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60 results for Free State Party:
Journal. Miscellaneous Records of the Free State Executive Committee
Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler
Date: 1855-1856
This journal, compiled by Joel K. Goodin, secretary of the Executive Committee of the Topeka free-state movement, began with a statement explaining the reason the Topeka Movement formed and the call for a Mass Meeting at Big Springs, August 15, 1855. It included notes of numerous meetings, proclamations, etc. These committee records were published in their entirety in the Kansas Historical Collections Vol. 13:125-158.

Keywords: Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Goodin, Joel Kishler; Journals; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Election, location of capitol of Kansas, Topeka Convention, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 23, 1855
The Free-State government held a constitutional convention in Topeka from October 23 through November 11, 1855, and one of its actions was to vote on the capital of Kansas. According to these tally sheets, Topeka defeated Lawrence on the second ballot, 20 to 16. Numerous other towns received votes from the convention delegates on the first ballot.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state government; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 24, 1855
According to a copy of the 1902 cover letter written by Samuel C. Smith of Lawrence, secretary/chief clerk for the convention, this incomplete "copy of the Journal of the Topeka Constitutional Convention" was made at Lawrence in November 1855. It began with the opening of the second day's session, October 24, 1855, and continued daily, except for Sunday, October 28 and November 4, through Saturday, November 10 (the convention officially adjourned, according to Wilder, "Annals," November 11 during the very early hours of that Sunday morning). The first few pages of the journal detailed organizational matters, including the election of James H. Lane as president of the convention and the creation of standing committees.

Keywords: Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 26, 1855
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 26, 1855
On Friday, October 26, 1855, the convention conducted some routine business but also entertained a motion by Mark W. Delahay of Leavenworth: "Resolved--That this Convention, approve the principles of non intervention in the local affairs of Kansas, as enunciated by the 'Nebraska, Kansas Act,' and that this Convention recommend to the people of Kansas a strict observance of the principles laid down in said act." In other words, he opposed the creation of a provisional government to rival the federally recognized territorial government--see Delahay's speech on this subject, as reported in "Kansas Freeman," November 14, 1855. The resolution was tabled.

Keywords: Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Nebraska Act; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 26, 1855
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 26, 1855
During the afternoon session on Friday, October 26, 1855, the convention returned to the issue raised by Delahay that morning, among other more mundane matters.

Keywords: Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Freeman; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 30, 1855
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 30, 1855
During this session of the constitutional convention, delegates dealt briefly with the question of "an immediate organization of a State Government," a highly controversial issue, and considered a report on the militia. Lively debate on the latter issue seems to have followed, although not much detail is given here, with Charles Robinson offering an amendment "striking out the word white--" This presumably would have had the effect of making African Americans and Indians eligible for service, but the amendment failed seven to twenty-four.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Suffrage; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 31, 1855
During the afternoon session of Wednesday, October 31, 1855, Jim Lane presented a "Resolution which was ordered to be entered upon the Journal of the convention--said Resolution being the instructions given by the people of the 2nd Representative District" at a Lawrence meeting of October 7. The "instructions" and Lane's resolution provided that "the question of excluding Free Negroes from the Territory" be submitted to a vote of the people on the day they voted on the constitution itself.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, Afternoon Session
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: November 9, 1855
During the course of the proceedings recorded for the afternoon of November 9, 1855, discussion turned to the effort by Jim Lane to first include a provision for the "removal" of all blacks and then all "slaves" from Kansas by July 4, 1860. Charles Robinson supported an amendment which changed the effective date to July 4, 1857. All other provisions were to take effect immediately upon the adoption of the constitution.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Circular letter from C. [Charles] Robinson to Dear Sir
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: 1855
Charles Robinson wrote this printed letter on behalf of the Free State Executive Committee of Kansas Territory. In it, he encouraged free state supporters to monitor the upcoming elections for delegate to Congress and for delegates to the constitutional convention to see that they were conducted fairly. He wanted them to note if non-residents were voting or serving as election officials and if residents were being prevented from voting. The circular encouraged free state voters to arrive at the polls early. J. K. Goodin was the secretary of the group. These elections were held under the auspices of the Topeka Movement.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Goodin, Joel Kishler; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Letter, M. W. Delahay to Genl. C. Robinson, Col. J. H. Lane & Others
Authors: Delahay, Mark W.
Date: February 16, 1856
From Washington, D.C., on February 16, 1856, Mark Delahay, the Free State Party's would be representative to the 34th Congress, wrote to his free state colleagues regarding President Franklin Pierce's directive to Governor Wilson Shannon. The latter was "to arrest and punish all who may take part in the making and putting inforce any law in oposition to the Territorial laws now upon the Statute Book." Delahay warned against "the organization of an independent State Government" and wrote "we are upon the brink of a crisis of serious import." (See D.W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas, 109-110.)

