay taxes imposed by a "foreign power," but they also realized that if Governor Geary called in U.S. troops to enforce the law they would have no choice but to pay. Muzzy concluded by stating that he was thankful for the end of the "reign of Frank Pierce," contending that "any change at Washington can hardly be for the worse."

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Muzzy, J. Henry; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Relief; Taxation; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: March 18, 1857
Hiram Hill, en route to Kansas Territory, wrote from Jefferson City, Missouri, to his brother back east. Hill reported that the journey so far had been pleasant, though they had been delayed by a train wreck and were currently waiting for a boat to take them up the River. He mentioned his experiences with border ruffians, finding that they were "civil" unless they "get too much whiskey down". Hill lamented the resignation of Kansas Territory's Governor Geary, but related that he saw the new marshal, who was on his way to K.T., in St. Louis.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hill, Hiram; Jefferson City, Missouri; Newspapers; Railroads; Transportation; Travel


Letter, James H. Greene to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Greene, James H.
Date: March 24, 1857
James Greene, who had spent two years in Kansas himself, wrote from his Jefferson (hometown of Senator Benjamin F. Wade), Ashtabula Co., Ohio, newspaper office (Ashtabula Sentinel) to inform his friend that he would be publishing Brown's circular "soliciting aid for Kansas" and to ask what Brown's future plans were. The news from the territory was not good, according to Greene, and he wondered if there would be war or peace. Greene was still hopeful that the "free state men will eventually triumph," but most of his neighbors believed Kansas "will be a Slave State."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed), 1795-1864; Greene, James H.; Herald of Freedom; Press; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Wade, Benjamin Franklin


Letter, S .F. Burdick to Dear Brother [Oscar E. Learnard]
Authors: Burdick, S.F.
Date: April 12, 1857
S. F. Burdick, in this transcribed version of his letter to Oscar Learnard, wrote from Winooski, Vermont. Burdick communicated his feelings regarding recent political events in Kansas Territory, condemning President Buchanan's replacement of Governor Geary with the "Southern appointment" Robert Walker. He also advised Learnard to either "submit to slavery or fight", and saw no other alternative solution to the problem, though later he cautioned to only fight if first attacked. Burdick added that he wished to come to Kansas Territory, in spite of the troubles, but was held back by his wife's wishes.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Burdick, S.F.; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; National politics; Vermont; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Page from Harper's Weekly, "Famous Places in Kansas"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: June 6, 1857
This page, taken from an issue of Harper's Weekly, features engraving illustrations of the Governor's Mansion in Lecompton, Kansas Territory, and James Lane's fort on Mount Oread, near Lawrence, Kansas Territory. A caption explains the history of each structure and the personalities who frequent them.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Mount Oread; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Broadside, Cowardly assassination: Lecompton Union Extra!
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
This broadside, a special report of the Weekly Lecompton Union newspaper, recounted the assassination of William T. Sherrard, which had occurred earlier that same day. Sherrard had been appointed Sheriff of Douglas County by the County Board of Commissoners after the resignation of Samuel J. Jones. Sherrard's appointment was not supported by Governor Geary, who allegedly made slanderous remarks on Sherrard's character. The broadside report supposed, since Sherrard was decidely a proslavery man, that free state Legislators, among other freestateman, had plotted against him on behalf of Geary, which lead to Sherrard's death at the hand of J.A.W. Jones.

Keywords: Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, J.A.W.; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; McAllister, Richard; Newspapers; Proslavery support; Sherrard, William T.; Violent deaths; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to Dear Governor [James Denver]
Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight
Date: October 28, 1858
Hugh S. Walsh, Acting Governor of Kansas Territory, wrote to former Governor James Denver regarding recent political events. The first part relates incidents arising from the mishandling of prisoners by Marshals Robbins and Walker, who had arrested and imprisoned them, leaving them "without a bailiff or any charge whatever." The second part discusses political strategies for appeasing some free state party members in order to win their support. Among those, Walsh proposes that a Kentuckian man become the next governor and that during the Democratic Convention of November 25 they adopt the Cincinnati Platform, which would uphold popular sovereignty in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Cincinnati Platform; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Davis, Alson C.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Elmore, Rush; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sykes, T.B.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Walsh, Hugh Sleight


Report of Edward Hoogland, H.J. Adams and S.A. Kingman, Commissioners of Claims
Authors: Adams, Henry J.; Hoogland, Edward ; Kingman, Samuel A.
Date: July 11, 1859
Hoogland, Adams, and Kingman, Commissioners of Claims appointed by resolution of Governor Medary, continued investigating property and monetary losses suffered by the citizens of Kansas Territory after H.J. Strickler vacated the post. The new Claims Commissioners also believed that the responsibility for paying these loss claims rested with the General (Federal) Government. They reassessed the claims reported by Strickler, obtaining more information about the claimants and their losses, which included each claimant's political affiliation (free state or proslavery), their specific damages (house, horses, crops, etc), and who caused the damage (on behalf of either the free state or proslavery cause); this information is summed up in a supplemental table. The Claims Commissioners believed that the total value of losses occurring between November 1, 1855, and December 1, 1856, approximated at least $2,000,000; they also concluded that during skirmishes free state men had caused $94,500 in property damage, while proslavery men were believed to have caused nearly $319,000.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Border disputes and warfare; Damage claims; Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hoogland, Edward; Kingman, Samuel A.; McKay, William; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Newspapers; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Letter, Paul Shepherd to James Redpath
Authors: Shepherd, Paul
Date: January 3, 1860
From Dover, Michigan, Paul Shepherd--formerly of Kansas Territory--wrote Redpath to pass along "some useful information, in repect to John H. Kagi." Of most interest, perhaps is Shepherd's account of the "shoot out" at Tecumseh between Kagi and Judge Rush Elmore, who Kagi had accused of "being a prime mover in the murderous attack upon him" at Lecompton in mid-January 1857.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Border ruffians; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Moffett, Charles; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery perspective; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka boys; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Essay, Sketch of J. H. Kagi by E. R. Moffet
Authors: Moffet, E. R.
Date: March 4, 1860
Apparently written for Redpath and Hinton on March 4, 1860, this handwritten sketch of John H. Kagi is the reflection of long-time acquaintance E. R. Moffet, then of Davenport, Iowa. Moffet knew Kagi from the time the latter was two years old and became reacquainted with him in Kansas Territory. They spent time in "prison" together in October 1856, and in this somewhat odd manuscript, Moffet recreates some "Prison Scenesor Dialogue" and subsequently includes some correspondence from Kagi. Moffet recounts Kagi's second arrest, bail, and March 1857 altercation with Rush Elmore at Tecumseh.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery activities; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Tribune; Violence


Photograph, John W. Geary
Authors: Draper & Husted, photographers
Date: 
John Walker Geary served as the third Governor of Kansas Territory from September 9, 1856 to March 12, 1857.

Keywords: Card photographs; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Photographs and Illustrations


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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