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89 results for Free state supporters:
Eldridge Hotel, Floor plans (2 sheets)
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
These hand drawn floor plans for the Eldridge Hotel show the room layout and approximate size of the rooms on the first and second floors. The Eldridge Hotel was the site of numerous free state meetings and the target of attacks by proslavery forces.

Keywords: Eldridge House; Free state supporters; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, A. Oestreicher To Mr. Eli Thayer
Authors: Oestreicher, A.
Date: September 23, 1854
Oestreicher, writing from Cincinnati, Ohio, informed Thayer of the establishment of a Kansas Actual Settler's Association in that city. He indicated that the association, which was comprised primarily of German-Americans, planned to create a settlement in Kansas in the spring of 1855.

Keywords: Antislavery; Cincinnati, Ohio; Free state supporters; Germans; Kansas Actual Settler's Association; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Oestreicher, A.; Ohio; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Journey from Massachusetts to Kansas
Authors: Allen, Chestina Bowker
Date: October 17, 1854 - April 22, 1858
Chestina Bowker Allen traveled to Kansas Territory from Roxbury, Massachusetts, with her husband Asahel Gilbert Allen and five children--William, Charles, Henrietta, John, and Abbie. Apparently, they were members of the third company sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Company and began the journey to Kansas Territory in October, 1854. While the title indicated it recorded the journey to the territory, it actually documented their first three years in Kansas Territory. Mrs. Allen described their journey west with stops in Kansas City and Lawrence. They eventually settled near Rock Creek in Pottawatomie County. She wrote about many of her daily activities including assisting neighbors when ill. She mentioned a cholera epidemic in the area in 1855. She wrote about various rumors and encounters with free state supporters (which the Allen family was) and proslavery groups. She provided a great deal of information about living conditions and the price and availability of various goods. She wrote about her husband and older sons going to various communities to work and also about people that visited their home and those who boarded with them. She provided fairly stereotypical descriptions of Native Americans.The document appeared to be recopied from an original diary and included some penciled in corrections and a few annotations from a later time.

Keywords: Allen, Asahel Gilbert; Allen, Charles Bowker; Allen, Chestina Bowker; Allen, William Francis; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Diaries; Diseases; Economic conditions; Ferries; Free state supporters; Louisville, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Pottawatomie County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Rock Creek, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Steamboats


Photograph, Shalor Eldridge Family
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November, 1854
This portrait of Shalor Eldridge, his wife and their four daughters was taken in Westfield, Massachusetts in November 1854. Eldridge was involved with the New England Emigrant Aid Company and operated a company hotel in Lawrence, Kansas Territory which was a center for the free state movement.

Keywords: Businessmen; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographs and Illustrations


Freedom's Struggle in Kansas
Authors: Snodgrass, J. E.
Date: February 26, 1855
This printed circuletter is addressed "to the Friends of Freedom." In it, J. E. Snodgrass expressed his antislavery sentiments and claimed he knew about slavery first hand as he had been born in the South. He also promoted the activities of the New York Kansas League which he described as a "philanthrophic association" to aid emigration to Kansas. The document also discussed the American Settlement Company which was a "joint stock association" that promoted the settlement of free state supporters at Council City, Kansas Territory (later Burlingame). He closed with antislavery statements and offered to give free lectures on the topic. He was located in New York City at the time the document was printed.

Keywords: American Settlement Company; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Burlingame, Kansas Territory; Council City, Kansas Territory; Free state settlers; Free state support; Free state supporters; New York; New York League; Osage County, Kansas Territory; Snodgrass, J. E.; Town development


Letter, Thomas Webb to Samuel Pomeroy
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: March 6, 1855
Thomas Webb, Secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote a letter of introduction for Isaac Goodnow to Samuel Pomeroy, seeking protection for Goodnow and his traveling party when they would arrive in Kansas Territory. Webb justified the request to Pomeroy, proclaiming that "Mr. G is with us in heart and hand. . .and will battle manfully for Liberty."

Keywords: Free state supporters; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Kansas Free!! Gov. Reeder For Congress!!
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 8, 1855
This broadside invites the "Freeman on the Wakarusa" to attend a meeting to endorse the proceeding of the Big Spring Convention, which was organized by free state supporters as part of the actions leading up to the drafting of the Topeka Constitution. The meeting was to be held at Blanton on September 13, 1855. The document indicated that the "FREE STATE PLATFORM and the Proceedings of the CONVENTION" would be read and that the best "Orators of the Country" would be there.

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Wakarusa River


Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: September 17, 1855
Frederick Law Olmstead, a free state fundraiser and landscape architect who would later design New York City's Central Park, wrote from New York to James Abbott, reporting of his recent fundraising efforts. Within a week, he hoped to raise enough money to purchase "100 _____", believing it wise not to mention in writing that the objects purchased would be weapons to equip free state militias.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Militia; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: October 4, 1855
Frederick Law Olmstead, a New York free state fundraiser and landscape architect, wrote to James Abbott, informing him of his recent trouble securing contributions enough to purchase substantial weapons. Olmstead repeated to Abbott advice he had received from a veteran military officer, who suggested that "M's" [muskets] would serve the militia forces well enough for general use, with "S's" [Sharp's rifles] reserved for "special service". Thus, Olmstead concluded he would either send Abbott "M's" or an "H" [howitzer, a type of cannon].

