Skip Redundent Navigation
Territorial Kansas Online 1854-1861 Explore Topics Territorial A-Z Map Lesson Plans  

Territorial A-Z

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | 0-9


92 results for Free state militia:
Diary
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: May 23, 1855 through December 31, 1857
Diary entries by Samuel Reader beginning with the latter part of his travels to Kansas from La Harpe, Illinois, and his life in Kansas Territory. He described daily activities as well as events related to the territorial struggle. He settled in Shawnee County north of Topeka. He participated in a militia group at the battles of Indianola and Hickory Point. Reader was an amateur artist and some of the diary pages contain sketches and water color paintings.

Keywords: Battles; Diaries; Free state militia; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hickory Point, Kansas Territory; Indianola, Battle of; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Henry Saunders, certifying James Abbott as a militia member
Authors: Saunders, Henry F.
Date: July 25, 1855
Henry Saunders, Captain of the Wakarusa Liberty Guards, a free state militia group, wrote this letter certifying James Abbott as 2nd Lieutenant of that unit. Saunders added that Abbott was also officially employed in the task of procuring arms for the free state cause.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Saunders, Henry F.; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Mr. Jas B. Abbott
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: August 20, 1855
Amos A. Lawrence wrote from Boston to James Abbott in Hartford, Connecticut, referring to a recent shipment of carbine rifles he had sent, which was "far from being enough." Lawrence advised Abbott to take good care of them, as they might be used as reimbursement to those investors who had subscribed money to the free state cause once "it is settled that Kanzas shall not be a province of Missouri."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state militia; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Missourians; Sharps rifles


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: August 24, 1855
Amos A. Lawrence wrote from Boston to James Abbott in Hartford, Connecticut, wanting to confirm his receipt of a shipment of rifles. Lawrence advised Abbott that at least half of them should be redistributed to free state forces in Topeka.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Sharps rifles; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: October 4, 1855
Frederick Law Olmstead, a New York free state fundraiser and landscape architect, wrote to James Abbott, informing him of his recent trouble securing contributions enough to purchase substantial weapons. Olmstead repeated to Abbott advice he had received from a veteran military officer, who suggested that "M's" [muskets] would serve the militia forces well enough for general use, with "S's" [Sharp's rifles] reserved for "special service". Thus, Olmstead concluded he would either send Abbott "M's" or an "H" [howitzer, a type of cannon].

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state supporters; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, unsigned [F. L. Olmsted] to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: October 7, 1855
Frederick Law Olmstead, a New York free state fundraiser and landscape architect, wrote to James Abbott. Olmstead reported to him that he had ordered "the instrument" [howitzer cannon], which would be ready to ship in three days time along with its ammunition accessories, excepting powder. He would send instructions for its use separately, so that it may be used to "best effect", which he approximated as "equally effective with a simultaneous fire of 100 muskets" and "worth a dozen field pieces."

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to James Burnett Abbott, Esq.
Authors: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: October 24, 1855
Frederick Law Olmstead wrote a short note from New York to James Abbott in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, confirming the shipment of the howitzer and its accessories. It was sent in five separate cases, so as to not arouse suspicion, and was directed to St. Louis the under the name B. Slater.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Weapons (see also Guns)


Militia Commission, issue by James H. Lane to Joel Grover
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: November 27, 1855
This printed document, headed with the name "James H. Lane," announced the election and certification of Joel Grover as colonel of the 6th Regiment, First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers, raised "to defend the City of Lawrence from threatened destruction by foreign invaders." It is dated November 27, 1855, and signed "J. H. Lane," general commanding.

Keywords: Border ruffians; First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers; Free state militia; Grover, Joel; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


List of Companies
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November-December, 1855
This document listed general information about militia recruited by free state leaders during the Wakarusa War, November-December, 1855. These troops gathered to defend Lawrence against an estimated 2000 Missourians. Details on the number of commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers and rank and file are provided for Companies A through I, Horse Company No. 1, and the headquarters company. The documents also listed the weapons available ("Sharpe's Rifles," "Other Arms," and "Cartridges"). All of the officers were listed. A total of 349 men with 156 Sharpe's Rifles and 169 other weapons and 6807 cartridges were recruited. James H. Lane served as the brigadier general and William Y. Roberts was the adjutant general. Colonels were Lyman Allen, M. A. Hunt, and C, K. Holliday. Majors were Jno. A. Wakefield, David Dodge, J. M Mitchell, Geo. W. Smith, Sr., Milton C. Dickey and men with the last names of Thomas, Tuton, Sampson, and Yates.. George W. Smith, Jr. was the Sergeant Major, A. H. Malory, Quartermaster; Jno. G. Crocker, Quartermaster Sergeant; Mr. Hunt, Commisary; and Dr. S. B. Prentiss and Dr. Foles, surgeons.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Crocker, John G.; Dickey, Milton C.; Dodge, David; Free state activities; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hunt, Morris; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Mallory, Anson H.; Militia; Mitchell, J. M.; Prentiss, S.B.; Roberts, William Young; Smith, George W.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wakefield, John A.


Letter, C. Robinson to Capt. G. P. Lowrey
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: December 8, 1855
Charles Robinson, Commander-in-Chief of the free state military forces, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Grosvenor P. Lowry, captain of a free state militia regiment, instructing him to attach his command to the newly organized regiment under the command of James Lane, Robinson's second-in-command.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lowrey, G.P. (Grosvenor P.); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, [Hiram Hill] to Dear Wife
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 8, 1855 - December 9, 1855
Hiram Hill wrote from Westport, Missouri to his wife as he received new information concerning the Wakarusa War at Lawrence. Hill was frustrated by these reports, which conflicted and were from the proslavery perspective, and which concerned the number of free state and proslavery soldiers, the status of the war, and government action taken to prevent conflict. Hill was also troubled by shameless "traveling and drinking and swearing" and gunshots on the Sabbath. The last page of the letter expresses his relief at news of peace in Lawrence, where he would learn "the other syde of the story" upon arrival. The murder of Thomas W. Barber, who rode outside Lawrence and was shot by a proslavery supporter on December 6th, was mentioned. Hill also described an eventful stagecoach journey.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Cannons; Daily life; Free state militia; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery perspective; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Stagecoaches; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, H Hill to [Brother]
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 9, 1855
Hiram Hill wrote from Weston, Massachusetts to his brother, describing his stagecoach journey from Richmond. Although 47 miles from Lawrence, he had not received a trustworthy update concerning the Wakarusa War. Hill mentioned Thomas W. Barber's murder, numbers of men and weapons involved in the war, and his plans to briefly visit Lawrence. He vowed never to travel to Kansas Territory in winter again. Hill also showed concern for Russell, who tended his cattle in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Free state militia; Hill, Hiram; Proslavery perspective; Stagecoaches; Travel; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weather


