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33 results for Free state legislature:
Concurrent Resolutions, Topeka Legislature, House and Senate [1858]
Authors: Free State Legislature
Date: no date
These handwritten copies of two, slightly different, concurrent resolutions were passed by the House and the Senate of the Topeka Free-State Legislature, probably in 1858. They established the legitimacy of the state government under the Topeka Constitution, and "respectfully urge[d] the Territorial Legislature, now in session, at Lawrence, to take immediate steps for removing the present forms of a territorial government, so that the legitimate government of the people may become the only government in Kansas."

Keywords: Free state government; Free state legislature; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [T. W. Higginson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: August 27, 1855
This letter, written by free state governor Charles Robinson, was sent to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist. Robinson discussed in rather general terms the troubles facing Kansas, stating that he believed this struggle did not only involve Kansas, "but I regard it as one in which the whole nation is involved." Robinson also expressed doubts that the North would support the free state settlers in the territory, writing that they can only "hope" for reinforcements, not take them for granted. He asked Higginson to stir up Northerners against the bogus legislature, and made mention of ex-Governor Reeder and opposition to the bogus legislature. In general, this letter eloquently demonstrates the passion of this free state leader and his dedication to the cause of liberty.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Bogus legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee Manual Labor School


Letter, [Josiah Miller] to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: Nov 11 1855
Josiah Miller, having recently bought out his business partner, Robert G. Elliott, from their jointly owned newspaper, the Kansas Free State, wrote to his parents in South Carolina about his recent business ventures. He stated that "papers don't pay" and expressed his interest in land claims and real estate, which would earn him more money. Miller also told his parents that he was continuing to search for a farm in Wyandotte County for them to settle on when they arrive in Kansas Territory. He hoped that Congress would approve the constitution that the Free State men had recently submitted.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Constitutions; Free state legislature; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Land acquisition; Land claim disputes; Miller, Josiah; Sawmills; Squatters; Topeka Constitution; Town development


Letter, Wm E. G [William Goodnow] to My Dear Wife [Harriet Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, William E.
Date: December 16, 1855
William Goodnow wrote from Shannon, Kansas Territory, to his wife Harriet in New England, relating details of recent political and military events in the Territory. Goodnow reported that he had participated in the election for the adaptation of the State Constitution as it was drawn up by the free state convention at Topeka. He added that the coming weekend would bring a convention in Lawrence to nominate state officers. Goodnow also communicated news of the end of the Wakarusa War and the restoration of peace in the area; he had no doubt that freedom would prevail.

Keywords: Election, Topeka Constitution ratification, December 1855; Free state legislature; Goodnow, Harriet; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Goodnow, William E.; Herald of Freedom; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, Samuel Adair to the Free Mission Sewing Society of the First Congregational Church
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: Circa 1856
Rev. Adair wrote from Osawatomie, K.T. and described the physical characteristics of Kansas as well as the efforts on behalf of the free state cause. The letter detailed efforts to establish Congregational churches in Kansas as well as discussing the activities of other denominations.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Congregational churches; Free state legislature; Free state perspective; Landscape; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Methodists; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Missionaries; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 4, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from bitterly cold Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Fearing an attack by the Missourians on March 4th, the day the Free State Legislature was to meet in Topeka, he advised Mary to wait before traveling to K. T. with Lillie and Mrs. Nichols. Cyrus also requested northern newspapers.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Missourians; Newspapers; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Weather


Journal, House of Representatives, Topeka (1856)
Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler
Date: 1856-1857
This Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Kansas was, apparently, the original record of the Free State Provisional Government of Kansas, which was organized at the Big Springs Convention September 5, 1855. Joel K. Goodin was chief clerk of the House and felt the journal was "a flat contradiction of the pro-slavery inuendo, that we were all abolitionists from Boston, Massachusetts, and hired to come to Kansas by the Emigrant Aid Society." The first two pages of the original bound journal have been scanned. The original is oversized with the pages measuring 9.5 inches wide and 14 inches high. The journal, as published in its entirety in the Kansas Historical Collections volume 13 pages 166-249, follows the two pages from the original.

