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80 results for Free state activities:
Diary, scattered entries
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: September 10, 1854, through February 7, 1861
The diary entries are very scattered. The first entry indicated that Adair and his wife were considering coming to Kansas. The other entries relate to daily activities and Adair's ministry. He often mentioned who he visited and who was ill. The entry for Feb. 4, 1861, noted that Kansas had been admitted to the Union.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Diaries; Free state activities; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Religion


Stubbs Militia Company Constitution, By-laws, and Charter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 16, 1855
The Stubbs militia company was organized on April 16, 1855, to protect Lawrence and the people of Kansas Territory. The constitution limited membership to 64 "rank and file" members and listed the duties of the various officers. The by-laws called for weekly drills, public parades once each three months, and indicated that prospective members had to be voted upon as well as paying ten dollars. Other expectations for members were detailed in the by-laws. The charter was the draft of a bill to be passed by the territorial legislature and listed the following as the incorporators of the Stubbs, a volunteer military company: Joseph Cracklin, A. Cutler, George F. Earle, John G. Crocker, Caleb S. Pratt, A. Gunther, and A. D. Searl. Although the document included the date of April 16, 1855, a date of 1858 was penciled above the title Constitution.

Keywords: Cracklin, Joseph; Crocker, John G.; Cutler, A.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Earle, Geroge F.; Free state activities; Gunther, A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Pratt, Caleb S.; Searl, Albert D.; Stubbs militia company


Letter, L. C. P. Freer to James B. Abbott
Authors: Freer, L.C.P.
Date: August 7, 1855
L. C. P. Freer of Chicago wrote a scathing commentary of the Kansas Territory free state movement and its supporters to James Abbott, who had solicited subscriptions from him to fund the cause. Freer suggested that the founders of the Emigrant Aid Societies were hypocritical and the free state men were nothing but "cattle" forming only a "little whiff of opposition to the introduction of Slavery into Kanzas." Freer did not appear to be a proslavery supporter, but rather a tough critic who responded cynically to the idealism of the free state cause.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abolitionists; Emigrant aid companies; Free Soil Party; Free state activities; Free state cause; Fugitive Slave Law; Pierce administration; Slavery


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Mr. J. [James] B. Abbott
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: August 11, 1855
Amos A. Lawrence wrote from Boston to James Abbott in Hartford, Conneticut, with shipping instructions for the 100 sharps rifles he would procure. Lawrence requested that they be "packed in casks like hardware" and to bill him for expenses incurred.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state activities; Free state cause; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Sharps rifles; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: August 29, 1855
Josiah Miller, making arrangements for his parents' journey from South Carolina to Kansas Territory, wrote to his father and mother from his office at the Kansas Free State newspaper. He told them of his need to purchase personal arms for his own protection and described to them a recent situation of election fraud. Miller also wrote that his goal, as a newspaper editor, was to "move men to support the Free State ticket." He added that he was having a falling out with Robert Elliott, his business partner.

Keywords: Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state activities; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspapers; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.


Kansas Free!! Gov. Reeder For Congress!!
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 8, 1855
This broadside invites the "Freeman on the Wakarusa" to attend a meeting to endorse the proceeding of the Big Spring Convention, which was organized by free state supporters as part of the actions leading up to the drafting of the Topeka Constitution. The meeting was to be held at Blanton on September 13, 1855. The document indicated that the "FREE STATE PLATFORM and the Proceedings of the CONVENTION" would be read and that the best "Orators of the Country" would be there.

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Wakarusa River


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to J. M. S. Williams
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: September 17, 1855
Samuel Pomeroy, writing from Kansas City, Missouri to J.M.S. Williams, an officer in the New England Emigrant Aid Company, described free state political strategies. Specifically, Pomeroy mentioned free state plans to hold their own election for a delegate to Congress, to call for a constitutional convention, and to push for the admission of Kansas as a free state.

Keywords: Free state activities; Free state cause; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Williams, John M. S.


Letter, S. L. Adair to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: October 15, 1855
Writing from Osawatomie, Samuel Adair mentioned that his family had been sick and that others in the area had been ill and/or died. The bulk of the letter dealt with elections held by both proslavery and antislavery supporters in October, 1855, and the number of Missourians that voted in the proslavery election on October 1. He also discussed the territorial legislature that met at Shawnee Mission. The letter also indicated that a relative and his son and son-in-law had arrived in Kansas Territory and that he had brought a number of weapons. This is probably referring to John Brown, who was a half brother of Adair's wife Florella. Adair mentioned that he was concerned about Brown's war-like attitude. Adair briefly discussed a slaveholder who had left the territory because of his concern about the "outcome." This appears to be a draft of a letter sent to Jocelyn.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Elections; Free state activities; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Slaveholders; Slavery


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin A. Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: November 25, 1855
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth City, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin A. Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marc told his brother about his recent efforts in defending Cole McCrea, on trial before Judge Lecompte for murder. He also urged his brother to come to Kansas Territory by describing business and land purchase opportunities there. Marc also referred to an upcoming meeting of free state men, which would serve "as a counterblast to the proslavery one".

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Balls (parties); Business enterprises; Free state activities; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; McCrea, Cole; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; United States. General Land Office


List of Companies
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November-December, 1855
This document listed general information about militia recruited by free state leaders during the Wakarusa War, November-December, 1855. These troops gathered to defend Lawrence against an estimated 2000 Missourians. Details on the number of commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers and rank and file are provided for Companies A through I, Horse Company No. 1, and the headquarters company. The documents also listed the weapons available ("Sharpe's Rifles," "Other Arms," and "Cartridges"). All of the officers were listed. A total of 349 men with 156 Sharpe's Rifles and 169 other weapons and 6807 cartridges were recruited. James H. Lane served as the brigadier general and William Y. Roberts was the adjutant general. Colonels were Lyman Allen, M. A. Hunt, and C, K. Holliday. Majors were Jno. A. Wakefield, David Dodge, J. M Mitchell, Geo. W. Smith, Sr., Milton C. Dickey and men with the last names of Thomas, Tuton, Sampson, and Yates.. George W. Smith, Jr. was the Sergeant Major, A. H. Malory, Quartermaster; Jno. G. Crocker, Quartermaster Sergeant; Mr. Hunt, Commisary; and Dr. S. B. Prentiss and Dr. Foles, surgeons.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Crocker, John G.; Dickey, Milton C.; Dodge, David; Free state activities; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hunt, Morris; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Mallory, Anson H.; Militia; Mitchell, J. M.; Prentiss, S.B.; Roberts, William Young; Smith, George W.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wakefield, John A.


