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159 results for Free state cause:
Blank Certificate to acknowledge donations to the Free State Kansas Fund
Authors: Free State Kansas Fund
Date: unknown
This blank certificate was to be used to acknowledge contributions to be used for the relief of "Free State Citizens" and for the "establishment of FREEDOM" in Kansas Territory. It had three lithographs and quotes from the constitution and the Missouri Compromise. It was printed in Albany, New York.

Keywords: Certificates; Free State Kansas Fund; Free state cause; Free state support; New York; Relief


Surveying Equipment
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1845-1855
Albert D. Searl used this equipment to survey Kansas Territory town sites in 1854. Lawrence was surveyed on Sept. 25th and Topeka on Dec. 20th. Searl's efforts to set town limits for free-staters in Lawrence were met with violence from pro-slavery forces nearby. Searl would later survey Manhattan, Osawatomie, Burlington, & El Dorado.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Skirmishing; Surveyors; Topeka, Kansas; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Walker Shotgun
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1854
Shotgun of Captain Samuel Walker, brought by him to Kansas in June, 1854, and used in the Battle of Fort Titus.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Guns; Objects; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Mr. [Eli] Thayer
Authors: Branscomb, Charles H.; Robinson, Charles
Date: July 26, 1855
Charles Robinson, free state leader and activist, wrote to Eli Thayer, organizer of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, introducing James Abbott to him. Robinson described Abbott as trustworthy and "true as steel to the cause of Freedom in Kansas". He also expressed to Thayer that the rifles previously shipped to Lawrence had had a "very good effect", and suggested he procure more. At the end of Robinson's letter, Charles Branscomb, Secretary pro tempore of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, endorsed Robinson, an agent for the Company, and his support of Abbott.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Branscomb, Charles H.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles


Letter, L. C. P. Freer to James B. Abbott
Authors: Freer, L.C.P.
Date: August 7, 1855
L. C. P. Freer of Chicago wrote a scathing commentary of the Kansas Territory free state movement and its supporters to James Abbott, who had solicited subscriptions from him to fund the cause. Freer suggested that the founders of the Emigrant Aid Societies were hypocritical and the free state men were nothing but "cattle" forming only a "little whiff of opposition to the introduction of Slavery into Kanzas." Freer did not appear to be a proslavery supporter, but rather a tough critic who responded cynically to the idealism of the free state cause.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abolitionists; Emigrant aid companies; Free Soil Party; Free state activities; Free state cause; Fugitive Slave Law; Pierce administration; Slavery


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Mr. J. [James] B. Abbott
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: August 11, 1855
Amos A. Lawrence wrote from Boston to James Abbott in Hartford, Conneticut, with shipping instructions for the 100 sharps rifles he would procure. Lawrence requested that they be "packed in casks like hardware" and to bill him for expenses incurred.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state activities; Free state cause; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Sharps rifles; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Owen Brown to S. L. Adair and Family
Authors: Brown, Owen , 1771-1856
Date: August 8, 1855
Owen Brown wrote from Munroe Falls Ohio to Samuel and Florella Adair in Osawatomie, Kansas that his son John Brown will start for Kansas Territory in a week. He mentioned that he has a "warlike spirit" and that it is necessary for defense but he hopes nothing more. He also expressed some of his religious beliefs. The letter contained a postscript written by John Brown. Florella Brown Adair was a half sister of John Brown.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Owen, 1771-1856; Free state cause; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Munroe Falls, Ohio; Ohio; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: August 24, 1855
Amos A. Lawrence wrote from Boston to James Abbott in Hartford, Connecticut, wanting to confirm his receipt of a shipment of rifles. Lawrence advised Abbott that at least half of them should be redistributed to free state forces in Topeka.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Sharps rifles; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Invitation, presentation by James Abbott
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 5, 1855
This printed invitation announced the New York visit of Kansas Territory's James Abbott and his appointment to speak about "the Triumph of Freedom over Slavery in that vicinity" to interested citizens of New York.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Balrock, Paul; Conkling, F.A.; Free state cause; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; King, Charles; Nash, Alanson; Speeches, addresses, etc.; Williams, John E.


Letter, Seth Padleford to Jas. B. Abbott
Authors: Padelford, Seth
Date: September 15, 1855
Seth Padelford wrote from Providence, Rhode Island, to James Abbot in Hartford, Conneticut. Padelford confirmed receipt of Abbott's telegraph the day before, and sent him a check for $100 in support of his cause.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Finance; Free state cause; Telegraph


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to J. M. S. Williams
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: September 17, 1855
Samuel Pomeroy, writing from Kansas City, Missouri to J.M.S. Williams, an officer in the New England Emigrant Aid Company, described free state political strategies. Specifically, Pomeroy mentioned free state plans to hold their own election for a delegate to Congress, to call for a constitutional convention, and to push for the admission of Kansas as a free state.

Keywords: Free state activities; Free state cause; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Williams, John M. S.


Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: September 17, 1855
Frederick Law Olmstead, a free state fundraiser and landscape architect who would later design New York City's Central Park, wrote from New York to James Abbott, reporting of his recent fundraising efforts. Within a week, he hoped to raise enough money to purchase "100 _____", believing it wise not to mention in writing that the objects purchased would be weapons to equip free state militias.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Militia; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Mark Howard to Jas. B. Abbott Esq
Authors: Howard, Mark
Date: September 21, 1855
Mark Howard wrote from Hartford, Connecticut, to James Abbott. Howard enclosed with his letter a check and asked him"to expence this am't in such a manner as will procure the greatest quantity of arms and necessary munition." He and his local "Committee" were pleased to support Abbott, as a "determined friend of right and freedom."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Finance; Free state cause; Weapons (see also Guns)


Kansas A Free State. Squatter Sovereignty Vindicated! No White Slavery!
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 24, 1855
Broadside advertising a series of mass meetings in support of the free state cause, with Charles Robinson as the speaker. The original is on display in the Kansas Museum of History, Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state cause; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Speer, John, 1817-1906; Squatter sovereignty; Stewart, John E.


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to A. A. Lawrence
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 28, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Amos A. Lawrence, expressed his optimism about the prospects of Kansas entering the union as a free state within one year. Robinson also informed Lawrence that he had drawn upon him for $1000 to cover New England Emigrant Aid Company expenses.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Indian floats; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: October 4, 1855
Frederick Law Olmstead, a New York free state fundraiser and landscape architect, wrote to James Abbott, informing him of his recent trouble securing contributions enough to purchase substantial weapons. Olmstead repeated to Abbott advice he had received from a veteran military officer, who suggested that "M's" [muskets] would serve the militia forces well enough for general use, with "S's" [Sharp's rifles] reserved for "special service". Thus, Olmstead concluded he would either send Abbott "M's" or an "H" [howitzer, a type of cannon].

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state supporters; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, unsigned [F. L. Olmsted] to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: October 7, 1855
Frederick Law Olmstead, a New York free state fundraiser and landscape architect, wrote to James Abbott. Olmstead reported to him that he had ordered "the instrument" [howitzer cannon], which would be ready to ship in three days time along with its ammunition accessories, excepting powder. He would send instructions for its use separately, so that it may be used to "best effect", which he approximated as "equally effective with a simultaneous fire of 100 muskets" and "worth a dozen field pieces."

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to James Burnett Abbott, Esq.
Authors: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: October 24, 1855
Frederick Law Olmstead wrote a short note from New York to James Abbott in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, confirming the shipment of the howitzer and its accessories. It was sent in five separate cases, so as to not arouse suspicion, and was directed to St. Louis the under the name B. Slater.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: November 2, 1855
In this letter from "Brownsville, Kansas Territory," John Brown made some observations about the harshness of the weather, the health of his Kansas children, their general lack of preparedness for the winter, and the farm work that needed to be accomplished. His only comment about the political situation in the territory came in closing: "I feel more, & more confident that Slavery will soon die out here; & to God be the praise."

Keywords: Agriculture; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Crops; Farmers; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Houses; Slavery; Weather


Certificate of appointment of G.W. Brown as agent for the Kansas Executive Committee
Authors: Free State Executive Committee
Date: December 10, 1855
Certificate issued by the Free State Executive Committee appointing George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, as its agent to pursue immediate admission of Kansas as a state under the provisions of the Topeka Constitution. James H. Lane signed the certificate as chairman of the Executive Committee.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Certificates; Free state cause; Free state government; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Topeka Constitution


Letter, John Brown to Orson Day Esqr.
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: December 14, 1855
In mid-December 1855, John Brown wrote to Orson Day (a brother in law) of White Hall, New York, from Browns Station, Kansas Territory, regarding the "Kansas War" (Wakarusa War) from which he had "just returned." The territory was, according to Brown, "now entirely in the power of the Free State men," and he continued to "believe the Missourians will give up all further hope of making Kansas a Slave State."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Browns Station, Kansas Territory; Firearms; Free state cause; Free state constitutions; Missourians; Proslavery prospects; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: December 16, 1855
Soon after his return from Lawrence, where he and other volunteers had successfully defended that place, John Brown wrote from Osawatomie to give his family "a brief account of the invasion," the so-called Wakarusa War. As it turned out, Brown provided some interesting details about their preparations and arrival in the besieged city and the negotiations that were ongoing when the Browns came on the scene. The Free State leaders, according to Brown, skillfully accomplished and signed an agreement with Governor Shannon that was "much to their own liking."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Barber, Thomas W.; Bogus legislature; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Coleman, Franklin M.; Dow, Charles W.; Free state cause; Free state militia; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery supporters; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


John Brown portrait
Authors: Ruggles, Quartus
Date: 1855-1859
John Brown portrait by Quartus Ruggles, 1889. Brown was an abolitionist who came to Kansas in 1855. Although in the territory for only about three years, he was involved in several skirmishes and helped free some Missouri slaves. Brown was hanged for treason on December 2, 1859 for attempting to overtake the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Ruggles, Quartus; Slavery


Circular letter from C. [Charles] Robinson to Dear Sir
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: 1855
Charles Robinson wrote this printed letter on behalf of the Free State Executive Committee of Kansas Territory. In it, he encouraged free state supporters to monitor the upcoming elections for delegate to Congress and for delegates to the constitutional convention to see that they were conducted fairly. He wanted them to note if non-residents were voting or serving as election officials and if residents were being prevented from voting. The circular encouraged free state voters to arrive at the polls early. J. K. Goodin was the secretary of the group. These elections were held under the auspices of the Topeka Movement.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Goodin, Joel Kishler; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


People's Proclamation
Authors: Emery, James Stanley; Foster, Charles A.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Roberts, William Y.; Robinson, Charles ; Smith, George W.; Sylvester, S. D.; Wakefield, J. A.
Date: 1855
This broadside represented the efforts of free state supporters to encourage residents to vote in the election for the delegate to represent Kansas Territory in Congress that was held October 9, 1855. It listed the polling places, the instructions to judges, and the qualifications for "lawful" voters. This document was probably related to a circular letter signed by Charles Robinson that encouraged free state supporters to see that elections were conducted according to the printed procedures for both the election for delegates to Congress and for delegates to the constitutional convention. The broadside indicated that it had been signed by nearly 1000 persons but space allowed for the printing of the following names only: C. K Holliday, J. A. Wakefield, C. Robinson, J. H. Lane, C. A. Foster, M. J. Parrott, S. D. Sylvester, W. Y. Roberts, G. W. Smith and J. S. Emery. This election was held under the auspices of the Topeka Movement.