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Free state government; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Pierce administration; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Doctor [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: February 16, 1856
From "Washington City" on February 16, 1856, former K.T. governor Andrew Reeder wrote Charles Robinson regarding his (Reeder's) efforts to influence Kansas policy in the nation's capital. Reeder was working through friends, since he no longer had personal influence with President Pierce, and he was not pleased with the president's February 11 proclamation, which he called "the low contemptible trickstering affair which might expected from Pierce, and is like the Special Message [of January 24] a slander on the Free State Party." Nevertheless, Reeder thought it could have been worse and insisted that Robinson and the other free-state leaders "should not organize the State Govt." Pierce would just use that action to justify aggressive moves to suppress the movement.

Keywords: Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Pierce administration; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Washington, D.C.


Letter, W. A. Gorman to Speaker of the House of Reps [Minnesota Territory]
Authors: Phillips, Wendell
Date: February 18, 1856
In response to a January 22, 1856, appeal from free-state leaders in Kansas, the governor of Minnesota Territory, Willis A. Gorman (St. Paul, February 18, 1856), conveyed the appeal to his territory's House of Representatives and encouraged Minnesota officials to follow a policy of "Non intervention." Governor Gorman refused to recognize Lane and Robinson as "officers in the Territory of Kansas, under any authority of the laws of the United States or of that Territory."

Keywords: Border ruffians; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Gorman, Willis A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Minnesota; Missouri; Popular sovereignty; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Indictment of H. Miles Moore
Authors: Grover, C. H.
Date: March 1856
Charles H. Grover, the district attorney for the First District in Kansas Territory, signed an indictment of Henry Miles Moore of Leavenworth, K. T. for unlawfully exercising the powers of Attorney General. Moore was elected Attorney General of the Free State government on January 15, 1856, under the provisions of the Topeka Constitution.

Keywords: Attorneys general; Courts; Free State Party; Free state government; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Grover, Charles H.; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Journal, House of Representatives, Topeka (1856)
Authors: Goodin, Joel Kishler
Date: 1856-1857
This Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Kansas was, apparently, the original record of the Free State Provisional Government of Kansas, which was organized at the Big Springs Convention September 5, 1855. Joel K. Goodin was chief clerk of the House and felt the journal was "a flat contradiction of the pro-slavery inuendo, that we were all abolitionists from Boston, Massachusetts, and hired to come to Kansas by the Emigrant Aid Society." The first two pages of the original bound journal have been scanned. The original is oversized with the pages measuring 9.5 inches wide and 14 inches high. The journal, as published in its entirety in the Kansas Historical Collections volume 13 pages 166-249, follows the two pages from the original.

Keywords: Free State Party; Free state government; Free state legislature; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Prohibition; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States. Congress; United States. Congress. House


Bill, Furnished the Freestate Party
Authors: Blanton, Napoleon B.
Date: May 15, 1856
This itemized list of items reportedly "furnished the freestate Party" was submitted by Napoleon B. Blanton of Douglas Co., who operated a toll bridge over the Wakarusa River south of Lawrence. The total bill was for $191.26, including provisions and tolls: "I have thrown my bridge open free for the freestate party from the 15th of May to the 20th of September. . ."

Keywords: Blanton, Napolean Bonaparte; Blantons Bridge; Blood, James; Food; Free State Party; Transportation; Wakarusa River


Circular, Grand Mass Convention
Authors: Topeka Council of Safety
Date: June 9, 1856
This printed circular called for a "grand mass convention" to be held by the Free State Party on July 3, 1856 to discuss the "perils of the times." It was signed by several Topekans and others involved in the free state cause.