Keywords: Free State Party; Free state government; Free state legislature; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Prohibition; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States. Congress; United States. Congress. House


Organization of the Free State Government in Kansas with the Inaugural Speech and Message of Governor Robinson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 4, 1856
This pamphlet provides a vivid description of the scene, players, and proceedings of the initial sessions of the Free State Government convened in Topeka. From Governor Charles Robinson's inaugural speech, the intent of the new Legislature was clear: they convened in order to formulate a State government which would serve their political interests and would reflect the principle of "squatter [popular] sovereignty", since the existing Territorial government was merely provisional and furthermore did not advance their free-state aspirations.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Free state legislature; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Speeches, addresses, etc.; Squatter sovereignty; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Minutes, Free State Legislature
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 6, 1856
The minutes of the Topeka free state legislature's meeting on March 6, 1856 was published in the Kansas Daily Tribune on the next day, March 7, 1856. The Senate primarily discussed admission to the Union and whether or not the decisions of the territorial legislature should supercede those of the United States Congress. The House of Representatives discussed the national government's stance on the murder of Thomas Barber and decided to draft a document listing the grievances of the people of Kansas. The speaker of the House also announced the members of the various standing committees. Lastly, the House resolved that all laws passed by this body would become effective once Kansas entered the Union.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Reese P.; Curtiss, John; Free state legislature; Minutes; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); United States. Congress


Proclamation, Results of the Free State Election
Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: March 7, 1856
This proclamation, published in the Kansas Daily Tribune on March 7, 1856, announced to the public the results of the election for senators and representatives in the Topeka legislature. These members of the free state legislature had been asked to meet in Topeka on March 4, 1856 (three days earlier). The proclamation was issued by James Lane and Joel Goodin.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Allen, Lyman; Blood, James; Brown, John, Jr.; Curtiss, John; Dickey, Milton C.; Elections; Free state legislature; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; McClure, W. M.; Newspapers; Shore, Samuel T.; Thornton, Thomas G.; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas; Updegraff, W. W.


Senate Executive Documents, Reports from Colonel E.V. Sumner
Authors: Sumner, Edwin Vose
Date: May 16, 1856 - August 31, 1856
Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner, leader of a Kansas Territory cavalry regiment, corresponded primarily with Territorial Governer Wilson Shannon and the Secretary of War's Adjutant General regarding military action taken in response to the Sack of Lawrence and the subsequent retaliatory skirmishes between free state and proslavery men. Sumner maintained that safety in the Territory could not be guaranteed "unless the posse of the U.S. Marshal was dismissed" in favor of local troops. Fearing civil war, Sumner and his correspondents discussed the convening of the Topeka Legislature, which they dubbed "bogus".

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Skirmishing; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States marshals; Violence; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: June 22, 1856
During a lull, Cyrus K. Holliday reported from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania that Colonel Edwin V. Sumner had forced proslavery troops back to Missouri and camped on the border. Two free state men from Wisconsin had killed proslavery supporters near Osawatomie. Governor Wilson Shannon had resigned. A "large mass convention" was planned for July 2nd and 3rd, with a meeting of the free state legislature on the 4th. Cyrus advised Mary and Mr. Nichols to wait until after the 4th to travel to the territory.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Holidays; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Letter, W. Y. Roberts [&] S. C. Pomeroy to C. K. Holliday, Esq
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Roberts, William Y.
Date: June 24, 1856
William Y. Roberts and Samuel C. Pomeroy reported their activates from Willard's, a hotel popular with wealthy congressmen in Washington, D. C., to Cyrus K. Holliday in Topeka, Kansas Territory. They described the legislators' and President Franklin Pierce's eagerness to resolve K. T. troubles. While approving the July 4th meeting of the free state legislature, they cautioned Holliday to promote peace.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Roberts, William Young; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: July 2, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory, where hundreds of free state supporters were gathering for a Mass Convention on the 3rd and meeting of the free state legislature on the 4th, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Cyrus reported that U. S. dragoons from Fort Leavenworth and Fort Riley were camped around Topeka, since difficulty was expected. [In fact, U. S. and proslavery troops dispersed the free state legislature on the 4th.) Two companies of northern immigrants had been turned back at the Missouri River. Cyrus seemed skeptical that effective action would be taken against this outrage.