Keywords: Elections; Emery, James Stanley; Foster, Charles A.; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Sylvester, S. D.; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Wakefield, John A.


Constitutional Convention Proclamation
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: 1855
This broadside signed by J. H. Lane was addressed "to the legal voters of Kansas Territory." It contained a great deal of free state rhetoric about the failure of the territorial government. The proclamation was issued in support of the elections that were to be held by the Topeka Movement to elect delegates to a constitutional convention. This document listed the polling places, instructions to elections judges and qualification for legal voters. J. K. Goodin was listed as secretary.

Keywords: Election, Topeka Constitution delegates to convention, October 1855; Elections; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Quilt, New England Emigrant Aid Company
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
Fragment of comforter made by women from the Boston-based New England Emigrant Aid Society. The comforter was sold at a charity raffle in Lawrence in 1855. Proceeds were given to free-state settlers. The fabric is believed to have been taken from Revolutionary War uniforms. Dr. Sylvester B. Prentiss purchased the comforter, which was later divided into sections and distributed among his family members.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Emigrant aid companies; Free state; Free state cause; House furnishings; Immigration and early settlement; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Objects; Prentiss, S.B.


John Brown Surveyor's Compass
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
While in Kansas John Brown was employed as a surveyor, an occupation which allowed him to move around freely to locate and observe proslavery camps. This compass was made by Phelps and Gurley of Troy, New York.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state supporters; New York; Objects; Phelps and Gurley; Surveyors


History of Kanzas, also, Information Regarding Routes, Laws, etc.
Authors: Walter, George
Date: 1855
This history was written by George Walter, agent for the New York Kanzas League. The purpose of the League was to assist individuals and families to emigrate to Kansas and help provides reduced prices and other assistance. The office of the New York Kanzas League was located on the 3rd floor of No. 110 Broadway, New York City. Walter provided the information he thought emigrants to Kansas would need including descriptions of the situation in the territory, its climate, soil, rivers, and native products. He also gave information about industry in Kansas Territory, particularly the milling industry. He provided information on routes and supplies needed as well as a copy of the reemption law. The text of the Bill to organize the territories of Kansas and Nebraska was included on pages 24 through 48 of the pamphlet.

Keywords: Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Free state cause; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Nebraska Act; Land acquisition; Landscape; New York; Preemption law United States; Settlement


Receipts and Expenditures, State Kansas Committee
Authors: Massachusetts State Kansas Committee
Date: c. 1856 - 1857
One of many ledger-type listings of donations to and expenditures of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee for the support of Kansas settlement and the activities of "Capt J[ohn] Brown" and other free state partisans.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state cause; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Receipts; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, J. H. Lane to Gov. of Minnesota [Willis A. Gorman]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles
Date: January 22, 1856
This "Appeal of Gen. Lane & Gov. Robinson" to Willis A. Gorman, the territorial governor of Minnesota, was a call for assistance during Kansas Territory's present crisis: the territory face, wrote Lane and Robinson from Lawrence, K.T., on January 22, 1856, "an overwhelming force of the Citizens of Missouri" organized for invasion on the Missouri border.

Keywords: Free state cause; Gorman, Willis A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Minnesota; Missouri; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, A. A. Lawrence to My dear Sir [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: January 31, 1856
From Boston, January 31, 1856, Amos Lawrence wrote to advise his friend Charles Robinson submit to the authority of recognized officers of the U.S. government, no matter how unjust their actions appeared. He suggested that Robinson follow the "Fabian policy" of non-violent, peaceful resistance, and do what he could to discourage "all aggression" on the part of free-state men.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Massachusetts; Pierce administration; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slave power; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Letters, J. C. Palmer to A. A. Lawrence, A. A. L. to Capt. J. B. Abbott
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams; Palmer, J.C.
Date: February 1856
Amos A. Lawrence "forwarded" a message he had received from J. C. Palmer of Sharps' Rifle Manufacturing Company to James Abbott in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Palmer's note to Lawrence assured the correct quantity and quality of merchandise would be sent to Kansas Territory. Lawrence displays an interesting criticism of Palmer and the Sharps' Company in the letter forwarded to Abbott: he added a tag to Palmer's own signature "J. C. Palmer Pres[ident]", which read, "of a corporation that has no soul." Lawrence went on to implore to Abbott that he work cooperatively with Colonel E. V. Sumner against all disturbances of the peace, not just those originating with proslavery men. He cautioned that "no circumstances can authorize opposition to the U. S. Gov't even to the meanest of its representations."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Free state cause; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Palmer, J.C.; Sharps rifles; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912


Letter, J. R. Giddings to My Dear Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed) , 1795-1864
Date: March 17, 1856
Congressman Joshua R. Giddings an abolitionist Republican from Ohio and good friend of the Brown family there, wrote from the U.S. "Hall of Reps" regarding his desire to provide support for Brown and his cause in Kansas and of his belief that the federal troops there would not be used "to shoot the Citizens of Kansas." Although he indicated a need for more "men and arms" in the territory to insure victory, Giddings was "confident there will be no war in Kansas."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Free state support; Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed), 1795-1864; Kansas Nebraska Act; Pierce administration; United States. Army; United States. Congress. House


Letter, O. [Orville] C. Brown to Dear Sir [Edward Allen]
Authors: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904
Date: March 18, 1856
Orville C. Brown wrote from his home in Osawatomie to Edward Allen, describing the location of Osawatomie and the natural resources in the area. He also informed the recipient of the letter about the essential provisions to bring when emigrating to Kansas, as well as the current situation of free staters in Kansas.

Keywords: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904; Free state cause; Indian lands; Mills and mill-work; Native Americans; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter, Your Affectionate Husband & Father [John Brown] to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: April 7, 1856
From "Brown's Station" in the southeastern corner of Franklin County, K.T., Brown wrote the family about a variety of matters, including family finances/business interests and, as usual, his faith in God ("trust us to the care of 'Him who feeds the young Ravens when they cry'"). Brown also mentioned the house they were building for Orson Day, his brother in law, and the "rumors" of what was to come in the political arena. "For one I have no desire (all things considered) to have the Slave Power cease from its acts of aggression. 'Their foot shall slide in due time.'"

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Watson, 1835-1859; Day, Orson; Free state activities; Free state cause; Proslavery activities; Slave power; Thompson, Ruth (Brown); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Letter, George Washington Brown to his mother
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: May 13, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Writing to his mother on the day before his arrest, Brown expressed concern that his life could be in danger. He instructed his mother to use his estate to provide support for the Herald of Freedom.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state cause; Herald of Freedom; Journalism; Kansas City, Missouri; Missouri; Newspapers; Prisoners


George Washington Brown to Mr. Fowler
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: May 13, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Written from Kansas City, Missouri, to a friend on the day before his arrest, Brown expressed concern that his life could be in danger. He enclosed an outline for a "Documentary History of Kansas" and asked Fowler to publish a book based on the outline.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state cause; Herald of Freedom; Journalism; Kansas City, Missouri; Missouri; Newspapers; Prisoners; Treason


Letter, M. S. Cecilia Sherman To Mrs. [Sara] Robinson
Authors: Sherman, Margaret S. C.
Date: May 25, 1856
Margaret Sarah Cecilia (Mrs. John) Sherman wrote Sara Robinson on May 25, 1856, regarding Governor Robinson's captivity to date. He had been arrested on May 10 at Lexington, Missouri, and subsequently returned to the territory. At this time he was being held in Leavenworth, where Sherman and many other of Robinson's friends had the opportunity to visit with him, and Sherman was able to attest to his good treatment. She makes interesting, favorable reference to Robinson's stay in Lexington and to "Captain [John W.] Martin of the Kickapoo rangers," who "seemed to have charge" of the governor in Leavenworth. (Congressman John Sherman of Ohio was the brother of William T. Sherman, later of Leavenworth, and a member of the Howard Committee, investigating the Kansas affair.)

Keywords: Damage claims; Free state cause; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lexington, Missouri; Martin, John W.; Preston, Colonel; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sherman, John, 1823-1900


Letter, S. P. Hanscom to Mrs. Sara T. D. Robinson
Authors: Hanscom, S. P.
Date: May 25, 1856
On Sunday, May 25, 1856, "at the request of Gov. Robinson," S. P. Hanscom wrote Sara Robinson to assure her that her "esteemed and gallant husband" was well. This remarkably detailed letter describes the governor's captivity, the bogus charges filed against him, and circumstances that brought him to Leavenworth. Hanscom found that Robinson was receiving many visitors, including Congressman William A. Howard, chair of the congressional committee investigating Kansas troubles.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus laws; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Hanscom, S. P.; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Howard, William Alanson; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Martin, John W.; Preston, Colonel; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stringfellow, John H.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Treason; Westport, Missouri


Circular, Members of the Kansas Settlers Society
Authors: Walsh, Benjamin J.
Date: June 2, 1856
This circular was written by Benjamin J. Walsh to members of the Kansas Settler's Society concerning emigration to Kansas and efforts to raise needed funds to complete the trip to Kansas. A meeting of the emigrant aid society was organized in Chicago. The circular also discussed attempts to form similar groups in other states. Walsh went to Cleveland to try to organize an emigrant aid society in that location.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Chicago, Illinois; Circulars; Clark, W. Penn; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Iowa City, Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Money; Topeka Constitution; Walsh, Benjamin J.