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state supporters; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Robert Allyn to Bro. & Sis. Goodnow [Isaac and Ellen Goodnow]
Authors: Allyn, Robert
Date: October 11, 1855
Robert Allyn wrote from Providence, Rhode Island, to his friends Isaac and Ellen Goodnow in Kansas Territory. Allyn, like Goodnow an educator, updated the couple on the construction of a new local Academy. He also reacted to news he had heard of political conditions in K.T., having found that "the papers are full of dreadful things about you horrid abolitionists in Kanzas", and asking him, "How do you contrive to live under the Missouri laws?" Showing himself to be a staunch Abolitionist as well, Allyn provides his own strong opinions and insights regarding the Kansas troubles. Allyn also advised that "getting up a few. . .free schools" would prompt a great rush of emigration from the Northern States to the Territory

Keywords: Abolitionists; Allyn, Robert; Antislavery; Education; Free state supporters; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Missourians; National politics; Newspapers; Pierce administration


People's Proclamation
Authors: Emery, James Stanley; Foster, Charles A.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Roberts, William Y.; Robinson, Charles ; Smith, George W.; Sylvester, S. D.; Wakefield, J. A.
Date: 1855
This broadside represented the efforts of free state supporters to encourage residents to vote in the election for the delegate to represent Kansas Territory in Congress that was held October 9, 1855. It listed the polling places, the instructions to judges, and the qualifications for "lawful" voters. This document was probably related to a circular letter signed by Charles Robinson that encouraged free state supporters to see that elections were conducted according to the printed procedures for both the election for delegates to Congress and for delegates to the constitutional convention. The broadside indicated that it had been signed by nearly 1000 persons but space allowed for the printing of the following names only: C. K Holliday, J. A. Wakefield, C. Robinson, J. H. Lane, C. A. Foster, M. J. Parrott, S. D. Sylvester, W. Y. Roberts, G. W. Smith and J. S. Emery. This election was held under the auspices of the Topeka Movement.

Keywords: Elections; Emery, James Stanley; Foster, Charles A.; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Sylvester, S. D.; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Wakefield, John A.


John Brown Surveyor's Compass
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
While in Kansas John Brown was employed as a surveyor, an occupation which allowed him to move around freely to locate and observe proslavery camps. This compass was made by Phelps and Gurley of Troy, New York.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state supporters; New York; Objects; Phelps and Gurley; Surveyors


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every One
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: February 1, 1856
From Osawatomie, Brown wrote of the continued severe winter and "the fierce Winds of Kansas," as well as his desire to visit the family at North Elba, New York. But he also mentioned that they had "just learned of some new, & shocking outrages at Leavenworth; & that the Free State people there have fled to Lawrence." Although more conflict threatened, Brown expected little action until the weather improved.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Salmon; Free state supporters; Household activities; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; North Elba, New York; Proslavery activities; Weather


Speech, David R. Atchison to Pro-Slavery "Soldiers"
Authors: Atchison, David R.; Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: May 21, 1856
According to a note on the top of page one made later by R. J. Hinton, "this report was made for me [Hinton] by or under the direction of Lt. Gov. (Dr.) Root [Joseph Pomeroy Root, subsequently elected the state's first lieutenant governor under the Wyandotte Constitution], who was a prisoner, heard & reported the speech" made by David Atchison to the assembled proslave "Soldiers" camped two miles west of Lawrence before they marched on and sacked the town on May 21, 1856. The transcript is labeled "Hon. David R. Atchison's Speech . . ." and begins, "This is the most glorious day of my life! This day I am a border-ruffian!" Amidst "Yells" and "Cheers," Atchison rallied the "true sons of the noble South," encouraging them to "tear down their Free State Hotel" and "thow into the Kanzas their printing presses," and to bravely follow their "worthy . . . Leader, Col. [John H.] Stringfellow!"

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Beecher Bibles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free State Hotel; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers - Free State; Pierce administration; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Southerners; Stringfellow, John H.


Affidavits concerning William and Henry Sherman and Allen Wilkinson
Authors: Day, Mary ; Grant, John T.; Grant, William ; Morse, Francis
Date: June 12, 1856
Someone copied or took down statements from the people listed as authors concerning the personal habits of William and Henry Sherman and Allen Wilkinson. They were described as "intemperate" men. William Sherman and Allen Wilkinson were among those killed in the Pottawatomie massacre. The document is written in the same hand. All of the people making statements were free state supporters.

Keywords: Day, Mary; Doyle, James P.; Free state supporters; Grant, John T.; Grant, William; Massacres; Morse, Francis; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Sherman, Henry; Sherman, William; Wilkinson, Allen


Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to S. N. Simpson
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: July 12, 1856
Hiram Hill wrote from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to Samuel Simpson in Kansas Territory, suggesting to him at length that he write more slowly and clearly as Hill was having trouble deciphering his news regarding West Lawrence. Hill told Simpson that the people of his area were aroused enough by the continuing accounts of border ruffian violence that they called a meeting and raised $300 for Kansas. He believed that the future of the situation rested with the upcoming presidential election, "free Kansas free speech & free press & Fremont", to keep Congress from passing a "Compromises" bill with slavery.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Free state supporters; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Hill, Hiram; Kansas Territory; National politics; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Skirmishing


Letter, S. L. A. [Samuel Lyle Adair] to Bro. John Brown
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: July 16, 1856
From Osawatomie, Samuel Adair wrote his brother-in-law John Brown regarding monies Adair had received for the "free State men in Kansas" and specifies how these funds were distributed.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to S. G. How
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: July 26, 1856
Hiram Hill wrote from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to S. G. How, of the "Kansas Committee for Receiving and Dispersing" funds. Hill inquired how and in what manner any money sent to Kansas would be applied: "I have some money in my hand and we can rais [sic] more if we can have any prospect of its getting to Kansas and doing any good".

