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51 results for Free state settlers:
Freedom's Struggle in Kansas
Authors: Snodgrass, J. E.
Date: February 26, 1855
This printed circuletter is addressed "to the Friends of Freedom." In it, J. E. Snodgrass expressed his antislavery sentiments and claimed he knew about slavery first hand as he had been born in the South. He also promoted the activities of the New York Kansas League which he described as a "philanthrophic association" to aid emigration to Kansas. The document also discussed the American Settlement Company which was a "joint stock association" that promoted the settlement of free state supporters at Council City, Kansas Territory (later Burlingame). He closed with antislavery statements and offered to give free lectures on the topic. He was located in New York City at the time the document was printed.

Keywords: American Settlement Company; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Burlingame, Kansas Territory; Council City, Kansas Territory; Free state settlers; Free state support; Free state supporters; New York; New York League; Osage County, Kansas Territory; Snodgrass, J. E.; Town development


List of passengers for Kansas composing the first party 1855 under charge of Dr. Charles Robinson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 13, 1855
This list contained the name of the head of the family and may also include occupations, ages, familial relationships and a location for each individual or family group that was a member of the March 13, 1855 party. The list also indicated the amount of payment made.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, [John Brown, Jr.] to Dear Father [John Brown]
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: June 22, 1855
This rather lengthy letter from John Brown, Jr., at Brownsville, K.T., to his father, John Brown, regarding the Kansas family's current situation, physically and economically. John, Jr., provides a hand-drawn map of the family's settlement in Franklin County (he calls it "Brown Co.") just west of Osawatomie.

Keywords: Agriculture; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Crops; Farmers; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Free state settlers; Land claims; Missourians; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Ottawa Indians; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory


Letter, Salmon Brown to Dear Father [John Brown]
Authors: Brown, Salmon
Date: June 22, 1855
From Osawatomie, son Salmon Brown wrote his to John Brown who had stopped in Rockford, Illinois, on his journey to Kansas Territory, where he was expected "before fall." Along with references to the provisions and clothing that might be needed, and the crops of corn, beans, turnips, and squash they expected to harvest, Salmon wrote "There are slaves owned within three miles of us."

Keywords: African Americans; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Salmon; Crops; Free state settlers; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Rockford, Illinois; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Letter, J. L. Brown [Jason Brown] to Dear Father, [John Brown] Mother, [Mary Brown] Brothers & Sisters
Authors: Brown, Jason
Date: June 23, 1855
From Osawatomie, Kansas Territory (or from the Browns' settlement which was located in southeastern Franklin Co.), son Jason wrote the family regarding there current circumstances. Overall, he was "well pleased with the country," which he described as "very rich and beautiful," despite the fact that he and his wife Ellen had just "laid little Austin in the grave." The Browns were still living in tents and needed stoves, but "All well."

Keywords: Agriculture; Akron, Ohio; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Salmon; Free state settlers; Land claims; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: October 13, 1855
One week after arriving at his sons' settlement ("Brownville") near Osawatomie, Brown wrote the family back east that although most were sick when he first arrived, they "appear now to be mending." The trip across Missouri was without incident, except for problems with a sick horse and their "heavy load." Brown then wrote briefly of the Adairs, the "most uncomfortable situation" in which he found his children upon his arrival, and other things including prairie fires and finally the political situation in the territory. In fact, at this early date, John Brown "believe[d] Missouri is fast becoming discouraged about making Kansas a Slave State & think the prospect of its becoming Free is brightening every day."

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Election, Topeka Constitution delegates to convention, October 1855; Free state; Free state settlers; Missouri; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Settlement; Weather


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: November 2, 1855
In this letter from "Brownsville, Kansas Territory," John Brown made some observations about the harshness of the weather, the health of his Kansas children, their general lack of preparedness for the winter, and the farm work that needed to be accomplished. His only comment about the political situation in the territory came in closing: "I feel more, & more confident that Slavery will soon die out here; & to God be the praise."