Wakarusa Treaty
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles ; Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 8, 1855
A draft of an agreement between Governor Wilson Shannon, representing the territorial government, and Charles Robinson and James Lane, representing the free state movement, settling the dispute that resulted in the Wakarusa War. In essence, Robinson and Lane pledged to "aid in the execution of any legal process" against individuals involved in rescuing free state supporter Jacob Branson provided that these individuals received a hearing before a U.S. District Court judge. This compromise ended the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter/Order, Wilson Shannon to C. Robinson and J. H. Lane
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 9, 1855
According to D. W. Wilder, Governor Wilson Shannon arrived in Lawrence on December 7, 1855, and on December 8 made "a treaty with the Free-State Generals" ending the Wakarusa War. The paper was signed by Shannon, Robinson and Lane. With the document represented here, dated Lawrence, December 9, 1855, Governor Shannon "authorized & directed [Robinson and Lane] to take such measures & use the enrolled force under your command in such manner for the preservation of the peace & the protection of the persons & property of the people in Lawrence & vicinity as in your judgment shall best secure that end." ( A subsequent notation indicated that the order was written in Robinson's hand, but signed by Shannon.)

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Receipt, Commissary 1st Brigade Kansas Volunteers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 10, 1855
Receipt from the Commissary 1st Brigade Kansas Volunteers listing arms and equipment, along with their prices, allotted to James Abbott.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state activities; Free state militia; Hunt, George W.; Kansas Volunteers; Mallory, Anson H.; Weapons (see also Guns)


Certificate, Head Quarters Kansas Volunteers
Authors: Kansas Volunteers
Date: December 12, 1855
This certificate, signed by Charles Robinson and James Lane, was issued by the Head Quarters of the Kansas Volunteers, a Free state militia group led by Robinson. It documented Robert Gilbert's service "in defending the City of Lawrence. . .from demolition by foreign invaders" during the Wakarusa War. Gilbert had arrived in Kansas Territory only weeks before, having traveled from his native England.

Keywords: Battles; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Free state regiment; Gilbert, Robert L.; Hunt, Morris; Immigrants; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wilder, Solomon


Muster Roll of Captain Samuel Walker, Company D, Second Regiment, 1st Brigade, Kansas Volunteeers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 12, 1855
This muster roll listed men who served in the Wakarusa War from November 27 to December 12, 1855. The second regiment was commanded by Col. C. K. Holliday. This company was recruited from the area around Bloomington, Kansas Territory. The information provided included name, title if an officer, and age. This muster roll also included annotations about the value of property such as saddles, clothes, horses, etc. taken or destroyed by the "enemy." Officers, in addition to Captain Samuel Walker, were A. Curliss, George Umbarger, (?) Miller, T. W. Wolverton, D. C. Buffum, A. I. Smith, A. Jones, R. Dunn, R. Hasseltine, R. Miller, and J. C. Dunn. Ages of the company ranged from 17 to 50 years old.

Keywords: Bloomington, Kansas Territory; Buffum, David C.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Volunteers; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Walker, Samuel Douglas


Muster Roll of Captain John Brown's company, Fifth Regiment, 1st Brigade, Kansas Volunteers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 12, 1855
This muster roll listed men who served in the Wakarusa War from November 27 to December 12, 1855. The fifth regiment was commanded by Col. George W. Smith. This company was recruited from the area around Osawatomie, Kansas Territory. The information provided included name, title if an officer, and age. Officers, in addition to Captain John Brown, were William Updegraff, Henry H. Williams, James J. Holbrook, Ephraim Reynolds, R. W. Wood, Frederick Brown, John Yelton, Henry Alderman, H. Harrison Updegraff, Daniel W. Collis, and William Partridge. William Partridge furnished one keg of powder and 8 pounds of lead that were used by the company. Ages of the company ranged from 19 to 55 years old. This was a small company and the other members were Amos D. Alderman, Francis Brennon, William W. Caine, Benjamin L. Cochran, Jeremiah Harrison and John Brown's sons John, Jr., Owen, and Sallmon

Keywords: Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Owen; Brown, Salmon; Free state activities; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Militia; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Partridge, William; Smith, George W.; Updegraff, W. W.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Williams, Henry H.


Daily diary, Isaac Goodnow
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: July 1855 - January 1856
Isaac Goodnow, a free state supporter and founder of Bluemont College in Manhattan, Kansas Territory, recorded news of political events and military skirmishes from July 1855-January 1856. Goodnow's diary makes mention of the details of his daily life, such as home maintenance, crop harvests, prairie fires, and extended illness.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Daily life; Denison, Joseph; Elections; Free state activities; Free state support; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Schuyler, Philip Church; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Constitution; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Photograph, Free-State Battery
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
During the year 1856, the pro-slavery people of Missouri virtually cut off free-state emigration to Kansas Territory by the way of the Missouri River. Numerous emigrant parties were intercepted and turned back. This circumstance led to an organized emigration to Kansas Territory overland through Iowa. Parties came in organized companies and were generally armed. These arms were furnished largely through organized movements in the Eastern states from which the emigrants came. In a number of instances cannons were brought by these emigrant parties. This daguerreotype shows one of the cannons brought by a company to Topeka in 1856.