Keywords: Free state supporters; Hill, Hiram; Kansas Territory; Money; National politics


Fremont Campaign Ribbon
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 30, 1856
Kansas was a major issue in the 1856 presidential election. John C. Fremont was the candidate of the newly formed Republican Party, which wanted Kansas admitted as a free state. This silk ribbon is printed with an image of Fremont, and the text, "Let Freedom Conquer! . . . For President, John C. Fremont, of California. Vice President, Wm. L. Dayton of New Jersey. Young Men's Convention, Dayton, O. July 30th, 1856."

Keywords: Dayton, William Lewis; Election, Presidential, 1856; Elections; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Objects; Ohio; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Broadside, "Fremont & Dayton Meeting"
Authors: Buffalo City Town Association
Date: September 11, 1856
This broadside advertised a meeting of "the friends of Fremont and Dayton, and all opposed to the Cincinnati Platform and the extension of Slavery into Free Kansas". John C. Fremont was the newly-formed Republican party's candidate for the Presidency in 1856; William L. Lewis was his running mate. The pair favored admitting Kansas to the Union as a free state, but did not support the Cincinnati Platform, which would put the issue of slavery to a popular vote in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Cincinnati Platform; Dayton, William Lewis; Election, Presidential, 1856; Free state supporters; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, Chas. H. Branscomb to John Brown Esq.
Authors: Branscomb, Charles H.
Date: September 22, 1856
From Boston, Massachusetts, Charles Branscomb wrote Brown a brief note conveying "fifty or one hundred dolls as a testimonial" from those who admired Brown's "conduct during the war."

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Branscomb, Charles H.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. D. Webster to James Blood
Authors: Webster, J. D.
Date: October 10, 1856
From Chicago, headquarters of the National Kansas Committee, the committee's vice president wrote to authorize Blood to draw on the treasurer for $3,000 "to be expended under authority of the State Kansas Committee." The purpose was to offer "provisions" to needy free state settlers; this was to be the committee's focus, "rather than to aid emigrants to go there."

Keywords: Blood, James; Chicago, Illinois; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief funds; State Central Committee of Kansas


Circular, To the Friends of Free Kansas in the States
Authors: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: October 20, 1856
This handwritten "appeal" was sent out to all those who had or might be inclined to support the free state cause in Kansas, assuring them that the committee in Kansas had reached full accord with the National Kansas Committee and could be "relied upon" to distribute aid channeled through Chicago. "Our people are still in extreme want, and hundreds of families are entirely dependent upon your charities."

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Chicago, Illinois; Circulars; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Kansas Central Committee; Kansas State Central Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; State Central Committee of Kansas


Letter, T. W. Higginson to Dear Sir [William Hutchinson]
Authors: Higginson, Thomas Wentworth
Date: October 27, 1856
This letter and accompanying list of forthcoming relief supplies (shirts, dresses, over coats, etc.) were directed to William Hutchinson, "Treasurer Kanzas Committee," by Thomas Wentworth Higginson of Brattleboro, Vermont. Three boxes of clothing had been sent and Higginson reminded Hutchinson that it was "very important that in this case & in all cases, prompt acknowledgement should be made of the receipt of everything contributed to Kanzas." People needed to know that their contributions were getting through and that they were appreciated.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief


Letter, H. J. Williams to Florella Adair
Authors: Williams, H. (Mrs. John) J.
Date: October 29, 1856
Mrs. Williams was a member of one of Rev. Adair's churches in Lafayette, Ohio She wrote about her concern for the Adair family during all of the troubles in Kansas. She and her husband also sent some cheese and cloth to the Adairs. The letter had references to various family members. The letter showed the support women settlers received from friends in the East.

Keywords: Free state supporters; Friendship; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Williams, H. J. (Mrs. John); Women


Letter, H. B. Hurd to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Authors: Hurd, H. B.
Date: November 14, 1856
H. B. Hurd was secretary of the National Kansas Committee, and he wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson from the committee's office in Chicago. The main focus of the letter revolves around Higginson's plan of operation to garner support from free state governors. Hurd offered advice about which governors to approach first, also stating his opinion on various related matters. Included in the letter was another sheet, outlining Higginson's "Points to be suggested to the Executives of the States." The back of this sheet has some other notes and doodling.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hurd, H. B.; National Kansas Committee; National politics; United States Government


Poem, "Don't Go Back!"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 1, 1856
Attributed to John E. Cook on the front of the document but signed "L.H." in the attached clipping, this document purports to be the first draft of a poem entitled "Don't Go Back!", directed at Northerners who might be tempted to give up the Kansas struggle ("Kansas is worth saving.") after the tumultuous year of 1856 (newspaper clipping of poem, dated Boston, December 1, 1856, attached).

Keywords: Cook, John E.; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Free state supporters


Letter, S. Cabot, Jr. to James Blood, Esq
Authors: Cabot, Samuel
Date: December 28, 1856
Samuel Cabot, who was directing a Boston effort to send clothing to Kansas Territory, advised Blood he was aware of the goods that "had been stopped at St Louis by the closure of navigation." He also comments on the reluctance of some to accept relief; these individuals were to be advised that "This supply is not a mere charity but a contribution of the North to soldiers, who have been bravely battling for the case of freedom & in defense of our common rights, against the Slave Oligarchy." Also included is a printed letter titled "Clothing For Kanzas," listing New England contributions.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Kansas State Central Committee; Missouri River; Nute, Ephraim; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Slave power; St. Louis, Missouri


"God Save Kansas" Banner
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Banner used in New Hampshire during the 1856 presidential campaign, illustrating the national interest in Kansas territorial affairs. Fremont/Dayton banner was made of silk and used at Lancaster, N.H. Inscribed "God Save Kansas" and "From the ladies of Lancaster to Fremont Club No. 244."