Keywords: Agriculture; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Crops; Farmers; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Houses; Slavery; Weather


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Wife
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: November 26, 1855
Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts wrote to his wife from St. Louis, Missouri, on his way to Lawrence, Kansas Territory, where he owned property. Hill had traveled by railroad and boat and was now a passenger on the steamboat Senora. Ticket prices were high due to the late season. Also on board were Erastus D. Ladd, who was elected to the Topeka free state legislature on March 30th, and Thaddeus L. Whitney, a friend and business associate. Hill also mentioned Mr. Pom[e]roy and Mr. Eldridge. Interestingly, a second letter dated December 20 and perhaps from Hill's wife to her sister-in-law (the wife of Hiram's brother Otis) was written on a blank page.

Keywords: Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state settlers; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Railroads; St. Louis, Missouri; Steamboats; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Letter, J. R. Giddings to My Dear Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed) , 1795-1864
Date: March 17, 1856
Congressman Joshua R. Giddings an abolitionist Republican from Ohio and good friend of the Brown family there, wrote from the U.S. "Hall of Reps" regarding his desire to provide support for Brown and his cause in Kansas and of his belief that the federal troops there would not be used "to shoot the Citizens of Kansas." Although he indicated a need for more "men and arms" in the territory to insure victory, Giddings was "confident there will be no war in Kansas."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Free state support; Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed), 1795-1864; Kansas Nebraska Act; Pierce administration; United States. Army; United States. Congress. House


Speech, David R. Atchison to Pro-Slavery "Soldiers"
Authors: Atchison, David R.; Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: May 21, 1856
According to a note on the top of page one made later by R. J. Hinton, "this report was made for me [Hinton] by or under the direction of Lt. Gov. (Dr.) Root [Joseph Pomeroy Root, subsequently elected the state's first lieutenant governor under the Wyandotte Constitution], who was a prisoner, heard & reported the speech" made by David Atchison to the assembled proslave "Soldiers" camped two miles west of Lawrence before they marched on and sacked the town on May 21, 1856. The transcript is labeled "Hon. David R. Atchison's Speech . . ." and begins, "This is the most glorious day of my life! This day I am a border-ruffian!" Amidst "Yells" and "Cheers," Atchison rallied the "true sons of the noble South," encouraging them to "tear down their Free State Hotel" and "thow into the Kanzas their printing presses," and to bravely follow their "worthy . . . Leader, Col. [John H.] Stringfellow!"

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Beecher Bibles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free State Hotel; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers - Free State; Pierce administration; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Southerners; Stringfellow, John H.


Letter, Thomas M. Webb to Friend [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: September 24, 1856
In this letter, written in Boston, Massachusetts by Thomas Webb, the author stated his concerns about the outcome of the situation in Kansas. He did applaud the efforts of free state settlers to ensure the existence of liberty; however, he felt that not enough New Englanders were serious about keeping slavery out of Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Emigrant aid companies; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; New York; Relief; Sectionalism (United States)


Letter, George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et al
Authors: Hunt, George W.; Stearns, C.
Date: September 29, 1856
On behalf of a committee of Lawrence citizens, Hunt and Stearns wrote the State Central Committee of Kansas "to urge upon your attention several important points in reference to the present condition of Kansas." They were convinced that a "storm" from Missouri was about "to burst upon the devoted heads of the freemen of Kansas" and "perhaps to deluge Kansas with rivers of blood." The committee urged the state and national organization to help them prepare for the storm, while things were relatively calm, with an adequate supply of arms and ammunition and men. But, with a veiled reference, perhaps, to John Brown, they called only for "moral heroes" who would not follow the "principles of Border Ruffianism."

Keywords: Ammunition; Beecher Bibles; Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; State Central Committee of Kansas; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, J. D. Webster to James Blood
Authors: Webster, J. D.
Date: October 10, 1856
From Chicago, headquarters of the National Kansas Committee, the committee's vice president wrote to authorize Blood to draw on the treasurer for $3,000 "to be expended under authority of the State Kansas Committee." The purpose was to offer "provisions" to needy free state settlers; this was to be the committee's focus, "rather than to aid emigrants to go there."