Keywords: Cannons; Daguerreotypes; Firearms; Free State Battery; Free state; Free state activities; Free state militia; Guns; Photographs and Illustrations


Senate Miscellaneous Documents, 34th Congress, 1st and 2nd sessions Document No. 32, Three Memorials of the Citizens of . . .Leavenworth County. . .Praying the immediate admission of Kansas Territory into the Union as a State
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 24, 1856
These "memorials" presented by various citizens or Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory, to the United States Congress and referred by them to the Committee on Territories, were written in a petition style, with the names of supporters signed at their conclusion, and requested the immediate admission of Kansas Territory to the Union under the Constitution framed by the Topeka Legislature. Following the three memorials is a copy of the proposed Constitution, as approved by James Lane and Joel Goodin, respectively President and Secretary of the Topeka Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Election fraud; Foster, Charles A.; Free state activities; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; United States. Congress. Senate


Letter, Thomas Webb, Boston, Massachusetts to J. S. Emery, Brandon, Vt.
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: April 4, 1856
Emery was in New England and Webb was informing him of various places in Maine and New Hampshire that would like someone from Kansas to speak to them. Webb informed Emery that the group in New Hampshire was interested in securing recruits to go to Kansas but that Emery's principal purpose was to raise money for the Relief Fund. He wrote Emery that the sponsoring group should cover his expenses, that they should take contributions at any public meeting and that they should establish a committee for soliciting funds locally. Webb also described an incident where Missourians seized a box they thought contained weapons, but it housed a rosewood piano. Webb also mentioned that Charles Robinson was in Washington, D. C.

Keywords: Emery, James Stanley; Free state activities; Furniture; Massachusetts; Proslavery activities; Relief; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Your Affectionate Husband & Father [John Brown] to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: April 7, 1856
From "Brown's Station" in the southeastern corner of Franklin County, K.T., Brown wrote the family about a variety of matters, including family finances/business interests and, as usual, his faith in God ("trust us to the care of 'Him who feeds the young Ravens when they cry'"). Brown also mentioned the house they were building for Orson Day, his brother in law, and the "rumors" of what was to come in the political arena. "For one I have no desire (all things considered) to have the Slave Power cease from its acts of aggression. 'Their foot shall slide in due time.'"

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Watson, 1835-1859; Day, Orson; Free state activities; Free state cause; Proslavery activities; Slave power; Thompson, Ruth (Brown); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Letter, [unknown] to Hiram Hill
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 30, 1856
The author of this letter, possibly C. A. Wright, wrote to Hiram Hill from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He discussed continuing speculation efforts in Lawrence, but particular ones were becoming rife with politics. Also mentioned is the recent completion of the Free State Hotel, which would help ease the recent emigration rush. The author described events surrounding the shooting of Sheriff Samuel Jones "by an unknown hand". The shooting followed the issuing of arrest warrants for George Deitzler, Gaius Jenkins, and others, for their failure to assist with the arrest of S. N. Wood, who was charged with aiding the rescue of a free state man from prison the past November.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Emigration and immigration; Free State Hotel; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Jenkins, Gaius; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Land speculation; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence; Warrants (Law); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Senate Executive Documents, Reports from Colonel E.V. Sumner
Authors: Sumner, Edwin Vose
Date: May 16, 1856 - August 31, 1856
Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner, leader of a Kansas Territory cavalry regiment, corresponded primarily with Territorial Governer Wilson Shannon and the Secretary of War's Adjutant General regarding military action taken in response to the Sack of Lawrence and the subsequent retaliatory skirmishes between free state and proslavery men. Sumner maintained that safety in the Territory could not be guaranteed "unless the posse of the U.S. Marshal was dismissed" in favor of local troops. Fearing civil war, Sumner and his correspondents discussed the convening of the Topeka Legislature, which they dubbed "bogus".

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Skirmishing; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States marshals; Violence; Woodson, Daniel


Senate Executive Documents, 34th Congress, 3rd session, Report of the Secretary of War
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 23, 1856 - November 12, 1856
Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, submitted a number of documents in his report to the President that was submitted to the "Two Houses of Congress" on December 2, 1856. There were three sections of documents. Part 1 consisted of letters from the Secretary of War (Davis) and the Adjutant General ( S. Cooper) (pp. 27--35) to Colonel E.V. Sumner, General P. F. Smith, the governors of Kentucky and Illinois, and Major Emery, in relation to a militia force to be employed to aid the legitimate Territorial Government in Kansas Territory. Part 2 (pp.35--61) contained various reports from Colonel E. V. Sumner, commaning officer of the 1st Cavalry at Fort Leavenworth about events in Kansas. The reports include correspondence from Wilson Shannon, territorial governor, and various officers of the 1st Cavalry from Lecompton, Tecumseh, and other locations in the territory. Part 3 (pp. 62-146) was headed "Reports for the Department of the West" and included correspondence from various military officers about the activities of United States troops at various locations in Kansas Territory. This section contained several letters from Daniel Woodson and John Geary, territorial officials. A few non-Kansas items relating to dealings with Native Americans were interspersed among the Kansas Territory correspondence.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Cooke, Philip St. George; Davis, Jefferson; Deas, George; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Military; Sackett, Delos B.; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Woodson, Daniel


Testimony taken before grand jury investigating the Pottawatomie murders
Authors: Hall, Amos ; Jackson, Harvey ; McDaniel, I. R.; Shaw, Isaac
Date: May 1856
A portion of the testimony taken before a Franklin County grand jury, under the direction of Judge Sterling G. Cato, charged with identifying the parties involved in the May 24, 1856 killings on Pottawatomie Creek.. Included are the statements of Harvey Jackson, Amos Hall, I. R. McDaniel, Luther ?, and Isaac Shaw. Hall stated that he had seen "Old Man Brown" [John Brown] in a wagon on May 22, 1856. A one page explanation of the testimony signed by Edward Hoogland is attached.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Free state activities; Hall, Amos; Hoogland, Edward; Jackson, Harvey; McDaniel, I. R.; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Shaw, Isaac


Photograph, Charles Robinson and Deputy
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 1856
Portrait of Charles Robinson, free state leader, under arrest by a Deputy, in May 1856. Robinson was arrested in Lexington, Missouri, with his wife, Sarah, as they traveled East. He was taken to Westport, the proslavery camp near Lawrence, back to Kansas City, to Leavenworth, and then to Lecompton. Robinson was arrested on charges of treason, and was held prisoner four months before being released on bail.