Keywords: Dragoons; Emigration and immigration; Federal troops; Free state legislature; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Constitution Hall, Topeka, Kansas Territory
Authors: Unknown
Date: 1856
Exterior view of Constitution Hall with Col. Edwin Vose Sumner dispersing the Free-State Legislature, Topeka, Kansas Territory, July 4, 1856. Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 26, 1856.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka buildings; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States. Army


Letter, Nelson Rusk to Wm. Barnes
Authors: Rusk, Nelson
Date: July 13, 1856
Nelson Rusk, writing from Topeka, described for William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, economic conditions and political events in Kansas. Rusk commented on the high cost of living and described in negative terms Col. Edwin V. Sumner's dispersal of the free state legislature on July 4, 1856.

Keywords: Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Cost and standard of living; Economic conditions; Free state legislature; Prices; Rusk, Nelson; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Plan of Action, Charles Robinson
Authors: Higginson, Thomas Wentworth
Date: November 5, 1856
This document lays out the plan of action proposed by Charles Robinson at a meeting of free state leaders in Boston on November 5, 1856. Most likely these notes from the meeting were written by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a radical abolitionist from Massachusetts. Six resolutions were passed, some focusing on emigration and others on land sales or fundraising. The back of the document lists the names of those present at the meeting, including such influential figures as Senator Henry Wilson and Eli Thayer.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Cabot, Samuel; Emery, James Stanley; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Free state legislature; Immigration and early settlement; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Smith, Gerritt; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: December 20, 1856
Just released from "prison" after three months, John H. Kagi wrote to his father (who still resided in their native Ohio but was then in Nebraska City) from Topeka, regarding the poor state of his health and finances, as well as politics and future plans. Kragi wanted his father and/or his father's money in KT as soon as possible.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state legislature; Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Ohio; Topeka Tribune


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sister"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: May 20, 1857
On May 20, 1857, Kagi wrote his sister from Lawrence, explaining that he had been sick with the measles for some time but was now just busy writing for the newspaper and "preparing laws for the Free State Legislature," which was scheduled to convene in June. "We shall try hard to put the State Government into operation."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state legislature; Illness; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness)


