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138 results for Emigration and immigration:
Circular of the American Settlement Company, Great Kanzas Enterprise
Authors: American Settlement Company
Date: 
This brochure encouraged the settlement of Council City (Burlingame). It included constitution, descriptions of climate and soil, and testimonials from the company's representative in Kansas.

Keywords: American Settlement Company; Burlingame, Kansas Territory; Circulars; Council City, Kansas Territory; Dwight, Theodore; Emigration and immigration; Homestead law; Missionaries; New York League; Osage County, Kansas Territory; Santa Fe road; School lands; Settlement; Walter, George; Winchell, J. M.


Letter, Robert Gilbert to My dear Parents
Authors: Gilbert, Robert L.
Date: December 5, 1849
Robert Gilbert, a young Englishman studying at Yoxford Academy in England anticipating the Christmas holiday, wrote to his parents summarizing his studies of the past half-year. He was born in Sibton, Suffolk County, England. After graduating from Yoxford, he became a gardener in the Crystal Palace Gardens in London. Gilbert emigrated to the U.S. in 1855 and began farming nine miles north of Lawrence the same year.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; England; Farmers; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


Deed of Caleb S. Pratt for Charles Robinson
Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: October 13, 1853
This handwritten deed entitled Charles Robinson to the ownership of a house and farm claim south of the town of Lawrence, which was previously owned by Caleb Pratt.

Keywords: Emery, James Stanley; Emigration and immigration; Land acquisition; Legal documents; Lykins, William H. R.; Pratt, Caleb S.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement


Lyrics, The Freeman's Song and The Kansas Emigrant Song
Authors: Whittier, John Greenleaf
Date: c. 1854
These printed lyric sheets provided the words to "The Freeman's Song," which displayed an anti-slavery message, and to "The Kansas Emigrant Song" which spoke about the need for free state emigrants to populate the West.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Emigration and immigration; Lyrics; Music; Poetry; Slavery; Songs; Whittier, John Greenleaf


Letter, C. C. Andrews to John A. Halderman, Esq.
Authors: Andrews, Christopher C.
Date: June 27, 1854
From Fort Leavenworth, C. C. Andrews wrote a short letter to inform Halderman that "nothing has transpired" at that location during the past week or so but he was certain "that the territory will be populated with a rapidity unparralleled [sic] in the rise of states." Andrews also was sure that men in the legal profession, such as Andrews himself and Halderman, would do quite well financially.

Keywords: Andrews, Christopher C.; Emigration and immigration; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Settlement


Circular, Worcester County [Massachusetts] Kansas League
Authors: Worcester County Kansas League
Date: July 11, 1854
This printed circular, issued by the Worcester County Kansas League, advertises the establishment and growth of the "Emigrant Aid Company." It further explains their role in assisting New Englanders to emigrate to the Kansas Territory. Included are the Constitution and By-laws of the Worcester County Kansas League.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Circulars; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Williams, John M. S.; Worcester County Kansas League


Lyrics, Lays of the Emigrants
Authors: Whittier, John Greenleaf
Date: August 29, 1854
This title page of a musical booklet was subtitled, "as sung by the second party for Kanzas, on their departure from Boston." It contains two songs. The first of the songs was written by J. G. Whittier and named "The Kanzas Emigrants." The other song is T. B. H.'s "Song of the Kanzas Emigrants."

Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Emigration and immigration; Lyrics; Music; Settlement; Songs; Whittier, John Greenleaf


Letter, James [Griffing] to My Beloved Augusta [Goodrich]
Authors: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: September 2, 1854
James Griffing wrote from Indianapolis, Indiana to his fiancee J. Augusta Goodrich in Owego, New York. Griffing, a Methodist minister, mentioned his plans to go to "Nebraska" and speculated that the "surplus population" in the eastern United States likely would lead to rapid settlement of the territory. Griffing expressed excitement about going to Kansas but he warned his fiancee that he would face hardships.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Indianapolis, Indiana; Methodists; Religion; Westward expansion


Letter, S. L. Adair to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn (draft)
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: September 19, 1854
Adair wrote from Hudson, Ohio, discussing plans to meet with a "Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society" party in Chicago. He indicated his family consisted of four people and described the quantity of boxes and luggage they would bring with them. He also wrote that he disapproved of traveling on the Sabbath.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Emigration and immigration; Jocelyn, S. S.; Migration, internal; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Ohio; Religion


Letter, New York Kansas League to the Public
Authors: Lockwood, Roe (Pres. NY Kansas League)
Date: September 20, 1854
This letter, written by the New York Kansas League, was addressed to the public. The New York Kansas League encouraged people to emigrate to Kansas Territory, pledging to support anyone who decided to go to Kansas. It also gave details about the league and how to join. In addition, the letter discussed the problems of slavery.

Keywords: Antislavery; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Frontier; Lockwood, Roe; New York League; Slavery


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Mr. [Amos Adams] Lawrence
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: September 22, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Samuel Pomeroy wrote from a settlement, which would come to be called Lawrence, in Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Lawrence was an investor who sponsored the emigrant group who would settle the town of Lawrence. Pomeroy reported that Charles Robinson had been elected President of the Lawrence Association, the first governing body of the town. He was enthusiastic about the abundance of timber resources in the area, which, once secured from the Indians, would make for a good business enterprise. Emigrants were arriving in droves, filling the hotels and increasing demand for land claims. Though he remained positive, Pomeroy warned "Don't make yourselves believe that the slave holders have given up Kansas!" and anticipated a political battle during the upcoming Territorial Legislature election.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Branscomb, Charles H.; Business enterprises; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Hotels; Illness; Indian lands; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Timber; Town development


Letter, L. E. Carwell for Dr. Webb, Sec. to Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Carwell, L.E. ; Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: September 22, 1854
L.E. Carwell wrote from Boston on the behalf of Thomas Webb, Secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, to James Abbott, regarding travel arrangements for his family. Abbott, along with his wife and children, would depart by train the following Tuesday for Kansas Territory, where they would make their new home.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Emigration and immigration; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Railroads; Travel; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, James [Griffing] to My Beloved [J. Augusta Goodrich]
Authors: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: September 1854
James Griffing wrote from Indianapolis, Indiana to his fiancee J. Augusta Goodrich in Owego, New York. Griffing, a Methodist minister, discussed his plans to go to "Nebraska." He stated that there had been reports of Indian depredations in Kansas Territory, and commented that "encroachments" of whites upon Indian lands would lead either to greater violence or to the Indians disappearing "noiselessly before the consuming avarice of the white man."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Emigration and immigration; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Indian raids; Indianapolis, Indiana; Native Americans


Letter, [James Griffing] to [J. Augusta Goodrich]
Authors: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: October 15, 1854 - October 25, 1854
James Griffing wrote from the bank of the Illinois River in Illinois and Milton, Missouri to his fiancee J. Augusta Goodrich in Owego, New York. Griffing, a Methodist minister, described the daily routine of his overland journey from Indianapolis, Indiana to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Daily life; Emigration and immigration; Food; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Illinois; Missouri; Transportation; Travel; Wagons


Letter, [Cyrus Kurtz] Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: November 18, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. This letter was to be delivered by Mr. Ingrams, and Holliday expressed the possibilities of following shortly or of staying in Lawrence to make business arrangements and put up a building in the spring. He expressed his delight in the country of Kansas and the site of a new city (not named, but likely Topeka). A Pennsylvania company of emigrants, unprepared for the journey and now suffering, had settled in Lawrence and Council Grove.

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Morris County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Robert A. Tovey to My Dear Wife [Eliza (Matthew) Tovey]
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: December 17, 1854
Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr, having arrived in "Kanzas" Territory, wrote to his wife, Eliza (Matthew) Tovey, at their home in Albany, New York. Tovey described his working and living conditions, calling his Native American boss "most pleasant" and his living arrangements "comfortable," though infested with rats. Tovey, also a preacher, mentioned that the Methodist Church, the single place of worship in town, was willing to share their space with other denominations.

Keywords: Churches; Daily life; Emigration and immigration; Immigrants; Labor; Native Americans; Religion; Tovey, Robert Atkins


Letter, I. T. Goodnow to Stephen French Jr, Esq.
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: December 16, 1854
Isaac Goodnow wrote from East Greenwich, Massachusetts, to Stephen French Jr. Goodnow communicated his excitement of having decided to emigrate to Kansas Territory the coming March, inspired by a conversation with Eli Thayer two weeks before. His motivations were varied, as he expressed his desire to see that slavery was prohibited in the Territory. However, he also mentioned that emigration to the Territory was a good way to get rich, and hoped that the climate there would be more suitable for his ailing wife, Ellen.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Emigration and immigration; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Town settlement


Report of the Committee of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company
Authors: Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company
Date: 1854
This report, issued by the founders of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company, devotes itself in part to communicating the objectives and mission of the Company, which primarily was to protect persons emigrating West from scams and other "knavery". The report also includes a few journal-style entries by Charles Robinson regarding his experiences in Nebraska and Kansas in 1849. Following Robinson's accounts are various excerpted newspaper articles and letters endorsing the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company.

Keywords: Bullock, Alexander H.; Business enterprises; Clapp, Otis; Emigration and immigration; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Kansas Territory; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Nebraska Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Wade, Edward


Mass. Emigrant Aid Co. [Plan of Operation]
Authors: Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company
Date: c. 1854
An unidentified author outlined the purpose, benefits, and plan of operation of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company. The author described the benefits to the emigrants, the country, and the company and listed a six phase plan of operation.