Keywords: Free state activities; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Indictment of Orville Chester Brown, John Brown, Sr., John Brown, Jr. et al., U.S. District Court, Territory of Kansas, Second District
Authors: United States. District Court for Lykens County
Date: May 1856
During the "May Term" of the U.S. District Court for Lykens (Miami) County, a grand jury issued this indictment covering the April 16, 1856, actions (among others) of this group of "persons of evil minds and dispositions." These men, according to the indictment, "did unlawfully and wickedly conspire, combine, confederate and agree together mutually to aid and support one another in a forcible resistance to the enactments of the laws passed by the Legislature of said Territory of Kansas. . . ." Specifically, they had conspired "forcibly to resist and oppose the collector of taxes in and for the county and Territory aforesaid . . ."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; District Court (see United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)); Free state activities; Kansas Legislature; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Taxation; United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Circular, Grand Mass Convention
Authors: Topeka Council of Safety
Date: June 9, 1856
This printed circular called for a "grand mass convention" to be held by the Free State Party on July 3, 1856 to discuss the "perils of the times." It was signed by several Topekans and others involved in the free state cause.

Keywords: Burgess, H. B.; Circulars; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Farnsworth, Loring; Free State Party; Free state activities; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; McClure, W. M.; Nichols, H; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Ross, William Wallace, 1828-1889; Schuyler, Philip Church; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Thornton, Thomas G.; Topeka Council of Safety; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr.
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: July 7, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported to Hill that the Topeka Legislature had recently been dispersed by U.S. Troops under order of President Pierce, and that southern emigrants were coming into Kansas Territory by "hundreds" while the northern emigrants found themselves forced out by proslavery supporters. Short on time, Simpson kept his report regarding Hill's properties short; Whitney had almost finished his home, offers had been made on various lots, Mr. Fuller continued to be a problem.

Keywords: Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell


George Washington Brown to Friends
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: ca. August 1856
Unsigned letter, probably written by George Washington Brown while he was being held prisoner at a camp near Lecompton on treason charges, offering military advice to free state leaders and commenting on events in the Lecompton area.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Military


Painting, Directing John Brown to the Free State Camp
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: August 3, 1856
Painting of John Brown being led to a Free State camp by Samuel Reader. John Brown disguised himself as a surveyor to monitor the activites of proslavery forces in the Kansas Territory. Here, the artist depicts himself leading Brown to a camp on Pony Creek in Brown County on August 3, 1856.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Brown County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state; Free state activities; Objects; Reader, Samuel James; Surveyors


Letter, Eli Thayer to Mr. [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899
Date: August 5, 1856
From Worcester, Mass., on August 5, 1856, the founder of the Emigrant Aid Company wrote Charles Robinson's "brother" about "certain efforts to injure the reputation of your brother" whom Thayer called "heroic." He mentions the Buffalo convention and the shipment of weapons to KT, but the main objective was to reassure the governor via his "brother" that he had not been forgotten and that Thayer would remain his champion in the East.

Keywords: Free state activities; Free state government; Guns; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Weapons (see also Guns); Worcester, Massachusetts


List of voters of 7th senatorial district
Authors: Adams, J. D.; Barry, Abraham ; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: September 3, 1856
A list of the voters in Kansas Territory's 7th senatorial district, which included Manhattan and the area surrounding it. Voters were categorized as free soilers, proslavery, and doubtful. The census was taken by order of the "Central Committee" (a free state group) and was signed by Abraham Barry, Isaac T. Goodnow, and J. D. Adams of District Committee No. 7.

Keywords: Adams, J. D.; Barry, Abraham; Census; Free State Party; Free state activities; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Voting


Letter, [unknown] to Hiram Hill
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 8, 1856
An unknown author, referring to himself as one in a group of "missionaries. . .of constitutional heathens", wrote to Hiram Hill regarding his experiences "on the march" after the Battle of Franklin at the beginning of June. He described the movements and dispersal of the enemy forces. The author also told Hill that he and his men "would do the fighting you must do the fueling we can get all the provisions we want if we can have money", and said that Massachusetts was doing more to help them than all the other free states combined. The author purposefully did not sign his name to this letter.

Keywords: Battles; Franklin, Battle of; Free state activities; Free state cause; Hill, Hiram; Massachusetts; Money


Newspaper article, Journal of Commerce
Authors: Journal of Commerce
Date: September 22, 1856
This clipping, enclosed in a letter from A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt dated September 22, 1856, argued that the emigration sponsored by New England emigrant aid societies was "indiscreet," although not illegal. The article placed the blame for the current troubles on the free-state settlers in Kansas, stating that Missouri settlers were only responding to the provocation of anti-slavery supporters.

Keywords: Bills, legislative; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state cause; Immigrants; Kansas Nebraska Act; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Missouri; Missouri compromise; Pierce administration; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery; Topeka Constitution; United States Government; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution


Page from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 4, 1856
This front page of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper is half-filled with an illustration of the "Free State Prisoners": George W. Brown, John Brown, Jr., Judge G.W. Smith, Charles Robinson, Gaius Jenkins, Henry Williams, and George Deitzler, at their camp near Lecompton, Kansas Territory. All had been arrested during the past May, either for charges of treason or for bearing arms against the Government.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, Jr.; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Illustrations; Jenkins, Gaius; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Williams, Henry H.


Letter, Dunn to Mr. T. W. Higginson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 23, 1856
In this letter to Thomas W. Higginson, an agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, Mr. Dunn wrote from Oskaloosa, Iowa, regarding the current troubles in Kansas Territory. He was attempting to gather together a company as a response to Gov. Gary's [sic] election and the U. S. Army's efforts to arrest many prominent free state men. According to the author, "the U. S. troops by the order of Gary are taking every free State man they can get hold of." He was eager to hear advice from Higginson about the best way to proceed, and he laid out his plan to amass about 60 men to fight against the border ruffians who had invaded the territory. He hoped that Higginson would support him in this matter by obtaining provisions. Dunn maintained that this plan came from his sense of duty; it did not arise from a warlike spirit.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; United States. Army


Advertisement, Contributions for Kansas--Clothing and Provisions
Authors: National Kansas Committee
Date: c. October 1856
This advertisement was attached to a receipt for the placement of a notice in the New York Times. The advertisement included information about how the people of New England could aid the fight for freedom in Kansas--both with funds and with labor. It also gave the names of National Kansas Committee members and an address for their New York office.