Letter/Order, Wilson Shannon to C. Robinson and J. H. Lane
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 9, 1855
According to D. W. Wilder, Governor Wilson Shannon arrived in Lawrence on December 7, 1855, and on December 8 made "a treaty with the Free-State Generals" ending the Wakarusa War. The paper was signed by Shannon, Robinson and Lane. With the document represented here, dated Lawrence, December 9, 1855, Governor Shannon "authorized & directed [Robinson and Lane] to take such measures & use the enrolled force under your command in such manner for the preservation of the peace & the protection of the persons & property of the people in Lawrence & vicinity as in your judgment shall best secure that end." ( A subsequent notation indicated that the order was written in Robinson's hand, but signed by Shannon.)

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Receipt, Commissary 1st Brigade Kansas Volunteers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 10, 1855
Receipt from the Commissary 1st Brigade Kansas Volunteers listing arms and equipment, along with their prices, allotted to James Abbott.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state activities; Free state militia; Hunt, George W.; Kansas Volunteers; Mallory, Anson H.; Weapons (see also Guns)


Certificate of Service, Franklin L. Crane, Jr.
Authors: Headquarters, Kansas Volunteers
Date: December 11, 1855
Franklin L. Crane, Jr., son of a prominent citizen in Topeka, served as a private from November 27 to Dec. 11, 1855 in defense of Lawrence. This certificate of service was signed by several people active in the free state cause, including James H. Lane and Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Certificates; Crane, Franklin L., Jr.; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Military; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Certificate, Head Quarters Kansas Volunteers
Authors: Kansas Volunteers
Date: December 12, 1855
This certificate, signed by Charles Robinson and James Lane, was issued by the Head Quarters of the Kansas Volunteers, a Free state militia group led by Robinson. It documented Robert Gilbert's service "in defending the City of Lawrence. . .from demolition by foreign invaders" during the Wakarusa War. Gilbert had arrived in Kansas Territory only weeks before, having traveled from his native England.

Keywords: Battles; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Free state regiment; Gilbert, Robert L.; Hunt, Morris; Immigrants; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wilder, Solomon


Muster Roll of Captain Samuel Walker, Company D, Second Regiment, 1st Brigade, Kansas Volunteeers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 12, 1855
This muster roll listed men who served in the Wakarusa War from November 27 to December 12, 1855. The second regiment was commanded by Col. C. K. Holliday. This company was recruited from the area around Bloomington, Kansas Territory. The information provided included name, title if an officer, and age. This muster roll also included annotations about the value of property such as saddles, clothes, horses, etc. taken or destroyed by the "enemy." Officers, in addition to Captain Samuel Walker, were A. Curliss, George Umbarger, (?) Miller, T. W. Wolverton, D. C. Buffum, A. I. Smith, A. Jones, R. Dunn, R. Hasseltine, R. Miller, and J. C. Dunn. Ages of the company ranged from 17 to 50 years old.

Keywords: Bloomington, Kansas Territory; Buffum, David C.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Volunteers; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Walker, Samuel Douglas


Muster Roll of Captain John Brown's company, Fifth Regiment, 1st Brigade, Kansas Volunteers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 12, 1855
This muster roll listed men who served in the Wakarusa War from November 27 to December 12, 1855. The fifth regiment was commanded by Col. George W. Smith. This company was recruited from the area around Osawatomie, Kansas Territory. The information provided included name, title if an officer, and age. Officers, in addition to Captain John Brown, were William Updegraff, Henry H. Williams, James J. Holbrook, Ephraim Reynolds, R. W. Wood, Frederick Brown, John Yelton, Henry Alderman, H. Harrison Updegraff, Daniel W. Collis, and William Partridge. William Partridge furnished one keg of powder and 8 pounds of lead that were used by the company. Ages of the company ranged from 19 to 55 years old. This was a small company and the other members were Amos D. Alderman, Francis Brennon, William W. Caine, Benjamin L. Cochran, Jeremiah Harrison and John Brown's sons John, Jr., Owen, and Sallmon

Keywords: Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Owen; Brown, Salmon; Free state activities; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Militia; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Partridge, William; Smith, George W.; Updegraff, W. W.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Williams, Henry H.


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: December 16, 1855
Soon after his return from Lawrence, where he and other volunteers had successfully defended that place, John Brown wrote from Osawatomie to give his family "a brief account of the invasion," the so-called Wakarusa War. As it turned out, Brown provided some interesting details about their preparations and arrival in the besieged city and the negotiations that were ongoing when the Browns came on the scene. The Free State leaders, according to Brown, skillfully accomplished and signed an agreement with Governor Shannon that was "much to their own liking."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Barber, Thomas W.; Bogus legislature; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Coleman, Franklin M.; Dow, Charles W.; Free state cause; Free state militia; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery supporters; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Muster Roll of the Sewannoe Company
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1855
This "Muster Roll" lists a group of men "mustered into the service" of the protection of the people of Kansas Territory. This group would probably act as a unit of the free state militia. The roster includes the name, age, and height of each man, as well as notes about their personal ownership of a horse, riding equipment, and arms.

Keywords: Free state militia; Horses; Weapons (see also Guns)


Photograph, Free-State Battery
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
During the year 1856, the pro-slavery people of Missouri virtually cut off free-state emigration to Kansas Territory by the way of the Missouri River. Numerous emigrant parties were intercepted and turned back. This circumstance led to an organized emigration to Kansas Territory overland through Iowa. Parties came in organized companies and were generally armed. These arms were furnished largely through organized movements in the Eastern states from which the emigrants came. In a number of instances cannons were brought by these emigrant parties. This daguerreotype shows one of the cannons brought by a company to Topeka in 1856.

