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53 results for Election fraud:
Letter, C. Robinson to A. A. Lawrence Esq.
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: December 18, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Charles Robinson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Robinson thanked Lawrence for his unfailing support of the enterprise of the Territory and claimed his devotion to work done in his interest. He discussed Lawrence's development, having secured the offices of three free state newspapers, but expressed anxiety about the upcoming territorial election. However, Robinson vowed that his men would not resort to fraudulent voting to win the majority over proslavery supporters.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Business enterprises; Election fraud; Elections; Elliott, Robert G.; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspapers; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sawmills; Speer, John, 1817-1906; Town development


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: April 1, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He described the Territorial Legislature election of March 30, 1855, in which he was a Representative candidate for the Fourth District (in the third election district). Missourians had taken charge of the polls, and Holliday, along with other free state Kansas Territory citizens, did not vote. He assured his wife that Kansas would be a free state. Business in growing Topeka continued to delay his return to Meadville. Holliday also alluded to the recent birth of their child and mentioned his ragged clothing.

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Free state; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Missourians; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Town Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town building (see Town development)


Letter, C. Robinson to E. Thayer
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 2, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts, described voting irregularities in the March 30, 1855 election of members to the territorial legislature. Robinson maintained that the election was "controlled entirely by Missourians" who came to the territory, took over the polling places, and cast illegal ballots to ensure that proslavery supporters were elected to the legislature. Robinson also reported that free staters in Lawrence had formed themselves into four military companies, and urged Thayer to send Sharps rifles and cannons for these forces.

Keywords: Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Free state perspective; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Wm. E. Goodnow to My Dear Wife [Harriet Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, William E.
Date: June 10, 1855
William Goodnow, brother of Isaac Goodnow, wrote from Shannon, Wild Cat Creek, Kansas Territory, to his wife back East. Goodnow described his experiences participating in the development of the nearby town of Manhattan, having attended a city council meeting and anticipating the founding of a newspaper. Goodnow also mentioned religious services and "Sabbath Schools" currently running out of settler's homes, and commented on the numerous emigrants who had traveled to Kansas Territory only to quickly give up and return home.

Keywords: Diseases; Election fraud; Emigration and immigration; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Goodnow, William E.; Livestock; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Methodists; Newspapers; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Religion; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory; Town development


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: August 29, 1855
Josiah Miller, making arrangements for his parents' journey from South Carolina to Kansas Territory, wrote to his father and mother from his office at the Kansas Free State newspaper. He told them of his need to purchase personal arms for his own protection and described to them a recent situation of election fraud. Miller also wrote that his goal, as a newspaper editor, was to "move men to support the Free State ticket." He added that he was having a falling out with Robert Elliott, his business partner.

Keywords: Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state activities; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspapers; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.


Letter, S. L. Adair to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: October 15, 1855
Writing from Osawatomie, Samuel Adair mentioned that his family had been sick and that others in the area had been ill and/or died. The bulk of the letter dealt with elections held by both proslavery and antislavery supporters in October, 1855, and the number of Missourians that voted in the proslavery election on October 1. He also discussed the territorial legislature that met at Shawnee Mission. The letter also indicated that a relative and his son and son-in-law had arrived in Kansas Territory and that he had brought a number of weapons. This is probably referring to John Brown, who was a half brother of Adair's wife Florella. Adair mentioned that he was concerned about Brown's war-like attitude. Adair briefly discussed a slaveholder who had left the territory because of his concern about the "outcome." This appears to be a draft of a letter sent to Jocelyn.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Elections; Free state activities; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Slaveholders; Slavery


Circular letter from C. [Charles] Robinson to Dear Sir
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: 1855
Charles Robinson wrote this printed letter on behalf of the Free State Executive Committee of Kansas Territory. In it, he encouraged free state supporters to monitor the upcoming elections for delegate to Congress and for delegates to the constitutional convention to see that they were conducted fairly. He wanted them to note if non-residents were voting or serving as election officials and if residents were being prevented from voting. The circular encouraged free state voters to arrive at the polls early. J. K. Goodin was the secretary of the group. These elections were held under the auspices of the Topeka Movement.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Goodin, Joel Kishler; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Narrative," A Twelve Months Practical Life in Kansas Territory, written by an actual settler"
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: ca. 1855
Robert Atkins Tovey wrote these pages so that "those who are going forth with their wives & children, their property, yea their all on earth should have the information covering the country to which they are making a Pilgrimage" from someone who has recently made the same journey. Broken up into chapters by subject, Tovey gave advice about the journey and settlement, provisions, land claims, soil, and weather, in addition to providing commentary about the current political situation and his disgust at the "Mob law" being imposed by the Missourians.