Letter, G. W. Brown to Eli Thayer, Esq.
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: June 4, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. G. W. Brown described the sack of Lawrence and the destruction of his printing press, commented upon the harshness of his prison conditions, and asked Eli Thayer to do anything in his power to help secure his release.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Herald of Freedom; Journalism; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Press; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Slave power; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Treason


Letter, Mary Holliday to My Dear Husband [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Mary
Date: June 15, 1856
Mary Holliday wrote, deeply disappointed, from Meadville, Pennsylvania to her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday, in Topeka, Kansas Territory. Mary was prepared to leave when she received his report of continued hostilities and instructions to wait further. Mr. Nichols, Mary's would-be escort, considered leaving shortly despite the political strife in K. T. Mr. Johnson, optimistic about the Free State cause, had told Mary of Colonel Edwin V. Sumner's recent activities there. She mentioned an upcoming Mason's banquet (Cyrus had joined a lodge in Crawford, Pennsylvania on November 4, 1852) and the well-being of their daughter, Lillie.

Keywords: Free state cause; Freemasons; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Proslavery activities; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel


Letter, C. A. W. [Charles A. Wright] to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Wright, Charles A.
Date: June 16, 1856
Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Wright spoke passionately about the free state cause after the Sack of Lawrence and the Pottawatomie Massacre, imploring "eastern friends" for help. In Wright's words, "talk will do no good that time is past what we now need is men money and rifles". He added that southerners were "using every effort" to drive free staters from the Territory. U.S. Troops were attempting to disband the ruffians, though according to Wright they only dispersed and reorganized elsewhere.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state cause; Hill, Hiram; Skirmishing; United States. Army; Wright, Charles A.


Certificate of election, James Abbott to position of Captain in Kansas Militia
Authors: Topliff, Charles
Date: June 28, 1856
Charles W. Topliff, Major General Commanding the Kansas Militia, issued this certificate, which recognized James Abbott's commission to serve as Captain of the 2nd Company B of the Kansas Militia from the present date until January 1, 1857

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Clark, Eduard; Free state cause; Free state militia; Topliff, Charles W.


Letter, Geo. W. Smith, et al to the Friends of Law and Order convened at Topeka
Authors: Brown, Jr., John ; Deitzler, George W.; Jenkins, Gaius ; Robinson, Charles ; Smith, George W.; Williams, Henry H.
Date: July 1, 1856
From a "camp near Lecompton," George W. Smith and the other Free State captives, including Charles Robinson and John Brown, Jr., wrote to state their views on issues facing the Topeka legislature as it convened. First, Smith and company argued that the freestaters had a "right to meet as a Legislature, complete the State organization and pass all laws necessary to the successful administration of Justice," but the assembly should not resist "Federal officer in the service of the legal process" unless they threaten the state organization. Smith, et al, believe success of the cause depended on "a right position and, second upon calm, and unflinching firmness."

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, John, Jr.; Deitzler, George W.; Federal troops; Free state cause; Free state government; Jenkins, Gaius; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States Government; Williams, Henry H.


Letter, S. L. A. [Samuel Lyle Adair] to Bro. John Brown
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: July 16, 1856
From Osawatomie, Samuel Adair wrote his brother-in-law John Brown regarding monies Adair had received for the "free State men in Kansas" and specifies how these funds were distributed.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


George Washington Brown, Near Lecompton, KT to his mother
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 24, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856, on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Brown, despite his imprisonment, expressed optimism about Kansas's prospects of becoming a free state.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Lecompton, Kansas Territory


Receipt, D. A. Clayton, Jr. to G. W. Hutchinson and William Hutchinson
Authors: Clayton, D. A., Jr.
Date: July 25, 1856
D. A. Clayton, Jr., of Topeka had received and promised to deliver to G. W. and William Hutchinson of Lawrence $134.95 worth of articles: sugar, candles, pepper, mustard, cinnamon, and flour. Under Clayton's signature is a note indicating that the provisions were supplied to "Company B.," which was under the command of H. A. Burgess.

Keywords: Free state cause; Free state militia; Hutchinson, George W.; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Receipts; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. Robinson, Camp Sacket, to Hon. J. C. Fremont
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: July 28, 1856
While a prisoner at Camp Sackett near Lecompton, Robinson informed Fremont that James Emery was traveling east and should be used in Fremont's presidential campaign as a stump speaker as he "can do good service to the cause." Robinson also indicated that he did not know if the Pierce administration had decided whether or not to hang Robinson and his fellow prisoners.

Keywords: Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Election, Presidential, 1856; Elections; Emery, James Stanley; Free state cause; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Prisoners; Prisons; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Fremont Campaign Ribbon
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 30, 1856
Kansas was a major issue in the 1856 presidential election. John C. Fremont was the candidate of the newly formed Republican Party, which wanted Kansas admitted as a free state. This silk ribbon is printed with an image of Fremont, and the text, "Let Freedom Conquer! . . . For President, John C. Fremont, of California. Vice President, Wm. L. Dayton of New Jersey. Young Men's Convention, Dayton, O. July 30th, 1856."

Keywords: Dayton, William Lewis; Election, Presidential, 1856; Elections; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Objects; Ohio; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, [J.H. Lane] to His Excellancy C. [Charles] Robinson, et al
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: August 10, 1856
In a brief letter from Topeka that is very difficult to decipher, Jim Lane informs Robinson, Gen. George W. Deitzler, George W. Brown, John Brown, "& others" of his arrival with "a sufficient force" to do battle for the free state cause. He seems to counsel quick and decisive action.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Deitzler, George W.; Free state cause; Free state government; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Circular, Kansas -- Help! Help!
Authors: Hurd, H. B.; Lawrence Citizens
Date: August 13, 1856
This circular was composed of two parts. The first section was a letter written from Lawrence to the National Kansas Committee, asked for help because of the conflict in Kansas, stating that "instant action alone can save our people from destruction." The letter briefly mentioned the recent attack on Lawrence and the proslavery forces which were gathering and organizing. Although there was a lull in the fighting, the citizens of Lawrence were looking for assistance and relief. The second part was a response written by H. B. Hurd, secretary of the National Kansas Committee, encouraging emigration to Kansas but raising the possibility that free state settlers in the territory must at times defend their rights. He wrote that "Kansas is now in a state of open war."

Keywords: Circulars; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Hurd, H. B.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; National Kansas Committee; Proslavery activities; Relief; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Letter, [John Brown, Jr.] to [John Brown]
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: August 14, 1856
Although this document is unsigned, it is almost certainly a letter from John Brown, Jr., to his father. The former was at a "camp" near Lecompton, still in the custody of territorial officials, and he wanted his father to come for a visit. John, Jr. provides instructions on how this might be done safely; he believed it could be, but warned, "don't let them get you."

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners


Letter, [John Brown, Jr.?] to [John Brown?]
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: August 16, 1856
Two days after encouraging his father to visit him at the prisoners' "camp" near Lecompton, John Brown, Jr., wrote to say "I had not better try to meet you just now." He thought things looked "favorable" for the free state prisoners and wrote of what he had heard of the Battle of Fort Titus, which took place that very day, August 16, 1856.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sackett, Delos B.; Titus, Henry Theodore


Letter, Samuel Whitcomb to Respected & Dear Sir [Honorable G. Smith]
Authors: Whitcomb, Samuel
Date: August 30, 1856
This letter, written in Springfield by Samuel Whitcomb, is addressed to the Honorable G. Smith of Peterborg, New York. It is a passionate piece of correspondence that discusses slavery and liberty, demonstrating the conviction of this free-soil advocate. Whitcomb also expressed his frustration that the federal government was not more supportive of the free state cause in Kansas Territory, as well as his fear that the war was destined to spread out from Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Free state cause; National politics; Pierce administration; Sectionalism (United States); United States Government; United States. Army; United States. Congress; Whitcomb, Samuel


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "Dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: September 4, 1856
From Topeka, Kagi wrote his father about his (Kagi's) personal situation and more generally about the civil war in Kansas. Several thousand "armed Missourians" had been committing outrages against free state citizens with the support of proslave leaders--Wilson Shannon, Samuel Lecompte, and Daniel Woodson. Freestaters, according to Kagi, were just then mounting an effective defense of both Lawrence and Topeka, both primary targets of the proslavery forces--"the enemy are determined to 'wipe out', as they say, both these towns."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Militia; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, Your Affectionate Son & brother [John Brown, Jr.?] to Dear Father [John Brown] & Brother
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: September 8, 1856
Still in the custody of territorial officials, John Brown, Jr., wrote to express his remorse upon learning of the death of his brother Frederick--at least he was relieved to learn that his father and Jason were safe, as early reports had them dead or missing. "Poor Frederick has perished in a good cause!" wrote John, Jr., "the success of which cause I trust will yet bring joy to millions." He then wrote of his forthcoming trial and possible plan to "escape in case it should appear best."

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Wealthy; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Sickness (see Illness); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Letter, [unknown] to Hiram Hill
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 8, 1856
An unknown author, referring to himself as one in a group of "missionaries. . .of constitutional heathens", wrote to Hiram Hill regarding his experiences "on the march" after the Battle of Franklin at the beginning of June. He described the movements and dispersal of the enemy forces. The author also told Hill that he and his men "would do the fighting you must do the fueling we can get all the provisions we want if we can have money", and said that Massachusetts was doing more to help them than all the other free states combined. The author purposefully did not sign his name to this letter.

Keywords: Battles; Franklin, Battle of; Free state activities; Free state cause; Hill, Hiram; Massachusetts; Money


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 20, 1856
From Lawrence Charles Robinson writes to update his wife on developments in and around Lawrence since her departure. Governor John W. Geary had arrived and promised to see that the Missouri militia then threatening Lawrence "were disbanded." Robinson goes on to describe a very tense few days in September, beginning on Friday the 12th, involving militia of both sides and the governor. After a brief skirmish on the prairie east of Lawrence, Geary and some U.S. troops arrived and "the Missourians agreed to go home. It was all a farce. . . ."

Keywords: Buffum, David C.; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stubbs militia company; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; Westport, Missouri


Newspaper article, Journal of Commerce
Authors: Journal of Commerce
Date: September 22, 1856
This clipping, enclosed in a letter from A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt dated September 22, 1856, argued that the emigration sponsored by New England emigrant aid societies was "indiscreet," although not illegal. The article placed the blame for the current troubles on the free-state settlers in Kansas, stating that Missouri settlers were only responding to the provocation of anti-slavery supporters.