Keywords: Burgess, H. B.; Circulars; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Farnsworth, Loring; Free State Party; Free state activities; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; McClure, W. M.; Nichols, H; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Ross, William Wallace, 1828-1889; Schuyler, Philip Church; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Thornton, Thomas G.; Topeka Council of Safety; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Record Book
Authors: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: July 3, 1856 - July 13, 1857
These are the official proceedings of the Kansas State Central Committee that was established to coordinate the activities of the Free State Party. District committees were established to carry out activities at the local level.

Keywords: Antislavery; Free State Party; Kansas State Central Committee; Military; Relief


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: August 10, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote from Lawrence of his continued commitment to the "Sacked City," insisting that he would not be "bullied or frightened" by those committing outrages in Kansas Territory. He commented on the political composition of the territory and Lawrence, where he found many Douglas Democrats. Although there were some "fanatics" and "abolitionists," most residents of Lawrence were "western men" who had been driven to oppose the administration by the outrages. He insisted that the significance of the New England Emigrant Company had been exaggerated and that although more violent confrontations were likely, Kansas would eventually be free.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Douglas Democrats; Dragoons; Free State Party; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pierce administration; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.


Andrew H. Reeder, Easton, PA to William Hutchinson
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 25, 1856
Reeder described his efforts to raise money for the Free State cause in his travels through the northern states.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; National Kansas Committee; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


List of voters of 7th senatorial district
Authors: Adams, J. D.; Barry, Abraham ; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: September 3, 1856
A list of the voters in Kansas Territory's 7th senatorial district, which included Manhattan and the area surrounding it. Voters were categorized as free soilers, proslavery, and doubtful. The census was taken by order of the "Central Committee" (a free state group) and was signed by Abraham Barry, Isaac T. Goodnow, and J. D. Adams of District Committee No. 7.

Keywords: Adams, J. D.; Barry, Abraham; Census; Free State Party; Free state activities; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Voting


Letter, William A. Phillips to My Dear Friend [John Brown]
Authors: Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893
Date: June 24, 1857
To "Jas. Smith" (that is, John Brown), William A. Phillips wrote from Lawrence that he would likely not be able to meet Brown en route to KT at Tabor, Iowa, but would arrange for a few others to do so. Phillips believed Brown "should come into Kansas" if he wanted to but "there is no necessity for active military preparations now."

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Census; Free State Party; Free state militia; Holmes, James H.; Land claims; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Smith, James


Letter, T. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 18, 1857
Thomas J. Marsh, who arrived in the Kansas Territory on July 11, 1857, made Lawrence his base of operation. He had made the journey as an agent for the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. His objective was to observe and financially support free state efforts to capture the legislature at the polls in early October (this included conducting a census). During his first week in Kansas Territory, Marsh attended the "entirely harmonious" Free State Party convention in Topeka and reported on initial efforts to organize the campaign. He also seemed very concerned about "petty, personal feuds" among the leadership in the territory. Marsh had personally discussed this issue with the men involved and believed the "discordant elements have been harmonized." Upon his return to Lawrence, Marsh found "U. S. Dragoons parading the streets" and Governor Walker threatening to make numerous arrests because of the unauthorized election of city officials the previous Monday.

Keywords: Blood, James; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dragoons; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Constitution; Travel; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 21, 1857
From Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Marsh wrote his third letter in four days to keep his Massachusetts colleague informed about Gov. Walker's occupation of Lawrence. Marsh, who knew the governor when he was secretary of the treasury under President James K. Polk, had a chance to visit with Walker but found out nothing regarding his current intentions. And the city's residents were "attending to their ordinary affairs as though he were not in their midst"--with some 600 dragoons. Marsh then mentioned, among other things, his visit with G. W. Brown, one of the "hostile chiefs." As with the others, Marsh reportedly emphasized the importance of harmony through the elections and the fact "that their differences was a source of grief to all their friends East, no matter who was right, or who was wrong."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dragoons; Factionalism; Free State Party; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Railroads; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Travel; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, Thos. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 24, 1857
Agent Thomas Marsh, Mass. State Kansas Committee, wrote another of his frequent and detailed letters to George Stearns on July 24, 1857, describing the census and other preparations that were being made for the upcoming election (most importantly, the legislative election in October of that year). Of special interest were the activities of Jim Lane by the Free State Convention to organize militarily for "the protection of the Ballot Boxes."