Keywords: Dayton, William Lewis; Election, Presidential, 1856; Elections; Flags and banners; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; New Hampshire; Objects; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Photograph, William Frederick Milton Arny
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Circa 1856
W. F. M. Arny was active in numerous territorial Kansas activities, serving as an agent for the National Kansas Committee and as a delegate to the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. He was a member of the 1858 territorial legislature and the Topeka legislature. The identification on this photograph indicates that this is a disguise he used in Missouri in 1856.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Card photographs; Free state supporters; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; National Kansas Committee; Photographs and Illustrations


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Wyandotte County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This muster roll for Captain A. H. Macauley's company listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, Kansas residence, and a place for "remarks." The latter was used to record the type of weapon the individual was issued or brought with him: e.g., Sharps, Western rifle, Carbine. All the men appeared to be residents of Quindaro, Wyandotte County in their twenties or early thirties.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Macauley, A. H.; Militia; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns); Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Resolutions, National Kansas Committee
Authors: National Kansas Committee
Date: January 24, 1857
"At a meeting of the National Kansas Committee held at the Astor House in the City of New York," January 1, 1857, it was resolved that $5,000 should be committed to John Brown for "any defensive measures that may become necessary." The committee also authorized a set amount of "arms & supplies."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Guns; National Kansas Committee; New York, New York; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, [Mrs] H. J. Williams to Sister [Florella] Adair
Authors: Williams, H. (Mrs. John) J.
Date: January 27, 1857
Mrs. Williams expressed her sympathy for the conditions Mrs. Adair had to endure in Kansas. The letter eloquently described all of the suffering Mrs. Williams felt Mrs. Adair had experienced. The letter indicated that boxes of materials had been sent to Osawatomie but Mrs. Williams feared that they have not arrived. The letter gave news of the Williams family and others in Lafayette, Ohio.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Free state supporters; Friendship; Lafayette, Ohio; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Williams, H. J. (Mrs. John); Women


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: March 20, 1857
While John Brown was touring the East in March of 1857 he received this letter from Amos Lawrence, Boston, who informed Brown that he (Lawrence) had recently "sent to Kansas near $14,000 to establish a fund" for the support of common and secondary schools. As a result, Lawrence wrote he was short of cash and could not give Brown what he had requested. Nevertheless, "in case anything shd occur while you are engaged in a great & good to shorten yr life, you may be assured that yr wife and children shall be cared for more liberally than you now propose."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Education; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886


Letter, H. B. Hurd to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Hurd, H. B.
Date: April 4, 1857
From Chicago, National Kansas Committee secretary H. B. Hurd sent John Brown a copy of a resolution passed by the committee on April 1, 1857: first, in light of the fact that the public was no longer contributing to the cause, the committee could not continue its normal operations; and second, the secretary was to inform major donors that the committee would necessarily close "operations unless immediately sustained by liberal Contributions." Thus, Hurd could not send Brown the $500 dollars requested (apparently to cover the first payment to Charles Blair for the "spears").

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Hurd, H. B.; National Kansas Committee; Smith, Gerritt; Weapons (see also Guns)


Diary, G. W. Paddock
Authors: Paddock, G. W.
Date: April 12, 1857 - July 28, 1860
G. W. Paddock was a minister and free state supporter who came to Kansas Territory in 1857. He describes his daily activities and his religious work, as well as his impressions of the city of Wyandotte while the constitutional convention was meeting there. His entries for this time period indicate he visited the convention, although he does not discuss the substance of the proceedings. The 1857 portion describes some of the free state controversies. He also mentions working with American Indians; however, his descriptions are often stereotypical and uncomplimentary. A number of entries from this diary were selected, but the entire diary is not included.

Keywords: Daily life; Free state supporters; Paddock, G. W.; Religion; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. G. Dick to Brother Samuel Adair
Authors: Dick, Campbell Graham
Date: April 21, 1857
Dick was Adair's brother-in-law and wrote from his home in Marshall, Highland County, Ohio. He wrote that he supported the American Missionary Association as it promoted Christianity but he was pessimistic about the chances for Kansas entering the Union as a free state. He wrote that the Democratic party was controlled by the south. He asked Adair to inform him if free state men intended to vote in the elections called by the Bogus Legislature.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; American Missionary Association; Bogus legislature; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state supporters; Marshall, Ohio; Ohio


Letter, Joseph Bryant to Friend [John] Brown
Authors: Bryant, Joseph
Date: April 23, 1857
One of Brown's devoted "Christian friends," Joseph Bryant, New York, wrote to pledge his continued support, both financial and spiritual; although Bryant was "poor in purse," he could give some financial help and would solicit more from others.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Bryant, Joseph; Finance; Free state supporters; New York, New York; Religion; Religious communities