Keywords: Bills, legislative; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state cause; Immigrants; Kansas Nebraska Act; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Missouri; Missouri compromise; Pierce administration; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery; Topeka Constitution; United States Government; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution


Letter, Thomas M. Webb to Friend [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: September 24, 1856
In this letter, written in Boston, Massachusetts by Thomas Webb, the author stated his concerns about the outcome of the situation in Kansas. He did applaud the efforts of free state settlers to ensure the existence of liberty; however, he felt that not enough New Englanders were serious about keeping slavery out of Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Emigrant aid companies; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; New York; Relief; Sectionalism (United States)


Letter, George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et al
Authors: Hunt, George W.; Stearns, C.
Date: September 29, 1856
On behalf of a committee of Lawrence citizens, Hunt and Stearns wrote the State Central Committee of Kansas "to urge upon your attention several important points in reference to the present condition of Kansas." They were convinced that a "storm" from Missouri was about "to burst upon the devoted heads of the freemen of Kansas" and "perhaps to deluge Kansas with rivers of blood." The committee urged the state and national organization to help them prepare for the storm, while things were relatively calm, with an adequate supply of arms and ammunition and men. But, with a veiled reference, perhaps, to John Brown, they called only for "moral heroes" who would not follow the "principles of Border Ruffianism."

Keywords: Ammunition; Beecher Bibles; Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; State Central Committee of Kansas; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Clarina Nichols to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885
Date: October 4, 1856
This letter, written from Elmira, New York, provides a neat outline of Clarina Nichols' goals and motivations. It deals with her speaking engagements on the situation in Kansas, her goals for the future, her family, and her belief that Susan B. Anthony would be a great help to the free state cause.

Keywords: Anthony, Susan B.; Free state cause; Free state militia; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lectures; National Kansas Committee; New York; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Pennsylvania; Relief; Temperance movement; Women


Letter, R. J. Hinton to Gentlemen [National Kansas Committee]
Authors: Hinton, R. J.
Date: October 10, 1856
R. J. Hinton wrote this letter from Lawrence to the members of the National Kansas Committee, offering his suggestions about how to sustain the struggling settlers of Kansas. He proposed the idea of bringing the manufacturing industry into the territory as a source of employment. He also mentioned that a flour mill would be greatly appreciated by Kansans.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Flour mills; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Guns; Hinton, Richard Josiah; House furnishings; Manufacturing; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Settlement; Sewing machines; Steam power; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Augustus Wattles to Mr. [George W.?] Brown
Authors: Wattles, Augustus
Date: October 15, 1856
Augustus Wattles, a loyal defender of John Brown, wrote to [George W.?] Brown requesting reimbursement for some $700 he had lost in the cause. Although Wattles had not expected to recoup his losses, and in fact had planned "to give all these items gratis to the free state cause," he had heard "a committee" had funds for that purpose, and he was ill and in need of money. His claim included a couple horses, a mule, and room and board for various free state people he had taken in when they were in need of shelter.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, C. I. H. Nichols to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885
Date: October 15, 1856
This brief letter, written by Clarina Nichols from Elmira, New York, informed Thaddeus Hyatt of her successful speaking tour in Pennsylvania. She was also eager to hear more details about the National Kansas Committee's work in the territory.

Keywords: Free state cause; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lectures; New York; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Pennsylvania; Women


Letter, ladies of Orange, N.J. to Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Ladies of Orange, New Jersey
Date: October 20, 1856
This letter, written by the ladies of Orange, N.J., informed Thaddeus Hyatt of their donations for the free state inhabitants of Kansas, including foodstuffs, a variety of clothing and sewing material. This is an excellent example of how women in New England supported the free state cause.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Emigrant aid companies; Free state cause; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; Orange, New Jersey; Relief; Vegetables; Women


Minutes of Executive Committee, Kansas State Central Committee
Authors: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: October 22, 1856
Dated Lawrence, October 22, 1856, these are apparently the minutes of the first meeting the Kansas State Central Committee's executive committee, chaired by James M. Winchell with George S. Hillyer as secretary. Eight resolutions are recorded, authorizing the committee to provide assistance, etc.

Keywords: Free state cause; Hillyer, George S.; Horses; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Minutes; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Letter, S. Chamberlin to Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Chamberlin, S.
Date: November 3, 1856
This letter, written by S. Chamberlin, President of the LeRoy Kansas Aid Society, was addressed to Thaddeus Hyatt, chairman of the National Kansas Committee. This aid society in LeRoy, New York, was formed after a lecture presented by H.D. Northrup, an agent of the National Kansas Committee. The author immensely praised the speaking abilities of Northrup, likening him to the great orator Henry Clay. Chamberlin was firmly convinced that, if Northrup canvassed the North, he would be able to stir the hearts of Northerners in support of free state cause. This society also collected clothing and money to send to the free state settlers in Kansas.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Clothing and dress; Free state cause; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lectures; National Kansas Committee; Northrup, H.D.; Relief; Relief funds


Letter and Bill, S. [Samuel] L. Adair to William Hutchinson
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: November 7, 1856
The first page of this four-page document lists five items for which Samuel L. Adair requested payment ($21.25) from the KSCC; these include provisions, medicine, the "balance yet unpaid of money advanced to pay lawyers fees for prisoners at Tecumsee in June last," and the "bill paid for lumber and nails for coffin of Frederick Brown & David Garrison," two of the men killed during the battle of Osawatomie, August 30, 1856. The accompanying letter justified the request.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Garrison, David R.; Medicine; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory


Letter, H. B. Hurd to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Authors: Hurd, H. B.
Date: November 14, 1856
H. B. Hurd was secretary of the National Kansas Committee, and he wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson from the committee's office in Chicago. The main focus of the letter revolves around Higginson's plan of operation to garner support from free state governors. Hurd offered advice about which governors to approach first, also stating his opinion on various related matters. Included in the letter was another sheet, outlining Higginson's "Points to be suggested to the Executives of the States." The back of this sheet has some other notes and doodling.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hurd, H. B.; National Kansas Committee; National politics; United States Government


Kansas Affairs
Authors: Daniels, Edward
Date: December 1, 1856
Edward Daniels wrote this printed letter "to the Friends of Free Kansas" from the office of the National Kansas Committee in Chicago, Illinois on December 1, 1856. He had just returned from Kansas Territory and presented 9 "facts and suggestions" about conditions in the territory and how people in the East could provide support to free state settlers. He included suggestions on how ministers and communities could raise funds and/or provisions for those in Kansas. He believed that a large emigration of free state supporters was needed in the spring of 1857 and provided suggestions on how to get there and what to take. He also indicated that seed was necessary to having a good harvest the next year.

Keywords: Agriculture; Daniels, Edward; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Illinois; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Seeds


Poem, "Don't Go Back!"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 1, 1856
Attributed to John E. Cook on the front of the document but signed "L.H." in the attached clipping, this document purports to be the first draft of a poem entitled "Don't Go Back!", directed at Northerners who might be tempted to give up the Kansas struggle ("Kansas is worth saving.") after the tumultuous year of 1856 (newspaper clipping of poem, dated Boston, December 1, 1856, attached).

Keywords: Cook, John E.; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Free state supporters


Letter, S .[Salmon] P. Chase, of endorsement for "Captain John Brown"
Authors: Chase, Salmon Portland
Date: December 20, 1856
The Free Soil/Republican governor of Ohio, Salmon P. Chase, Columbus, Ohio, wrote this letter of introduction/endorsement for "Captain John Brown" who was "a gentleman in every way worthy of entire confidence."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Columbus, Ohio; Free Soil Party; Free state cause; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: December 20, 1856
Just released from "prison" after three months, John H. Kagi wrote to his father (who still resided in their native Ohio but was then in Nebraska City) from Topeka, regarding the poor state of his health and finances, as well as politics and future plans. Kragi wanted his father and/or his father's money in KT as soon as possible.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state legislature; Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Ohio; Topeka Tribune


Kansas Experiences of A.R. Scolen, William Reap, Ephraim Coy, and Capt. Samuel Anderson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 21, 1856 - December 23, 1856
These testimonies were collected from a number of free state settlers along Pottawatomie Creek, presumably by an associate of the National Kansas Committee. Each account includes personal information about the settler (their origins, family, crops, etc.) and also testimonies of their involvement in the free state militia.

Keywords: Agriculture; Anderson, Samuel; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Casualties; Cline, Captain; Clothing and dress; Coy, Ephraim; Crops; Food; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Illness; Livestock; Militia; Missourians; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Reap, William; Scolen, A.R.; Shore, Samuel T.; Sickness (see Illness); Skirmishing; Travel; Wounds and injuries


Letter, S. Cabot, Jr. to James Blood, Esq
Authors: Cabot, Samuel
Date: December 28, 1856
Samuel Cabot, who was directing a Boston effort to send clothing to Kansas Territory, advised Blood he was aware of the goods that "had been stopped at St Louis by the closure of navigation." He also comments on the reluctance of some to accept relief; these individuals were to be advised that "This supply is not a mere charity but a contribution of the North to soldiers, who have been bravely battling for the case of freedom & in defense of our common rights, against the Slave Oligarchy." Also included is a printed letter titled "Clothing For Kanzas," listing New England contributions.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Kansas State Central Committee; Missouri River; Nute, Ephraim; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Slave power; St. Louis, Missouri


"God Save Kansas" Banner
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Banner used in New Hampshire during the 1856 presidential campaign, illustrating the national interest in Kansas territorial affairs. Fremont/Dayton banner was made of silk and used at Lancaster, N.H. Inscribed "God Save Kansas" and "From the ladies of Lancaster to Fremont Club No. 244."