Keywords: Blood, James; Chicago, Illinois; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief funds; State Central Committee of Kansas


Letter, R. J. Hinton to Gentlemen [National Kansas Committee]
Authors: Hinton, R. J.
Date: October 10, 1856
R. J. Hinton wrote this letter from Lawrence to the members of the National Kansas Committee, offering his suggestions about how to sustain the struggling settlers of Kansas. He proposed the idea of bringing the manufacturing industry into the territory as a source of employment. He also mentioned that a flour mill would be greatly appreciated by Kansans.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Flour mills; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Guns; Hinton, Richard Josiah; House furnishings; Manufacturing; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Settlement; Sewing machines; Steam power; Weapons (see also Guns)


Circular, To the Friends of Free Kansas in the States
Authors: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: October 20, 1856
This handwritten "appeal" was sent out to all those who had or might be inclined to support the free state cause in Kansas, assuring them that the committee in Kansas had reached full accord with the National Kansas Committee and could be "relied upon" to distribute aid channeled through Chicago. "Our people are still in extreme want, and hundreds of families are entirely dependent upon your charities."

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Chicago, Illinois; Circulars; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Kansas Central Committee; Kansas State Central Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; State Central Committee of Kansas


Letter, L. W. Hoover to Sirs [State Central Committee]
Authors: Hover, L. H.
Date: October 24, 1856
This claim, against the funds being distributed by the State Central Committee, was filed by L. W. Hoover, a farmer and freestater who had settled at Wakarusa on June 1, 1856. His crops, etc., were destroyed while he was serving in the militia during "the Washington Creek difficulty" and he had since fallen quite ill and was dependent on help from his neighbors.

Keywords: Free state settlers; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Wakarusa River; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory


Letter, George W. Bell to [William] Hutchinson and [James] Blood
Authors: Bell, George W.
Date: October 26, 1856
From Hickory Point in Jefferson County, George Bell, an agent for the Kansas Central Committee, wrote William Hutchinson and James Blood at Lawrence regarding the condition of the "Burr family" and their specific relief needs. They were described as "destitute" of food and clothing.

Keywords: Blood, James; Clothing and dress; Free state settlers; Hickory Point, Kansas Territory; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief


Letter, T. W. Higginson to Dear Sir [William Hutchinson]
Authors: Higginson, Thomas Wentworth
Date: October 27, 1856
This letter and accompanying list of forthcoming relief supplies (shirts, dresses, over coats, etc.) were directed to William Hutchinson, "Treasurer Kanzas Committee," by Thomas Wentworth Higginson of Brattleboro, Vermont. Three boxes of clothing had been sent and Higginson reminded Hutchinson that it was "very important that in this case & in all cases, prompt acknowledgement should be made of the receipt of everything contributed to Kanzas." People needed to know that their contributions were getting through and that they were appreciated.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief


Receipt Book, October - November 1856
Authors: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: October 30, 1856
This Kansas State Central Committee receipt book was one of several in which the committee recorded the various monies, provisions, clothing, etc., that were distributed throughout the territory. Many of the items of clothing were specifically listed for children (e.g., "1 girls calico dress" and "1 pair boys woolen pants"), and many items were received by individuals for distribution among the needy of their particular area.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Blood, James; Children; Clothing and dress; Free state settlers; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Kansas State Central Committee; Merchandise; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Relief; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, William Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: November 9, 1856
Writing to his Mother from Nebraska Territory on November 4, 1856, Leeman, who "belong[ed] to Old Browns company," said he had just left Kansas Territory because, after driving the "Border Ruffians" out, the governor and "his troops were after us [and] we were obliged to leave the territory." Leeman hoped to go back to his 160 acre farm in Kansas soon and encouraged his Mother to come when the troubles were over.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state settlers; Jayhawking; Leeman, William H.; Militia; Nebraska Territory; Osawatomie, Battle of; Sharps rifles