Keywords: Advertisements; Boston, Massachusetts; Clothing and dress; Dana, Charles A.; Emigrant aid companies; Free state activities; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Ketchum, Edgar; Lockwood, Roe; McNamee, Theodore; National Kansas Committee; New York; Relief; Relief funds



Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: November 20, 1856
The letter indicated that J. S. Emery was duly authorized by the New England Emigrant Aid Company as an agent to organize state, county, and town associations in New Hampshire to provide aid to Kansas. Webb suggested they follow the model established in Massachusetts. He also made it clear that the state association would be responsible for paying Mr. Emery for his efforts in organizing New Hampshire.

Keywords: Emery, James Stanley; Free state activities; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New Hampshire; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Testimony of Thomas Bedoe
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 2, 1856
The testimony of Thomas Bedoe, a portion of the Journal of Investigations of Kansas, was apparently collected by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. It describes in detail the time Mr. Bedoe spent serving in the free state militia in the Osawatomie and Lawrence areas. He was a part of the Battle of Osawatomie and this account provides valuable information about the events preceding the battle.

Keywords: Battles; Bedoe, Thomas; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shombre, Henry J.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Stanton, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas


Experiences of R. S. Griffithe, N. W. Spicer, and J. A. Harvey
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 6, 1856
These testimonies, collected by the National Kansas Committee, record the experiences of these three settlers during the turbulent times of Bleeding Kansas. These testimonies focus on each settler's involvement in free state activities and their interaction with border ruffians. Griffithe and Spicer both served in the free state militia, and Harvey, who had commanded an emigrant train from Chicago, was the commander of a free state company.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Griffithe, R. S.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Spicer, N.W.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Topeka, Kansas; Violence


Kansas Experiences of A.R. Scolen, William Reap, Ephraim Coy, and Capt. Samuel Anderson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 21, 1856 - December 23, 1856
These testimonies were collected from a number of free state settlers along Pottawatomie Creek, presumably by an associate of the National Kansas Committee. Each account includes personal information about the settler (their origins, family, crops, etc.) and also testimonies of their involvement in the free state militia.

Keywords: Agriculture; Anderson, Samuel; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Casualties; Cline, Captain; Clothing and dress; Coy, Ephraim; Crops; Food; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Illness; Livestock; Militia; Missourians; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Reap, William; Scolen, A.R.; Shore, Samuel T.; Sickness (see Illness); Skirmishing; Travel; Wounds and injuries


James Lane Telescope
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855-1857
Spyglass used by James Lane and other free-state leaders of Lawrence in observing the movements of Missourians.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects


Pamphlet, "Affairs in Kansas"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This pamphlet contains a proclamation made by President Franklin Pierce and a speech by Senator Isaac Toucey. Also included are printed copies of letters and papers which date from December 1, 1855 to February 18, 1856, and communicate between Governor Wilson Shannon and other officials in Kansas Territory and the President and officials of the federal government which relate to "difficulties" in Kansas Territory. In this document, free state efforts are described as those of a "secret military organization" working against the legitimate Territorial Government.

Keywords: Buckley, H.H.; Calhoun, John; Clarke, George W.; Davis, Jefferson; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Hargis, S.N.; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marcy, William L.; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Richardson, William P.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee Mission; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Toucey, Isaac; Weapons (see also Guns); Westport, Missouri


Kansas Experience of George Cutter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: January 1, 1857
This reminiscence is presumably from the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, which was compiled by the National Kansas Committee under the leadership of Thaddeus Hyatt. George Cutter was with Frederick Brown shortly before the Battle of Osawatomie, and like Brown, he was wounded during an altercation with border ruffians. While he was not directly involved in this battle, this reminiscence is still a rather fascinating account.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Cutter, George; Darrach, Barstow; Everett, John R.; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Gillpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reid, John W.; Sears, W. A.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns); White, Martin; Wounds and injuries


Letter, Caleb S. Pratt to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: April 7, 1857
Caleb Pratt wrote from Delaware, Kansas Territory to Rev. T. W. Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist. He informed Higginson that a company of free state men had bought out a large portion of the predominantly pro-slavery town of Delaware. They sought to make it a suitable place for the entry of free state emigrants.

Keywords: Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Pratt, Caleb S.; Town development


Letter, James [H. Holmes] to Dear friend [John] Brown
Authors: Holmes, James H.
Date: April 30, 1857
On April 30 after he had received correspondence from Brown (still in Springfield, Mass.), Holmes wrote again in reply and to further explain the state of affairs in Kansas. He is critical of Charles Robinson's willingness to compromise with the proslavery leaders and is confident that "the free-state men wont do it." A friend, Archibal Kandell, had been recently "kidnapped" (or "abducted into Missouri") from his claim near Osawatomie.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Holmes, James H.; Missouri; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sister"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: May 20, 1857
On May 20, 1857, Kagi wrote his sister from Lawrence, explaining that he had been sick with the measles for some time but was now just busy writing for the newspaper and "preparing laws for the Free State Legislature," which was scheduled to convene in June. "We shall try hard to put the State Government into operation."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state legislature; Illness; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness)


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: July 20, 1857
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his father, Thomas Parrott. Marcus began by telling him of new land sales near Paola, Kansas Territory, the extreme heat they had been having lately, and news about family friends. He spoke about a recent proclamation given by Governor Walker, who had set up camp near Lawrence, which condemned the municipal government in that city as unauthorized. Marcus added that the Free State Convention in Topeka had delegated him as their representative to Congress; he had accepted, despite worries that his private business would suffer because of the appointment.