Keywords: Dayton, William Lewis; Election, Presidential, 1856; Elections; Flags and banners; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; New Hampshire; Objects; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


John Brown Sword
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
The sword is believed to have been brought to Kansas Territory from Ohio by John Brown in 1856. That year, pro-slavery forces destroyed the homes of John Brown's sons in Franklin County. While leaving the state, the Brown family camped at the home of Otis Potter, near Lawrence. In gratitude, the Browns presented this sword to Potter.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Ohio; Potter, Otis; Swords and daggers; Weapons (see also Guns)


Abbott Howitzer
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Major James Burnett Abbott traveled east to raise funds and purchase arms for the free-state cause. In New York Abbott met Frederick Law Olmsted, who assisted in raising funds for the howitzer from the Ames Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts. The howitzer was taken to Lawrence, where it was captured by proslavery forces on May 21, 1856. It was recaptured at Fort Titus on August 16, 1856. Afterwards the howitzer was used in Linn County and by James H. Lane's brigade during the Civil War.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Ames Manufacturing Company; Border disputes and warfare; Cannons; Civil war; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Reeder Dagger
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Many free-state leaders were charged with treason by the pro-slavery legislature in May 1856. Former territorial governor Andrew Reeder escaped arrest by leaving Kansas disguised as a woodcutter. Reeder carried this dagger for defense when he fled the territory.

Keywords: Free state cause; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Objects; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Swords and daggers; Treason; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, draft of, written by Amos Lawrence for Sara Robinson
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: 1856
According to Frank W. Blackmar, who reprinted this document in the appendix of his book, The Life of Charles Robinson (1901), it was "a draft of a letter sent by Amos A. Lawrence to be re-written and signed by Mrs. Robinson and addressed to Mrs. Lawrence, [a "relative" of President Pierce and] the mother of Amos A. Lawrence. The letter," which concerns Charles Robinson's imprisonment (May 10-Sept. 10, 1856 ) in K.T., was sent by Mrs. Lawrence to Mrs. Pierce, wife of the President who gave it to the President to read."]

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Election fraud; Free state cause; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Popular sovereignty; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Treason


List, List of individuals and clothing needed by them
Authors: Cutler, A.
Date: 1856
According to an attached note that cites the Herald of Freedom, November 15, 1856, this "list of individuals and clothing" was needed by a group of free-state prisoners being held at Lecompton. A note at the end is signed by A. Cutler (or Cutter) and addressed to Mr. J. Crocker. The list includes mostly shirts, shoes, socks, pants, hats, and blankets, but a Porterfield "needed" a "half pint brandy."

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Free state cause; Free state militia; Herald of Freedom; Lecompton, Kansas Territory


Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to My Dear Cleaveland
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: January 4, 1857
This rather inspiring letter, written by Thaddeus Hyatt while traveling in Kansas, demonstrates Hyatt's commitment to the National Kansas Committee and his passion for the free state cause. Apparently there was some sort of conflict within the committee that threatened its ability to function, but nevertheless Hyatt was determined to aid the struggling free state settlers in Kansas. He spoke in great detail about some of his travels around the territory, including the inclement weather and his perspective on the pro-slavery and free state settlers that he encountered during his stay.

Keywords: Bickerton, Thomas; Food; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes River; National Kansas Committee; Proslavery settlers; Relief; Settlement; Weather


Letter, Wm. Russell to Bro and Sister Adair [Samuel and Florella]
Authors: Russell, William
Date: January 23, 1857
Russell was from Memphis, Michigan. He was a classmate of Adair's at Oberlin College and wrote to the Adair family to try to keep in touch with them. Rev. Russell provided information about his family and other Oberlin classmates. He expressed his opinions about the situation in Kansas and said that at times he thought of moving there to support free state efforts.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Free state cause; Michigan; Oberlin College; Russell, William


Resolutions, National Kansas Committee
Authors: National Kansas Committee
Date: January 24, 1857
"At a meeting of the National Kansas Committee held at the Astor House in the City of New York," January 1, 1857, it was resolved that $5,000 should be committed to John Brown for "any defensive measures that may become necessary." The committee also authorized a set amount of "arms & supplies."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Guns; National Kansas Committee; New York, New York; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sisterr"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: February 13, 1857
On February 13, 1857, Kagi informed his sister in Bristol, Ohio, that he wouldn't be able to make the expected spring trip home afterall. He did plan to travel to Nebraska City for a few days, but because he was due to appear in court later in the spring, or lose the $8000 bail that had been posted for him, he didn't have time to journey east. He planned to be back in Topeka for the "Great Mass Convention" of freestate me on March 10. (See, Wilder, Annals of Kansas, 157)

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Courts; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: March 3, 1857
Once again, from Topeka, Kagi wrote his father that his long planned trip to Nebraska City had to be delayed, this time because of high water on the "Kaw river" that "prohibited my crossing" and the state convention, which started in one week. On the positive side, he was still bothered by "the jarring of my head" (the blow inflicted by Elmore with his cane), his wound (gun shot) had nearly healed.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Kagi, John Henry; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Letter, E. Brigham to Mr. [John] Brown
Authors: Brigham, E.
Date: March 9, 1857
In this letter of support from Boston, March 9, 1857, Brigham told Brown how he had been moved by the "touching appeal" in the New York Tribune of March 4 and assured Brown he had done as much as he could, considering his present economic condition, for Kansas. But he goes on to comment on the importance of the free state cause to New Englanders, who really weren't doing all they could or should do to help.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Brigham, E.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause


Letter, Eli Thayer to Friend [John] Brown
Authors: Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899
Date: March 19, 1857
In this brief follow up to his March 18 letter, Eli Thayer wrote Brown to say that "next Monday" would be a good time for Brown's speech on "the free State Cause of Kansas which is the Cause of mankind" in Worcester.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Speeches, addresses, etc.; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Worcester, Massachusetts


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: March 20, 1857
While John Brown was touring the East in March of 1857 he received this letter from Amos Lawrence, Boston, who informed Brown that he (Lawrence) had recently "sent to Kansas near $14,000 to establish a fund" for the support of common and secondary schools. As a result, Lawrence wrote he was short of cash and could not give Brown what he had requested. Nevertheless, "in case anything shd occur while you are engaged in a great & good to shorten yr life, you may be assured that yr wife and children shall be cared for more liberally than you now propose."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Education; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886


Letter, Chas. Blair to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Blair, Charles
Date: March 20, 1857
During his 1857 fund raising tour, Brown made arrangements with a Connecticut blacksmith, Charles Blair, for the production of a number of spears or "pikes" for use in the Kansas territory. On March 20, Blair wrote from Collinsville that he had the first dozen "spears" ready to send and was eager to see Brown to work out the details for the production of more. (He wrote of production details and cost estimates--this first dozen would cost $12 if Brown decided he wanted no more.)

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Jayhawkers; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, James H. Greene to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Greene, James H.
Date: March 24, 1857
James Greene, who had spent two years in Kansas himself, wrote from his Jefferson (hometown of Senator Benjamin F. Wade), Ashtabula Co., Ohio, newspaper office (Ashtabula Sentinel) to inform his friend that he would be publishing Brown's circular "soliciting aid for Kansas" and to ask what Brown's future plans were. The news from the territory was not good, according to Greene, and he wondered if there would be war or peace. Greene was still hopeful that the "free state men will eventually triumph," but most of his neighbors believed Kansas "will be a Slave State."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed), 1795-1864; Greene, James H.; Herald of Freedom; Press; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Wade, Benjamin Franklin


Letter, Eli Thayer to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899
Date: March 30, 1857
Thayer, the president of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote Brown from his home in Worcester, Mass., that he (Thayer) and his associates had "not the remotest idea of relinquishing Kansas" and that he would send Brown $50. Thayer also asked when Brown planned to visit Worcester.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Kansas question; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Contract, Charles Blair and John Brown for fabrication of spears
Authors: Blair, Charles ; Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: March 30, 1857
Executed on March 30, 1857, with this agreement Blair promised to produce and deliver "One Thousand Spears; with handles fitted of equal quality to one doz already made and sent to Springfield, Mass." Specifications are briefly described, and then the contract reads: "In consideration whereof, John Brown late of Kansas" agreed to make a partial payment of $500 within ten days and another $450 as a final payment thirty days later.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Jayhawkers; Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)


Speech, John Brown
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: ca. March 1857
During the spring of 1857, John Brown traveled to several Northeastern cities (specifically, in Brown's home state of Connecticut) to solicit financial support for the Kansas crusade. In the speech delivered from these handwritten notes, Brown outlined some of the many sacrifices he and others had made to give his audience a sense of what was needed and discussed the unfolding situation in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Buford expedition; Cato, Sterling G.; Crops; Finance; Free state cause; Hartford, Connecticut; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Proslavery activities; Speeches, addresses, etc.


Letter, H. B. Hurd to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Hurd, H. B.
Date: April 4, 1857
From Chicago, National Kansas Committee secretary H. B. Hurd sent John Brown a copy of a resolution passed by the committee on April 1, 1857: first, in light of the fact that the public was no longer contributing to the cause, the committee could not continue its normal operations; and second, the secretary was to inform major donors that the committee would necessarily close "operations unless immediately sustained by liberal Contributions." Thus, Hurd could not send Brown the $500 dollars requested (apparently to cover the first payment to Charles Blair for the "spears").

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Hurd, H. B.; National Kansas Committee; Smith, Gerritt; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Chas. Blair to Mr. [John] Brown
Authors: Blair, Charles
Date: April 15, 1857
On April 15, 1857, Blair wrote Brown regarding the latter's report to him that the National Kansas Committee had turned down his request for funds to cover the first payment on the spears. Blair had stopped production, awaiting "further order from you," but said he was willing to make 500 instead of 1000 for the same rate.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hartford, Connecticut; Jayhawkers; National Kansas Committee; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, C. G. Dick to Brother Samuel Adair
Authors: Dick, Campbell Graham
Date: April 21, 1857
Dick was Adair's brother-in-law and wrote from his home in Marshall, Highland County, Ohio. He wrote that he supported the American Missionary Association as it promoted Christianity but he was pessimistic about the chances for Kansas entering the Union as a free state. He wrote that the Democratic party was controlled by the south. He asked Adair to inform him if free state men intended to vote in the elections called by the Bogus Legislature.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; American Missionary Association; Bogus legislature; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state supporters; Marshall, Ohio; Ohio


Letter, Chas. Blair to J. [John] Brown Esq.
Authors: Blair, Charles ; Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: April 29, 1857
Brown's blacksmith, Charles Blair, wrote from Collinsville that he had received a draft for $200 and would be pleased to proceed with the completion of the first half of Brown's spear order. Blair seems eager to accommodate Brown in any way possible in order to make this deal work for both of them and the cause.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Jayhawkers; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, [E. B. Whitman?] to [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: May 10, 1857
E. B. Whitman (letter not signed, but author's identity is pretty clear), an agent in Lawrence for the National Kansas Committee, wrote Franklin Sanborn in Massachusetts regarding his disappointment with the lack of support being given by "our professed friends" in the East. To their discredit, according to Whitman, Massachusetts "supporters" had refused to provide assistance which was desperately needed for the Kansas settlers who had just endured a very "severe winter." He believed false information was being circulated for political purposes by individuals within the Free State movement: "Kansas, bleeding Kansas, is of value to them only so far as it subserves their selfish ends."