Keywords: Antislavery movements; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company


Kanzas and Nebraska: the History, Geographical, and Physical Characteristics, and Political Position of those Territories; an account of the Emigrant Aid Companies and Directions to Emigrants
Authors: Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909
Date: 1854
This volume is generally accepted as the first book on Kansas. It dealt with Nebraska Territory also. The author, Edward Everett Hale indicated that he had researched the various memoirs and exploration journals of the various white men who had visited the area before its creation as a territory. This research resulted in a narrative history that focused on Native Americans and events in the area prior to 1854. Hale also included information about emigrant aid companies and the volume included some printed letters from emigrant aid company agents. The volume included the charter and "objects" of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid company, which was organized in March, 1854. Hale also provided some information on the Emigrant Aid Company of New York and Connecticut, which was organized in July, 1854 and the Union Emigration Society. The Appendices include the constitution of the Worcester Co. Kanzas League and a letter from George S. Park describing the Kansas and Smoky Hill river valleys.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Exploration; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Journals; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Native Americans; Park, George S.; Railroads; Settlement; Smoky Hill River, Kansas Territory; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Union Emigration Society; Worcester County Kansas League


Photograph, Members of the first party from the New England Emigrant Aid Company to go to Lawrence, Kansas in 1854
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1854
Portrait of four men, all members of the first party going to Lawrence, Kansas. The party left Boston, Massachusetts on July 17, 1854, and joined with Charles Robinson in St. Louis before arriving in Lawrence.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Fuller, Ferdinand; Goss, George W.; Harrington, Dr. S.C.; Massachusetts; Morgan, J.F.; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographers; Settlement


Minutes, New England Emigrant Aid Company Annual Meetings
Authors: New England Emigrant Aid Company
Date: March 5, 1855 - May 29, 1860
Proceedings of the New England Emigrant Aid Company stockholders meetings. The meetings typically involved the election of officers, a treasurer's report, consideration of resolutions, and an assessment of the company's prospects in Kansas. The minutes for the first meeting of the New England Emigrant Aid Company (March 5, 1855) included the corporation by-laws.

Keywords: Antislavery movements; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Higginson, Charles J.; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Minutes; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Williams, John M. S.


Letter, Wm. D. Haley to Bro. [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Haley, William D.
Date: March 9, 1855
William D. Haley, writing from Alton, Illinois to Edward Everett Hale, expressed his concern about the lack of Western travel experience possessed by New England Emigrant Aid Company agents. Haley informed Hale that the company agents were "green as grass" with the result being emigrants getting overcharged for travel expenses.

Keywords: Alton, Illinois; Emigration and immigration; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Haley, William D.; Illinois; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Steamboats


List of passengers for Kansas composing the first party 1855 under charge of Dr. Charles Robinson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 13, 1855
This list contained the name of the head of the family and may also include occupations, ages, familial relationships and a location for each individual or family group that was a member of the March 13, 1855 party. The list also indicated the amount of payment made.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: April 1, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He described the Territorial Legislature election of March 30, 1855, in which he was a Representative candidate for the Fourth District (in the third election district). Missourians had taken charge of the polls, and Holliday, along with other free state Kansas Territory citizens, did not vote. He assured his wife that Kansas would be a free state. Business in growing Topeka continued to delay his return to Meadville. Holliday also alluded to the recent birth of their child and mentioned his ragged clothing.

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Free state; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Missourians; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Town Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town building (see Town development)


Letter, S. L. Adair to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: May 3, 1855
Samuel Adair wrote from Osawatomie to thank Rev. Jocelyn, an official of the American Missionary Association, for his encouragement and fiscal support of $100. He said they will use it to pay what they owe and then make it last as long as possible. His wife has taken in sewing and washing to make ends meet but Adair asks Jocelyn not to share that information. He discussed the weather and his religious missionary efforts in detail. Adair also commented on migration to Kansas and motives of those coming. This appears to be a draft of a letter sent to Jocelyn.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; American Missionary Association; Emigration and immigration; Jocelyn, S. S.; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Migration, internal; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Religion


Letter, H. Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: May 13, 1855
After arriving in Kansas City by steamboat, Hiram Hill wrote to his brother. En route, four men had died of cholera while others continued to drink and play cards nearby. Disease fatalities were common, Hill reported. He speculated that the river water, which passengers drank, was contaminated with disease from the rich prairie soil. Hill described life at the Winedot [sic] Indian Reservation (beginning at the bottom of page 2) where he met the "prinsable chiefe" and saw the governor's sister. Hill related news concerning Mr. Putnam, Mr. Tomas, Mr. Gague, Mr. Jay, Mr. Partridge, Mr. Whitman, Mr. Pomeroy, Mr. Fuller and others. He was skeptical that these men would permanently settle in Kansas Territory. Hill also described Kansas City, which he thought would improve under "yankee," rather than "slave holder," management. (Hill's final destination was Lawrence, where he acquired town lots through quit claims not included in this online project.)

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Burial; Diseases; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Kansas City, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Steamboats; Transportation; Travel; Weather; Wyandot Indians


Letter, Wm. E. Goodnow to My Dear Wife [Harriet Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, William E.
Date: June 10, 1855
William Goodnow, brother of Isaac Goodnow, wrote from Shannon, Wild Cat Creek, Kansas Territory, to his wife back East. Goodnow described his experiences participating in the development of the nearby town of Manhattan, having attended a city council meeting and anticipating the founding of a newspaper. Goodnow also mentioned religious services and "Sabbath Schools" currently running out of settler's homes, and commented on the numerous emigrants who had traveled to Kansas Territory only to quickly give up and return home.

Keywords: Diseases; Election fraud; Emigration and immigration; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Goodnow, William E.; Livestock; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Methodists; Newspapers; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Religion; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory; Town development


Letter, Wm [Goodnow] to My Dear Wife [Harriet Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, William E.
Date: July 15, 1855
William Goodnow wrote from a settlement outside Manhattan, Kansas Territory, to his wife Harriet in New England. Goodnow refuted claims that Kansas was "a poor place", defended the New England Emigrant Aid Company against the complaints of "disappointed, unstable, and homesick" emigrants. He also reported on the frequent passing of Government trains from Fort Riley, in anticipation of war. Isaac Goodnow added a note to Harriet, proclaiming Kansas' destiny as a free state.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state support; Goodnow, Harriet; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Goodnow, William E.; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory


Letter, Ellen [Goodnow] to Dear Sister Harriet [Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, Ellen
Date: July 21, 1855
Ellen Goodnow, recently arrived at her homestead near Manhattan, Kansas Territory, wrote to her sister-in-law Harriet Goodnow in New England, regarding her trip West and her impressions of Kansas Territory. Ellen described her journey in a detailed but concise manner, and, in her first impressions, likened Kansas to "another garden of Eden. . .too good for bondage, or for the oppressor's rod [references to slavery]." A devout Christian woman, she also expressed her opinion that Satan held influence over the Missourians. Despite this ominous presence, Ellen still tried to convince Harriet to join them in the Territory.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Harriet; Railroads; Settlement; Stagecoaches; Transportation; Travel; Water transportation


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: August 12, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania of his journey to Kansas City to obtain a land warrant for Topeka and to attend the Free State Convention. Two of his articles had been published in The Herald of Freedom, a Lawrence newspaper, and he sent copies. Mentioning political difficulties, Holliday suggested that his wife wait until fall to travel to Kansas. He rented out his cabin in Topeka for profit. A deadly cholera epidemic at Fort Riley had ended.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free State Convention; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather; Wyandot Float


Passengers' Contract Ticket
Authors: Phipps, Shaw, and Lowther
Date: August 29, 1855
Robert L. Gilbert, a 21-year-old Englishman, purchased a ticket to travel from London, England, to New York, departing on Sept. 6, 1855. The ticket lists travel requirements such as luggage size, provisions provided, and an appointment time for a medical examination, which was required before departure. Gilbert would eventually dock in New York, renounce his allegiance to England, and travel to Kansas Territory to a farm nine miles north of Lawrence.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; England; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Phipps, Shaw & Lowther; Transportation; Travel


To the citizens of Missouri
Authors: Brown, John Carter, 1797-1874
Date: September 1855
This letter was written by the directors of New England Emigrant Aid Company responding to various charges made against them by the citizens of Missouri.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John Carter; Cabot, Samuel; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Slavery; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Williams, John M. S.


Letter, Rebecca Wakefield to Sir
Authors: Wakefield, Rebecca
Date: September 15, 1855
Rebecca Wakefield, writing from Milan, Ohio to the New England Emigrant Aid Company, stated that her husband had settled in Kansas in May 1855 but had gotten sick and was now unable to pay for her and her three children to join him. She sought assistance from the emigrant aid company to finance her trip to Kansas.

Keywords: Children; Emigration and immigration; Milan, Ohio; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Ohio; Poor; Poverty; Wakefield, Rebecca; Women


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: October 7, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, advised his wife in Meadville, Pennsylvania concerning travel. He restated advice from his much longer letter of September 26th. He wrote of his nomination, yet to be confirmed by vote, as a delegate to the Topeka Constitutional Convention. Holliday decided to decline the editorship of The Kansas Freeman. He expressed sympathy for Lizzie Holliday, his wife's sister, and suggested boarding when Mary Holliday and their daughter Lillie arrived, as he had not yet built a house.