Letter, R. G. Elliot to Dear Sister
Authors: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: May 8, 1857
Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence along with Josiah Miller, wrote to his sister from Delaware, Kansas Territory. Elliott told her that last season the area had been the site of "ruffian outrages," but since this time it had evolved into a thriving area with a large population of free state men, whose presence raised property values. The town was not without its share of "bloated ruffians" or stray dogs, however. Elliott also mentioned that a couple of proslavery men had even subscribed to his newspaper, though he did not intend to change the "character" of the paper, which continued to favor the free state cause.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state supporters; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Letter, [E. B. Whitman?] to [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: May 10, 1857
E. B. Whitman (letter not signed, but author's identity is pretty clear), an agent in Lawrence for the National Kansas Committee, wrote Franklin Sanborn in Massachusetts regarding his disappointment with the lack of support being given by "our professed friends" in the East. To their discredit, according to Whitman, Massachusetts "supporters" had refused to provide assistance which was desperately needed for the Kansas settlers who had just endured a very "severe winter." He believed false information was being circulated for political purposes by individuals within the Free State movement: "Kansas, bleeding Kansas, is of value to them only so far as it subserves their selfish ends."

Keywords: Dred Scott decision; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Settlement; Vermont; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, F. B. Sanborn to My dear Friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Sanborn, Franklin
Date: August 28, 1857
Franklin B. Sanborn, an ardent supporter of John Brown, wrote this letter in Boston to one of his associates, Thomas W. Higginson. He spoke of John Brown, who was poised on the northern border of Kansas Territory, ready to bring supplies in to relieve the free state settlers. Brown had become discouraged about the free state cause "in consequence of persons not fulfilling his expectations." Sanborn wondered if Higginson or the Worcester Committee could do something to assist Brown, especially with his financial difficulties. If the committee did not have the funds, Sanborn suggested that Higginson should seek funds from his friends and associates. In closing, Sanborn offered his support for a disunion convention.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state supporters; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Worcester, Massachusetts


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: September 12, 1857
To George Stearns on September 12, 1857, Thomas Marsh wrote that he was leaving Lawrence on a trip to "the Southern part of Kansas" for several days. He believed the "Free State men were getting into good shape for the election," which would go well if there was no "invasion" or "fraud." He also talked about some Democratic activity and mentioned the adjournment of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Marsh, Thomas J.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Commission, James Montgomery, captain
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 16, 1857
This printed commission, issued from the "Head-Quarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot-Box," was given to James Montgomery and signed by J.H. Lane and M. F. Conway, adjutant general, on September 16, 1857. Montgomery was commissioned captain of the "Little Sugar Creek Company." This would have been specifically for the territorial election, October 5, 1857.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Letter, C. K. Holliday, et al, to Charles Robinson
Authors: Crane, Franklin L.; Dickey, Milton C.; Farnsworth, Loring ; Giles, Frye W.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 26, 1857
In this brief letter from Topeka, signed by C. K. Holiday, M. C. Dickey, F. L. Crane, Loring Farnsworth, and F. W. Giles, "Governor" Robinson was "respecfully and cordially" invited to participate in a "mass convention" at Topeka (December 28, 1857) convened "to deliberate upon the political questions of the day; and more especially upon the action of the late 'Lawrence Convention.'"

Keywords: Crane, Franklin Loomis; Dickey, Milton C.; Farnsworth, Loring; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Giles, Frye W.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka, Kansas


Letter, Walter Oakley, et al, to Charles Robinson
Authors: Oakley, Walter ; Ritchie, John , 1817-1887; Ross, William Wallace
Date: December 26, 1857
Walter Oakley, W. W. Ross, and John Richey wrote from Topeka to invited Robinson to attend and address the "Mass Meeting" to be held in their city on Monday, December 28, for the purpose of endorsing "the action of the Convention at Lawrence. These men and the community held Robinson in the highest "esteem" but they differed with him "upon the question of voting for state officers under the Lecompton Constitution."

Keywords: Free State Convention; Free State Party; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Oakley, Walter; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Ross, William Wallace, 1828-1889; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Aid for Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1857
This article declares that the New England Kansas Aid Committee has received generous contributions for the free state settlers in Kansas. It also mentions that since the immediate needs of the settlers have been cared for, the most urgent need now is for investments in land and labor.

Keywords: Free state supporters; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Relief; Relief funds


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Jefferson County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Jefferson County. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas and residence in Kansas. The remarks column noted if the company member had a weapon. The ages of company members range from 15 to 56. The captain was Simeon Hull.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballott Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from Delaware City. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. The ages of company members range from 18 to 54. The captain was A. Cutter.

Keywords: Cutter, A.; Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from the areas of Walnut Creek and Fall Creek. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. This muster roll also included information under remarks about whether or not the members had weapons. All of the members are from Leavenworth County and their ages range from 18 to 66. The captain was Horace L Dunlap. This muster roll lits two free state men who, according to Captain Dunlap, refused to enroll.

Keywords: Dunlap, Horace L.; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns)


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited from the city of Leavenworth. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. All of the members are from Leavenworth and their ages range from 22 to 38. The captain was William Kempf. With the exception of the 1st Lieutenant Joseph Mrosowsky who was born in Poland, all of the members of the company were born in Germany though they had lived various places before coming to Kansas.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Germans; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Kempf, William; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth City; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Report of the President of the Council and Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Kansas, on the result of the vote of December 21st for the Lecompton Constitution, and on the result of the election of Januray 4th under said Constitution.
Authors: Babcock, Carmi William; Deitzler, George W.; Denver, James William, 1817-1892
Date: January 14, 1858
This printed document reported the votes on the Lecompton Constitution from elections held on December 21, 1857, and January 4, 1858. It was prepared by G. W. Deitzler, Speaker of the House and C. W. Babcock, president of the Council of the territorial legislature. The vote showed a majority of 5,574 for the constitution with slavery but 3,012 of those votes came from areas the authors felt were sparsely settled and thus indicated fraudulent votes. The same charges of fraud applied to the election for state officials, though the free state candidates claimed a small majority in all races. The results of the vote on the Lecompton Constitution on January 4, 1858, showed a majority of 10,000 against the Lecompton Constitution as presented in a proclamation from J. W. Denver, Secretary and Acting Governor.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Deitzler, George W.; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Elections; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Lecompton Constitution; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters


Letter, [C. Robinson] to "My Dear Sir" [Henry Wilson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: May 12, 1858
This important document is reportedly a copy of a letter from Charles Robinson, Lawrence, May 12, 1858, to Massachusetts Senator Henry Wilson in which the Kansas governor expresses confidence that the Lecompton Constitution will be overwhelmingly defeated in the upcoming election and makes numerous observations about the state of politics--present and future--in Kansas. Robinson believed that half the Democrats would oppose the Lecompton instrument because they knew that freestaters would dominate any state government that would be admitted under it and subsequently "the Constitution would be changed in the 'twinkling of an eye.'" Thus, he predicted no Kansas admission until at least December 1859, and in the meantime expected Democrats to "take the lead in aiding in developing the resources of Kansas, & [the Democratic Party] will claim to be the special friends of our infant State."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, August 1858; Election, Lecompton Constitution, August 1857; English Bill; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state supporters; Journals; Lecompton Constitution; Partisan press; Press and politics; Press and propaganda; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875


Letter, Richard Realf to Gentlemen [Geo. L. Stearns, Franklin B. Sanborn, et al.]
Authors: Realf, Richard , 1834-1878
Date: May 29, 1858
Richard Realf, a native of England and John Brown lieutenant, wrote to Stearns, et al, after the "temporary postponement of a certain enterprise," to solicit their financial backing of a fund raising trip to England that Realf proposed to undertake during the months before operations resume. He was confident that $2,000 could be raised without revealing any details of future plans.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Canada; England; Finance; Free state supporters; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Newspapers - Free State; Nute, Ephraim; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Realf, Richard , 1834-1878; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Wattles, Augustus; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Dear Sir [Isaac Goodnow]
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: July 21, 1858
Thomas Webb, Secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote to Isaac Goodnow, indicating his overwhelming approval for the creation of a college in Manhattan, Kansas Territory, not knowing of a "more beautiful and eligible spot than the one selected." Webb communicated his pride in the fact that a Free State supporter would be the one to initiate such a project, and told Goodnow he had recently received a $12,000 donation from a Massachussetts man, which was to support the college.

Keywords: Bluemont Central College; Business enterprises; Free state supporters; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Landscape; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Universities and colleges; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, John Brown to J. T. Cox
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: October 7, 1858
In this letter dated October 7, 1858, Ottumwa, John Brown again signs himself as an agent of the National Kansas Committee and claims to have the authority to receive from Cox any money or notes, etc., received from the Committee that he might have in his possession. Brown, of course, was continuing to tap all available sources for the financing of his operations, but not every one connected with the NKC would be supportive of these particular efforts.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Cox, J. T.; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; National Kansas Committee; Ottumwa, Kansas Territory


Reception of [John] Brown & party at Grinnell, Iowa
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: February 26, 1859
John Brown wrote these notes on the generous "Reception of Brown & Party at Grinnell, Iowa," where they were "kept for two days free of cost," re-supplied, and provided with significant cash for their journey north. Brown also mentioned friends at Tabor and "our reception among the Quaker Friends" at Sprindale, Iowa, on February 26.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Free state supporters; Grinnell, Iowa; Quakers (see Society of Friends); Tabor, Iowa


Letter, L. Maria Child to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Child, Lydia Maria Francis , 1802-1880
Date: October 26, 1859
Lydia Maria Child, "an earnest friend of Kansas," wrote John Brown from Wayland, Mass., on October 26, 1859, regarding her opposition to violence but her admiration for his courage and commitment to the cause of freedom. She had hoped to come to his aid in prison, but in the meantime assured Brown "that no honest man ever shed his blood for freedom in vain, however much he may be mistaken in his efforts."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Kansas question


Letter, H. B. Hurd to E. B. Whitman Esq.
Authors: Hurd, H. B.
Date: October 26, 1859
H. B. Hurd, the secretary of the National Kansas Committee, Chicago, Illinois, wrote to assure Whitman that he (Whitman) had "full authority to act in reference to said notes & accounts," not Capt. John Brown.

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Chicago, Illinois; Doy, John; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Hurd, H. B.; National Kansas Committee; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, James Montgomery to George L. Stearns
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: October 6, 1860
Having returned from a trip to the East (where he visited Stearns, Horace Greeley, and others in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia), Montgomery wrote from Mound City, Linn County, that he "found the people greatly excited." News of violence directed against free state men in Texas and Arkansas had awakened Kansans' sense of urgency, as Montgomery continued his efforts to free slaves and undercut the slave economy of western Missouri.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border ruffians; Free state supporters; Fugitive slaves; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Texas


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: November 15, 1860
In this typically long letter/report to Franklin Sanborn in Boston, Whitman wrote from Lawrence on November 15, 1860, regarding the difficult situation facing Kansas settlers/farmers as another winter approached--as "the stock of old corn is exhausted and the grass fails, the prospect is dreary enough and without aid from abroad in some form to supply bread stuffs many of our people must suffer severely for want of food."