Keywords: African Americans; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speculation; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Broadside, Mass Convention!
Authors: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: July 25, 1857
J. B. Abbott as secretary of the 10th district committee of the Free State party prepared this broadside to advertise a meeting to nominate 2 Senators and 7Representatives for the Legislature. Abbott wrote that the district invluded the following precincts: "Fish's Hotel, Palmyra, Blanton, Willow Springs, Franklin, Lawrence, and Benicia. The meeting was to be held in Lawrence on July 25, 1857. Note: The broadside did not include a time for the meeting.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Benicia Precinct, Kansas Territory; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Broadsides; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Kansas Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`; Willow Springs, Kansas Territory


Letter, [Tho. Ewing, Jr.] to Dear Father [Hon. T. Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: August 5, 1857
The first letter in this letter press book mainly concerned with political affairs in the territory was addressed to Ewing, Sr., in Lancaster, Ohio, and dated Leavenworth, Kansas, August 5, 1857. Responding to the father's observations about the situation in Kansas, Ewing, Jr., wrote "I have all along regarded the attempt at an organization of a State Government, while we are a Territory, as the extreme of folly . . ." and some additional observations about the Topeka movement. Ewing "intend[ed] to stand clear of the political arena in Kansas while the leaders of the Democracy are made up of political murderers, and while the free state party is but the football for the Free soilers in the Northern States."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free Soil Party; Free State Party; Free soil; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lancaster, Ohio; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 11, 1857
On August 11, 1857, Marsh reported from Lawrence that the governor was "still here with his Troops, but nobody pays any regard to him, or them." According to D. W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas, however, all but forty troops left on August 3, the day of the election under the Topeka Constitution, which Marsh also mentioned. His primary concern remained the October election, which many feared would not be fairly conducted despite the governor's promises, and the growing talk of another Free State Party boycott of the polls.

Keywords: Cato, Sterling G.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Free State Party; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Constitution; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 20, 1857
In his August 20, 1857, report to Stearns, Marsh again asked for some clarification on a couple payment issues and described his role for the committee (Mass. State Kansas Committee) with regard to Jim Lane's efforts to organize protection for free state voters. For a short while, things looked good for the Free State cause, but Governor Walker's conduct to date had been disruptive and Judge Cato and friends began to issue arrest warrants.

Keywords: Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, A. [Augustus] Wattles to Dear Sir [John Brown?]
Authors: Wattles, Augustus
Date: August 21, 1857
Augustus Wattles wrote to John Brown from Lawrence, August 21, 1857, regarding several matters but focused again on problems within the Free State movement because of a loss of confidence in Charles Robinson's leadership. Robinson had openly criticized G. W. Brown and the Herald of Freedom and the factious party could accomplish little, but Wattles was confident that free staters would vote in and win the October election for territorial legislature.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Herald of Freedom; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: September 7, 1857
Nearly two months into his K.T. assignment and stay in Lawrence, Marsh reported several significant observations about the Free State Party: Governor Walker's apparent commitment to a fair canvas, the rapidly approaching territorial election (October 1857), and the money so far spent and needed for the campaign. He also observed that the Constitutional Convention was opening in Lecompton, and wrote: "If you could see the town, and people of Lecompton, and had the opportunity that I have had to witness their Plantation Manners--I think you would at once be reminded of the Scriptural inquiry, 'Can any good thing, come out of Nazareth?'"