Keywords: Elections; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Kansas Freeman; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Transportation; Travel


Certificate, Declaration of Intention
Authors: Court of Monroe County, New York State
Date: October 23, 1855
Robert L. Gilbert, a 21-year-old Englishman, had just finished his journey to the United States when he renounced his allegiance to the Queen of England by signing this Declaration of Intention. Gilbert would continue west into Kansas Territory, where he eventually settled nine miles north of Lawrence in late 1855.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; England; Farmers; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Monroe County, New York State; Settlement


Lyrics, Lays of the Emigrants as Sung by the Parties for Kanzas
Authors: Larcom, Lucy ; Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: 1855
This circular, the full title being "Lays of the Emigrants as Sung by the Parties for Kanzas on the Days of Their Departure from Boston, During the Spring of 1855", contains the lyrics of both the song "Call to Kanzas" and "The Kanzas Emigrant's Song".

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Larcom, Lucy; Lyrics; Music; Songs; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Directory, City Directory of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
Early directory lists landowners and landholdings by street address and includes names of prominent political figures of Kansas' Territorial period. The settlement previously known as "Wakarusa" had only been known as Lawrence for less than a year.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


Directory, City of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
This transcript of the 1855 City of Lawrence Directory not only lists landowners and landholdings by street address, but also includes an index of landholdings by last name of the landowner.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


History of Kansas: and Emigrant's Guide.
Authors: Chapman, J. Butler
Date: 1855
The title page of the printed volume indicated that it contained "a description geographical and topographical--also climate, soil, productions and comparative value with other states and territories, including its political history, officers-candidates-emigrant colonies-election, abolition, squatter and pro-slavery contentions and inquisitions; with the prospects of the territory for freedom or slavery. Mr. Chapman was a resident of the territory and the information in the booklet was compiled by traveling through Kansas Territory in 1854. The description covers most of the territory and includes information about Native American tribes and lands.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Delaware Indians; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigrant aid companies - Pro-slavery; Emigration and immigration; Free state prospects; Land; Landscape; Native Americans; Proslavery; Settlement; Wyandot Indians


Pamphlet, History and Map of Kansas and Nebraska
Authors: Sloan, Walter B.
Date: 1855
The full title of this pamphlet is "History and Map of Kansas & Nebraska: describing Soil, Climate, Rivers, Prairies, Mounds, Forests, Minerals, Roads, Cities, Villages, Inhabitants, and such other subjects as Relates to that Region -- Politics Excepted." Information falling under these categories was compiled by the publisher, Walter B. Sloan. This example of the pamphlet is incomplete, lacking final pages.

Keywords: Agriculture; Cities and towns; Emigration and immigration; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Natural resources; Nebraska Territory; Roads; Settlement; Sloan, Walter B.; Timber; Weather


Circular, Informational Letter regarding Emigration to Kansas
Authors: Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909
Date: 1855
Edward Hale was the author of this printed letter describing the services provided by the [New England] Emigrant Aid Company and the conditions of settlement in Kansas Territory. Hale included information regarding cost of travel and settlement, conditions of land acquisition, job opportunities, and relations with local Indians. He also addressed the slavery question, and already mentioned occurrences of election fraud on the part of proslavery supporters, but concluded that, in his own opinion "there is no danger whatever for Kanzas".

Keywords: Business enterprises; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Libraries; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement; Slavery; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Travel; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Williams, John M. S.


Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to A. H. Shurtleff
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1856
William Hutchinson, secretary of the Kansas Central Committee, wrote from Lawrence to A. Havington Shurtleff, agent for the New York State Kansas Committee. Hutchinson was responding to Shutleff's request for an assessment of the efforts to send emigrant parties and relief to Kansas Territory. Overall, Hutchinson offered a fairly negative view of the efforts of the eastern emigrant aid societies to send relief and emigrants to the territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Relief; Shurtleff, A. Havington


Letter, N. P. Selee to Dear Bro [Isaac Goodnow]
Authors: Selee, N.P.
Date: January 19, 1856
N. P. Selee, presumably an acquaintance of Isaac Goodnow, and a fellow New Englander, wrote to Goodnow from the East Coast, describing to Goodnow his desire to settle in Kansas. Selee asked Goodnow to respond to what may have been typical emigrant concerns about the trip, which from Selee, included questions about Kansas' future as a free state, the business prospects for raising cattle, and whether or not he ought to "look for a wife" before coming to Kansas, or if he would be likely to find quality companionship in the Territory.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Emigration and immigration; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Selee, N.P.; Travel; Women


Letter, [Josiah Miller] to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: January 25, 1856
Josiah Miller, responding to his family's concerns about traveling West, wrote to his Father and Mother in South Carolina. He told them that they would be better off leaving the South, and that they should begin their travels west as soon as they were ready, in spite of any violent conflict that might be taking place in Kansas Territory. Miller referred to a specific incident occurring a few days earlier on January 17, when free state men, on their way home from an election of State officers under the Topeka Constitution, were attacked by a group of Missourians. Miller also communicated that, although he was a free state man, he did not like the "Yankees' " approach to the conflict with the proslavery supporters.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Reese P.; Emigration and immigration; Free state perspective; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; South Carolina; Southerners


Connecticut Kansas Colony Record Book
Authors: Secretary, Connecticut Kansas Colony
Date: February 18, 1856 through June 26, 1857
The colony was formed in New Haven, Connecticut, with the intent that members would migrate to Kansas Territory in the spring of 1856. This book listed members of the colony and the minutes contained information about the activities of the colony for its formation, the trip to Kansas, selecting a town site, through the decision to dissolve it in favor of the Wabaunsee Company, which was charged with organizing the town of Wabaunsee, Kansas Territory. The content, while not including information about the discussions of issues, contained a great deal of information about the formal actions of the colony. The group was sometimes referred to as the Beecher Bible and Rifle Colony. The early minutes contained mentions of the purchase of arms.

Keywords: Beecher Bible and Rifle Colony; Connecticut Kansas Colony; Emigration and immigration; Guns; Lines, C. B.; Migration, internal; New Haven, Connecticut; Town companies; Town development; Town site speculation; Wabaunsee County, Kansas Territory; Wabaunsee, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)


Certificate, Surveyor General to William H. Bayless
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 4, 1856
This certificate documented William Bayless' acquisition of pre-emption rights to land in Kansas Territory, which would then be distributed to incoming settlers.

Keywords: Bayless, William; Calhoun, John; Emigration and immigration; Kansas Territory; Land grants; Settlement; United States. Surveyor General


Letter, Jonathan Finch to Mr. [William] Barnes
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 2, 1856
Finch, writing from Coveville, New York, to William Barnes, secretary of the New York Kansas Committee, expressed his desire to settle in Kansas to take part in the "struggle for Liberty." Finch indicated that participation in the antislavery cause was his primary reason for his interest in emigrating to Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Coveville, New York; Emigration and immigration; Finch, Jonathan; Migration, internal


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to My Dear Parents and Sister
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: April 6, 1856
In this, his first extant letter from Kansas Territory, Oscar Learnard wrote his parents and sister in Vermont that Lawrence was now his "distant and strangely romantic retreat." This letter recorded Learnard's early impressions of "unfortunate abused Kansas." The situation was bad, but the reality of "Kansas affairs" was being distorted in the Eastern press. Learnard made reference to the bogus laws, the Free State movement, and the anticipated congressional investigation.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Vermont


Letter, G. W. Deitzler to Bradford R. Wood
Authors: Deitzler, George W.
Date: April 7, 1856
Deitzler, writing from Lawrence, offered recommendations to Wood, a New York State Kansas Committee representative, on the best emigration route to Kansas. Deitzler suggested that New York emigrants consider settling on Shawnee Reserve land in Kansas as soon as it was opened to settlement. He also requested monetary aid from the New York State Kansas Committee for free state settlers already in Kansas.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Wood, Bradford R.


Letter, C. A. Wright to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Wright, Charles A.
Date: April 14, 1856
Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Wright described his recent experiences buying and selling cattle obtained from Missouri counties. He also mentioned his purchase of town shares in Manhattan, Kansas Territory, and commented on the recent emigration rush, which was increasing demand for land, filling hotels, and causing rent to increase. Wright felt optimistic about the future of peace in Kansas, having heard a story about Governor Reeder's feeling for the same.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Livestock; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town development; Town shares; Wright, Charles A.


Announcing start of a company for Kansas in 1856
Authors: Wood, Bradford R.
Date: April 18, 1856
This printed letter, written by Bradford R. Wood, concerned the departure of another party to Kansas and information on how to join. It also announced that the Shawnee Reserve in Kansas would be opened for settlement.

Keywords: Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Emigration and immigration; Immigration and early settlement; McGowan, M.; New York State Kansas Committee; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Van Dyck, H. H.; Williams, C. P.; Wood, Bradford R.


Letter, Nelson Rusk to Mr. [William] Barnes
Authors: Rusk, Nelson
Date: April 26, 1856
Nelson Rusk, writing from Kansas City, Missouri, described for William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, some of the difficulties he experienced during his journey to Kansas with a party of settlers from New York. Rusk also offered his opinion that the New York party would fail in its effort to establish a cohesive colony in Kansas due to ineffective leadership and selfishness among the settlers.