Keywords: Cannons; Daguerreotypes; Firearms; Free State Battery; Free state; Free state activities; Free state militia; Guns; Photographs and Illustrations


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 26, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday reported an uncertain peace from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. President Franklin Pierce's January 24th announcement had commanded assemblies organized against the constitutional territorial government to disperse, and whether Missourians would carry out a threatened attack at the March 4th meeting in Topeka was unknown. Cyrus hoped to visit Meadville and sent a message to Professor Hammett. He also told Mary of his commission as Brigadier General of the Free State military.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Missourians; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Topeka, Kansas Territory


List of participants and casualties at the battle of Black Jack
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: June 2, 1856
According to this document listing the participants and those "men wounded in the battle of Palmyra or Black Jack," son-in-law Henry Thompson was "dangerously wounded."

Keywords: Black Jack, Battle of; Black Jack, Kansas Territory; Bondi, August; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Oliver; Brown, Owen; Brown, Salmon; Carpenter, A.O.; Free state militia; Militia; Missourians; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`; Pate, Henry Clay; Proslavery supporters; Thompson, Henry; Whitman, E. B.


Certificate of election, James Abbott to position of Captain in Kansas Militia
Authors: Topliff, Charles
Date: June 28, 1856
Charles W. Topliff, Major General Commanding the Kansas Militia, issued this certificate, which recognized James Abbott's commission to serve as Captain of the 2nd Company B of the Kansas Militia from the present date until January 1, 1857

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Clark, Eduard; Free state cause; Free state militia; Topliff, Charles W.


Letter, William H. Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: July 15, 1856
William H. Leeman, a follower of John Brown in Kansas and eventually a casualty of the Harpers Ferry raid, wrote this letter to his mother while "traveling across the prairies of Iowa" in July 1856. Although he briefly mentions an encounter with "2,000 border ruffians," he assures his mother that he is safe, in good health, and well armed, and that he is much happier in this "adventure" than had he staid home and "worked in a shop."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cannons; Free state militia; Iowa; Leeman, William H.; Militia; Missouri; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, G. W. Smith, Jr., to Gentlemen of the Kansas Central Committee
Authors: Smith, Jr., George W.
Date: July 17, 1857
George W. Smith, Jr., Lawrence, signed this letter, requesting a supply of "arms . . . for distribution among the Free State men who have formed themselves into Companies," Captain, "Munger Battalion, Free State Forces." Smith wrote that he led "a force of 32 mounted" men, most of whom were veterans of the "wars of Kansas," and requested the loan of "32 sabres [sic] and any revolvers that you may have to give them."

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Free state militia; Guns; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)


Bill, Gaius Jenkins to Kansas State Central Committee
Authors: Jenkins, Gaius
Date: June 24, 1856
Most of the items on this itemized bill, presented to the Kansas State Central Committee by Gaius Jenkins of Lawrence (a free-state man who was subsequently shot and killed by Jim Lane), are related to armaments (powder, lead, etc.) or other necessities for supplying a militia force.

Keywords: Ammunition; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Kansas State Central Committee; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Weapons (see also Guns)


Receipt, D. A. Clayton, Jr. to G. W. Hutchinson and William Hutchinson
Authors: Clayton, D. A., Jr.
Date: July 25, 1856
D. A. Clayton, Jr., of Topeka had received and promised to deliver to G. W. and William Hutchinson of Lawrence $134.95 worth of articles: sugar, candles, pepper, mustard, cinnamon, and flour. Under Clayton's signature is a note indicating that the provisions were supplied to "Company B.," which was under the command of H. A. Burgess.

Keywords: Free state cause; Free state militia; Hutchinson, George W.; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Receipts; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, [J.H. Lane] to His Excellancy C. [Charles] Robinson, et al
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: August 10, 1856
In a brief letter from Topeka that is very difficult to decipher, Jim Lane informs Robinson, Gen. George W. Deitzler, George W. Brown, John Brown, "& others" of his arrival with "a sufficient force" to do battle for the free state cause. He seems to counsel quick and decisive action.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Deitzler, George W.; Free state cause; Free state government; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letters, J. H. Lane to "Friends" [Robinson and others] and C. Robinson to "Dear Sir" [J.H. Lane]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles
Date: August 11, 1856
Copied by R. J. Hinton from his journal in preparation of one of his publications on the Kansas war, the first letter is Jim Lane's offer to rescue the Lecompton prisoners (Robinson, George W. Brown, Gaius Jenkins, et al) and Charles Robinson's reply, suggesting that in light of current congressional activity the plan was ill-advised. Both were dated August 11, 1856.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Congress (See United States. Congress); Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.


Letter, H. [Harris] Stratton to Mr. Brown [John Brown]
Authors: Stratton, Harris
Date: August 12, 1856
In this brief note from Topeka, Harris Stratton told John Brown that "Gen Joe Cook" (Jim Lane) wanted Brown to come to Lawrence as they were expecting "a fight on Washington Creek."

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stratton, Harris; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory


Titus Sword
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Three months after the sack of Lawrence, the Free State Milita attacked the pro-slavery stronghold of Fort Titus. Free State forces were lead by Colonel James A. Harvey. Named after Colonel Henry T. Titus, a local pro-slavery commander, Fort Titus actually was a cabin located in Lecompton. After the Free State victory on August 16th, 1856, Colonel Titus surrendered this sword to Colonel Harvey.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Harvey, James A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Objects; Swords and daggers; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 7, 1856
Just over a week after the Battle of Osawatomie, John Brown wrote his family from Lawrence about the death of "our dear Frederick" and the ensuing engagement, in which Brown himself was slightly wounded. Brown's small force "killed & wounded from 70 to 80 of the enemy" before escaping, and through it all "Jason fought bravely by my side."

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state militia; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie, Battle of; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 13, 1856
Charles Robinson wrote to John Brown from Lawrence on September 13, 1856, a short note encouraging Brown to give Governor Geary, who "talks of letting the past be forgotten," a chance and to come to town to "see us." A note from John Brown, Jr., on the bottom of the page, however, advised caution, as he had "no doubt an attempt will be made to arrest you as well as Lane."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 20, 1856
From Lawrence Charles Robinson writes to update his wife on developments in and around Lawrence since her departure. Governor John W. Geary had arrived and promised to see that the Missouri militia then threatening Lawrence "were disbanded." Robinson goes on to describe a very tense few days in September, beginning on Friday the 12th, involving militia of both sides and the governor. After a brief skirmish on the prairie east of Lawrence, Geary and some U.S. troops arrived and "the Missourians agreed to go home. It was all a farce. . . ."