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: September 12, 1857
To George Stearns on September 12, 1857, Thomas Marsh wrote that he was leaving Lawrence on a trip to "the Southern part of Kansas" for several days. He believed the "Free State men were getting into good shape for the election," which would go well if there was no "invasion" or "fraud." He also talked about some Democratic activity and mentioned the adjournment of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Marsh, Thomas J.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: September 28, 1857
In this letter to Stearns, Marsh expressed confidence that the October election would turn in favor of the Free State Party. Marsh had been traveling in the "Southern Counties" and was encouraged: "You may rest assured, that the people are united and earnest." He predicted a victory for Marcus Parrott and "a good working majority" for the Free State Party in both houses of the legislature. Unless he received further instructions from the committee, Marsh planned to leave Kansas about three days after the election.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Crusader of Freedom; Doniphan, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Letter, S. [Samuel] L. Adair to Mr. J. B. [John Brown]
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: October 2, 1857
Samuel Adair wrote his brother-in-law John Brown from Osawatomie on October 2, 1857, to explain why he could not come see Brown in Iowa. Much of letter describes the general poor state of health in his locale, but he also comments on the political and especially the prospects for free state success in the upcoming election--Adair was not optimistic.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state prospects; Free state support; Health; Land claims; Lecompton Land Office; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Preemption law United States; Proslavery supporters; Sickness (see Illness); Slave power; Tabor, Iowa; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Mr. [G. L.] Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 25, 1857
In this report from Lawrence, Whitman complained about his money problem and wrote that John Brown, who, according to Sanborn, had been in Iowa for some weeks, would be in Lawrence for "a very important council" of the military organization. "Look for something decisive this winter and Satisfactory." He informed Stearns that he (Whitman) would take care of "J. B.'s wants" as soon as he could, but there was a limit to what he could borrow on his own account. "I am willing to work, wear out, die if need be in the cause, but I cannot send a brick always without straw."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state militia; Iowa; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, M. [Martin] F. Conway to F. [Franklin] B. Sanborn
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: November 16, 1857
Shortly before he was to leave Washington, D.C., for a return trip to the territory, Conway wrote Sanborn in Concord, Mass., about his disappointment at again being separated from his wife and child, but he focused most of his comments on the Lecompton machinations and his continued belief that the Free State Party had be wrong to participate in the territorial election (thus giving that government legitimacy).

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Free State Party; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Slavery; United States. Congress


Joseph Pomeroy Root, Wyandotte City, KT to William Hutchinson
Authors: Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: November 17, 1857
Root described seeing Governor Robert J. Walker on a steamer as he left Kansas Territory for Washington. He speculated that Walker's administration was in jeopardy. Root made other comments that reflected the negative view of Free State party members towards pro-slavery Democrats in Kansas.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Free State Party; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: December 2, 1857
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother, in Sparta, Illinois. Miller spoke of political unrest surrounding the existence of both the Lecompton Constitution and the Topeka Constitution. He demanded that judges in the territory have the power to arrest border ruffians, who "were responsible for everything to do with the Lecompton Constitution." Miller also expressed his concern over a letter he had received from a relative, concerning the manner in which he himself was handling the family's financial investments in the Territory.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Free State Party; Gold mines and mining; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: December 18, 1857
Upon his return to the East (Boston), Marsh wrote to Stearns on December 18, 1857, to provide a relatively brief outline of his experience and accomplishments since leaving for Kansas Territory on committee business the previous June. He said others could be the judge of the success of the "mission," but "a Free State Legislature was secured by the election" and Governor Charles Robinson had been "quite complimentary" of Marsh in a letter to Amos A. Lawrence.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Cato, Sterling G.; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Steamboats; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Territorial politics and government; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, C. K. Holliday, et al, to Charles Robinson
Authors: Crane, Franklin L.; Dickey, Milton C.; Farnsworth, Loring ; Giles, Frye W.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 26, 1857
In this brief letter from Topeka, signed by C. K. Holiday, M. C. Dickey, F. L. Crane, Loring Farnsworth, and F. W. Giles, "Governor" Robinson was "respecfully and cordially" invited to participate in a "mass convention" at Topeka (December 28, 1857) convened "to deliberate upon the political questions of the day; and more especially upon the action of the late 'Lawrence Convention.'"

Keywords: Crane, Franklin Loomis; Dickey, Milton C.; Farnsworth, Loring; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Giles, Frye W.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka, Kansas


Letter, Walter Oakley, et al, to Charles Robinson
Authors: Oakley, Walter ; Ritchie, John , 1817-1887; Ross, William Wallace
Date: December 26, 1857
Walter Oakley, W. W. Ross, and John Richey wrote from Topeka to invited Robinson to attend and address the "Mass Meeting" to be held in their city on Monday, December 28, for the purpose of endorsing "the action of the Convention at Lawrence. These men and the community held Robinson in the highest "esteem" but they differed with him "upon the question of voting for state officers under the Lecompton Constitution."