Keywords: Albany Colony; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Emigration and immigration; Kansas City, Missouri; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Rusk, Nelson


Letter, Noah Cameron to Bradford R. Wood
Authors: Cameron, Noah
Date: April 30, 1856
Noah Cameron, writing from Lawrence, expressed his views on the economic prospects for persons interested in migrating to Kansas. He advised Bradford Wood, a New York State Kansas Committee representative, to emphasize the economic opportunities in Kansas while also being realistic about the hardships that settlers would face in Kansas.

Keywords: Cameron, Noah; Economic conditions; Economic development; Emigration and immigration; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Wood, Bradford R.


Letter, [unknown] to Hiram Hill
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 30, 1856
The author of this letter, possibly C. A. Wright, wrote to Hiram Hill from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He discussed continuing speculation efforts in Lawrence, but particular ones were becoming rife with politics. Also mentioned is the recent completion of the Free State Hotel, which would help ease the recent emigration rush. The author described events surrounding the shooting of Sheriff Samuel Jones "by an unknown hand". The shooting followed the issuing of arrest warrants for George Deitzler, Gaius Jenkins, and others, for their failure to assist with the arrest of S. N. Wood, who was charged with aiding the rescue of a free state man from prison the past November.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Emigration and immigration; Free State Hotel; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Jenkins, Gaius; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Land speculation; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence; Warrants (Law); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Public letter with Interrogatories
Authors: Whitman and Searl
Date: May 8, 1856
Edmund A. Whitman and Albert D. Searl established an Emigrants' Intelligence Office in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. They stressed the importance of finding out information about the country before making a decision about acquiring land in a particular area. This printed letter outlines several issues to be considered and also presents a series of twenty-two questions that they recommend be answered when considering where to settle. While a few of the questions relate to the slave versus free state controversy, most are general concerns to be considered in selecting a place to live. Whitman and Searl produced at least one early Kansas map.

Keywords: Business; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrants' Intelligence Office; Emigration and immigration; Immigrants; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Immigration and early settlement; Land acquisition; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Settlement; Whitman and Searl; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, I. L. Wilde to C. P. Williams
Authors: Wilde, Isaac L.
Date: May 12, 1856
Isaac L. Wilde, writing from New York City, described to C. P. Williams, chairman of the New York State Kansas Committee, the difficulties he was experiencing in recruiting individuals to emigrate to Kansas.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; New York, New York; Wilde, Isaac L.; Williams, C. P.


Record of Immigrants for Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 16, 1856
Brief biographical and character sketches of eight families who joined the second party of Kansas emigrants sponsored by the New York State Kansas Committee.

Keywords: Beach, Charles; Cunningham, William; Emigration and immigration; Green, Louise; Griswold, Daniel; Hawley, John H.; Hebbard, Russell; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Page, John; Spaulding, Silas W.; Syracuse, New York; Wilbur, George W.


Circular, Ho! For Kansas!!
Authors: Wood, Bradford R.
Date: May 20, 1856
This circular by the New York State Kansas Committee announced the departure of another party to Kansas and described how the emigrants would be traveling to Kansas. It also provided information about how to join the party.

Keywords: Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Circulars; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Immigration and early settlement; Kansas Frontier; McGowan, M.; New York State Kansas Committee; Railroad companies; St. Louis, Missouri; Steamboats; Travel literature; Wood, Bradford R.


Letter, F. D. Kimball to Eli Thayer, Esq.
Authors: Kimball, F. D.
Date: May 30, 1856
F. D. Kimball, Attorney General of Ohio, wrote from Columbus, Ohio to Eli Thayer. Kimball reported on James Lane's recent visit to Ohio and described Lane's plans to establish a "line of communication with Kansas via Iowa & Nebraska" for the passage of emigrants and supplies. This line of communication, which allowed free state supporters to bypass Missouri in travelling to Kansas, became known as the Lane Trail.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state support; Iowa; Kimball, F. D.; Lane Trail; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Nebraska Territory; Ohio; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Circular, Members of the Kansas Settlers Society
Authors: Walsh, Benjamin J.
Date: June 2, 1856
This circular was written by Benjamin J. Walsh to members of the Kansas Settler's Society concerning emigration to Kansas and efforts to raise needed funds to complete the trip to Kansas. A meeting of the emigrant aid society was organized in Chicago. The circular also discussed attempts to form similar groups in other states. Walsh went to Cleveland to try to organize an emigrant aid society in that location.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Chicago, Illinois; Circulars; Clark, W. Penn; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Iowa City, Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Money; Topeka Constitution; Walsh, Benjamin J.


Minutes, Kansas Relief Committee
Authors: National Kansas Committee
Date: June 9, 1856 - June 26, 1856
This document details the minutes of three meetings of the Kansas Relief Committee, otherwise known as the National Kansas Committee, held in 1856 on June 9th, June 21st, and June 26th. It also includes information about the membership of this emigrant aid company. The first of these meetings adopted resolutions to aid the plight of free-state settlers in Kansas Territory. Furthermore, the members of the committee decided to establish five thousand settlers in Kansas Territory and to give them a year's worth of provisions.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Relief Committee; Minutes; Missouri; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Relief funds


Advertisement, Emigrant's Intelligence Office
Authors: Whitman and Searl
Date: June 15, 1856
This advertisement by Whitman and Searl, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, stated that they were proposing to open an Emigrant's Intelligence Office to "meet the urgent demands by emigrants, for accurate and reliable information in regard to the different sections of the Territory." Apparently, they had worked to create a map of Kansas, which made them qualified for this task. They also offered their services as general land agents and wrote that they "are also prepared to lay out town sites and to survey farm claims," to "negotiate the sale and transfer of town property," and to "investigate the validity of titles."

Keywords: Advertisements; Emigrants' Intelligence Office; Emigration and immigration; Land; Land acquisition; Land sales; Land surveys; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Settlement; Town sites; Whitman and Searl; Whitman, E. B.


To the People of the United States
Authors: Cabot, Samuel ; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Higginson, Charles J.; Russell, Le Baron ; Spooner, William B.; Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899; Waters, R. P.; Williams, John M.S.
Date: June 17, 1856
This printed circular was produced by the executive committee of the New England Emigrant Aid Company to respond to what it perceived as errors in the "Report made to the Senate of the United States by the Chairman of the Committee on Territories, March 12, 1856." The circular addressed issues such as it was not a "mammoth moneyed corporation" or that it was not connected to the state of Massachusetts. The document contained a long section on how its purpose was "to aid in the permanent settlement of the Territory of Kanzas by a free and intelligent population" and that it had not attempted to violate the Kansas Nebraska Act. The committee also argued that it had not invested its funds in weapons and that it had not encouraged violence against residents of Missouri. It concluded that many residents of Kansas Territory were supportive of the company and that many of its supporters in Massachusetts were prominent, well respected individuals.

Keywords: Cabot, Samuel; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Higginson, Charles J.; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Russell, Le Baron; Spooner, William B.; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; United States. Senate; Waters, R. P.; Williams, John M. S.


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: July 2, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory, where hundreds of free state supporters were gathering for a Mass Convention on the 3rd and meeting of the free state legislature on the 4th, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Cyrus reported that U. S. dragoons from Fort Leavenworth and Fort Riley were camped around Topeka, since difficulty was expected. [In fact, U. S. and proslavery troops dispersed the free state legislature on the 4th.) Two companies of northern immigrants had been turned back at the Missouri River. Cyrus seemed skeptical that effective action would be taken against this outrage.

Keywords: Dragoons; Emigration and immigration; Federal troops; Free state legislature; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka, Kansas Territory


To the friends of free Kansas
Authors: Kansas Central Committee of Iowa
Date: July 4, 1856
The Kansas Central Committee of Iowa suggested a different overland route to Kansas, recommending that emigrants travel through Iowa instead of Missouri. Also the committee wanted men from the west to come to Kansas instead of eastern men, since travel from back East would be too expensive.

Keywords: Antislavery; Clark, W. Penn; Downey, H. D.; Emigration and immigration; Hobart, C. W.; Immigration and early settlement; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Kansas Central Committee of Iowa; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Topeka, Kansas


Circular, To the Friends of Free Kansas
Authors: Kansas Central Committee of Iowa
Date: July 4, 1856
This printed circular, written at Iowa City, Iowa, described an alternative migration route to Kansas that traveled through Iowa. This route would allow antislavery emigrants to avoid traveling through Missouri. The circular also appealed to emigrant aid committees in the East to provide funds to send Iowans to Kansas.

Keywords: Circulars; Clark, W. Penn; Downey, H. D.; Emigration and immigration; Hobart, C. W.; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Kansas Central Committee of Iowa; Transportation; Travel


Letter, Peter Page to Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: Page, Peter
Date: July 6, 1856
Peter Page wrote from Chicago, Illinois to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, concerning the shipment of relief to free-state settlers in Kansas Territory and the emigration of settlers into Kansas. The author wrote a lengthy account of the committee's frustrated attempts to arrange suitable transportation into the territory, since the water route on the Missouri River was unsafe due to persistent harassment from border ruffians.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Chicago, Illinois; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lexington, Missouri; Missouri; Page, Peter; Violence


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr.
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: July 7, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported to Hill that the Topeka Legislature had recently been dispersed by U.S. Troops under order of President Pierce, and that southern emigrants were coming into Kansas Territory by "hundreds" while the northern emigrants found themselves forced out by proslavery supporters. Short on time, Simpson kept his report regarding Hill's properties short; Whitney had almost finished his home, offers had been made on various lots, Mr. Fuller continued to be a problem.