Keywords: Buffum, David C.; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stubbs militia company; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; Westport, Missouri


Letter, Clarina Nichols to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885
Date: October 4, 1856
This letter, written from Elmira, New York, provides a neat outline of Clarina Nichols' goals and motivations. It deals with her speaking engagements on the situation in Kansas, her goals for the future, her family, and her belief that Susan B. Anthony would be a great help to the free state cause.

Keywords: Anthony, Susan B.; Free state cause; Free state militia; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lectures; National Kansas Committee; New York; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Pennsylvania; Relief; Temperance movement; Women


Letter, W. F. M. Arny to Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 23, 1856
W. F. M. Arny, an agent of the National Kansas Committee, wrote this letter to Thaddeus Hyatt while traveling on the Missouri River. The main focus of this letter revolved around committee business and the state of affairs in Kansas. During this visit to Kansas, Arny had reorganized the Kansas Central Committee in order to increase its efficiency, and he included in this letter a revised list of its officers and members. He also wrote about his conversation with Governor Geary concerning the various volunteer companies created by free state men. The letter ends with a brief description of the suffering of the settlers, their meager diet, and their desperate need for more provisions.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Chicago, Illinois; Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Election, Presidential, 1856; Firearms; Food; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Illness; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Money; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Relief funds; Sickness (see Illness); Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John R. Everett to Kansas Central Committee
Authors: Everett, John R.
Date: November 5, 1856
This letter, written by John Everett from Osawatomie, described the wounds suffered by George Cutter the day before the battle of Osawatomie. Everett and his family had cared for Mr. Cutter for about ten weeks and desired some monetary compensation for their efforts. An annotation added in 1895 by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, demonstrated Hyatt's annoyance that this letter presented a $60 bill for services rendered. There is also another annotation from 1895 referring to Hyatt's travels in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Cutter, George; Everett, John R.; Free state militia; Herald of Freedom; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; Medicine; Money; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Sears, W. A.; Violence; Wattles, Augustus; Wounds and injuries


Letter, J. K. [John Kagi] to My Dear Sisters
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: November 20, 1856
Killed during John Brown's Harpers Ferry raid in October 1859, John Henry Kagi, sometimes known as Brown's "Secretary of War," was "in prison at Lecompton" when he wrote this letter to his sister on November 20, 1856. Kagi, along with John Ritchie and several other free-state partisans, had been arrested by U.S. Marshal I.B. Donelson, supported by federal troops, on September 18 at Topeka and subsequently charged with "highway robbery." (See, Kansas Historical Collections, 4:561) Although "in prison," Kagi assured his sister that he was safe and could be rescued at anytime; "I hesitate only because we may get out some other way, and because a forcible rescue would bring on a terrible winter war, which I do not wish to see."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Donalson, Israel B.; Free state militia; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Newspapers - Free State; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Caleb S. Pratt to My Dear Sir [Rev. T. W. Higginson]
Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: December 1, 1856
This letter was written by Caleb Pratt from Lawrence, Kansas, to Thomas W. Higginson in Worcester, Massachusetts. He thanked Higginson for the revolvers that he had furnished for Pratt's artillery company; Pratt truly appreciated "the high minded reflecting men of the north." Pratt also spoke of the uneasy peace, stating that the free state population were still prepared to fiercely resist any encroachment on their liberty, although they were at times discouraged and war-weary. He also mentioned the election of President Buchanan less than a month before. Pratt informed Higginson of the escape of the free state prisoners from Tecumseh, although he was sure that Higginson was already aware of the incident. Apparently, Pratt had hoped to help with their escape, but he was too late. Other prisoners had also effected an escape from the Lecompton prison.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state militia; Free state perspective; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pratt, Caleb S.; Prisoners; Stubbs militia company; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore


Testimony of Thomas Bedoe
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 2, 1856
The testimony of Thomas Bedoe, a portion of the Journal of Investigations of Kansas, was apparently collected by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. It describes in detail the time Mr. Bedoe spent serving in the free state militia in the Osawatomie and Lawrence areas. He was a part of the Battle of Osawatomie and this account provides valuable information about the events preceding the battle.

Keywords: Battles; Bedoe, Thomas; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shombre, Henry J.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Stanton, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas


Testimony of S. P. Hand
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 2, 1856
This testimony, a part of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, was apparently collected by the president of the National Kansas Committee, Thaddeus Hyatt. It relates the tale of S. P. Hand, a soldier in the free state militia who took part in the battle of Fort Titus and was captured at the battle of Hickory Point. His account provides a great deal of information regarding troop movements and the workings of the free state militia.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Central Relief Committee; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Hand, S. P.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Titus, Henry Theodore


Receipt, Thomas J. Aliff to N. B. Blanton
Authors: Aliff, Thomas J.
Date: December 3, 1856
Thomas J. Aliff, one of the free-state prisoners held at Lecompton in the fall of 1856 (see previous document #101288) signed this receipt to Napoleon B. Blanton for "one pair of Drawers" and "one flanel [sic] Shirt." The total cost of these items was indicated as being $3.75.

Keywords: Blanton, Napolean Bonaparte; Blood, James; Clothing and dress; Free state militia; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Militia; Receipts


Testimonies of Nathaniel Parker, Horace L. Dunnell, Hinton S. Dunnell, Alexander MacArthur, James Hall, Jerome Hazen, and Charles Henry Caulkins
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 7, 1856
These testimonies, presumably taken down on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, include personal information about each settler, such as their age, occupation, etc., as well as their experiences in Kansas and their involvement in border warfare and skirmishes with pro-slavery settlers. Each account is descriptive and provides tremendous detail about their individual experiences. The testimonies of MacArthur, Hall, and Hazen are combined into one, with this group testimony split into two separate sections.

Keywords: Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Caulkins, Charles Henry; Cutter, Calvin M.; Dunnell, Hinton S.; Dunnell, Horace L.; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Guns; Hall, James; Harvey, James A.; Hazen, Jerome; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; MacArthur, Alexander; Missouri River; Parker, Nathaniel; Prisoners; Prisons; Proslavery activities; Skirmishing; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns); Weston, Missouri; Wounds and injuries


Testimony of Capt. Thomas Bickerton
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 12, 1856
This testimony, taken down by Thaddeus Hyatt as part of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, is divided into two parts. It begins with descriptions of his life before he came to Kansas Territory and his efforts to set up a claim outside of Lawrence, including his technique for building his sod house. Thomas Bickerton was a well traveled individual and an influential commander of a free state artillery company. He was involved in skirmishes with border ruffians and in the attack on Franklin. Also, General James Lane sent him to Kansas City to obtain a brass howitzer (later known as the Abbott howitzer) for use against the proslavery forces.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Barber, Thomas W.; Bickerton, Thomas; Border disputes and warfare; Buffum, David C.; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Franklin buildings; Free state militia; Houses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Roberts, William Young; Sawmills; Skirmishing; Topliff, Charles W.