Letter and Bill, S. [Samuel] L. Adair to William Hutchinson
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: November 7, 1856
The first page of this four-page document lists five items for which Samuel L. Adair requested payment ($21.25) from the KSCC; these include provisions, medicine, the "balance yet unpaid of money advanced to pay lawyers fees for prisoners at Tecumsee in June last," and the "bill paid for lumber and nails for coffin of Frederick Brown & David Garrison," two of the men killed during the battle of Osawatomie, August 30, 1856. The accompanying letter justified the request.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Garrison, David R.; Medicine; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory


Poem, "Don't Go Back!"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 1, 1856
Attributed to John E. Cook on the front of the document but signed "L.H." in the attached clipping, this document purports to be the first draft of a poem entitled "Don't Go Back!", directed at Northerners who might be tempted to give up the Kansas struggle ("Kansas is worth saving.") after the tumultuous year of 1856 (newspaper clipping of poem, dated Boston, December 1, 1856, attached).

Keywords: Cook, John E.; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Free state supporters


Kansas Affairs
Authors: Daniels, Edward
Date: December 1, 1856
Edward Daniels wrote this printed letter "to the Friends of Free Kansas" from the office of the National Kansas Committee in Chicago, Illinois on December 1, 1856. He had just returned from Kansas Territory and presented 9 "facts and suggestions" about conditions in the territory and how people in the East could provide support to free state settlers. He included suggestions on how ministers and communities could raise funds and/or provisions for those in Kansas. He believed that a large emigration of free state supporters was needed in the spring of 1857 and provided suggestions on how to get there and what to take. He also indicated that seed was necessary to having a good harvest the next year.

Keywords: Agriculture; Daniels, Edward; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Illinois; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Seeds


Letter, S. L. Adair to W. F. M. Arny
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: December 18, 1856
Arny was a representative of the National Kansas Committee and Adair was inquiring about various boxes and money that had been sent to the committee in Chicago for forwarding to people in Osawatomie. Adair also seemed to be responding to a request for information from Arny about settlers from Wisconsin in the Osawatomie area and also members of the Eldridge-Pomeroy party. Adair provided information on James Fuller, Thomas Roberts, Joseph Lawes and William and Wakeman (?) Partridge. He listed the names of four men who came with Eldridge and Pomeroy but provided no additional information. He also noted that he loaned Mr. Hyatt $50 and had an "order" for Arny to reimburse him.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Free state settlers; Fuller, James; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawes, Joseph; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Partridge, William; Relief; Roberts, Thomas; Wisconsin


Settlers on the Marais des Cygnes River
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856 or 1857
This document, presumably compiled by John E. Stewart at the request of Thaddeus Hyatt, lists the pro-slavery and free state settlers who resided on the Marais des Cygnes River in Kansas Territory. The author also included a listing of where the free-state settlers lived before coming to Kansas.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Illinois; Indiana; Kentucky; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes River; Missouri; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Proslavery settlers; Settlement


Settlers on Little Sugar Creek
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856 or 1857
This listing of the settlers along Little Sugar Creek includes information about each settler, the resources in the area, and local buildings. It also includes an account of an attack by the Missouri ruffians in which a number of men were carried off to Westport, Missouri. It was most likely compiled by John E. Stewart at the request of Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border ruffians; Churches; Free state settlers; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Missouri; Ohio; Proslavery settlers; Schools; Settlement; Timber; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; Westport, Missouri


Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to My Dear Cleaveland
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: January 4, 1857
This rather inspiring letter, written by Thaddeus Hyatt while traveling in Kansas, demonstrates Hyatt's commitment to the National Kansas Committee and his passion for the free state cause. Apparently there was some sort of conflict within the committee that threatened its ability to function, but nevertheless Hyatt was determined to aid the struggling free state settlers in Kansas. He spoke in great detail about some of his travels around the territory, including the inclement weather and his perspective on the pro-slavery and free state settlers that he encountered during his stay.

Keywords: Bickerton, Thomas; Food; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes River; National Kansas Committee; Proslavery settlers; Relief; Settlement; Weather


Letter, William Henry Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: April 1, 1857
One of several letters in this collection written by young William Leeman, a native of Maine, to members of his family (mother, father, and sisters) during his travels with one of John Brown's company through Iowa and Nebraska, back to Kansas. Several letters were written late in 1856 and early 1857 from Archer, Nebraska Territory, but this one, dated April 7, 1857, was sent from Plymouth, presumably in Brown County, Kansas Territory. Leeman wrote of his plan to return home and bring his family to Kansas, perhaps as early as the summer, if there were no more "trouble" in the territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state settlers; Houses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leeman, William H.