Message of Charles Robinson, Governor of Kanzas, Delivered at Topeka, June 11, 1857
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: June 11, 1857
Charles Robinson addressed his remarks to the Senate and House of Representatives that met as the extra legal free state legislature during 1856 and 1857. He reviewed the violence that had occurred since the legislature first convened in March, 1856. He also indicated that since their terms would soon expire, the legislature needed to pass an election law and make provisions for a census, otherwise the free state government would no longer exist if it had not formal procedures for continuing. The address included several statements about how the officially recognized government was usurping its powers.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Augustus Wattles to Jas. Smith Esq.
Authors: Wattles, Augustus
Date: June 18, 1857
From Lawrence on June 18, 1857, Augustus Wattles wrote Jas. Smith (Is this a Brown alias?) regarding affairs in Kansas Territory, specifically referring to several of the Free State Party's leaders: "Holmes' is at Emporia plowing. Conway's here talking politics. Phillips is here trying to urge the free State men to galvanize the Topeka Constitution into life. . . ." and Robinson had "dispirited the Free State party" by his absence from the legislature last winter, making it "difficult to make them rally again under him." Although one hears "much against Brown" he is "as good as ever."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state legislature; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Herald of Freedom; Holmes, James H.; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, James; Topeka Constitution; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: July 20 [1857]
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother, recently settled in Illinois. He discussed with them family news, and attached a postscript regarding their land warrants in Kansas Territory. Miller also referred to the free state supporters' rejection of a charter put in place by the "bogus legislature" in Lecompton, and the subsequent meeting of the free state legislature in Topeka. A census had been taken by free state men in the largest pro-slavery localities. According to Miller, this census found that free state men outnumbered proslavery supporters by at least 1 to 7.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Miller, Josiah; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Speech of Senator Douglas, of Illinois, on the President's Message
Authors: Douglas, Stephen
Date: December 9, 1857
Senator Stephen Douglas delivered this speech in the United States Senate, responding to President Buchanan's decision to let Congress determine whether or not to admit Kansas into the Union. Douglas approved of the decision, as he believed it was not an Executive matter. Douglas reiterated the point that the members of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention were appointed to frame a sample government, subject to the approval of the Territory's citizens, not to make a government themselves. Although he disapproved of the means used to submit the Lecompton Constitution to Congress, Douglas judged that the free state government in Topeka was an unlawful legislative body.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election fraud; Free state legislature; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Missouri compromise; Popular sovereignty; Slavery; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, Sam. F. Tappan to Dr Gen [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: December 14, 1857
This letter, written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory by Samuel Tappan, began with small talk about his personal life. Tappan quickly moved on, however, to the political affairs of the area. Apparently, Charles Robinson and James Lane were encouraging the free state population to vote in the next election regarding the Lecompton Constitution. They were planning on holding a free state convention in a couple of weeks to decide if this was the best course of action. Tappan believed that if free state men voted in the upcoming election, it would be a tacit acceptance of slavery. He was also disappointed that the Topeka government had failed, blaming its collapse on the fact that it had been too concerned with weighing "the chances of success in Washington." The free state territorial legislature had just opened its session in Lecompton.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Constitutions; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Free state legislature; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: December 18, 1857
Upon his return to the East (Boston), Marsh wrote to Stearns on December 18, 1857, to provide a relatively brief outline of his experience and accomplishments since leaving for Kansas Territory on committee business the previous June. He said others could be the judge of the success of the "mission," but "a Free State Legislature was secured by the election" and Governor Charles Robinson had been "quite complimentary" of Marsh in a letter to Amos A. Lawrence.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Cato, Sterling G.; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Steamboats; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Territorial politics and government; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Your affectionate Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: December 21, 1857
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego, in addition to elaborating on hunting and mill work, described at length the skirmishing between local free state and proslavery men, which had been continuous throughout the summer and fall. He reported the manner in which Missourians had seized and occupied lands in the absence of their owners, who were free state men. "Bogus courts" had brought the free state men who defended their lands to court, which resulted in so many fees owed that the men had to sell their land to pay them; the new owners were usually Missourians. Trego accused proslavery supporters of fabricating stories about destruction caused by warring Abolitionists in order to draw the support of the U.S. troops. Controversy over the Lecompton Constitution flourished in free state circles; the Free State Legislature in Topeka had repealed the "bogus laws" of the Territorial Legislature and appointed James Lane the head of a free state militia.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Business enterprises; Free state legislature; Free state militia; Hunting; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Military; Mills and mill-work; Missourians; Proslavery supporters; Sharps rifles; Skirmishing; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Pamphlet, Address to the American People on the Affairs of Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
This address recounted the history and purpose of the formation of the Kansas State Government of Topeka, in peaceful opposition to that of the Territory. The free state message accused the systems of the Territorial Government of encouraging influence from abroad in their election process, and indicated that they had nothing inherently against Missouri's citizens as a whole, but implored that they not attempt to violate the rights of Kansas settlers. The address stated that the Territory was "organized for defence" by a pledge from Governor Walker, and appealed that outsiders remain in their homes for the benefit of all.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Big Springs Convention; Border disputes and warfare; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Election fraud; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Missourians; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Schuyler, Philip Church; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Poll Book, Atchison, Lecompton Constitution
Authors: Adams, Franklin G.
Date: January 4, 1858
On January 4, 1858, by act of the free-state territorial legislature, the voters of K. T. were given a second chance to vote on the Lecompton Constitution. This poll book lists the names of 319 individuals who voted "'against the Constitution framed at Lecompton' there being no votes given 'for the Constitution framed at Lecompton with slavery' and no votes given 'for the Constitution framed at Lecompton without slavery.'" The authenticity of the document was attested to by election judges, including F.G. Adams, and two clerks.