Experiences of R. S. Griffithe, N. W. Spicer, and J. A. Harvey
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 6, 1856
These testimonies, collected by the National Kansas Committee, record the experiences of these three settlers during the turbulent times of Bleeding Kansas. These testimonies focus on each settler's involvement in free state activities and their interaction with border ruffians. Griffithe and Spicer both served in the free state militia, and Harvey, who had commanded an emigrant train from Chicago, was the commander of a free state company.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Griffithe, R. S.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Spicer, N.W.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Topeka, Kansas; Violence


Testimony of James H. Holmes
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 8, 1856
This testimony of James Holmes is a portion of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, a collection of personal stories recorded by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Mr. Holmes had studied agricultural chemistry before entering Kansas Territory, and his initial reason for emigrating was his desire to undertake agricultural experiments. He had also intended to join with Clubbs Vegetarian Settlement, which was located on the Neosho River near the north line of the Osage Reserve. He goes into detail about the Neosho valley and its vegetation, mineral deposits, etc. The rest of his account deals with his involvement in the free state militia and his role in defending Osawatomie.

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cline, Captain; Emigration and immigration; Free state militia; Harvey, James A.; Holmes, James H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Violence


Kansas Experiences of A.R. Scolen, William Reap, Ephraim Coy, and Capt. Samuel Anderson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 21, 1856 - December 23, 1856
These testimonies were collected from a number of free state settlers along Pottawatomie Creek, presumably by an associate of the National Kansas Committee. Each account includes personal information about the settler (their origins, family, crops, etc.) and also testimonies of their involvement in the free state militia.

Keywords: Agriculture; Anderson, Samuel; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Casualties; Cline, Captain; Clothing and dress; Coy, Ephraim; Crops; Food; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Illness; Livestock; Militia; Missourians; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Reap, William; Scolen, A.R.; Shore, Samuel T.; Sickness (see Illness); Skirmishing; Travel; Wounds and injuries


Receipt, James M. Arthur to Kansas State Central Committee
Authors: Arthur, James M.
Date: December 27, 1856
This receipt, dated Lawrence, December 27, 1856, read as follows: "Received . . . Of Kansas Central Committee six U S. Breach loading Rifles and two U S Muskets one Box U S Caps and six Bullet molds for Rifles Said arms to be returned on the order of said Kansas Central Committee."

Keywords: Ammunition; Blood, James; Free state militia; Guns; Kansas Central Committee; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Weapons (see also Guns)


Pamphlet, "Affairs in Kansas"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This pamphlet contains a proclamation made by President Franklin Pierce and a speech by Senator Isaac Toucey. Also included are printed copies of letters and papers which date from December 1, 1855 to February 18, 1856, and communicate between Governor Wilson Shannon and other officials in Kansas Territory and the President and officials of the federal government which relate to "difficulties" in Kansas Territory. In this document, free state efforts are described as those of a "secret military organization" working against the legitimate Territorial Government.

Keywords: Buckley, H.H.; Calhoun, John; Clarke, George W.; Davis, Jefferson; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Hargis, S.N.; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marcy, William L.; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Richardson, William P.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee Mission; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Toucey, Isaac; Weapons (see also Guns); Westport, Missouri


List, List of individuals and clothing needed by them
Authors: Cutler, A.
Date: 1856
According to an attached note that cites the Herald of Freedom, November 15, 1856, this "list of individuals and clothing" was needed by a group of free-state prisoners being held at Lecompton. A note at the end is signed by A. Cutler (or Cutter) and addressed to Mr. J. Crocker. The list includes mostly shirts, shoes, socks, pants, hats, and blankets, but a Porterfield "needed" a "half pint brandy."

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Free state cause; Free state militia; Herald of Freedom; Lecompton, Kansas Territory


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Wyandotte County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This muster roll for Captain A. H. Macauley's company listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, Kansas residence, and a place for "remarks." The latter was used to record the type of weapon the individual was issued or brought with him: e.g., Sharps, Western rifle, Carbine. All the men appeared to be residents of Quindaro, Wyandotte County in their twenties or early thirties.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Macauley, A. H.; Militia; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns); Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Memorandum, Articles wanted for an outfit of fifty volunteers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. January 1857
Among the articles itemized in this "Memorandum of articles wanted as an outfit for fifty volunteers to serve under my [John Brown?] direction during the Kansas war" are wagons, horses, blankets, frying pans, etc., at an estimated cost of $1,774.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Horses; Militia; Wagons


Letter, William A. Phillips to My Dear Friend [John Brown]
Authors: Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893
Date: June 24, 1857
To "Jas. Smith" (that is, John Brown), William A. Phillips wrote from Lawrence that he would likely not be able to meet Brown en route to KT at Tabor, Iowa, but would arrange for a few others to do so. Phillips believed Brown "should come into Kansas" if he wanted to but "there is no necessity for active military preparations now."

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Census; Free State Party; Free state militia; Holmes, James H.; Land claims; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Smith, James


Letter, Thos. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 24, 1857
Agent Thomas Marsh, Mass. State Kansas Committee, wrote another of his frequent and detailed letters to George Stearns on July 24, 1857, describing the census and other preparations that were being made for the upcoming election (most importantly, the legislative election in October of that year). Of special interest were the activities of Jim Lane by the Free State Convention to organize militarily for "the protection of the Ballot Boxes."

Keywords: African Americans; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speculation; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Order No. 1, from the Headquarters of the Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: August 3, 1857
E.B. Whitman, Quarter-Master General of the Kansas Volunteers, composed this formal order in response to the Topeka Legislature's adoption of James Lane's resolution to organize the people in protection of the ballot boxes during the next elections. Whitman, who had just been appointed as Quarter-Master General by Lane under the Ballot Box resolution, requested that each Company of the Volunteers elect their own Quarter-Master to take an inventory of firearms held by their own Company.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Owen Brown to Dear Mother [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown, Owen
Date: August 27, [1856]
On August 27, 1856, from Tabor, Iowa, Owen Brown wrote to tell his mother that according to all accounts "Father is the most daring courageous man in Kansas" and to relate other happenings in K.T. involving Jim Lane and Governor Shannon. Another invasion from Missouri was rumored, but free state recruits were assembling and "the Missourians are trembling in their Boots."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Brown, Owen; Crops; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Weapons (see also Guns); Woodson, Daniel


Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: September 7, 1857
James H. Lane, whose extant correspondence is scarce, here wrote from Lawrence to John Brown regarding his (Lane's) efforts "in perfecting an organization for the protection of the ballot box at the October Election," and Lane encouraged Brown to come "with all the materials you have." Lane was confident Brown could enter the territory safely but offered all required assistance--protection, transport, etc.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.