Keywords: Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell


Letter, J. F. Tallant to Hon. E. Thayer
Authors: Tallant, J. F.
Date: July 15, 1856
J. F. Tallant wrote from Burlington, Iowa to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts, seeking Thayer's endorsement of a plan to build a railroad across southern Iowa from Burlington, on the Mississippi River, to a point on the Missouri River. He observed that the federal government recently passed an Iowa land bill donating alternate sections of land to four railroad routes from the Mississippi River to the Missouri River. Tallant maintained that the proposed southern Iowa route would provide an easier route to Kansas for antislavery supporters.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Iowa; Railroads; Tallant, J. F.; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Transportation


Letter, Thad [Thaddeus Hyatt] to Dear Al [A. L. Winans]
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: July 17, 1856
Thaddeus Hyatt, writing from Burlington, Iowa, to A. L. Winans, lamented the current situation in Kansas and the federal government's hostile attitude toward the free-state settlers in the territory. He also expressed his hatred for Southerners and his conviction that the issue of slavery in Kansas will be "one of blood." Hyatt was concerned that liberty would suffer at the hands of pro-slavery supporters, and he was eager to continue working diligently for the anti-slavery cause.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; Sectionalism (United States); Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; Winans, A. L.


Address of the Central County Kansas Committee to the People of the county of Onondaga
Authors: Hebbard, Russell
Date: August 7, 1856
The inflamatory rhetoric of this printed circular provided an antislavery perspective of events in Kansas. It urged the residents of central New York to provide aid to Kansas settlers. It also described plans to encourage a "a large emigration into the territory" to aid free state supporters living there but to also increase the number of "legal voters" for the fall elections. The chairman of the Central County Kansas Committee was Russell Hebbard. The document listed the names of other officers and committee members.

Keywords: Antislavery; Border ruffians; Election fraud; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hebbard, Russell; Missouri compromise; New York; New York State Kansas Committee; Syracuse, New York


Copy of letter, S. L. Adair to Mrs. H. L. Hibbard
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: August 14, 1856
Adair, writing from Osawatomie, reported on conditions in Kansas. Mrs. Hibbard was the president of the Woman's Kansas Aid and Liberty Association of Chicago, Illinois. He reported that many recent emigrants were ill and others were using up their reserves to help others, hoping they would be repaid by aid received in Kansas. He also reported that a group of Georgians camped near Osawatomie and ran off more than 18 horses. Some free state men were prepared to confront them but they left the area. Adair wrote of rumors that a large force was coming to burn Osawatomie.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Chicago, Illinois; Emigration and immigration; Free state perspective; Hibbard, Mrs. H. L.; Illness; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Migration, internal; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery settlers; Women


Letter, Martin [Stowell] to My Dear E and others
Authors: Stowell, Martin
Date: August 15, 1856
This letter was written by Martin Stowell from Lexington, Kansas Territory. He described his journey to Kansas and the movements of his emigrant train, of which he was elected military head. He also spoke of the local vegetation and his belief that he could make a fine home in this country. Stowell also gave his friend advice about the best route into Kansas and recommended that all mail be sent through Nebraska City, NE or Burlington, IA so correspondence would not pass through a slave state. Stowell also asked the recipient of the letter to forward this letter to T. W. Higginson.

Keywords: Brown County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Iowa; Land claims; Lexington Township, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Postal service; Stowell, Martin; Travel


Letter, [James H.] Lane to Dr. Gaston
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: August 16, 1856
Written while Lane was somewhere in Kansas, this letter demonstrates some of the issues on Lane's mind during the conflict in Kansas. One of his main concerns was to make sure that emigrants (and weapons) had a safe route that was free from harassment by border ruffians. This is a copy of Lane's original letter.

Keywords: Blanchard, A. J.; Emigration and immigration; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866


Letter, A. D. Searl to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Searl, Albert D.
Date: August 21, 1856
The author wrote from Tabor, Iowa to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. He began the letter by mentioning a skirmish between pro-slavery and free state forces somewhere between Lawrence and Topeka. This correspondence also deals with emigrant settlements within the territory, the shipment of weapons and provisions, and the morale among the emigrants as they struggled to make ends meet. Furthermore, Searl mentioned a great deal about James Lane and his activities within Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Big Blue, Kansas Territory; Blanchard, A. J.; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa City, Iowa; Lane Trail; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Law and Order Party; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Plattsmouth, Nebraska; Relief funds; Searl, Albert D.; Skirmishing; Topeka, Kansas


Letter, F. B. Sanborn to My Dear Friend [Thomas Higginson]
Authors: Sanborn, Franklin
Date: September 19, 1856
This letter, from Franklin Sanborn to Thomas Higginson, was written from Concord, Massachusetts. For the most part, Sanborn wrote about the prospects of raising money and men to support the Kansas cause. He also mentioned that Mr. Emerson had made a speech in Cambridge, Massachusetts--"it was a good speech but not well delivered." Many of the towns in the area were also making clothing to send to Kansas Territory. George Stearns was also making progress in his attempts to more fully organize a comprehensive state committee in Massachusetts.

Keywords: Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Nebraska Territory; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Letter, A. S. Harris to Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Harris, A S.
Date: September 22, 1856
A.S. Harris wrote from New York to Thaddeus Hyatt regarding an article in the Journal of Commerce that dealt with the upcoming Presidential election and the strife in Kansas. The article included a rather lengthy attack on emigrant aid societies.

Keywords: Election, Presidential, 1856; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Free state perspective; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas question; United States. Constitution


Newspaper article, Journal of Commerce
Authors: Journal of Commerce
Date: September 22, 1856
This clipping, enclosed in a letter from A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt dated September 22, 1856, argued that the emigration sponsored by New England emigrant aid societies was "indiscreet," although not illegal. The article placed the blame for the current troubles on the free-state settlers in Kansas, stating that Missouri settlers were only responding to the provocation of anti-slavery supporters.

Keywords: Bills, legislative; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state cause; Immigrants; Kansas Nebraska Act; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Missouri; Missouri compromise; Pierce administration; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery; Topeka Constitution; United States Government; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution


Report, Vermont Colony in Kansas
Authors: Newton, B. B.
Date: September 24, 1856
This report written by B. B. Newton to the Vermont State Kansas Committee. He described the efforts made by the party to settle in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Free state; Iowa; Kansas Frontier; Massachusetts; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Newton, B. B.; Relief; Vermont


Promotional letter
Authors: Barnes, William , 1824-1913
Date: September 29, 1856
This letter, written by William Barnes, stated reasons for free state settlement in Kansas Territory. It included inflammatory language about proslavery settlers.

Keywords: Antislavery; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Emigration and immigration; Free state; Immigration and early settlement; Kansas Frontier; New York State Kansas Committee; Settlement; Williams, C. P.


Letter, R. J. Hinton to Gentlemen [National Kansas Committee]
Authors: Hinton, R. J.
Date: October 10, 1856
R. J. Hinton wrote this letter from Lawrence to the members of the National Kansas Committee, offering his suggestions about how to sustain the struggling settlers of Kansas. He proposed the idea of bringing the manufacturing industry into the territory as a source of employment. He also mentioned that a flour mill would be greatly appreciated by Kansans.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Flour mills; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Guns; Hinton, Richard Josiah; House furnishings; Manufacturing; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Settlement; Sewing machines; Steam power; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, M. C. Dickey to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Dickey, Milton C.
Date: October 23, 1856
This letter to Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, written by Milton Dickey from Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, informed Hyatt of Dickey's journey west. The author described the hardships endured by Kansas settlers, as well as the enthralling tale of a free state man who escaped from the prison at Lecompton.

Keywords: Cannons; Dickey, Milton C.; Donalson, Israel B.; Emigration and immigration; Firearms; Free state perspective; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Mt. Pleasant, Iowa; Prisoners; Prisons; Relief; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sharps rifles; Slavery; United States. Army


Letter, M. Stowell to My Dear Friend [Thomas Wentworth Higginson]
Authors: Stowell, Martin
Date: October 27, 1856
This letter, written by Martin Stowell from Nebraska City, was addressed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Stowell and other members of his company from Massachusetts had been driven out of Kansas. Fortunately, none of them had been placed under arrest. Stowell had just returned from Lexington, Kansas Territory and he had "left Brown there in as comfortable circumstances as I could." The identity of this man is unclear. The "Plymouth men" in Lexington had stolen their flour and tools which they had hidden in a neighbor's haystack. Stowell inquired about the news revolving around the upcoming Presidential election and other news from the East.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Election, Presidential, 1856; Emigration and immigration; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lexington Township, Kansas Territory; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Nebraska Territory; Stowell, Martin


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: October 30, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported that he had purchased Wyandotte lands, along with other investors, in hopes of having a town ready in time to receive a wave of emigrants the following spring. He told Hill that he would send him a map of the site, and reiterated his support for presidential candidate John Fremont. However, Simpson proclaimed that the outcome of the elections didn't matter, that the free state men "are bound to have this matter our own way -- and it if don't come one way it must another".

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state support; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Hill, Hiram; Indian lands; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Wyandot Indians


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Doctor [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: November 24, 1856
Cyrus Holliday wrote from Meadville, Pennsylvania to Doctor Franklin Crane, an influential citizen in Topeka, Kansas Territory. Holliday gave his opinions about the prospects for Kansas entering the union as a free state and the stand of the Democratic party. He also discussed the sale of part of his corn crop in Kansas.