Keywords: Free state activities; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Paola, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Railroads; Territorial politics; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Weather


Letter, E. D. Ladd to Mr. H. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Ladd, Erastus D
Date: September 3, 1857
Erastus Ladd wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Ladd asked for Hill's suggestion as to what to do about a delinquent renter. He updated Hill regarding the status of various land investments, and included a note about Samuel Simpson's sale of half of his investment in West Lawrence. Ladd anticipated a free state election, and the development of a railroad line between Lawrence and the Delaware lands.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, William Hutchinson, Secretary to Dear Sir [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: October 26, 1857
William B. Hutchinson, an abolitionist from Lawrence, Kansas Territory and secretary of the Freemen of Kansas, wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday, free state activist and president of the Topeka Town Association, informing him of his appointment to a secret committee. The fifty-two members were to gather and turn in evidence against those responsible for election fraud. Holliday had also been appointed to the fund-raising subcommittee. In a later written response, Holliday refused these appointments, referring to time-consuming family and business responsibilities.

Keywords: Election fraud; Free state activities; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: October 21, 1857
William Hutchinson, Secretary of the Kansas Central Committee, informed James Abbott of his appointment to an investigative committee created to "expose the recent frauds upon the elective franchise, and to provide for the summary punishment of all those who are implicated therein." The committee, which was appointed "privately", was conceived by a resolution passed in a meeting of the Freemen of Kansas in Mass Convention of October 19.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Bogus legislature; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state activities; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857


Page from the "Kansas Herald of Freedom"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 1857
A December 1857 page from the "Kansas Herald of Freedom" free state newspaper. George W. Brown served as the editor of the paper, which was an organ of the New England Emigrant Aid Company in the Territory.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state activities; Herald of Freedom; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers


Pamphlet, Address to the American People on the Affairs of Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
This address recounted the history and purpose of the formation of the Kansas State Government of Topeka, in peaceful opposition to that of the Territory. The free state message accused the systems of the Territorial Government of encouraging influence from abroad in their election process, and indicated that they had nothing inherently against Missouri's citizens as a whole, but implored that they not attempt to violate the rights of Kansas settlers. The address stated that the Territory was "organized for defence" by a pledge from Governor Walker, and appealed that outsiders remain in their homes for the benefit of all.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Big Springs Convention; Border disputes and warfare; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Election fraud; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Missourians; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Schuyler, Philip Church; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Broadside, Cowardly assassination: Lecompton Union Extra!
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
This broadside, a special report of the Weekly Lecompton Union newspaper, recounted the assassination of William T. Sherrard, which had occurred earlier that same day. Sherrard had been appointed Sheriff of Douglas County by the County Board of Commissoners after the resignation of Samuel J. Jones. Sherrard's appointment was not supported by Governor Geary, who allegedly made slanderous remarks on Sherrard's character. The broadside report supposed, since Sherrard was decidely a proslavery man, that free state Legislators, among other freestateman, had plotted against him on behalf of Geary, which lead to Sherrard's death at the hand of J.A.W. Jones.

Keywords: Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, J.A.W.; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; McAllister, Richard; Newspapers; Proslavery support; Sherrard, William T.; Violent deaths; Woodson, Daniel


Report of the President of the Council and Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Kansas, on the result of the vote of December 21st for the Lecompton Constitution, and on the result of the election of Januray 4th under said Constitution.
Authors: Babcock, Carmi William; Deitzler, George W.; Denver, James William, 1817-1892
Date: January 14, 1858
This printed document reported the votes on the Lecompton Constitution from elections held on December 21, 1857, and January 4, 1858. It was prepared by G. W. Deitzler, Speaker of the House and C. W. Babcock, president of the Council of the territorial legislature. The vote showed a majority of 5,574 for the constitution with slavery but 3,012 of those votes came from areas the authors felt were sparsely settled and thus indicated fraudulent votes. The same charges of fraud applied to the election for state officials, though the free state candidates claimed a small majority in all races. The results of the vote on the Lecompton Constitution on January 4, 1858, showed a majority of 10,000 against the Lecompton Constitution as presented in a proclamation from J. W. Denver, Secretary and Acting Governor.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Deitzler, George W.; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Elections; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Lecompton Constitution; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters


Leavenworth Constitution as published in D.W. Wilder's, The Annals of Kansas (1886)
Authors: Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Date: April 3, 1858
The Leavenworth Constitution was the most radical of the four constitutions drafted for Kansas Territory. The Bill of Rights refers to "all men" and prohibited slavery from the state. The word "white" did not appear in the proposed document and therefore would not have excluded free blacks from the state. Article XVI, Section 3 (p. 227) directed the general assembly to provide some protection for the rights of women. The Leavenworth Constitution was ratified on May 18, 1858 but the U.S. Senate did not act to approve the document.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutional conventions; Constitutions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Womens rights


Leavenworth Constitution (manuscript version)
Authors: Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Date: April 3, 1858
The Leavenworth Constitution was the most radical of the four constitutions drafted for Kansas Territory. The Bill of Rights refers to "all men" and prohibited slavery from the state. The word "white" did not appear in the proposed document and therefore would not have excluded free blacks from the state. Article XVI, Section 3 directed the general assembly to provide some protection for the rights of women. The Leavenworth Constitution was ratified on May 18, 1858 but the U.S. Senate did not act to approve the document.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutional conventions; Constitutions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Womens rights


Augustus Wattles, Fort Scott, Kansas Territory to William Hutchinson
Authors: Wattles, Augustus
Date: April 28, 1858
Wattles described violence in the southern portion of Kansas Territory shortly before the Marais des Cygnes massacre.