Keywords: Dred Scott decision; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Settlement; Vermont; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sister"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: May 20, 1857
On May 20, 1857, Kagi wrote his sister from Lawrence, explaining that he had been sick with the measles for some time but was now just busy writing for the newspaper and "preparing laws for the Free State Legislature," which was scheduled to convene in June. "We shall try hard to put the State Government into operation."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state legislature; Illness; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness)


Letter, T. W. Carter to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Carter, T. W.
Date: May 25, 1857
This letter from T. W. Carter announced the shipment of 200 revolvers, etc., to John Brown, via Iowa City, and informed him that the bill for the same had been sent to George S. Stearns, as requested.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Carter, T. W.; Free state cause; Iowa City, Iowa; Jayhawkers; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, B. Darrach to Rev. S. L. Adair
Authors: Darrach, Barstow
Date: June 8, 1857
Darrach, working at the New York Hospital, wrote Adair in great detail about his opinions of Gov. Walker and other political happenings in Kansas.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Darrach, Barstow; Free state cause; Lecompton Constitution; New York; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Certificate, James Abbott as Brigadier General
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 15, 1857
James Lane, from the Headquarters of the Kansas Volunteers free state militia, issued this certificate that appointed James Abbott, as Brigadier General of the 1st Brigade, to protect the ballot boxes during the upcoming elections. Election fraud, in the form of multiple votes cast by proslavery men, was a constant concern of free state supporters.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Free state cause; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866


Letter, Thos. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 24, 1857
Agent Thomas Marsh, Mass. State Kansas Committee, wrote another of his frequent and detailed letters to George Stearns on July 24, 1857, describing the census and other preparations that were being made for the upcoming election (most importantly, the legislative election in October of that year). Of special interest were the activities of Jim Lane by the Free State Convention to organize militarily for "the protection of the Ballot Boxes."

Keywords: African Americans; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speculation; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, N. Hawkins [John Brown] to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859; Hawkins, N.
Date: August 17, 1857
Using the alias Nelson Hawkins, John Brown wrote his family from Tabor, Iowa, on August 17, 1857, regarding some family matters and their slow trip to Kansas. He seems to suggest that if things continue quiet in K.T. he might soon direct his attention to the East.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Free state cause; Hawkins, N.; Iowa; Tabor, Iowa


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 20, 1857
In his August 20, 1857, report to Stearns, Marsh again asked for some clarification on a couple payment issues and described his role for the committee (Mass. State Kansas Committee) with regard to Jim Lane's efforts to organize protection for free state voters. For a short while, things looked good for the Free State cause, but Governor Walker's conduct to date had been disruptive and Judge Cato and friends began to issue arrest warrants.

Keywords: Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, Chas. Blair to Capt.[?] [John] Brown
Authors: Blair, Charles
Date: August 27, 1857
Charles Blair once again wrote to John Brown regarding the spears, the production of which was on hold. Blair couldn't afford to proceed on his own account (even though he didn't expect much of a profit) and thought the situation in Kansas might have taken "such a turn" that the weapons might no longer be needed there.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Oliver; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to Gen. J. H. Lane
Authors: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: September 7, 1857
James Abbott, wrote from his travels in Hartford, Connecticut, to James Lane, General of the Kansas free state militia. Abbott was attempting to raise money and supplies for the free state cause by soliciting donations from supporters in the East. However, he reported that "this season of the year is always unfavorable for all benevolent enterprises" and that the "bank and brokers panic" was making matters even more difficult. Abbott longed for "one more big fight in Kansas" even if it should cost him his life or the lives of others as "the object is worth all it will cost."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Economic conditions; Finance; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866


Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: September 7, 1857
James H. Lane, whose extant correspondence is scarce, here wrote from Lawrence to John Brown regarding his (Lane's) efforts "in perfecting an organization for the protection of the ballot box at the October Election," and Lane encouraged Brown to come "with all the materials you have." Lane was confident Brown could enter the territory safely but offered all required assistance--protection, transport, etc.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.


Diary
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: June 1857 - July 1858
Joseph Trego first came to Kansas Territory in June 1857. He chose to settle near Mound City (originally Sugar Mound), Miami County, Kansas Territory. He returned to his home near Rock Island, Illinois to prepare to move to Kansas. He then came back to Kansas Territory in the fall of 1857, though he did not bring his wife and three girls at that time. In March of 1858, he again returned to Illinois to bring his family to their new home. These diary entries started with his second trip to the territory in September 1857 and described the various trips to and from Kansas Territory and his various activities here. The diary entries from March 17, 1858 to May 25, 1858 (15 pages) are not included. Trego, along with Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell in the diary entries) and his brother Edwin Smith, constructed and operated a sawmill on Little Sugar Creek. Trego was involved in town company activities, and the sawmill furnished lumber and shingles for many of the buildings in Mound City. The diary entries provided information on the efforts of settlement including the furnishing of a cabin and construction of the sawmill. They documented the operation of the sawmill and other activities in the area, including some of the border disputes. Trego was a free state supporter and this was reflected in some of the entries.

Keywords: Diaries; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Free state settlers; House furnishings; Household activities; Houses; Illinois; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sawmills; Settlement; Smith, Edwin; Smith, Thomas Ellwood; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: September 12, 1857
To George Stearns on September 12, 1857, Thomas Marsh wrote that he was leaving Lawrence on a trip to "the Southern part of Kansas" for several days. He believed the "Free State men were getting into good shape for the election," which would go well if there was no "invasion" or "fraud." He also talked about some Democratic activity and mentioned the adjournment of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Marsh, Thomas J.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, John Brown to Genl. J. [James] H. Lane
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 16, 1857
In response to Jim Lane's September 7 call for assistance, John Brown wrote from Tabor, Iowa, on September 16, 1857: "I suppose that three good teams with well covered waggons, & ten really ingenious industrious men with about $150 in cash, could bring it about in the course of eight or ten days."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Horses; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Tabor, Iowa; Wagons


Letter, John Brown to Genl. Jas. H. Lane
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 30, 1857
At the end of September 1857, Brown wrote to tell Lane that it would "be next to impossible in my poor state of health" to travel to K.T. "on such very short notice. I think, considering all the uncertainties of the case, want of teams, &c, that I should do wrong to set out. I am disappointed in the extreme."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Tabor, Iowa; Transportation; Travel


Letter, John T. Jones to Mr. John Brown
Authors: Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy)
Date: October 13, 1857
"Ottawa Jones," a mixed-blood Indian who lived on Ottawa Creek in Franklin Co., wrote John Brown on October 13, 1857, regarding a financial claim/account that he was trying unsuccessfully to collect on for his friend, Brown. Jones closed by asking God to bless and reward Brown in his struggle "to bring about liberty for all men."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Finance; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Ottawa Creek, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879


Letter, Geo. S. Boutwell to "My dear Sir" [Governor Salmon P. Chase]
Authors: Boutwell, George S.
Date: November 24, 1857
George Boutwell of Indianapolis, Indiana, wrote the governor of Ohio, Salmon P. Chase, regarding the forthcoming vote on the Lecompton Constitution--for the constitution with or without slavery. Boutwell explained why he believed the best alternative for Kansas free staters was to "abstain from voting." He asked Chase to encourage his Kansas friends to follow this course. (Chase likely forwarded this letter to Robinson.)

Keywords: Boutwell, George S.; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Columbus, Ohio; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Free state cause; Lecompton Constitution; Slavery; United States. Congress


Letter, J. H. Lane to Genl. A. W. Philips
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: December 17, 1857
James Lane, Major General of the free state militia forces, wrote to General A. W. Philips, ordering him to Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to help "our friends who are there. . .defending themselves against an invading force."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Philips, A.W.; Skirmishing; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday, et al, to Charles Robinson
Authors: Crane, Franklin L.; Dickey, Milton C.; Farnsworth, Loring ; Giles, Frye W.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 26, 1857
In this brief letter from Topeka, signed by C. K. Holiday, M. C. Dickey, F. L. Crane, Loring Farnsworth, and F. W. Giles, "Governor" Robinson was "respecfully and cordially" invited to participate in a "mass convention" at Topeka (December 28, 1857) convened "to deliberate upon the political questions of the day; and more especially upon the action of the late 'Lawrence Convention.'"

Keywords: Crane, Franklin Loomis; Dickey, Milton C.; Farnsworth, Loring; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Giles, Frye W.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka, Kansas


Muster roll, Burlingame Rifles Company C
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1857
This "Muster Roll" lists men of Burlingame Rifles Company C, under the leadership of Captain H.W. Wood, who "mustered into the service" of the protection of the people of Kansas Territory. This particular documents lists men by their rank, and includes their names, age, height, and riding equipment and firearms owned.

Keywords: Burlingame Rifles; Free state cause; Free state militia; Horses; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns); Wood, H.W.


Circular, To the Friends of Freedom
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: ca. 1857
"To The Friends of Freedom" is a published circular signed by John Brown, with testimonial statements by Charles Robinson and Gerrit Smith. Brown here appealed for "contributions of pecuniary aid" to help sustain the free-state cause in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state support; Osawatomie, Battle of; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Gerritt


Letter, Chas. Blair to Mr. [John] Brown
Authors: Blair, Charles
Date: February 10, 1858
On February 10, 1858, Blair reported from Collinsville, Connecticut, on the status of the spear production; he had most of the material ready to assemble the entire lot, but "I do not feel quite willing to go on and spend any more money and then have them left on my hands." He seemed to be sincere in his efforts to work with John Brown on this, and Blair did "feel disposed to blame" Brown for the situation, Blair's generosity and commitment to the cause only went so far.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John Brown, Jr. to My Dear General [E. B.] Whitman
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: February 26, 1858
To his Kansas friend "General Whitman," John Brown Jr. wrote from his farm in Ashtabula, Ohio, regarding his continued commitment to the cause of Kansas and the state of his health. Brown wanted Whitman to know the reason for his sudden departure in October 1856: "the symptoms of mental abberation were again manifest to myself at least, and I knew that I must change scenes & circumstances, or again loose my balance entirely." But despite the hardships endured and the resulting illness, "Kansas is deguerotyped upon my heart, a stormy yet glorious picture."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Illness; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Topeka; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slavery; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Gov. [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: March 5, 1858
From Boston, Mass., on March 5, 1858, Lawrence wrote Robinson what amounted to a letter of introduction for a W. D. Goddard, "an ardent free state man" who wished "to live and die in Kansas."