Commission, James Montgomery, captain
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 16, 1857
This printed commission, issued from the "Head-Quarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot-Box," was given to James Montgomery and signed by J.H. Lane and M. F. Conway, adjutant general, on September 16, 1857. Montgomery was commissioned captain of the "Little Sugar Creek Company." This would have been specifically for the territorial election, October 5, 1857.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Letter, John Brown to Genl. Jas. H. Lane
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 30, 1857
At the end of September 1857, Brown wrote to tell Lane that it would "be next to impossible in my poor state of health" to travel to K.T. "on such very short notice. I think, considering all the uncertainties of the case, want of teams, &c, that I should do wrong to set out. I am disappointed in the extreme."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Tabor, Iowa; Transportation; Travel


Letter, Henry H. Williams to Capt'n. [John] Brown
Authors: Williams, Henry H.
Date: October 12, 1857
With regard to the recent legislative election, Henry Williams of Osawatomie informed Brown that "it went off right" largely because the Free State men were throughly organized for their protection and the protection of the ballot box. Williams himself led a company of 80 men and believe word of the preparedness contributed to a quiet and successful election day.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state militia; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Stubbs militia company; Tabor, Iowa; Weapons (see also Guns); Williams, Henry H.


Letter, J. H. Lane to Genl. J. B. Abbott
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: October 15, 1857
James Lane ordered James Abbott to gather his brigade and have them in Lecompton by the following Monday. Lane perhaps responded to the results of the early October election of the Territorial Legislature, in which free state men questioned the validity of votes cast by U.S. troops, or to the meeting of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, which would reconvene on October 20.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Mr. [G. L.] Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 25, 1857
In this report from Lawrence, Whitman complained about his money problem and wrote that John Brown, who, according to Sanborn, had been in Iowa for some weeks, would be in Lawrence for "a very important council" of the military organization. "Look for something decisive this winter and Satisfactory." He informed Stearns that he (Whitman) would take care of "J. B.'s wants" as soon as he could, but there was a limit to what he could borrow on his own account. "I am willing to work, wear out, die if need be in the cause, but I cannot send a brick always without straw."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state militia; Iowa; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, J. H. Lane to Genl. A. W. Philips
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: December 17, 1857
James Lane, Major General of the free state militia forces, wrote to General A. W. Philips, ordering him to Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to help "our friends who are there. . .defending themselves against an invading force."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Philips, A.W.; Skirmishing; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory


General Staff Roll, Officers on duty at Sugar Mound
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 19, 1857
This roll list documents the attendance of various Kansas Militia officers to a skirmish at Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory , including Major General James Lane. The list appears to be incomplete, as age, stature, and equipment notes for each man are only provided on the list's first page.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Blunt, James G.; Free state militia; Gilpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leonhardt, Charles F. W., 1827-1884; Linn County, Kansas Territory; McCannon, John; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Shore, Samuel T.; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.; Williams, Henry H.


Letter, Your affectionate Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: December 21, 1857
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego, in addition to elaborating on hunting and mill work, described at length the skirmishing between local free state and proslavery men, which had been continuous throughout the summer and fall. He reported the manner in which Missourians had seized and occupied lands in the absence of their owners, who were free state men. "Bogus courts" had brought the free state men who defended their lands to court, which resulted in so many fees owed that the men had to sell their land to pay them; the new owners were usually Missourians. Trego accused proslavery supporters of fabricating stories about destruction caused by warring Abolitionists in order to draw the support of the U.S. troops. Controversy over the Lecompton Constitution flourished in free state circles; the Free State Legislature in Topeka had repealed the "bogus laws" of the Territorial Legislature and appointed James Lane the head of a free state militia.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Business enterprises; Free state legislature; Free state militia; Hunting; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Military; Mills and mill-work; Missourians; Proslavery supporters; Sharps rifles; Skirmishing; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to My Dear Wife
Authors: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: December 22, 1857
James Abbott, serving as a Colonel in the Kansas free state militia wrote from a military skirmish in Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife back in Lawrence. He had hoped to return home within a week from his departure, but now received word from James Lane, Major General of the militia, that he could start home the following Saturday. Abbott reported the events of the skirmish, which thus far had only resulted in the arrests of some men; no deaths had been reported.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Skirmishing; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory


Muster roll, Burlingame Rifles Company C
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1857
This "Muster Roll" lists men of Burlingame Rifles Company C, under the leadership of Captain H.W. Wood, who "mustered into the service" of the protection of the people of Kansas Territory. This particular documents lists men by their rank, and includes their names, age, height, and riding equipment and firearms owned.

Keywords: Burlingame Rifles; Free state cause; Free state militia; Horses; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns); Wood, H.W.


Kansas Experience of William Beh
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: c. 1857
This testimony, presumably from the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, was most likely recorded on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. This particular testimony is a very brief account of William Beh's experiences during the turbulent times of 1856 and 1857. It includes information about his claim on the south fork of Pottawatomie Creek and his involvement in the militia as a member of Capt. Samuel Anderson's company. He also requests aid, because he has been sick for three or four months.

Keywords: Anderson County, Kansas Territory; Anderson, Samuel; Beh, William; Border disputes and warfare; Free state militia; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory


Muster Roll, Potawatomie Rifles, Co. B, Capt. Benjamin
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1857 or 1858
This roll list named the members of the Potawatomie Rifles, Company B, of the Kansas free state militia. Under the direction of Captain Jacob Benjamin, the men were listed by rank, paired with information about their rank, age, height, and weapons or horses owned.