Keywords: Free state activities; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Marmaton, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Proslavery activities; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, H. P. A. Smith to General [James W. Denver]
Authors: Smith, H. P. A.
Date: May 16, 1858
H. P. A. Smith, writing from Fort Scott, Kansas Territory to Governor James W. Denver, reported that conditions were peaceful in the southeast section of the territory. Smith stated that he had accompanied a group of dragoons on an unsuccessful mission to find and arrest James Montgomery and other free state supporters who allegedly had engaged in violent activities in the area. Smith commented that in his view the "ultra Pro Slavery party" was partly responsible for the unrest in southeast Kansas Territory, but he also believed that "moderate free state" supporters should act to stop the violence.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Jayhawkers; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Proslavery perspective; Proslavery supporters; Smith, H. P. A.; United States. Army; Violence


Letter, Marc Parrott to O. E. Learnard
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: June 12, 1858
Marcus Parrott, Representative of Kansas Territory to the U. S. Congress, wrote to Oscar Learnard from Washington, D. C. reacting to the news of Gaius Jenkins' death at the hand of fellow free state man, James Lane. He referred to several friends and colleagues with whom he was eager to reunite upon his return to Lawrence soon after the 25th of the month.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Free state activities; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to James W. Denver
Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight
Date: October 15, 1858
Hugh S. Walsh, Secretary under Governor Denver, now Acting Governor, wrote from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to James W. Denver in Wilmington, Ohio. Only days earlier Denver ended his term as governor of Kansas Territory. Walsh updated him on political events occurring in Kansas Territory. He also mentioned that a delegate convention planned to meet at Lawrence on November 10, and that he would do what he could to "clog" the convention until there is a "fair apportionment [of representatives] based on population" to avoid any independent actions taken on the part of free state supporters.

Keywords: Apportionment; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Newspapers; Proslavery support; Roberts, William Young; Walsh, Hugh Sleight


Letter, [Governor] S. [Samuel] Medary to My Dear Sir [former governor James W. Denver]
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: January 13, 1859
Governor Samuel Medary, writing from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to former governor James W. Denver, reported on his successful effort to convince the Territorial House of Representatives to pass a bill establishing a special court to try James Montgomery and other free state supporters allegedly engaged in violence in southeast Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Jayhawkers; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Violence


Report of Edward Hoogland, H.J. Adams and S.A. Kingman, Commissioners of Claims
Authors: Adams, Henry J.; Hoogland, Edward ; Kingman, Samuel A.
Date: July 11, 1859
Hoogland, Adams, and Kingman, Commissioners of Claims appointed by resolution of Governor Medary, continued investigating property and monetary losses suffered by the citizens of Kansas Territory after H.J. Strickler vacated the post. The new Claims Commissioners also believed that the responsibility for paying these loss claims rested with the General (Federal) Government. They reassessed the claims reported by Strickler, obtaining more information about the claimants and their losses, which included each claimant's political affiliation (free state or proslavery), their specific damages (house, horses, crops, etc), and who caused the damage (on behalf of either the free state or proslavery cause); this information is summed up in a supplemental table. The Claims Commissioners believed that the total value of losses occurring between November 1, 1855, and December 1, 1856, approximated at least $2,000,000; they also concluded that during skirmishes free state men had caused $94,500 in property damage, while proslavery men were believed to have caused nearly $319,000.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Border disputes and warfare; Damage claims; Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hoogland, Edward; Kingman, Samuel A.; McKay, William; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Newspapers; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Photograph, John Doy rescue party
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1859
On January 25, 1859, Dr. John Doy and his son Charles left Lawrence, Kansas Territory, for Nebraska with 13 slaves. They were captured when only twelve miles out of Lawrence and were taken to Weston, Missouri. The two Doys had an examination at Weston and were committed to jail at Platte City, Missouri for the crime of abducting slaves. They remained in jail until March 20, 1859. They were then taken to St. Joseph, Missouri, where Dr. Doy was tried. After this trial, his son Charles was set free. However, the first jury could not agree on a verdict for Dr. Doy, and he was tried a second time. At the second trial, he was convicted and sentenced to five years in the penitentiary. While being held in the St. Joseph jail he was freed by friends from Kansas on September 23, 1859. Two different ambrotypes showing the John Doy rescue party were digitized for the project. When you compared the images, you will find the men are standing in different positions.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abolitionists; Ambrotypes; Antislavery movements; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Firearms; Free state activities; Free state cause; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Hay, George R.; Photographs and Illustrations; Pike, Joshua A.; Senix, Jacob; Simmons, Thomas; Soule, Silas Stillman


Photograph, John Doy rescue party
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1859
On January 25, 1859, Dr. John Doy and his son Charles left Lawrence, Kansas Territory, for Nebraska with 13 slaves. They were captured when only twelve miles out of Lawrence and were taken to Weston, Missouri. The two Doys had an examination at Weston and were committed to jail at Platte City, Missouri for the crime of abducting slaves. They remained in jail until March 20, 1859. They were then moved to St. Joseph, Missouri, where Dr. Doy was tried. After this trial Charles Doy was set free. However, the first jury could not agree on a verdict for Dr. Doy, and he was tried a second time. At the second trial, he was convicted and sentenced to five years in the penitentiary. While being held in the St. Joseph jail he was freed by friends from Kansas on September 23, 1859. Two different ambrotypes showing the John Doy rescue party were digitized for the project. When you compared the images, you will find the men are standing in different positions.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abolitionists; Ambrotypes; Antislavery movements; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Firearms; Free state activities; Free state cause; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Hay, George R.; Photographs and Illustrations; Pike, Joshua A.; Senix, Jacob; Simmons, Thomas; Soule, Silas Stillman


Letter, J.M. [James Montgomery] to George L. Stearns
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: December 14, 1860
In response to a letter dated November 29, Montgomery informed Stearns that "Uncle Sam has stolen all my late corrispondence [sic]. I suppose he thinks he will find some Treason in it:--He is welcome to all he can find." Much of the news about his activities and intention, insisted Montgomery, was simply newspaper talk. "'Montgomery's Band' is a myth. Montgomery's men are the people, and Montgomery himslef is one them. [sic]." He was very interested in getting the press back East to inform the public of "the real state of affairs here."

Keywords: Free labor; Free state activities; Fugitive slaves; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Linn County, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; United States. Army


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [W. R. Griffith]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: December 18, 1860
With regard to the "difficulties in Linn and Bourbon Counties," Ewing wrote William Riley Griffith of Marmaton, Bourbon County, regarding their shared belief that the Republican Party should not condone the violence perpetrated by James Montgomery and company. Ewing was hopeful that if Kansas was admitted soon, order would be restored.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state activities; Griffith, William Riley; Lincoln administration; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marmaton, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Violence


Pamphlet, James H. Lane vs. Heirs of Gauis Jenkins
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1860
This document, prepared by Mssrs. Mitchell and Weer, attorneys for James Lane who represented him in his infamous land ownership conflict with Gauis Jenkins, recounts a detailed chronology surrounding the circumstances of each man's ownership of the float. Lane, who ultimately shot and killed fellow freestateman Jenkins as a result of the dispute, maintained that he was the legitimate owner of the float, despite his extended absences from it. Within the details of the conflict, as described in this pamphlet, are included chronologies of Lane's service as a free state representative in Washington and as a General of the free state militia.