Letter, [E. B. Whitman?] to [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: May 10, 1857
E. B. Whitman (letter not signed, but author's identity is pretty clear), an agent in Lawrence for the National Kansas Committee, wrote Franklin Sanborn in Massachusetts regarding his disappointment with the lack of support being given by "our professed friends" in the East. To their discredit, according to Whitman, Massachusetts "supporters" had refused to provide assistance which was desperately needed for the Kansas settlers who had just endured a very "severe winter." He believed false information was being circulated for political purposes by individuals within the Free State movement: "Kansas, bleeding Kansas, is of value to them only so far as it subserves their selfish ends."

Keywords: Dred Scott decision; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Settlement; Vermont; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, J. G. Anderson to "Dear Brother"
Authors: Anderson, J. G.
Date: August 23, 1857
Writing to his brother from Barnesville (Bourbon County) on August 28, 1857, Jeremiah Goldsmith Anderson, a native of Indiana and follower of James Montgomery in southeast Kansas, described a variety of mundane matters regarding conditions in Kansas, including land claims and the construction of a steam sawmill on the river.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; County seats; Crops; Farmers; Free state settlers; Missouri; Proslavery settlers; Sawmills; Sickness (see Illness); Timber claim


Diary
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: June 1857 - July 1858
Joseph Trego first came to Kansas Territory in June 1857. He chose to settle near Mound City (originally Sugar Mound), Miami County, Kansas Territory. He returned to his home near Rock Island, Illinois to prepare to move to Kansas. He then came back to Kansas Territory in the fall of 1857, though he did not bring his wife and three girls at that time. In March of 1858, he again returned to Illinois to bring his family to their new home. These diary entries started with his second trip to the territory in September 1857 and described the various trips to and from Kansas Territory and his various activities here. The diary entries from March 17, 1858 to May 25, 1858 (15 pages) are not included. Trego, along with Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell in the diary entries) and his brother Edwin Smith, constructed and operated a sawmill on Little Sugar Creek. Trego was involved in town company activities, and the sawmill furnished lumber and shingles for many of the buildings in Mound City. The diary entries provided information on the efforts of settlement including the furnishing of a cabin and construction of the sawmill. They documented the operation of the sawmill and other activities in the area, including some of the border disputes. Trego was a free state supporter and this was reflected in some of the entries.

Keywords: Diaries; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Free state settlers; House furnishings; Household activities; Houses; Illinois; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sawmills; Settlement; Smith, Edwin; Smith, Thomas Ellwood; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Letter, J. H. Trego to an unidentified recipient [probably his wife, Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: September 10, 1857
Trego was in St. Louis, Missouri awaiting a boat trip to Kansas City. He describes his trip to that point as well as the weather. Trego was a doctor and he wrote about trying to locate his medicine chest for the second part of the journey. He also described his activities as he waited. It is not clear whether he had been to Kansas Territory before but he knew he was going to Sugar Mound in Linn County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Free state settlers; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Physicians; Steamboats; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Summary Report of the number of residents
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1857
This document summarizes the results from a number of other documents that recorded the number of free state and proslavery settlers in various areas of Kansas Territory. It records 118 free state men and 94 proslavery men. It also cites the number of free state families in need of assistance and the number of good claims still available. The author acknowledges that these numbers are close, but not completely accurate.