Keywords: Crane, Franklin Loomis; Crops; Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigration and immigration; Free state prospects; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Meadville, Pennsylvania


Letter, Isaac T. Goodnow to Brother Quereau
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: December 1, 1856
Isaac Goodnow wrote from Kansas Territory to a friend Quereau of New England. It appeared that Goodnow was growing tired of the hard -scrabble life in the Territory, which was "decidedly injurious" to his constitution. He also showed signs of discouragement regarding the founding of a college in K.T., resigned to the idea that "for the time to come little can be done educationally." Goodnow told Quereau that he was actively seeking a teaching job back in the States.

Keywords: Education; Emigration and immigration; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory; Teaching; Universities and colleges


Kansas Affairs
Authors: Daniels, Edward
Date: December 1, 1856
Edward Daniels wrote this printed letter "to the Friends of Free Kansas" from the office of the National Kansas Committee in Chicago, Illinois on December 1, 1856. He had just returned from Kansas Territory and presented 9 "facts and suggestions" about conditions in the territory and how people in the East could provide support to free state settlers. He included suggestions on how ministers and communities could raise funds and/or provisions for those in Kansas. He believed that a large emigration of free state supporters was needed in the spring of 1857 and provided suggestions on how to get there and what to take. He also indicated that seed was necessary to having a good harvest the next year.

Keywords: Agriculture; Daniels, Edward; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Illinois; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Seeds


Testimony of James H. Holmes
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 8, 1856
This testimony of James Holmes is a portion of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, a collection of personal stories recorded by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Mr. Holmes had studied agricultural chemistry before entering Kansas Territory, and his initial reason for emigrating was his desire to undertake agricultural experiments. He had also intended to join with Clubbs Vegetarian Settlement, which was located on the Neosho River near the north line of the Osage Reserve. He goes into detail about the Neosho valley and its vegetation, mineral deposits, etc. The rest of his account deals with his involvement in the free state militia and his role in defending Osawatomie.

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cline, Captain; Emigration and immigration; Free state militia; Harvey, James A.; Holmes, James H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Violence


Letter, A. Finch to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Finch, H.
Date: December 22, 1856
This letter, written from Osawatomie by A. Finch to Thaddeus Hyatt, chairman of the National Kansas Committee, provided general information about the inhabitants of Osawatomie and neighboring areas. It included a list of about half of the settlers residing in Osawatomie at this time, including the four pro-slavery voters. Mr. Finch went into detail about the most fertile areas that would be excellent sites for free state settlements, and about the economic conditions and financial needs of the settlers.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Chestnut, William; Churches; Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Finch, H.; Geer, Samuel; Hawley, John H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Mills and mill-work; Money; Natural resources; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Sears, W. A.; Settlement; Storrs, N. S.; Timber; Town settlement; Updegraff, Andrew


Kansas Experience of Charles E. Dewey
Authors: Dewey, Charles E.
Date: December 24, 1856
In this testimony, Charles E. Dewey described how his family and others in their party traveled to Kansas from Ohio. The group sought advice from S. C. Pomeroy about where to settle, and at his urging, they located on South Pottawatomie Creek, possibly in Anderson County. He included in this testimony the names and stories of people that he encountered on his journey and during his early years in the territory. One particularly interesting account was the conflict between a group of Germans and Dewey's party over possession of land claims. Dewey also included details of the difficulties for settlers in Kansas Territory during the years 1855 and 1856. Furthermore, within this testimony he states the experiences of the Winkly brothers who were boarding with him.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Claims (see Damage claims or Land claims); Crops; Dewey, Charles E.; Emigration and immigration; Germans; Health; Illness; Land claim disputes; Land claims; Livestock; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness); Transportation; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Dr.
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 28, 1856
Writing from Meadville, Pennsylvania, Cyrus Holliday wrote to Franklin Crane concerning the need to make a lithograph of Topeka that could help attract emigrants during the upcoming season. He also felt that Crane was an important asset for the Topeka Association. The rest of the letter dealt with other association business.

Keywords: Bridges; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Emigration and immigration; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Migration, internal; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Association; Topeka bridge; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town promotion


Letter from National Kansas Committee
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: 1856
This was a generic solicitation letter seeking money, supplies, and settlers. It mentioned Col. Buford's expedition to Kansas and speculated on Southern motives with regard to Kansas.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Emigration and immigration; Food; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Hurd, H. B.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas State Central Committee; Money; National Kansas Committee; New York; Relief; Slavery; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Broadside, Chicago and Burlington Railroad "Iowa and Kanzas Spring Arrangement", 1856
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This 1856 advertisement for the Chicago and Burlington Railroad presented its new seasonal schedule, or "Spring Arrangement", which included maps and information about the company's routes from Chicago to Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri, and connection with stagecoach lines in Kansas.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Illinois; Iowa; Maps; Missouri; Railroad companies; Railroads; Stagecoaches; Transportation; Travel


Settlers on the Marais des Cygnes River
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856 or 1857
This document, presumably compiled by John E. Stewart at the request of Thaddeus Hyatt, lists the pro-slavery and free state settlers who resided on the Marais des Cygnes River in Kansas Territory. The author also included a listing of where the free-state settlers lived before coming to Kansas.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Illinois; Indiana; Kentucky; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes River; Missouri; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Proslavery settlers; Settlement


Boston Kansas Club No. 1
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
Information about a club formed in New England that for a short period of time encouraged emigration to Kansas during the spring of 1857.

Keywords: Boston Kansas Club; Boston, Massachusetts; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Immigration and early settlement; Kansas Frontier; Travel


Letter, A. Havington Shurtleff
Authors: Shurtleff, A. Havington
Date: 1857
This printed letter was written by A. Havington Shurtleff about traveling to Kansas Territory. He provided information about the committee's plans to sponsor emigrant companies and wrote twenty points about the group's travel to Kansas.

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Immigration and early settlement; Land tenure; New York State Kansas Committee; Shurtleff, A. Havington


Advertisement, Wyandott City, The Gateway Into Kansas Territory
Authors: F. A. Hunt and Company
Date: 1857
F. A. Hunt & Co., steamboat and land agents, promoted Wyandott City as a destination for potential emigrants to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Advertisements; Emigration and immigration; F. A. Hunt & Co.; Migration, internal; Town promotion; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Circular, New York State Kansas Aid Society
Authors: Shurtleff, A. Havington
Date: 1857
The circular describes the procedures for emigrating to Kansas with a company sponsored by the New York State Kansas Aid Society.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Aid Society; New York State Kansas Committee; Shurtleff, A. Havington


Letter, C. A. Wright to Mr Hill
Authors: Wright, Charles A.
Date: January 4, 1857
Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, having recently recovered from an extended illness. Wright told him that "peace and quietness seam [sic] to reign throughout the Territory" and anticipated that Kansas would become a free state without too much more trouble from the border ruffians. He added that two new hotels were being built in town, one by Thaddeus Whitney, in order to accommodate the spring emigration rush. Wright directed Hill to write him in New York, as he would be traveling East for the next two months.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Whitney, Thaddeus L.; Wright, Charles A.


Letter, H. M. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, H.M
Date: January 16, 1857
H. M. Simpson wrote for his brother, Samuel N. Simpson, who was in Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. H.M. confirmed that his brother had purchased land for Hill in Quindaro, and that a map of West Lawrence was in production and would be sent to Hill as soon as possible. H. M. also reported that Hill's land investments were up nearly 50% in value, and he anticipated that, without a war, they would rise even higher. He described the development of the city and roads of Quindaro. The city was expected to experience a lot of traffic with the spring emigration.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, H.M; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, F. [Francis] M. Serenbetz to E. E. [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Serenbetz, Francis M.
Date: March 14, 1857
Francis M. Serenbetz, a German immigrant and minister, wrote from Hartford, Connecticut to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Serenbetz informed Hale that he planned to lead a group of about a dozen families of fellow Germans to Kansas to establish a "christian community." Attached to the letter is an agreement, dated February 8, 1857, outlining the communal labor and property arrangements for the proposed Kansas settlement.

Keywords: Collective settlement; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Ethnic groups; Germans; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Hartford, Connecticut; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Religion; Religious communities; Serenbetz, Francis M.


Letter, F. A. Hunt to Wm. Barnes
Authors: Hunt, F. A.
Date: April 18, 1857
F. A. Hunt, owner of a steamboat and land agent company, wrote from Wyandotte to William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee. Hunt promoted Wyandotte as a destination for potential emigrants to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Advertisements; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Emigration and immigration; F. A. Hunt & Co.; Hunt, F. A.; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Town promotion; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, E. [Ephraim] Nute to [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: April 28, 1857
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute observed that Francis Serenbetz, a German Congregational minister, and his party of thirty German immigrants were in Lawrence and getting ready to head south to establish a colony on the Neosho River that they planned to name Humboldt. Nute was not optimistic that the Serenbetz party would succeed due to their lack of financial resources. Nute commented that immigration into Kansas continued to increase and estimated that nearly 1,000 people per day entered the territory. He stated that most of the new immigrants were from Western states and "of the right kind to stay." Nute also commented on the lack of saw and grist mills in the territory and blamed the New England Emigrant Aid Company for the deficiency.

Keywords: Collective settlement; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Germans; Gristmills; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Humboldt, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Religious communities; Sawmills; Serenbetz, Francis M.