Keywords: Free state activities; Free state government; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawsuits; United States. General Land Office; Violent deaths; Wyandot Float


Photograph, James H. Lane
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1861
This is a copy of an original photograph taken of Lane in New York City, 1861. James Lane was a leader of the free state cause, serving as an aid to emigrants. He was also the first United States senator for Kansas. Mrs. John Ingalls had an original of this photograph, and she loaned it to W. E. Connelley who had six copies made. Connelley presented one copy to the Kansas State Historical Society in 1912.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Lane Trail; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Photographs and Illustrations; United States. Senate


Circular, Defense Strategies for Lawrence
Authors: Committee of Safety, Lawrence, Kansas
Date: after 1863
This printed document, published by the Committee of Safety, outlines emergency procedures for the citizens of Lawrence in case of a "hostile demonstration." It also lists points of rendezvous within the city and suggests that a man always "take his side-arms with him."

Keywords: Bushwackers; Churches; Committee of Safety, Lawrence, Kansas; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Free state activities; Guns; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Skirmishing; Weapons (see also Guns)


Experience of John E. Stewart
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856?
This undated document, presumably written by John E. Stewart, relates the author's experiences in Kansas Territory. The reminiscence begins with a description of how he entered the territory and the manner in which he constructed a house. Then, intermixed with accounts of his agricultural efforts and other day-to-day activities, there are brief mentions of the political situation in the territory. The main focus of the document then turns to when Stewart was a member of the Wakarusa Liberty Guard, including a description of the murder of Charles Dow, the murder of Hoyt, the Branson rescue, and other encounters with border ruffians.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Construction; Dow, Charles W.; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state militia; House furnishings; Houses; Hoyt, David Starr; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Skirmishing; Stewart, John E.; Titus, Henry Theodore


Reminiscence, Account of obtaining Sharp's rifles
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: unknown
James Abbott recalled his experiences as a free state activist who participated in several Territorial conflicts. This transcribed version of the events is either a copy of an original handwritten manuscript or a compilation based on a personal oral interview. Abbott related a brief history of the Territory's political conflicts between free state and proslavery men and recounted the events of his own trip back East to secure funds and rifles for the free state cause. His purchases included a mountain howitzer and 117 sharp's rifles, all of which were smuggled under cover of disguise back to Kansas Territory and into the arms of free state militia.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Cracklin, Joseph; Free state activities; Free state militia; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Proslavery activities; Saunders, Henry F.; Sharps rifles; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns)


Bill of sale for horse wagon, Billings & Bryant to John Brown
Authors: Billings & Bryant
Date: Undated
The state of Iowa frequently served as a relatively safe haven for John Brown and his followers during the late 1850s, and Iowa City was on the famous Lane Trail which carried many free-state activists and settlers to and from Kansas. This document, from "Billings & Bryant," indicates that the partners had receive $100 from John Brown as payment "in full for a heavy Horse Waggon" that they agreed "to ship immediately to J B Iowa City, Iowa; care of Dr. Jesse Bowen." Bowen was a member of the Kansas Central Committee of Iowa who later lived in Leavenworth.

Keywords: Bowen, Dr. Jesse; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state activities; Iowa City, Iowa; Kansas Central Committee of Iowa; Lane Trail; Wagons


Narrative, Account of the Life of Fredrick Brown
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: c. 1857
In this undated document, Samuel Adair related significant events in the life of Frederick Brown, one of John Brown's five sons. Frederick, alongside his father, participated in the Pottawatomie Massacre and other raids against proslavery supporters in Kansas Territory until his roadside murder by Martin White in August of 1856. This document also contains part of a letter to the Rev. S. S. Jocelyn recounting the winter's hardships.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state constitutions; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Violence; Violent deaths; Weather; White, Martin


Photograph, Preston Bierce Plumb
Authors: Prince, George
Date: 
Preston Bierce Plumb was involved in various antislavery events in Kansas Territory. He was involved with the Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box and was a member of the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. He was one of the founders of Emporia, Breckenridge County, Kansas Territory. He started the Emporia newspaper called "The Kanzas News."

Keywords: Antislavery; Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory (see also Lyon County, Kansas); Cartes de visite; Constitutions; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Kansas Volunteers; Leavenworth Constitution; Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Prince, George


Photograph, John Speer
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Speer was a free state supporter and early resident of Lawrence. He was a journalist and editor. He was also involved in numerous free state activities.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Engravings; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Journalists; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Speer, John, 1817-1906


Photograph, John E. Stewart
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John E. Stewart was a free state supporter and was active in a number of the territorial confrontations between free state supporters and proslavery supporters. He also helped slaves to escape on the Underground Railroad. Stewart was listed on the Free State ticket as running for the Territorial House of Representatives for Douglas County in May 1858.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Photographs and Illustrations; Stewart, John E.


Photograph, Thomas Ewing, Jr.
Authors: Brady's National Portrait Galleries
Date: 
Thomas Ewing, Jr. moved to Kansas Territory in 1856 and established a law practice in Leavenworth. He was an active free state supporter and a delegate at the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. He had numerous business and land interests. He was one of James H. Lane's attorney's in his trial concerning the death of Gaius Jenkins.

Keywords: Brady's National Portrait Galleries; Cartes de visite; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Lawyers; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, James B. Abbott
Authors: Downing, George
Date: 
James B. Abbott was involved in various free state activities and in some of the territorial conflicts. He acquired the so-called "abbott howitzer" in Kansas City and participated in the rescues of both John Doy and Jacob Branson. He was involved in the Battle of Black Jack and was acquainted with John Brown. He lived in Desoto.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Branson rescue (1855); Cabinet photographs; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Photographs and Illustrations


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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