Keywords: Big Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Land claims; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers


Residents on the Little Osage
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1857
This brief report describes the settlers along the Little Osage River, stating that it is occupied mostly by proslavery settlers; there are only three or four free state residents. The report mentions Enoch Osbourne (presumably a free state settler) who was driven from his land, and also notes that there is a need for free state men on this creek.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Free state settlers; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers


Residents on the Marais des Cygnes, commencing at the state line
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1857
This report provides a listing of the total number of residents along the Marais des Cygnes River, including free state residents, proslavery residents, and free state residents "in distress." It also contains brief accounts of specific individuals and information about the surrounding area, such as the availability of land claims.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Marais des Cygnes River; Proslavery settlers


Residents on Lost Creek, a tributary of the Little Osage
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1857
This document lists the names and origins of the proslavery and free state settlers that lived along Lost Creek, on the north edge of Bourbon County. The first page details information about specific families in the area and states that Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, made arrangements to aid those settlers who are listed as being "in distress."

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Lost Creek, Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers


Residents on Marmiton Creek
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1857
This document lists the names and origins of the residents of Marmiton (Marmaton) Creek, including whether each settler was free state, pro slavery, or noncommittal. The first page lists the total number of settlers and also includes a brief description of the area.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Marmaton, Kansas Territory; Marmiton Creek; Proslavery settlers


Residents on Big Sugar Creek
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: c. 1857
This account contains the names and origins of both free state and pro slavery settlers that lived on Big Sugar Creek. The document begins with a brief description of the area and mentions particular cases of settlers who had noteworthy experiences. Of the 25 pro slavery residents, two owned slaves. It was presumably collected by Thaddeus Hyatt or some other member of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: African Americans; Big Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers; Slaves


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Gov. [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: March 5, 1858
From Boston, Mass., on March 5, 1858, Lawrence wrote Robinson what amounted to a letter of introduction for a W. D. Goddard, "an ardent free state man" who wished "to live and die in Kansas."

Keywords: Free state cause; Free state settlers; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Diary
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: July 25, 1858 - December 9, 1859
Joseph Trego first came to Kansas in June 1857. He lived near Mound City (originally Sugar Mound), Linn County, Kansas Territory. These diary entries started on July 25, 1858 and are a continuation of an earlier diary (portions of which were also digitized as part of this project). He described various daily activities including the operation a sawmill in partnership with Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell in the diary entries) and his brother Edwin Smith. The diary entries provided information on the efforts of making a living and settling on a frontier. They documented some of the border disputes and related activities. Trego was a free state supporter and this was reflected in some of the entries.

Keywords: Diaries; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sawmills; Smith, Edwin; Smith, Thomas Ellwood; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Letter, John Brown to J. T. Cox
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: October 7, 1858
In this letter dated October 7, 1858, Ottumwa, John Brown again signs himself as an agent of the National Kansas Committee and claims to have the authority to receive from Cox any money or notes, etc., received from the Committee that he might have in his possession. Brown, of course, was continuing to tap all available sources for the financing of his operations, but not every one connected with the NKC would be supportive of these particular efforts.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Cox, J. T.; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; National Kansas Committee; Ottumwa, Kansas Territory


Receipts, John Brown to M. F. Conway
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: October 18, 1858
This document consists of a four-page itemized listing (individuals' name and amount due) of the "notes" received by Martin F. Conway from "Captain John Brown." Conway endorsed the document at Lawrence, K.T., on October 18, 1858, and wrote, in part, "the said Notes to be safely kept or collected by me, as may, in my discretion, seem best."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Finance; Free state settlers; Free state support; Relief funds


Letter, J. J. I. [John J. Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: October 24, 1858
After nearly two weeks in the territory, Ingalls was somewhat more optimistic about his prospects, and in this letter to his father, Elias Ingalls, John Ingalls wrote of the gold rush and his legal business, which "opens very well." but he was still weary of "social conditions," as there were no churches in Sumner and "a total disregard of the Sabbath." Atchison, where he had gone in a futile search for an Episcopal Church, was little better in this regard.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Churches; Community life; Courts; Free state settlers; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Lawsuits; Pikes Peak gold rush; Religion; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, Your Friend [most likely John Brown] to Capt. James Montgomery
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: January 2, 1859
This brief letter from a "Friend"--most likely John Brown--to James Montgomery, the Linn County jawhawker, was addressed from "Turkey Creek," January 2, 1859: "Osawattomie men made a drive into Missouri the other night, since which some of the settlers & other friends have made a stand on the line to prevent an invasion. You are requested to hold yourself in readiness to call out reinforcements at a moments notice."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Jayhawking; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter, John Q. Anderson to "Capt [John] Brown"
Authors: Anderson, John Q.
Date: November 25, 1859
John Anderson, of Eddyville, Iowa, the brother of one of the Harpers Ferry raiders, Jeremiah Goldsmith Anderson, wrote to Captain Brown, who was awaiting execution in Charlestown, Va., jail, seeking more information about his brother's death at Harpers Ferry. He had been "two years a target in Kansas for the Border Ruffians and all, for what? Why because he purchased a claim & wished to settle on it & live by the sweat of his own brow. And now has died trying to enforce the golden rule."