Keywords: Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), 1824-1899; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Eastin, Lucian J.; Elections; Free state legislature; Popular sovereignty; Slavery


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My dear friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: January 16, 1858
E. B. Whitman wrote Sanborn this lengthy letter from Lawrence, describing the political events that had unfolded in the territory since the October 5, 1857, election. Among many other things, he mentioned the split that took the "National democrats" out of the movement over the issue of participation in the state elections under the Lecompton Constitution, January 1857. This "Free State ticket" was, according to Whitman, "a disgrace to the cause," but it attracted a good number of votes and won "a good working majority in both houses and so our people proclaim a victory." Whitman, who had long been a faithful supporter, was seemingly losing confidence in John Brown, as were "the people."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Education; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Elections; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Herald of Freedom; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Territorial government; United States. Congress; United States. Senate; Whitman, E. B.


Minority Report of Senator Douglas of Illinios on the Kansas-Lecompton Constitution
Authors: Douglas, Stephen
Date: February 18, 1858
Senator Stephen Douglas, as a member of the Committee on the Territories, presented this report, which analyzed the Lecompton and Topeka constitutional rivalry, for the consideration of the President. Douglas found that, under the Kansas-Nebraska Act, no government of Kansas, Territorial or otherwise, had the power to draft any constitution without the intital consent of Congress; the territories, though "self-governed" were not sovereign entities, and still were to defer to the direction of the federal government. He argued that even the recognized territorial government had no right to convene a constitutional convention without Congressional approval, and the vote the Lecompton Convention presented to the people offered no opportunity to fully reject the Lecompton Constitution, but only to accept or reject the slavery provision; a person could not vote against making Kansas a slave state unless he was also willing to vote for the Lecompton Constitution. Douglas, however, in his report likened this unauthorized act of Lecompton Constitutional Convention as much "revolution" and "treasonable pertinacity" as those actions of the free state government in Topeka; neither group held legitimate authority to draft or present their constitutions.

Keywords: Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Free state legislature; Illinois; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Popular sovereignty; Slavery; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: December 14, 1858
After returning to Lawrence from a trip east, Whitman wrote Franklin B. Sanborn a mostly personal letter regarding the preparations for the winter and need to extend the loan owed to Sanborn--he had crops enough for subsistence but little cash. Near the end, Whitman commented briefly on the political situation, which was "quiet" at present, but "the difficulties in Linn & Bourbon Counties are renewed" and "J. B. is on the ground and engaged in 'Regulating.'"

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Crops; Farmers; Free state legislature; Insurance; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to S. N. Wood
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: April 17, 1860
From Washington, D.C., Pomeroy wrote to express his concern for the Woods who had just lost their "'House & Effect'" in a fire. But as consolation Pomeroy informed Wood that Kansas was "going to be admitted 'into the family of States,' this season." Then, making reference to the 1856 dispersal of the Topeka free state legislature, Pomeroy wrote: "I wonder if our State Legislature could not be called together at Topeka upon the 4th of July, to commemorate the day of our being 'dispersed' by the United States Soldiers!!" Although optimistic, Pomeroy conceded politics might still hold up admission, if the anti-Seward forces thought Kansas votes might influence the decision of the upcoming Chicago convention.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Atchison, Kansas Territory; Deitzler, George W.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Fires; Free state legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; United States. Congress


Photograph, Joel Kishler Goodin
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Joel Kishler Goodin was a active participant in the Topeka Movement. He served as clerk of the House of Representatives that met in Topeka and also as secretary of the Executive Committee. He was a delegate to the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention where he promoted the adoption of the Topeka Constitution.

Keywords: Free state legislature; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Goodin, Joel Kishler; Leavenworth Constitution; Photographs and Illustrations; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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