Keywords: Free State Convention; Free State Party; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Oakley, Walter; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Ross, William Wallace, 1828-1889; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Beware of frauds! Down with the disorganizers!
Authors: Central Committee
Date: 1858
Discussion of the slate of candidates for a constitutional convention (Leavenworth?), cautioning free state men to beware of attempts to divide them and thus weaken their ability to challenge the pro-slavery force. It also warns about split Free State tickets.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Emery, James Stanley; Free State Convention; Free State Party; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, S.C.S. [most likely Samuel C. Smith] to "Doctor" [Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: January 11, 1858
This letter, dated Lawrence, January 11, 1858, most likely from Samuel C. Smith, mentions many of the Free State Party's main actors and issues at this critical time in Kansas politics. He described the activities of the Legislature, which assembled in Lawrence in January, and devotes considerable attention to the machinations of the "villain" Jim Lane.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Free State Party; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Railroad companies; Railroad legislation; Railroad promotion; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Temperance movement; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My dear friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: January 16, 1858
E. B. Whitman wrote Sanborn this lengthy letter from Lawrence, describing the political events that had unfolded in the territory since the October 5, 1857, election. Among many other things, he mentioned the split that took the "National democrats" out of the movement over the issue of participation in the state elections under the Lecompton Constitution, January 1857. This "Free State ticket" was, according to Whitman, "a disgrace to the cause," but it attracted a good number of votes and won "a good working majority in both houses and so our people proclaim a victory." Whitman, who had long been a faithful supporter, was seemingly losing confidence in John Brown, as were "the people."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Education; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Elections; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Herald of Freedom; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Territorial government; United States. Congress; United States. Senate; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Friend [F. B. Sanborn ?]
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: February 18, 1858
As a follow up to his more lengthy report of January 16, Whitman wrote from Lawrence on February 18, 1858, about the turbulent course of Kansas politics during the last month. Again, he attacked Robinson's efforts to compromise with the forces behind the "Lecompton Swindle," and described the other factions plan of action should Congress adopt the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Constitutional conventions; Election, Leavenworth Constitution delegates to convention, March 1858; Free State Party; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Dear [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: March 6, 1858
This letter from Pomeroy to Hyatt was written from the Planters House hotel in Leavenworth on March 6, 1858 (not 1859, as marked) and deals with a variety of subjects, financial and political. Pomeroy began with comments on banking, property, and railroad promotion, and ends with observations about Kansas politics and the Lecompton Constitution, which he believed was finished. "Kansas is as sure to freedom as Plymouth Rock." Even if the proslave constitution passed Congress, all it would do is re-ignite the forces of freedom: "Kansas is safe to the free state party. So don't spend any more time , strength or money about it. The victory is won! . . .The millennium for the free labor interests of the Country will begin in 1860!"

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Banks and banking; Free State Party; Free labor; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Squatter Sovereign; Town lots


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, Afternoon Session
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: March 26, 1858
Kansas's third constitutional convention, convened at Minneola, Franklin County, on March 23, 1858, elected officers (including Samuel F. Tappan, secretary), and then adjourned to reconvene at Leavenworth on March 25. During the afternoon session, March 26, 1858, some interesting debate occurred regarding the viability of the Topeka Constitution, and a minority of the Leavenworth delegates reaffirmed their support for the 1855 instrument. (The Leavenworth Convention nevertheless drafted and adopted a new constitution, and adjourned on April 3, 1858.)

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Constitutions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free State Party; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Constitution; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Address of the Constitutional Convention to American Public
Authors: Address committee. John Morgan Walden, James Fletcher, et al
Date: April 3, 1858
A committee made up of John M. Walden, James Fletcher, Thomas Ewing, Jr., Isaac T. Goodnow, Henry J. Adams, T. Dwight Thacher, and Addison Danford prepared this eleven-page manuscript "address to accompany the instrument" adopted at the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. The statement essentially laid out the philosophical foundations and rationale for the new document. It argued that the facts showed the overwhelming majority of Kansans desired admission as a free state.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Danford, Addison; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Fletcher, James; Free State Party; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Proslavery activities; Slave power; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Walden, John Morgan