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Droughts; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Relief; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Whitman, E. B.


Circular, Aid to Kansas
Authors: Ladies' Kansas Aid Society of Richmond
Date: c. 1860
This circular, issued by the Ladies' Kansas Aid Society of Richmond, announces the placement of a contribution box in town, with proceeds supporting the "suffering friends of Freedom in Kansas" in their fight against the "outrages of the Border Ruffians." The Aid Society is most likely based in a New England town named Richmond, though the exact location is unknown.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Circulars; Eddy, Jennie; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Free state support; Free state supporters; Howells, Mary A.; Ladies' Kansas Aid Society of Richmond; National politics; Relief; Vanderburg, Lydia A.


Photograph, James H. Lane
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1861
This is a copy of an original photograph taken of Lane in New York City, 1861. James Lane was a leader of the free state cause, serving as an aid to emigrants. He was also the first United States senator for Kansas. Mrs. John Ingalls had an original of this photograph, and she loaned it to W. E. Connelley who had six copies made. Connelley presented one copy to the Kansas State Historical Society in 1912.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Lane Trail; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Photographs and Illustrations; United States. Senate


Photograph, Ellen Denison Goodnow
Authors: Bushby & Hart, photographers
Date: 1872
Ellen Denison Goodnow was the wife of Isaac Goodnow. They settled near Manhattan, Riley County, Kansas Territory. They were free state supporters and she is mentioned frequently in his diaries.

Keywords: Bushby & Hart, photographers; Cabinet photographs; Free state supporters; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Riley County, Kansas Territory


Photograph, James S. Emery
Authors: Bowman, photographer
Date: 
James Stanley Emery had a law practice in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He was associated with the New England Emigrant Aid Company, but he also worked as a journalist for the New York Daily Times. He was involved in numerous free state activities both in Kansas and in the East.

Keywords: Bowman, photographer; Cabinet photographs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Free state supporters; Journalists; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lawyers; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Samuel J. Reader
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1854
Samuel J. Reader was a participant in some of the free state activities. He wrote about his efforts in his diary, including descriptions of the Battles of Indianola and Hickory Point. He also used the diary as the basis for an autobiography which he illustrated with drawings and water colors. He lived in Shawnee County, Kansas Territory. His accounts also describe daily life. Samuel J. Reader copied this photograph from a daguerreotype taken at La Harpe, Hancock County, IL, March 1, 1854. He was 18 years old.

Keywords: Free state supporters; Indianola, Battle of; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Joseph Gardner
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Joseph Gardner was a free state supporter and a member of the group that rescued Dr. John Doy in September, 1859. Dr. Doy had been convicted in Missouri of abducting slaves but he was freed from his cell in a St. Joseph, Missouri, jail by Gardner and others.

Keywords: Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Free state supporters; Gardner, Joseph; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, George W. Deitzler
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
George W. Deitzler was a free state supporter and resident of Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He was an officer in the Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box. He was also part of a free state group, along with Charles Robinson and John Brown, Jr., that was arrested and held prisoner near Lecompton. He was active in social activities in Lawrence.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Photograph, Orville C. Brown
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Orville C. Brown was an early settler and founder of Osawatomie. He actively sought to develop the town by building a common school and by obtaining a printing press. He was involved in free state activities and in efforts to raise funds for relief. His house was burned down during the battle of Osawatomie. This photo was taken later in his life.

Keywords: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904; Card photographs; Free state supporters; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, John Brown, Jr.
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Brown, Jr. was one of John Brown's sons. He came to Kansas in February 1855 along with his brothers Jason, Owen, Salmon, and Frederick and settled near Osawatomie. He was involved in numerous free state activities and, for a time, was one of the free state prisoners held near Lecompton. He also served as the commander of a free state militia company.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state supporters; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Tintypes


Photograph, Carmi William Babcock
Authors: Fassett's Gallery
Date: 
Carmi Babcock was an active free state supporter and early resident of Lawrence. He was a lawyer and a banker, as well as being the first postmaster of Lawrence and the second mayor of the city. He was involved in Lawrence civic and social activities.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Cartes de visite; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fassett's Gallery; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Postal service


Photograph, William Frederick Milton Arny
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
W. F. M. Arny was active in numerous territorial Kansas activities, serving as a general agent for the National Kansas Committee and as a delegate to the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. He was a member of the 1858 territorial legislature and the Topeka legislature.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Free state supporters; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; National Kansas Committee; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, James B. Abbott
Authors: Downing, George
Date: 
James B. Abbott was involved in various free state activities and in some of the territorial conflicts. He acquired the so-called "abbott howitzer" in Kansas City and participated in the rescues of both John Doy and Jacob Branson. He was involved in the Battle of Black Jack and was acquainted with John Brown. He lived in Desoto.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Branson rescue (1855); Cabinet photographs; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Joseph Pomeroy Root
Authors: Langhorne, photographer
Date: 
Joseph Pomeroy Root was a resident of Wyandotte. He was involved in the free state cause, including recruiting members of the Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box and working for the National Kansas Committee. He served as the first Lieutenant Governor of the state of Kansas.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Photographs and Illustrations; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Photograph, John E. Stewart
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John E. Stewart was a free state supporter and was active in a number of the territorial confrontations between free state supporters and proslavery supporters. He also helped slaves to escape on the Underground Railroad. Stewart was listed on the Free State ticket as running for the Territorial House of Representatives for Douglas County in May 1858.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Photographs and Illustrations; Stewart, John E.