Keywords: Free state cause; Free state settlers; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, Henry Thompson and Ruth [Brown] Thompson to Dear Father [John Brown]
Authors: Thompson, Ruth (Brown); Thompson, Henry
Date: April 21, 1858
From their home at North Elba, New York, April 21, 1858, Henry and Ruth (Brown) Thompson wrote separate letters to "Father," John Brown. Henry Thompson assured his father-in-law that he would leave home immediately and reengage in the "enterprise" but for his obligations to his wife and three children. Ruth simply asked her father not to blame her for Henry's decision not to go with Brown: "I should like to have him go with you if I could feel that he would live to come back."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Owen, 1771-1856; Free state cause; Thompson, Henry; Thompson, Ruth (Brown)


Letter, Wm. R. Griffith to Col. [James] Abbott
Authors: Griffith, William Riley
Date: April 26, 1858
William R. Griffith wrote to James Abbott, Colonel in the Kansas free state militia, informing him that General Eldrige had 40 carbines in his possession. Eldrige was willing to give them to the free state forces, as long as delivery charges were paid by the recipient. Griffith offered to receive the carbines and pay the charges if Abbott himself would retrieve them from Griffith in Little Osage.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state cause; Free state militia; Griffith, William Riley; Guns; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: April 30, 1858
Among other things, Whitman wrote to Sanborn from Lawrence on April 30, 1858, regarding increased activity on the region's U.G.R.R. due in part to the fact that proslavery men in Missouri knew they had lost the battle for Kansas and "large gangs of slaves are already made up for Texas and the Extreme South, in case Lecompton fails to pass. Political harmony had, for the most part, returned to the Free State Party and "we have broken the back bone of the Slave power."

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Jefferson City, Missouri; Missouri; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Slave power; Slaveholders; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Underground railroad; United States. Army; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Richard Realf to Dear Uncle [John Brown?]
Authors: Realf, Richard , 1834-1878
Date: May 31, 1858
The Englishman, Richard Realf, another of Brown's trusted followers, wrote to his "uncle" (John Brown?) from Cleveland, Ohio, regarding the threat of arrest that faced him and some of his associates (George Gill, John Kagi, et al), as well as the expenses they were incuring. He also was troubled by the news that certain people knew of certain of their activities, including "a certain Mr. Reynolds (colored) who attended our convention" and "has disclosed its objects to the members of a secret society (colored) called "The American Mysteries" or some other confounded humbug."

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cleveland, Ohio; Cook, John E.; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas Territory; Realf, Richard , 1834-1878; Shakers


Letter, M. F. Conway to My dear Sir [George L. Stearns]
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: June 13, 1858
Somewhat disturbed that Stearns of Boston had published his (Conway's) letter regarding "money for the Leavenworth Constitution," Martin F. Conway, Lawrence, wrote to say that there was nothing "improper or dishonorable in this transaction" and went on to reflect on the nature of the Free State Party/movement at that time. Charles Robinson was "at work to destroy the influence of the Republican wing of the Free State Party," but people back East should not conclude "that the bottom is going to fall out of Kansas because there is division in the Free State Party." Conway expected both Robinson and James H. Lane to fall from prominence because of changing circumstances in Kansas.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Articles of Agreement for Shubel Morgan's Company
Authors: Morgan, Shubel
Date: July 12, 1858
In July 1858, fifteen men including Shubel Morgan, alias John Brown, J. H. Kagi, James Montgomery, and Augustus Wattles signed this document and thus "agree[d] to be governed by the following rules" of conduct. The rules included "gentlemanly and respectful deportment," obedience to the commander's orders, "no intoxicating drinks," etc.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state militia; Kagi, John Henry; Military; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Morgan, Shubel; Wattles, Augustus


Diary
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: July 25, 1858 - December 9, 1859
Joseph Trego first came to Kansas in June 1857. He lived near Mound City (originally Sugar Mound), Linn County, Kansas Territory. These diary entries started on July 25, 1858 and are a continuation of an earlier diary (portions of which were also digitized as part of this project). He described various daily activities including the operation a sawmill in partnership with Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell in the diary entries) and his brother Edwin Smith. The diary entries provided information on the efforts of making a living and settling on a frontier. They documented some of the border disputes and related activities. Trego was a free state supporter and this was reflected in some of the entries.

Keywords: Diaries; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sawmills; Smith, Edwin; Smith, Thomas Ellwood; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Letter, John Brown to Wm. Hutchinson
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: August 3, 1858
From Moneka, Kansas, John wrote to William Hutchinson regarding his (Brown's) "Revolvers," which had been distributed on loan to others in Kansas. Brown had been spending some weeks near the Kansas-Missouri border, "on the claim upon which the whole sale murders [Marias des Cygnes Massacre, May 19, 1858] were committed," as a show of force to more would-be invaders.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missourians; Proslavery activities; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister, and Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: September 23, 1858
From Lawrence, Kagi wrote that he had spent several weeks at Osawatomie caring for "Old B." [John Brown], who had "now quite recovered." Things were hard right then, but Kagi was confident that "better times [were] dawning" and that his reward would certainly come "in the end," since "the success of [their] great cause" was "drawing very near." "Few of my age have toiled harder or suffered more in this cause than I, and yet I regret nothing that I have done; nor am I in any discouraged at the future."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Health; Kagi, John Henry; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness); Trading Post, Kansas Territory; Wattles, Augustus


Contributors List, National Kansas Committee
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 29, 1858
This list of "notes received for seeds" distributed by R. H. Waterman "under the direction of E. B. Whitman" is signed "John Brown Agt Nat. Kan. Com.," September 29, 1858. The notes were, according to Brown, given to him "in past payment or security on account."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state support; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. N. [Ephraim Nute] to Unidentified recipient
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: February 24, 1859
Ephaim Nute of Lawrence provides an interesting description of the plight of one of the Doy party's fugitive slaves, captured and jailed at Platte City until his escape and dangerous flight back to Lawrence. "We have him now hid & are to day making arrangements to have him set forward tomorrow 30 miles to another depot. I think they (there are 2 others to go) will not be taken again without bloodshed." Nute also mentioned his involvement in the "Charley Fisher affair in Leavenworth." Fisher, a black fugitive, had actually come to Nute's house "disguised in female attire."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Canada; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, John; Fisher, Charley; Free state cause; Fugitive slaves; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Nute, Ephraim; Platte City, Missouri; Proslavery settlers; Underground railroad


Photograph, John Doy rescue party
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1859
On January 25, 1859, Dr. John Doy and his son Charles left Lawrence, Kansas Territory, for Nebraska with 13 slaves. They were captured when only twelve miles out of Lawrence and were taken to Weston, Missouri. The two Doys had an examination at Weston and were committed to jail at Platte City, Missouri for the crime of abducting slaves. They remained in jail until March 20, 1859. They were then taken to St. Joseph, Missouri, where Dr. Doy was tried. After this trial, his son Charles was set free. However, the first jury could not agree on a verdict for Dr. Doy, and he was tried a second time. At the second trial, he was convicted and sentenced to five years in the penitentiary. While being held in the St. Joseph jail he was freed by friends from Kansas on September 23, 1859. Two different ambrotypes showing the John Doy rescue party were digitized for the project. When you compared the images, you will find the men are standing in different positions.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abolitionists; Ambrotypes; Antislavery movements; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Firearms; Free state activities; Free state cause; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Hay, George R.; Photographs and Illustrations; Pike, Joshua A.; Senix, Jacob; Simmons, Thomas; Soule, Silas Stillman


Expenses of Trip for rescuing Dr. Doy
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 23, 1859
Expense list, including supplies and cash advances, for the rescue of John Doy, who was arrested January 25, 1859 by Missouri authorities for abducting slaves. He was sprung from his cell in a St. Joseph, Missouri, jail by a rescue party that included James Abbott.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, John; Financial statements; Free state cause; Horses; Weapons (see also Guns)


Photograph, John Doy rescue party
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1859
On January 25, 1859, Dr. John Doy and his son Charles left Lawrence, Kansas Territory, for Nebraska with 13 slaves. They were captured when only twelve miles out of Lawrence and were taken to Weston, Missouri. The two Doys had an examination at Weston and were committed to jail at Platte City, Missouri for the crime of abducting slaves. They remained in jail until March 20, 1859. They were then moved to St. Joseph, Missouri, where Dr. Doy was tried. After this trial Charles Doy was set free. However, the first jury could not agree on a verdict for Dr. Doy, and he was tried a second time. At the second trial, he was convicted and sentenced to five years in the penitentiary. While being held in the St. Joseph jail he was freed by friends from Kansas on September 23, 1859. Two different ambrotypes showing the John Doy rescue party were digitized for the project. When you compared the images, you will find the men are standing in different positions.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abolitionists; Ambrotypes; Antislavery movements; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Firearms; Free state activities; Free state cause; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Hay, George R.; Photographs and Illustrations; Pike, Joshua A.; Senix, Jacob; Simmons, Thomas; Soule, Silas Stillman


Letter, "C. Whipple [A.D. Stevens] to "Jenny" [Dunbar]
Authors: Stevens, Aaron D.
Date: October 7, 1859
The last of three "love letters" written by Aaron D. Stevens, alias Charles Whipple, to a girl he apparently had only recently met but with whom he desperately desired a closer relationship was dated October 7, 1859, "near Harper's Ferry." (He had been writing for at least a month and had not received a letter from her.) Stevens rode with John Brown in Kansas, participated in the Harpers Ferry raid on October 18, 1859, and died on the Charlestown gallows in the spring of 1860.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Jayhawkers


John Brown pike
Authors: Collins and Company
Date: October 18, 1859
Pike used by slaves at the insurrection planned by John Brown at the U.S. arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia, October 18, 1859. Armed with pikes and guns, Brown's army, primarily slaves, took hostages from the community and took over the arsenal. Brown's army was overwhelmed by U.S. troops led by Colonel Robert E. Lee. Brown was tried and hanged for treason on December 2, 1859.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Collinsville, Connecticut; Courts; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Swords and daggers; United States Government; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, H. B. Hurd to E. B. Whitman Esq.
Authors: Hurd, H. B.
Date: October 26, 1859
H. B. Hurd, the secretary of the National Kansas Committee, Chicago, Illinois, wrote to assure Whitman that he (Whitman) had "full authority to act in reference to said notes & accounts," not Capt. John Brown.