Letter, E. B. Whitman to George L. Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: April 13, 1858
Whitman wrote a rather lengthy update on the Kansas situation for Stearns, focusing on the political machinations of the previous few and the uncertain situation created by the Lecompton debate. Of territorial leadership, Whitman observed: "While Kansas is blessed with many of the truest men of the age, men who are fully up to the emergency, she is also cursed with some of the most unprincipled demagogues that ever afflicted any country." There was much confusion and disagreement about the best course of action for free state men to take, now that many acknowledge the death of the Topeka movement. He then turned to the work of the Minneola/Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March 1858.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: April 30, 1858
Among other things, Whitman wrote to Sanborn from Lawrence on April 30, 1858, regarding increased activity on the region's U.G.R.R. due in part to the fact that proslavery men in Missouri knew they had lost the battle for Kansas and "large gangs of slaves are already made up for Texas and the Extreme South, in case Lecompton fails to pass. Political harmony had, for the most part, returned to the Free State Party and "we have broken the back bone of the Slave power."

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Jefferson City, Missouri; Missouri; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Slave power; Slaveholders; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Underground railroad; United States. Army; Whitman, E. B.


Free State Ticket - Minneola/Leavenworth Constitution
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 1858
This document listed persons who ran for office in Kansas Territory in May 1858.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Branscomb, Charles H.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state constitutions; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Ladd, Erastus D.; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Soule, Amasa; Stewart, John E.; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Walden, John Morgan; Whig Party (U.S.)


Letter, [C. Robinson] to "My Dear Sir" [Henry Wilson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: May 12, 1858
This important document is reportedly a copy of a letter from Charles Robinson, Lawrence, May 12, 1858, to Massachusetts Senator Henry Wilson in which the Kansas governor expresses confidence that the Lecompton Constitution will be overwhelmingly defeated in the upcoming election and makes numerous observations about the state of politics--present and future--in Kansas. Robinson believed that half the Democrats would oppose the Lecompton instrument because they knew that freestaters would dominate any state government that would be admitted under it and subsequently "the Constitution would be changed in the 'twinkling of an eye.'" Thus, he predicted no Kansas admission until at least December 1859, and in the meantime expected Democrats to "take the lead in aiding in developing the resources of Kansas, & [the Democratic Party] will claim to be the special friends of our infant State."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, August 1858; Election, Lecompton Constitution, August 1857; English Bill; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state supporters; Journals; Lecompton Constitution; Partisan press; Press and politics; Press and propaganda; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875


Letter, M. F. Conway to My dear Sir [George L. Stearns]
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: June 13, 1858
Somewhat disturbed that Stearns of Boston had published his (Conway's) letter regarding "money for the Leavenworth Constitution," Martin F. Conway, Lawrence, wrote to say that there was nothing "improper or dishonorable in this transaction" and went on to reflect on the nature of the Free State Party/movement at that time. Charles Robinson was "at work to destroy the influence of the Republican wing of the Free State Party," but people back East should not conclude "that the bottom is going to fall out of Kansas because there is division in the Free State Party." Conway expected both Robinson and James H. Lane to fall from prominence because of changing circumstances in Kansas.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Minutes, First Meeting of Territorial Central Committee of the Free State Party
Authors: Free State Executive Committee
Date: September 23, 1858
The first meeting of the Free State Party's territorial central committee was convened in Lawrence on September 23, 1858, with, according to the minutes, the following individuals in attendance: James Blood, temporary chair; P. H. Townsend; W. F. M. Arny, and James M. Winchell, along with J. C. Douglas who held proxy for John McKee. Among other things, the committee resolved to nominate Samuel W. Greer for territorial superintendent of public instruction.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blood, James; Free State Convention; Free State Party; Greer, Samuel Wiley; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Political conventions; Superintendent of Public Instruction; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [R. B. Mitchell]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: December 15, 1858
In this letter to Robert B. Mitchell of Paris in Linn County, Ewing commented on the summer and fall "disturbances in Linn & Bourbon" counties, and he predicted that many of the "scoundrels" responsible--presumably men on both sides of the slavery issue--would one day end up in the as yet to be established "penitentiary." Ewing wrote Mitchell, at that time a member of the territorial legislature, about the organization of the Democratic Party in Leavenworth and reported on several "of our free state friends" who had joined with the "Democracy." (Subsequently, despite Ewing's plea that moderates not take this action but "just bide their time," Mitchell joined the Democrats in 1859 and accepted their nomination for congressman.)