Keywords: Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state settlers; Harpers Ferry, Virginia


Letter, C. G. Allen to Redpath and Hinton
Authors: Allen, C. G.
Date: December 1859
Allen, a "minister of the Gospel" at Cottonwood Falls, K.T., wrote in response to the Redpath/Hinton call for "anecdotes & reminiscences" concerning "the brave & philanthropic [John] Brown," who the preacher first met in Lawrence in 1856. Allen left Lawrence when a call came for volunteers to aid in the defense of Osawatomie in August of that year and while there engaged saw his first "Border Ruffians," who he described as "miserable specimens of humanity. They were ragged & dirty. Their cloths & faces were to a considerable extent covered with tobacco spit." Allen and the men he was with actually missed the Battle of Osawatomie by moving south before the attack in an effort to find the attackers before they reached the town.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Stanton, Kansas Territory


Letter, Harrison Anderson to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Anderson, Harrison
Date: January 27, 1860
The elder brother of Harpers Ferry raider Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote Hinton to provide information on his brothers activities in Kansas Territory, beginning in "June or July 1857," when he settle in norther Bourbon County. J.G. Anderson was actively engaged in free-state activities in southern Kansas, including efforts to defy the bogus authority through the establishment of what was called a "Squaters court." (According to a January 29, 1860, letter--also in this folder--from another brother, John Q. Anderson of Eddyville, Iowa, brother Harrison was still living in at Little Osage, KT, and he had "frequently entertained" John Brown.)

Keywords: Abolitionists; Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Proslavery activities; Squatters


Letter, W. H. Powell to "Dear Sir" [James Blood]
Authors: Powell, W. H.
Date: August 26, 1860
From Bloomington, Illinois, W. H. Powell, the Illinois State Superintendent of Public Instruction, wrote that he had noticed Blood's call for seed wheat for the "unfortunate settlers of Kansas," and he wondered if they would be interested in trading "for Stock--either Cattle or Stock Hogs." Powell offered to arrange shipment of 2000 bushels of "good seed wheat" immediately if a deal were struck. He wrote that farmers in his area were growing "Red Amber wheat, and that if Blood needed a character reference, he could contact "Mr. Lincoln at Springfield, where I reside, & who can vouch for my good faith &C."

Keywords: Blood, James; Crops; Droughts; Farmers; Free state settlers; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Springfield, Illinois


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: November 15, 1860
In this typically long letter/report to Franklin Sanborn in Boston, Whitman wrote from Lawrence on November 15, 1860, regarding the difficult situation facing Kansas settlers/farmers as another winter approached--as "the stock of old corn is exhausted and the grass fails, the prospect is dreary enough and without aid from abroad in some form to supply bread stuffs many of our people must suffer severely for want of food."

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Droughts; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Relief; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Whitman, E. B.


Photograph, Samuel Lyle Adair
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Probably 1862
Samuel Adair and his wife Florella settled near Osawatomie, Kansas Territory. Adair was a minister and free state supporter. His wife was a half sister to John Brown and he occasionally stayed with the Adairs. The family was involved in various free state and relief activities.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Free state settlers; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Isaac T. Goodnow
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Isaac Goodnow was an early resident of Manhattan and was a free state supporter. He was a delegate to the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention and was one of the founders of Bluemont College.

Keywords: Free state settlers; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Riley County, Kansas Territory


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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