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Chicago, Illinois; Doy, John; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Hurd, H. B.; National Kansas Committee; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, L. Maria Child to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Child, Lydia Maria Francis , 1802-1880
Date: October 26, 1859
Lydia Maria Child, "an earnest friend of Kansas," wrote John Brown from Wayland, Mass., on October 26, 1859, regarding her opposition to violence but her admiration for his courage and commitment to the cause of freedom. She had hoped to come to his aid in prison, but in the meantime assured Brown "that no honest man ever shed his blood for freedom in vain, however much he may be mistaken in his efforts."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Kansas question


Letter, James Hanway to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Hanway, James
Date: December 5, 1859
In response to the Redpath/Hinton notice in the Lawrence Republican, Hanway wrote from his home in Shermansville, Franklin County, to share his story about "our friend John Brown," and he hoped their efforts would convey to all Brown's "the character" and "motives" and "place him in his true light before the world." Hanway highlights the attempted "rescue of Lawrence" in May 1856; the subsequent "'Tragedy'" on Pottawatomie Creek, about which Brown personal told Hanaway, "it was a just act, to take the lives of those 5 pro-slave ruffians"; how John Brown was a surveyor who used his profession to gather intellegence among proslavery settlers; the fact, according to Hanway, that the Doyles and others were actively engaged in efforts to run free state settlers out of the area; and specifically denies the story that Frederick Brown was "insane."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hanway, James; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Proslavery settlers; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shermansville, Kansas Territory; Slave power; Surveyors


Letter, Paul Shepherd to James Redpath
Authors: Shepherd, Paul
Date: January 3, 1860
From Dover, Michigan, Paul Shepherd--formerly of Kansas Territory--wrote Redpath to pass along "some useful information, in repect to John H. Kagi." Of most interest, perhaps is Shepherd's account of the "shoot out" at Tecumseh between Kagi and Judge Rush Elmore, who Kagi had accused of "being a prime mover in the murderous attack upon him" at Lecompton in mid-January 1857.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Border ruffians; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Moffett, Charles; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery perspective; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka boys; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Letter, Salmon Brown to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Brown, Salmon
Date: January 10, 1860
From North Elba, New York, Salmon Brown wrote R. J. Hinton briefly regarding his father role in the Pottawatomie Creek killings of May 24, 1856. Reportedly, Gov. Charles Robinson had told James Redpath that John Brown had confessed to him that "he helped kill the Doyles" but "if Gov. R said so he lies." Brown would not have confided in Robinson, since he had not "put any confidence in Robinson after that Lawrence treaty" (ending Wakarusa War in December 1855). Salmon doesn't answer the question, but portrays the killing of "those spies" as the heoric "first blow with the sword against Slavery in this county" and insists that "they were life preservers and they saved Kansas."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Salmon; Free state cause; Hinton, Richard Josiah; North Elba, New York; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [John Hanna]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 26, 1860
In this letter to a friend in Greencastle, Indiana, Ewing made numerous observations about the state of Kansas politics, of which he wrote: "Politics in Kansas you know are a business to those caught in the whirlpool." Ewing thought the state government was "pretty well officered" but was concerned about prospects for the senatorial contest. "Lane is nearly dead with the politicians. . . But he is a power with the people. . . . I look on Lane as a decidedly bad man," even though he recognized Lane's positive "service to the cause before the [Lawrence free-state] Convention in Decr 1857."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state cause; Hanna, John; Journalism; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Congress. Senate; Vaughan, Champion


Letter, Harrison Anderson to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Anderson, Harrison
Date: January 27, 1860
The elder brother of Harpers Ferry raider Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote Hinton to provide information on his brothers activities in Kansas Territory, beginning in "June or July 1857," when he settle in norther Bourbon County. J.G. Anderson was actively engaged in free-state activities in southern Kansas, including efforts to defy the bogus authority through the establishment of what was called a "Squaters court." (According to a January 29, 1860, letter--also in this folder--from another brother, John Q. Anderson of Eddyville, Iowa, brother Harrison was still living in at Little Osage, KT, and he had "frequently entertained" John Brown.)

Keywords: Abolitionists; Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Proslavery activities; Squatters


Essay, Sketch of J. H. Kagi by E. R. Moffet
Authors: Moffet, E. R.
Date: March 4, 1860
Apparently written for Redpath and Hinton on March 4, 1860, this handwritten sketch of John H. Kagi is the reflection of long-time acquaintance E. R. Moffet, then of Davenport, Iowa. Moffet knew Kagi from the time the latter was two years old and became reacquainted with him in Kansas Territory. They spent time in "prison" together in October 1856, and in this somewhat odd manuscript, Moffet recreates some "Prison Scenesor Dialogue" and subsequently includes some correspondence from Kagi. Moffet recounts Kagi's second arrest, bail, and March 1857 altercation with Rush Elmore at Tecumseh.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery activities; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Tribune; Violence


Letter, C. Robinson to "Dear Madam" [Emma Willard]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: March 30, 1860
In response to Willard's letter of March 22, Robinson wrote from Quindaro that he was "gratified" to learn of her interest in Kansas history and that she was "disposed to examine for yourself the random thrusts of the press." Robinson went on to make some interesting observations regarding his interpretation of Kansas events and the importance of the various factions, free state and proslavery.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state cause; Kansas question; Law and Order Party; Lecompton Constitution; Millard, Emma; Proslavery; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, Dr. C. R. Jennison to Dear friend [George L. Stearns]
Authors: Jennison, Charles Rainsford, 1834-1884
Date: November 28, 1860
From Mound City, Jennison opened his letter to Stearns by acknowledging that the two men did not know each other but Jennison counted Stearns "a true friend to the cause of freedom." Jennison told him about the so-called "desperadoes known as Kidnapers" who had been active in the region. After warning them of serious consequences if caught and convicted of "man hunting," Jennison's free state force captured, tried, and hung one Russ Hinds. Despite the threat from Gen. William S. Harney's federal troops, Jennison insisted "we are detirmined to Stand or fall by our weight for we have taken our position and it is honorable and Just." Federal troops were unfairly targeting free staters and ignoring proslave outrages.

Keywords: Beebe, George Monroe; Free state cause; Fugitive slaves; Hamelton, Charles A.; Harney, William S.; Hinds, Russell; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Kidnapping; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; United States. Army


Letter, [Jim] Lane to [M. W.] Delahay
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: December 18, 1860
Writing on "Christian & Lane" attorneys letterhead, Jim Lane (at least it certainly appeared to be Lane) informed Delahay in a "Strictly confidential" letter of his plan to help John Speer, Lawrence editor and "faithful friend," take control of the Republican, another Lawrence newspaper. To do so he needed to raise $500, but the political payoff would be worth the effort." Lane felt control of the Republican, Times [Leavenworth] & Record [Topeka] would lead to success for the free state cause.

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Free state cause; Kansas State Record; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Leavenworth Times; Newspapers; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Speer, John, 1817-1906


Photograph, Horace Greeley
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Horace Greeley was editor of the New York Tribune during the Kansas territorial era. He actively supported the free state cause in Kansas through editorials as well as coming to Kansas in 1859. He advocated resistance to the implementation of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and was involved in the founding of the Republican Party.

Keywords: Free state cause; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Journalists; Newspapers; Photographs and Illustrations; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Photograph, Thomas H. Webb
Authors: J. W. Black & Co.
Date: 
Thomas H. Webb, Boston, Massachusetts, was secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. His name appears in publications of the Company and he is a frequent correspondent with people in Kansas Territory connected to the company.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Cabinet photographs; Emigrant aid companies; Free state cause; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographs and Illustrations; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Photograph, James Redpath
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
James Redpath came to Kansas Territory as a reporter for the New York Tribune, but he soon became a participant in the free state cause. He was involved with John Brown and wrote a biography on him that was published in 1860. He reported on the free state movement in Topeka.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Card photographs; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Journalists; Photographs and Illustrations; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Photograph, George Luther Stearns
Authors: Pach Brothers
Date: 
George Luther Stearns lived in Boston, Massachusetts, and was a supporter of the free state cause. He was a member of the National Kansas Committee and president of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. He donated money to the cause and helped raise funds and arms, and he lent his support to John Brown for the raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Free state cause; Massachusetts; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; National Kansas Committee; Pach Brothers; Photographs and Illustrations; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Invoice, Copy of Invoice of Property Received of Col. S. W. Eldridge
Authors: Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Kansas State Central Committee
Date: n.d.
Starting with five, seven to eight inch Colt Revolvers, this documents, most likely created during the late fall or winter 1856-1857, contains over thirty separate listings for various firearms, foodstuffs, harness, etc., plus a good number of horses and mules. Among the different items listed were cartridges, blankets, canvass tents, shovels, bayonets, tin cups, and "25 old Sabors."

Keywords: Ammunition; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state cause; Guns; Horses; Kansas Central Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Wagons; Weapons (see also Guns)


Inventory, Catalogue of . . . The Property of the Kansas Central Committee, Lawrence
Authors: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: n.d.
The complete title of this undated inventory is a "Catalogue of Horses, Waggons [sic], Harnesses, &, the property of the Kansas Central Committee, Lawrence. Twenty-eight different horses or "spans" of horses are identified (e.g., "One Sorrell Colt"), along with four mules and forty harnesses and seventeen wagons.

Keywords: Free state cause; Horses; Kansas Central Committee; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Wagons


Photograph of William Riley Griffith
Authors: Leonard, 613 Kansas Ave., Topeka, KS.
Date: 
Griffith was a free state supporter living in Marmaton, Bourbon County. He was a delegate to the Topeka and Wyandotte Constitutional Conventions and was on the Free-State central committee.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Constitutional conventions; Free state cause; Griffith, William Riley; Photographs and Illustrations; Topeka Constitution; Wyandotte Constitution


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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