Keywords: Benjamin, Jacob; Free state militia; Horses; Militia; Pottawatomie Rifles; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Wm. Stanley to Dear [John A.] Halderman
Authors: Stanley, William
Date: January 12, 1858
Shortly after Halderman left Leavenworth for a trip east (Washington, D. C., it is nearly certain), William Stanley wrote him from Leavenworth regarding some "excitement" that had occurred there the very day Halderman left. Many were fearful of "attack" and thus the alarms were "sounded. . . . Hundreds of free state men were soon in arms, and the proslavery party exhibited more of apprehension than I have ever witnessed before." He mentions proslavery men leaving for Shawnee, the fact that many free-state men had recently been driven out of nearby Kickapoo, that John Calhoun was given a military escort to Lecompton, and his confidence that the [Lecompton] constitution would pass the Congress.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Free state; Free state militia; Halderman, John Adams; Kickapoo, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Proslavery; Stanley, William


Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to Capt. Bayne
Authors: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: February 3, 1858
James Abbott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Captain O. P. Bayne, explaining his delay in responding to Bayne's request for military aid. Abbott told him that his engagement with the committee investigating election fraud in the December 21 and January 4 elections had caused him to pass the request to General Phillips (possiblity William A. Phillips). Phillips, instead of responding directly, waited for Major General James Lane to return to town and approve the action. Abbott was apologetic, stating "if I had been at liberty I would have started at once. . .entirely independent of the Territorial Militia."

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Bayne, O. P.; Election fraud; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891


Letter, Your loving husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: February 11, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego responded emotionally to his wife's proposition that she would travel East in the spring to visit friends and come to the Territory in the fall, instead of the coming spring as previously planned; he conveyed great disappointment, but insisted that she go if she really wanted to. According to Trego, the structure that would shelter his mill would be raised the next day, and Fort Scott had been seized peacefully be free state men "as the villains fled to save their bacon." He doubted that the treaty drawn there would change the antagonistic conduct of the opposing sides.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Letter, Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: February 28, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Mound City, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego described his overland travels to an Osage Indian trading post and his encounters with the Osage people. He and his friend, Edwin, traveled through Fort Scott, Bourbon County, on their way back to Sugar Mound; Trego recounted their tour of the town, with large homes, a Plaza at the town's center, and a steam mill much like his own. Trego reported that, if they had stayed longer in Fort Scott, they may not have been allowed out, as free state men were collecting in large numbers to capture proslavery "thieves" and destroy the town in the process.

Keywords: Animals; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Indian lands; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Osage Indians; Real estate investment; Steam power; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trading posts; Travel; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; United States. Army


Letter, Wm. R. Griffith to Col. [James] Abbott
Authors: Griffith, William Riley
Date: April 26, 1858
William R. Griffith wrote to James Abbott, Colonel in the Kansas free state militia, informing him that General Eldrige had 40 carbines in his possession. Eldrige was willing to give them to the free state forces, as long as delivery charges were paid by the recipient. Griffith offered to receive the carbines and pay the charges if Abbott himself would retrieve them from Griffith in Little Osage.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state cause; Free state militia; Griffith, William Riley; Guns; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory


Articles of Agreement for Shubel Morgan's Company
Authors: Morgan, Shubel
Date: July 12, 1858
In July 1858, fifteen men including Shubel Morgan, alias John Brown, J. H. Kagi, James Montgomery, and Augustus Wattles signed this document and thus "agree[d] to be governed by the following rules" of conduct. The rules included "gentlemanly and respectful deportment," obedience to the commander's orders, "no intoxicating drinks," etc.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state militia; Kagi, John Henry; Military; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Morgan, Shubel; Wattles, Augustus


Record of Arms disbursed by the Kansas State Central Committee
Authors: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: September 24, 1858
Opening with an entry signed by James Montgomery, acknowledging receipt a Sharps rifle and a Colt revolver "to be used in defense of Kansas," this small leather-bound volume contains over 30 such entries for numerous weapons.

Keywords: Blood, James; Free state militia; Guns; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Kansas State Central Committee; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Your Friend [most likely John Brown] to Capt. James Montgomery
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: January 2, 1859
This brief letter from a "Friend"--most likely John Brown--to James Montgomery, the Linn County jawhawker, was addressed from "Turkey Creek," January 2, 1859: "Osawattomie men made a drive into Missouri the other night, since which some of the settlers & other friends have made a stand on the line to prevent an invasion. You are requested to hold yourself in readiness to call out reinforcements at a moments notice."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Jayhawking; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter, Frank Walker to Dear Brother
Authors: Walker, Frank
Date: May 23, 1859
This is part of a series of letters from Frank Walker written in Mound City, Linn County, Kansas Territory. The letter implied that Walker was part of a free state militia group and indicated that the free state men never stole things. He wrote that the proslavery men took their horses. He mentioned a meeting of the Republican Party and that Horace Greeley gave a speech.

Keywords: Free state militia; Free state perspective; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Walker, Frank


Letter, William F. Creitz to "Col. James Redpath"
Authors: Creitz, William F.
Date: December 17, 1859
William F. Creitz of Holton, who had served under Aaron Stevens as captain of a Kansas militia company, wrote Redpath regarding "the particulars of 'Old John Brown's' final departure from this territory." Brown and company, which included "eleven fugitives," reached Holton on January 27, 1859, and Creitz described the events that followed, to which he was an "eyewitness" and participant, including the Battle of the Spurs. Creitz's "article" was prepared "to assist you [Redpath] in your praiseworthy undertaking that of publishing the lives of those heroic men." Redpath published "Echoes of Harper's Ferry" in 1860, and Richard J. Hinton used this material in his "John Brown and His Men (1894).

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Battles; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Holton, Kansas Territory; Jackson County, Kansas Territory (see also Calhoun County, Kansas Territory); Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Militia; Nebraska Territory; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Slave power; Spurs, Battle of the; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Underground railroad; United States marshals


Letter, C. G. Allen to Redpath and Hinton
Authors: Allen, C. G.
Date: December 1859
Allen, a "minister of the Gospel" at Cottonwood Falls, K.T., wrote in response to the Redpath/Hinton call for "anecdotes & reminiscences" concerning "the brave & philanthropic [John] Brown," who the preacher first met in Lawrence in 1856. Allen left Lawrence when a call came for volunteers to aid in the defense of Osawatomie in August of that year and while there engaged saw his first "Border Ruffians," who he described as "miserable specimens of humanity. They were ragged & dirty. Their cloths & faces were to a considerable extent covered with tobacco spit." Allen and the men he was with actually missed the Battle of Osawatomie by moving south before the attack in an effort to find the attackers before they reached the town.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Stanton, Kansas Territory