Photograph, John Speer
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Speer was a free state supporter and early resident of Lawrence. He was a journalist and editor. He was also involved in numerous free state activities.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Engravings; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Journalists; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Speer, John, 1817-1906


Photograph, Samuel J. Reader
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Samuel J. Reader was a participant in some of the free state activities. He wrote about his efforts in his diary, including descriptions of the Battles of Indianola and Hickory Point. He also used the diary as the basis for an autobiography which he illustrated with drawings and water colors. He lived in Shawnee County, Kansas Territory. His accounts also describe daily life.

Keywords: Cyanotypes; Free state supporters; Indianola, Battle of; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Samuel Newitt Wood
Authors: Leonard & Martin, artists
Date: 
Samuel Newitt Wood was an active participant on behalf of the free state cause. He served in the territorial legislature and was a delegate to the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. He was also involved in some of the armed conflicts. He settled in Chase County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Chase County, Kansas Territory; Constitutions; Free state supporters; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth Constitution; Leonard & Martin, artists; Photographs and Illustrations; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Photograph, Joshua A. Pike
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Joshua A. Pike was a member of the Doy rescue party and was part of a plot to rescue John Brown after the raid on Harper's Ferry.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Free state supporters; Photographs and Illustrations; Pike, Joshua A.


Ambrotype [Photograph], Charles Robinson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1850s
Ambrotype portrait of free-state leader Charles Robinson. Robinson also became the first governor of the state of Kansas.

Keywords: Ambrotypes; Free state supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Photograph, Thomas Wentworth Higginson
Authors: Notman Photo Co.
Date: 
Thomas Wentworth Higginson was an ardent Northern abolitionist. He also served as an agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, procuring rifles, powder, cartridges and other materials for free state settlers in Kansas. He was from Worcester, Massachusetts, but he made a trip to Kansas in 1856.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Free state supporters; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Massachusetts; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Willaim Hutchinson
Authors: Clinedinst Photography
Date: 
William Hutchinson served as secretary of the Kansas Central Committee and assisted with efforts to send emigrant parties and relief to Kansas Territory. He settled in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He served as a delegate to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state supporters; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Thaddeus Hyatt was an abolitionist and served as head of the National Kansas Committee in 1856. He was also involved in efforts to provide relief to settlers in 1860.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Free state supporters; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; Photographs and Illustrations; Relief


Photograph, John Tecumseh Jones
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Tecumseh Jones was part Ottawa Indians and served as an interpreter for the Ottawa Indians. He was known as Tauy Jones or Ottawa Jones. He was also supportive of the free state cause and his home was the target of proslavery forces.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Free state supporters; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Native Americans; Ottawa Indians; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Alfred Larzalere
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Alfred Larsalere of Doniphan County was active in free state politics including serving as speaker of the Kansas House in 1859 and a a delegate to the Leavenworth constitutional convention. He also was a member of the Free State Central committee.

Keywords: Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Free state supporters; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Larzalere, Alfred; Leavenworth Constitution; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Josiah Miller
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Although born in South Carolina, Josiah Miller was a free state supporter. He attended college in Indiana and law school in New York. He came to Kansas in 1854 and on January 5, 1855, established the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence. The newspaper office was destroyed by order of the territorial government on May 21, 1856 because is was deemed a nuisance. He was capturned by Buford's proslavery forces and was tried for treason against the state of South Carolina. He supported John C. Fremont. In 1857, he was elected probate judge of Douglas County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state supporters; Journalists; Judges; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspaper publishing; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Robert B. Mitchell
Authors: Nichols, A. C., Photographer
Date: 
Robert B. Mitchell settled in Paris, Linn County, Kansas Territory, in 1856. He was born in Ohio and studied law. He was active in free state territorial politics. He served in the territorial House of Representatives in 1857 and 1858, was a member of the Leavenworth constitutional convention, and was appointed territorial treasurer on February 11, 1859. He was part of the free state supporters who followed Charles Hamilton and his band after the Marais des Cygnes massacre. After the territorial period he served as a brigadier general in the Second kansas volunteer cavalry and held the appointive post of governor of Nnew Mexico from 1866 to 1869.

Keywords: Constitutional conventions; Free state supporters; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Mitchell, Robert Byington; Paris, Kansas Territory


Photograph, James Montgomery
Authors: Leonard & Martin, artists
Date: 
James Montogomery came to Linn County, Kansas Territory, early in the territorial period after living in Ohio, Kentucky and Missouri. He was active in the free state cause and was involved in most of the conflict between pro-slavery and free state forces in that area. He was ordered off his property but refused to leave the area. He raised a militia troop that was active in 1857.

Keywords: Free state militia; Free state supporters; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Photographs and Illustrations


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from the area of Easton. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, and where from to Kansas. Instead of listing where the company members lived in Kansas, this muster roll indicated how long they had been in Kansas under the column "residence is Kansas." The remarks column noted if the company member had a weapon. The ages of company members range from 18 to 52. The captain was Joseph Hicks.

Keywords: Easton, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Hicks, Joseph; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns)


Photograph, Thomas Ewing, Jr.
Authors: Brady's National Portrait Galleries
Date: 
Thomas Ewing, Jr. moved to Kansas Territory in 1856 and established a law practice in Leavenworth. He was an active free state supporter and a delegate at the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. He had numerous business and land interests. He was one of James H. Lane's attorney's in his trial concerning the death of Gaius Jenkins.

Keywords: Brady's National Portrait Galleries; Cartes de visite; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Lawyers; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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