Letter, A.C. Morton to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Morton, Albert C.
Date: August 8, 1857
Albert Morton wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton related that the fall emigration had begun, Quindaro was crowded, and more buildings were being constructed than ever before. Morton also had found two men interested in renting the home owned by Hill upon its completion. He suggested that it would be best to "keep things quiet" about Samuel N. Simpson, and asked, on the behalf of Guthrie, if Hill planned to travel again to Quindaro.

Keywords: Construction; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Morton, Albert C.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town shares; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Dear Hyatt [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: August 17, 1857
In this letter, written from Atchison, Pomeroy covered a wide range of subjects pertaining to his correspondent and business partner, Thaddeus Hyatt. He explained issues having to do with the "grading" of lots on the levee owned by Theodore Hyatt and also matters pertaining to railroad subscriptions and German immigration to Atchison.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Businessmen; Emigration and immigration; Germans; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Hyatt, Theodore; Railroads design and construction; Town lots


Diary
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: June 1857 - July 1858
Joseph Trego first came to Kansas Territory in June 1857. He chose to settle near Mound City (originally Sugar Mound), Miami County, Kansas Territory. He returned to his home near Rock Island, Illinois to prepare to move to Kansas. He then came back to Kansas Territory in the fall of 1857, though he did not bring his wife and three girls at that time. In March of 1858, he again returned to Illinois to bring his family to their new home. These diary entries started with his second trip to the territory in September 1857 and described the various trips to and from Kansas Territory and his various activities here. The diary entries from March 17, 1858 to May 25, 1858 (15 pages) are not included. Trego, along with Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell in the diary entries) and his brother Edwin Smith, constructed and operated a sawmill on Little Sugar Creek. Trego was involved in town company activities, and the sawmill furnished lumber and shingles for many of the buildings in Mound City. The diary entries provided information on the efforts of settlement including the furnishing of a cabin and construction of the sawmill. They documented the operation of the sawmill and other activities in the area, including some of the border disputes. Trego was a free state supporter and this was reflected in some of the entries.

Keywords: Diaries; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Free state settlers; House furnishings; Household activities; Houses; Illinois; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sawmills; Settlement; Smith, Edwin; Smith, Thomas Ellwood; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Letter, Geo. Bayless to John Bayless, Esq.
Authors: Bayless, George
Date: September 15, 1857
George Bayless wrote to his uncle John Bayless in Kirkwood, New York, regarding the prospect of settling in Highland, Kansas Territory. George stated that he had caught the "Kansas fever", and greatly desired to travel there. However, his studies in medical school kept him behind. George asked his uncle if, in two or three years' time, he might be able to obtain premium office space at a price similar to those at the present time. He added that the "moral and religious regulations" proposed by his uncle made Highland sound especially appealing to him.

Keywords: Bayless, George; Bayless, John; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Highland, Kansas Territory; Medicine; New York


Letter, Chas. Chadwick to Hiram Hill
Authors: Chadwick, Charles
Date: September 19, 1857
Charles Chadwick wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Chadwick told him of Samuel Simpson's return, and the business dealings that resulted from it. It appeared that all investors would get their land as promised. He expressed excitement about the construction of a new bridge, which would "secure [Quindaro's] Supremacy over Wyandotte and Kansas City" for easing trade in the area. Chadwick also mentioned an upcoming election, and asked Hill if he expected many from Massachusetts to emigrate to K.T. this season.

Keywords: Bridges; Chadwick, Charles; Emigration and immigration; Gray, Alfred; Guthrie, Abelard; Hill, Hiram; Kansas City, Kansas Territory; Quindaro Town Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: October 16, 1857
Hiram Hill wrote from a steamboat en route to Kansas Territory to his brother. Hill reported no major trouble on the journey until he had reached St. Louis and discovered that there had been a "run on the Missouri Bank" : no Eastern money was available, and businesses were not accepting paper money. Hill seemed to attribute this money shortage to a recent rush of emigration, and thought the situation would improve in the winter, though at the moment in Lawrence and Quindaro things were at a standstill since no one could withdraw money.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Money; Steamboats; Travel


Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Josiah Miller
Authors: Pronty, Salmon S
Date: November 3, 1857
Josiah Miller's quit-claim deed for property in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, covered lots on Massachusetts, Kentucky, Connecticut, Ohio, and Rhode Island Streets. The property was signed over to a Robert H. Miller, his father. Miller's family had recently traveled from Chester, South Carolina, to Sparta, Illinois, where the deed was sent by post in order to obtain Robert's signature.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Legal documents; Miller, Josiah; Prouty, Salmon S.; Town lots


Residents on Marmiton Creek
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1857
This document lists the names and origins of the residents of Marmiton (Marmaton) Creek, including whether each settler was free state, pro slavery, or noncommittal. The first page lists the total number of settlers and also includes a brief description of the area.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Marmaton, Kansas Territory; Marmiton Creek; Proslavery settlers


Residents on Big Sugar Creek
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: c. 1857
This account contains the names and origins of both free state and pro slavery settlers that lived on Big Sugar Creek. The document begins with a brief description of the area and mentions particular cases of settlers who had noteworthy experiences. Of the 25 pro slavery residents, two owned slaves. It was presumably collected by Thaddeus Hyatt or some other member of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: African Americans; Big Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers; Slaves


Residents on Lost Creek, a tributary of the Little Osage
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1857
This document lists the names and origins of the proslavery and free state settlers that lived along Lost Creek, on the north edge of Bourbon County. The first page details information about specific families in the area and states that Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, made arrangements to aid those settlers who are listed as being "in distress."

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Lost Creek, Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers


Residents on the Marais des Cygnes, commencing at the state line
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1857
This report provides a listing of the total number of residents along the Marais des Cygnes River, including free state residents, proslavery residents, and free state residents "in distress." It also contains brief accounts of specific individuals and information about the surrounding area, such as the availability of land claims.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Marais des Cygnes River; Proslavery settlers


Summary Report of the number of residents
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1857
This document summarizes the results from a number of other documents that recorded the number of free state and proslavery settlers in various areas of Kansas Territory. It records 118 free state men and 94 proslavery men. It also cites the number of free state families in need of assistance and the number of good claims still available. The author acknowledges that these numbers are close, but not completely accurate.

Keywords: Big Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Land claims; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: January 14, 1858
S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, VT, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. The author mentioned various friends and relatives, several of whom had traveled to and settled in Kansas Territory. He reiterated his desire to move his family to Kansas Territory as well. S.T. also communicated his disgust with the Democrats, who "are chained to the car of slavery and are ready to do any dirty work the slave power wish them to do."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Daily life; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Emigration and immigration; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; National politics; Vermont; Weather


Letter, William Franklin Johns to Dear Uncle [J. W. Denver]
Authors: Denver, Mary C. ; Johns, William Franklin
Date: February 7, 1858
Williams Franklin Johns wrote from Wilmington, Ohio, to his uncle, James William Denver, who was "Acting Governor" in Kansas Territory. Johns told his uncle about his recent return to school and of his desire to travel to Lecompton. He also recounted the comments of a family friend, Mr. Creamer, who made Kanzas sound like an "awful place" full of villianous "Yanks" who should be swept out. The last page is a short letter from Mary C. Denver, which contained news of family and friends, but also included commentary about Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Denver, Mary C.; Education; Emigration and immigration; Johns, William Franklin; Ohio; Proslavery supporters


Letter, Nathan Starks to Hiram Hill Esq
Authors: Starks, Nathan
Date: March 8, 1858
Nathan Starks wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, asking for Hill's assistance in securing his old homestead in Massachusetts. Starks described his situation: he had moved to K.T. seeking better health and business, but had been disappointed in both of those, the social scene, and the lawlessness of the land. He hoped to return to his old homestead in Massachusetts after a year of life in Kansas Territory, provided that it had not been sold.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Mills and mill-work; Real estate investment; Starks, Nathan


Letter, F. G. Kimble to Mr. [George] Collamore
Authors: Kimble, F. G.
Date: April 11, 1858
F. G. Kimble of Damascoville, Columbiana County, Ohio, wrote to George Collamore enquiring about an advertisement he had seen for a room to let. Kimble, owner of a photography business, wanted to know if the conditions of the room were suitable for the operation of a studio and darkroom. He also asked about the condition of life in Lawrence, and if it the population there would be able to support him economically.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Collamore, George W.; Emigration and immigration; Kimble, F.G.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Ohio; Photographers


Diary, Anna Margaret (Watson) Randolph
Authors: Randolph, Anna Margaret (Watson)
Date: August 17, 1858 - August 22, 1858
This diary, kept by Anna Margaret (Watson) Randolph, begins with her move to Kansas in an entry dated August 17, 1858. These six entries at the beginning of her diary provide details about her family's journey from Ohio to Kansas Territory, included a number of interesting accounts of their journey on a riverboat. Their boat ran aground several times and, interspersed among her descriptions of these difficulties, Anna wrote about her sister Mary Jane, the weather, and her personal observances of other passengers. She also filled her diary with her frustrations and concerns during their arduous journey west.

Keywords: Cincinnati, Ohio; Diaries; Emigration and immigration; Ohio; Randolph, Anna Margaret (Watson); Transportation; Travel; Water transportation


Letter, Edward Atkinson to G. W. Collamore Esq.
Authors: Atkinson, Edward
Date: October 22,1858
Edward Atkinson wrote from Boston to George Collamore, future mayor of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, regarding the location and purchase price of good farm land. Atkinson made the inquiry for a friend, a stone mason who lived in Somerset County, New York, who was interested in emigrating "to some region where he would have better prospects."