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Robert A. Edwards submitted claim #221 for losses and damages suffered at the hands of James Lane's men under the command of Captain Jameson in August and September, 1856. His list was detailed and included livestock, furniture, food, and household goods. He lived in Shawnee County. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Agricultural implements; Damage claims; Edwards, Robert A.; Food; Free state militia; Furniture; House furnishings; Household equipment; Jameson, A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Livestock; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Letter, Paul Shepherd to James Redpath
Authors: Shepherd, Paul
Date: January 3, 1860
From Dover, Michigan, Paul Shepherd--formerly of Kansas Territory--wrote Redpath to pass along "some useful information, in repect to John H. Kagi." Of most interest, perhaps is Shepherd's account of the "shoot out" at Tecumseh between Kagi and Judge Rush Elmore, who Kagi had accused of "being a prime mover in the murderous attack upon him" at Lecompton in mid-January 1857.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Border ruffians; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Moffett, Charles; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery perspective; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka boys; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Photograph, Charles Ransford Jennison
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Probably 1861
Charles Jennison was born in New York state in 1834 and settled in Osawatomie, Kansas Territory in 1857. He was active in the free state cause and was active in free state militia company. He was credited with several raids into Bates County, Missouri, and was part of a group that captured and hanged a proslavey supporter named Russell Hinds. He was an associate of James Montgomery. During the Civil War, he was a Colonel in the 7th Kansas Cavalry.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state militia; Hinds, Russell; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Violence


Autobiography, Volume 2
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: Circa 1896
These sections of this volume of the autobiography were titled "Border War, Kansas Territory, 1856," and "Hickory Point." Sketches and watercolors by Reader accompanied portions of the text. The Border War section described events in which Reader participated as part of a free state militia. This section provided detail about militia activities as well as contact with John Brown and Aaron Stevens (Captain Whipple). The second section described the Battle of Hickory Point which occurred on September 13, 1856. The accounts in the autobiography were based on Reader's diaries.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hickory Point, Kansas Territory; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles)


Battle of Indianola from Autobiography, volume 1
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: 1906
The section of Samuel Reader's autobiography deals with the Battle of Indianola, which occurred on August 30, 1856. The autobiography is based on notes from his diary for the same period. The reminiscence describes events near Indianola, Shawnee Co. when the local militia gathered to prevent theft and burning by pro slavery supporters but no fighting actually occurred.

Keywords: Free state militia; Indianola, Battle of; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory


Illustration, Battle of Hickory Point
Authors: Breyman, W.
Date: undated, ca. 1856
This illustration was based on the eye-witness experience of W. Breyman. The Battle of Hickory Point took place 5 miles east of Ozawkie, in Jefferson County. Pro-slavery forces surrendered to Free state forces, led by James Harvey, only six hours after they were first attacked. However, Harvey's 101 men were later captured and charged with murder in the first degree; about twenty of those men were convicted and sentenced to five years in the Penitentiary.

Keywords: Battles; Bickerton, Thomas; Breyman, W.; Free state militia; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Illustrations; Militia; Proslavery supporters


Experience of John E. Stewart
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856?
This undated document, presumably written by John E. Stewart, relates the author's experiences in Kansas Territory. The reminiscence begins with a description of how he entered the territory and the manner in which he constructed a house. Then, intermixed with accounts of his agricultural efforts and other day-to-day activities, there are brief mentions of the political situation in the territory. The main focus of the document then turns to when Stewart was a member of the Wakarusa Liberty Guard, including a description of the murder of Charles Dow, the murder of Hoyt, the Branson rescue, and other encounters with border ruffians.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Construction; Dow, Charles W.; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state militia; House furnishings; Houses; Hoyt, David Starr; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Skirmishing; Stewart, John E.; Titus, Henry Theodore


Photograph, James Montgomery
Authors: Leonard & Martin, artists
Date: 
James Montogomery came to Linn County, Kansas Territory, early in the territorial period after living in Ohio, Kentucky and Missouri. He was active in the free state cause and was involved in most of the conflict between pro-slavery and free state forces in that area. He was ordered off his property but refused to leave the area. He raised a militia troop that was active in 1857.

Keywords: Free state militia; Free state supporters; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Photographs and Illustrations


Reminiscence, Branson rescue
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: unknown
James Abbott, a free state activist who participated in several Territorial conflicts, including the rescues of John Doy and Jacob Branson, chronicled his account of the rescue of Jacob Branson by handwritten manuscript or personal interview, here presented as a typed transcript. Sheriff Jones, supported by the proslavery "bogus" legislature, had arrested Jacob Branson, a free state man who witnessed the murder of Dow. Abbott and his cohorts endeavored to rescue him, and were successful, though their actions were controversial even among fellow free state supporters.Certain aspects of Abbott's account of these events, however, are in contention with an earlier account by Samuel Wood; Abbott actively addressed these discrepancies in this document.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Big Springs Convention; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Dixon, Howard; Dow, Charles W.; Free state militia; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Land claim disputes; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lock, Fred; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Saunders, Henry F.; Smith, Samuel C.; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Photograph, Gaius Jenkins
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Gaius Jenkins was born in New York state in 1812. He and his wife came to Kansas City, Missouri in 1853. He moved to Lawrence, Kansas Territory, in 1854 and was active in the free state cause, serving as a Colonel in the Free State Militia. He was taken prisoner along with John Brown, Jr.; Charles Robinson and several others and held near Lecompton. He was killed in Lawrence on June 3, 1858, by James Lane over a land dispute.

Keywords: Ambrotypes; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Prisoners


Reminiscence, Account of obtaining Sharp's rifles
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: unknown
James Abbott recalled his experiences as a free state activist who participated in several Territorial conflicts. This transcribed version of the events is either a copy of an original handwritten manuscript or a compilation based on a personal oral interview. Abbott related a brief history of the Territory's political conflicts between free state and proslavery men and recounted the events of his own trip back East to secure funds and rifles for the free state cause. His purchases included a mountain howitzer and 117 sharp's rifles, all of which were smuggled under cover of disguise back to Kansas Territory and into the arms of free state militia.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Cracklin, Joseph; Free state activities; Free state militia; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Proslavery activities; Saunders, Henry F.; Sharps rifles; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

The current URL is http://www.territorialkansasonline.org/~imlskto/cgi-bin/index.php?SCREEN=keyword&selected_keyword=Free%20st
ate%20militia&sort_by=true&submit=Go&allresults=1.
This file was last modified September 12 2013 04:09:26 PM.