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free State Party; Free state perspective; Fuller, Perry; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mitchell, Robert Byington; Paris, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Smith, Samuel C.


Letter, John Brown to Gents [Old Brown's Parallels]
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: January 3, 1859
Designated "Old Brown's Parallels" and dated January 3, 1859, from Trading Post, Kansas, this is one of the better-known John Brown documents from Kansas. Written for publication in the newspapers just before his final departure from the territory, Brown began by stating "two parallels"--one being the failure of government to do anything about the murder of free-state men (Marias des Cygnes Massacre) May 1858; the other being his recent raid into Missouri to free eleven slaves and take "some property." In the latter incident, only one white man, a slave owner, was killed, but "all 'Hell is stirred from beneath,'" as the governor of Missouri was demanding the capture of those "concerned in the last named 'dreadful outrage.'"

Keywords: African Americans; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border disputes and warfare - Proslavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan administration; Civil rights; Free State Party; Fugitive slaves; Hamilton, Charles A.; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Press and propaganda; Slaveholders; Slaves; Trading Post, Kansas Territory


Letter, S. C. S. [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: January 6, 1859
Samuel Smith wrote to Dr. Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, regarding the latest election events within the Kansas Territorial Legislature. The positions of Speaker and Clerk were not secured by William Roberts and himself, as had been expected, but had been filled by Alfred Larzalere and Byron P. Ayres as a consequence of some questionable internal party politics, so described by Smith. Smith also wrote Robinson of George Deitzler's desire to resume correspondence with him, and of a recent incident in which James Lane's portrait was defaced.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Ayres, Byron P.; Babcock, Carmi William; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Branscomb, Charles H.; Deitzler, George W.; Delahay, Mark W.; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elder, P.P.; Elections; Free State Party; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Hutchinson, George W.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); McLane, George W.; Methodist Church; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion; Wright, John W.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. P. Root to Hon. Charles Robinson
Authors: Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: January 17, 1859
Joseph Root wrote to Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, informing him of a development that was splitting the Republican (anti-slavery) Party. Root mentioned that a large majority of the free state House members had begun to call themselves "Radicals," or extreme Republicans. He stated that he would leave the party if, in order to be a Republican, he had to be a member of the "Jim Lane Montgomery Men." Root also informed Robinson that a court had been established in Lawrence in order to try violent offenders from Linn, Lykins, and Bourbon counties.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Smith, Samuel C.


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [G. W. Brown]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: April 13, 1859
With regard to the formation of the Republican Party at the forthcoming Osawatomie convention, Ewing told George W. Brown, editor of Lawrence's Herald of Freedom, why he believed this was the right course for the "opposition" to take at this time. The Free State Party had, in his opinion, accomplished its objectives, and the Democratic Party contained a proslave faction and was affiliated with the administration. Ewing's objective was "to secure an organization of the Republican or opposition party at Osawattomie [sic], on a just and rational platform, and led by honest & conservative men."

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie convention; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Proslavery; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, [Marc Parrott] to Dr. Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: c. 1859
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, of Ohio. Marcus inquired about the "mixed politics" he had heard about in Ohio. He also remarked that he anticipated being a candidate for Congress, and expressed his interest in visiting Pike's Peak. Marcus added that he would leave the following morning for Wyandotte in order to attend the Constitutional Convention there, and projected that there would be trouble since the Republicans held a heavy majority.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; National politics; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pikes Peak, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, Harrison Anderson to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Anderson, Harrison
Date: January 27, 1860
The elder brother of Harpers Ferry raider Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote Hinton to provide information on his brothers activities in Kansas Territory, beginning in "June or July 1857," when he settle in norther Bourbon County. J.G. Anderson was actively engaged in free-state activities in southern Kansas, including efforts to defy the bogus authority through the establishment of what was called a "Squaters court." (According to a January 29, 1860, letter--also in this folder--from another brother, John Q. Anderson of Eddyville, Iowa, brother Harrison was still living in at Little Osage, KT, and he had "frequently entertained" John Brown.)

Keywords: Abolitionists; Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Proslavery activities; Squatters


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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