Keywords: Atkinson, Edward; Collamore, George W.; Emigration and immigration; Land acquisition; New York; Stonemasons


Letter, A. C. Morton to Mr. Hill
Authors: Morton, Albert C.
Date: October 30, 1858
Albert Morton wrote from Leavenworth City, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton had "given up living in Quindaro" and planned to settle in Leavenworth City. Recently ill, he had left Quindaro along with many settlers and business owners. Morton reported that Abelard Guthrie continued to be optimistic about Quindaro's prospects for survival, but he remained skeptical. If Hill still planned to visit Quindaro in the spring, Morton would meet him there.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Guthrie, Abelard; Hill, Hiram; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Morton, Albert C.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment


Letter, Geo. S. Park to Isaac Goodnow
Authors: Park, George S.
Date: March 29, 1858
George Park wrote from Parkville, Missouri, to Isaac Goodnow, mentioning his efforts to obtain land for Goodnow's "Agricultural College". Park told Goodnow to have his "leading men" write letters to Congress in order to obtain a land grant. He also observed that emigrants were beginning to come in droves.

Keywords: Bluemont Central College; Emigration and immigration; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Land grants; Park, George S.; Parkville, Missouri; Railroads


Circular to Kansas Emigrants
Authors: Beidler, Harry M.
Date: cira 1858
This printed circular was written by Harry M. Beidler and promoted the advantages of Atchison, Kansas Territory as a shipping point as well as a city in which to locate. There is a map at the top of the page showing the distance from Atchison to various points in Kansas. The advertisement indicated that Atchison was the closest river town to various communities, particularly thos on the Kansas river. It discussed that Atchison was to have the first railroad connection in Kansas Territory. Beidler described the city and its various businesses. A table set into the document showed who had shipped goods through Atchison, the destination of those goods, the number of wagons used, and the poundage of merchandise shipped.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Beidler, Harry M.; Emigration and immigration; Freight and freightage; Maps; Missouri River; Natural resources; Transportation


Photograph, Pike's Peak Emigrants, St. Joseph, Missouri
Authors: Bierstadt Bros., Photographers, N. Bedford, Mass.
Date: 1859
A view of Pike's Peak emigrants in St. Joseph, Missouri., 1859. Photographed by Bierstadt Bros., Photographers, N. Bedford, Mass.

Keywords: Bierstadt, Albert; Covered wagons; Emigration and immigration; Mules; Penton, White & Co. Pike's Peak Passenger & Freight Express Company; Photographs and Illustrations; St. Joseph, Missouri


Letter, H. Learnard to Friend Oscar [Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, H.
Date: February 9, 1859
H. Learnard wrote from Granville, Vermont, to Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. The author updated Oscar regarding his family and mutual friends, and he inquired about work, land, and money value in Kansas Territory. He also indicated that he would like to travel there, though Oscar's father advised him against it.

Keywords: Daily life; Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Land acquisition; Learnard, H.; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Real estate investment; Vermont


Letter, S. Medary to My Dear Sir [presumably Orville C. Brown]
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: February 25, 1859
This letter, presumably addressed to Orville Brown, was written by Samuel Medary, the current governor of Kansas Territory. Governor Medary was pleased that the volatile situation during the border wars had calmed down, and he encouraged Brown to foster an environment focused on "peace and industry." The governor also hoped that, with things settling down, more emigrants would come into Kansas.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864


Letter, Wm H Goode to Rev. J. Denison
Authors: Goode, William H.
Date: July 18, 1859
William Goode wrote to Joseph Denison from a camp at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Goode described "forbidding" circumstances at the start of their journey West, having met a "great stampede" of settlers returning East. However, upon arrival at the mining operations, Goode found the settlement orderly, provisions plentiful, and the landscape beautiful. Though he hesitated to speculate, Goode predicted that the following year would be prosperous for mining enterprises.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Denison, Joseph; Emigration and immigration; Goode, William H.; Landscape; Mining; Pikes Peak gold rush; Rocky Mountains


Letter, J. H. Vansickle to Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: August 17, 1860
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County regarding the dry weather and economic conditions that were causing a mass emigration out of Kansas Territory. Settlers in Kansas during 1860 were suffering during a particularly severe drought.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Droughts; Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Vansickle, John H.; Weather; Xenia, Kansas Territory


Photograph, James H. Lane
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1861
This is a copy of an original photograph taken of Lane in New York City, 1861. James Lane was a leader of the free state cause, serving as an aid to emigrants. He was also the first United States senator for Kansas. Mrs. John Ingalls had an original of this photograph, and she loaned it to W. E. Connelley who had six copies made. Connelley presented one copy to the Kansas State Historical Society in 1912.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Lane Trail; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Photographs and Illustrations; United States. Senate


Narrative, Autobiography of Robert S. Gilbert
Authors: Gilbert, Robert L.
Date: undated
Robert Gilbert, an Englishman who had immigrated to the United States and settled in Douglas County in 1855, recounted some events of his early life. This autobiography includes notes on his birthplace, education, profession, and journey to America, "the land of the free." After arriving in Douglas County, Gilbert would defend Lawrence with other free state men in the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Emigration and immigration; England; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Kansas Territory; New York; Transportation; Travel


Experience of John E. Stewart
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856?
This undated document, presumably written by John E. Stewart, relates the author's experiences in Kansas Territory. The reminiscence begins with a description of how he entered the territory and the manner in which he constructed a house. Then, intermixed with accounts of his agricultural efforts and other day-to-day activities, there are brief mentions of the political situation in the territory. The main focus of the document then turns to when Stewart was a member of the Wakarusa Liberty Guard, including a description of the murder of Charles Dow, the murder of Hoyt, the Branson rescue, and other encounters with border ruffians.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Construction; Dow, Charles W.; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state militia; House furnishings; Houses; Hoyt, David Starr; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Skirmishing; Stewart, John E.; Titus, Henry Theodore


Minutes, Founding of the Susequanna Western Emigrant Company
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 7, 1854
This document outlines items which were discussed during a meeting called to form an "emigration company", which would come to be known as the Susquehanna Western Emigration Company. General John Bayless, future president of the organization, acted as chair of the meeting which took place in Kirkwood, New York. These minutes laid the foundation for the newly-formed group's Constitution.

Keywords: Bayless, John; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; New York; Susquehanna Western Emigration Company


Circular by various Protestant ministers on behalf of the activities of the New England Emigrant Aid Company
Authors: Gaffield, Thomas J.; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Stowe, Calvin E.
Date: 
This printed circular indicated that nineteen Protestant ministers in the Boston area were urging emigration to Kansas under the auspices of the New England Emigrant Aid Company because the ministers listed believed "that no christian work demanded effort more than the work for peopling Kanzas with men and women who were resolved to make it free." The ministers proposed to raise $60,000 to aid emigration efforts. The document listed four areas of interest to the emigrant aid company--freedom, religion, education, and temperance. All nineteen ministers were listed in the document that was signed by Calvin E. Stowe, Andover; Edward E. Hale, Worcester; and Thomas J. Gaffield, Boston.

Keywords: Beecher, Lyman, 1775-1863; Boston, Massachusetts; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Gaffield, Thomas J.; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lowell, Charles; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Stowe, Calvin E.; Worcester, Massachusetts


Constitution of the Susquehanna Western Emigration Company
Authors: Bayless, John ; Susquehanna Western Emigration Company
Date: December 7, 1854
This printed version of the Constitution of the Susquehanna Western Emigration Company introduced the Company to the public, specifically individuals in and near the counties of Broome, Chenango, Delaware, and Otsego in New York State, who were eligible for assistance from the Company. The Constitution also mentioned the desire of the Company to settle a "corporate town" that would "secure all the commercial, social, and religious privileges of the old States". Citizens of said township would also be required to support temperance and freedom.

Keywords: Bayless, John; Doolittle, William; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; New York; Susquehanna Western Emigration Company; Town companies


Circular from the State Kansas Aid Society of Wisconsin
Authors: Daniels, Edward
Date: No date
Edward Daniels was an agent for the State Kansas Aid Society of Wisconsin. This undated printed circular encouraged the donation of funds to aid emigration to Kansas or the commitment of men to go to Kansas Territory as peaceful settlers. The circular stated that a train of wagons, with six men per wagon, would leave Wisconsin on or before September 15 of an unspecified year. It suggested that emigrants bring double-barrelled shot guns and rifles as well as clothing a blanket, good books, and seeds, with additional money for other equipment. The primary reference to the controversy in Kansas Territory was "each individual is of course honorably bound to remain in Kansas until the settlement of the present difficulties." The document refers to local societies as well at the state society.

Keywords: Daniels, Edward; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Guns; Settlement; State Kansas Aid Society of Wisconsin; Weapons (see also Guns); Wisconsin


Draft, Constitution of the Susquehanna Western Emigration Company
Authors: Bayless, John ; Susquehanna Western Emigration Company
Date: December 7, 1854
This handwritten document drafted the Constitution of the Susquehanna Western Emigration Company. The Constitution specifically lists the New York counties of Broome, Chinango, Otsego, and Delaware, naming only citizens in and around them as eligible for aid from the Company. "Susquehanna" refers to the Susquehanna River, whose headwaters begin in upstate New York and empty into the Chesapeake Bay.

Keywords: Bayless, John; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; New York; Susquehanna Western Emigration Company


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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