Keywords: African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Election fraud; Free state perspective; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Missourians; Native Americans; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Slavery; Slaves; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Transportation; Travel; Weather


Excerpt from letter, I. T. G [Isaac Goodnow] to [unknown]
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: January/February 1856
In the wake of the Wakarusa War, Isaac Goodnow wrote to an unknown recipient regarding recent skirmishes and negotiations between proslavery and free state supporters. According to Goodnow, Governor Shannon had demanded that the free state men surrender their Sharp's rifles and obey the laws of the "bogus" legislature. Governor Robinson had responded, telling his men to "keep the rifles, but surrender their contents." Goodnow also commented on the "determined heroism" of the free state women, and recounted the incident of voter fraud which occurred in the Delegate to Congress election between former Governor Reeder and J. W. Whitfield.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Election fraud; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879; Women


House Executive Documents, 34th Congress, 1st Session, v.9, Executive Document No.66, Executive Minutes of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 24, 1856
President Franklin Pierce, along with his Secretary of State, complied with a resolution brought forth by the House of Representatives, which requested the "transmission of documents touching the affairs of the Territory of Kansas." The contents of these span from January 1, 1855- June 1855, and include the description of judicial districts and voting precincts as constructed by Territorial Governor Andrew Reeder. Also transmitted are Records of Oath for various Territorial justices and constables, voter census tables, and Territorial Legislature election returns of March 1855. Claims of election fraud in each district are also addressed by Governor Reeder.

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Executive departments - Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Judicial system; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864


Senate Miscellaneous Documents, 34th Congress, 1st and 2nd sessions Document No. 32, Three Memorials of the Citizens of . . .Leavenworth County. . .Praying the immediate admission of Kansas Territory into the Union as a State
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 24, 1856
These "memorials" presented by various citizens or Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory, to the United States Congress and referred by them to the Committee on Territories, were written in a petition style, with the names of supporters signed at their conclusion, and requested the immediate admission of Kansas Territory to the Union under the Constitution framed by the Topeka Legislature. Following the three memorials is a copy of the proposed Constitution, as approved by James Lane and Joel Goodin, respectively President and Secretary of the Topeka Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Election fraud; Foster, Charles A.; Free state activities; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; United States. Congress. Senate


Address of the Central County Kansas Committee to the People of the county of Onondaga
Authors: Hebbard, Russell
Date: August 7, 1856
The inflamatory rhetoric of this printed circular provided an antislavery perspective of events in Kansas. It urged the residents of central New York to provide aid to Kansas settlers. It also described plans to encourage a "a large emigration into the territory" to aid free state supporters living there but to also increase the number of "legal voters" for the fall elections. The chairman of the Central County Kansas Committee was Russell Hebbard. The document listed the names of other officers and committee members.

Keywords: Antislavery; Border ruffians; Election fraud; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hebbard, Russell; Missouri compromise; New York; New York State Kansas Committee; Syracuse, New York


Letter, J. A. Davies to Dear Friend [Thomas Wentworth] Higginson
Authors: Davies, J. A.
Date: September 27, 1856
This letter was written by a Kansas settler named J. A. Davies who was originally from Massachusetts. It was addressed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, an agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee and an ardent Northern abolitionist. The main topic of the letter was the Leavenworth municipal election on September 1, 1856 and the other "outrages" witnessed by Davies. On the date of that election, border ruffians had crossed the border and hampered the legal voters of the territory from casting their votes. The mob violence was so terrible that virtually every free state settler was driven from the town, and Mr. Hops was murdered by Mr. Fugent. Davies and his family fled to St. Louis and then left for Alton, Illinois, but he hopes to return to the territory.

Keywords: Alton, Illinois; Border ruffians; Davies, J. A.; Election fraud; Elections; Free state perspective; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; St. Louis, Missouri; Violence


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 7, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his father, Thomas Parrott. Marcus told him of his preparation to defend the free state men accused of murder for their role in the recent skirmishes surrounding the Battle of Hickory Point; he was not optimistic of the outcome, calling his position "embarrassing". Marcus added news of the recent election of a new Territorial Legislature, and shared poll statistics that showed a vast majority of free state supporters in several voting areas. Though this was a positive turn, he stated again that the free state cause would be in the hands of the new President.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Proslavery activities


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: October 17, 1856
Three days after the Pennsylvania state election, Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Monongahela House, a hotel in Pittsburgh, PA to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville. Results were unofficial, and Cyrus hoped that John C. Fremont, republican presidential candidate, had won at least by a slim majority, if not by the expected large margin. Concerned about the November 4th national election, Cyrus anticipated fraud in Kansas Territory and prayed that the people would do right. He mentioned counties he had spoken in; his next stop, Philadelphia; and his planned return to counties near Meadville.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Philadelpia, Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, draft of, written by Amos Lawrence for Sara Robinson
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: 1856
According to Frank W. Blackmar, who reprinted this document in the appendix of his book, The Life of Charles Robinson (1901), it was "a draft of a letter sent by Amos A. Lawrence to be re-written and signed by Mrs. Robinson and addressed to Mrs. Lawrence, [a "relative" of President Pierce and] the mother of Amos A. Lawrence. The letter," which concerns Charles Robinson's imprisonment (May 10-Sept. 10, 1856 ) in K.T., was sent by Mrs. Lawrence to Mrs. Pierce, wife of the President who gave it to the President to read."]

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Election fraud; Free state cause; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Popular sovereignty; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Treason


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Wyandotte County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This muster roll for Captain A. H. Macauley's company listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, Kansas residence, and a place for "remarks." The latter was used to record the type of weapon the individual was issued or brought with him: e.g., Sharps, Western rifle, Carbine. All the men appeared to be residents of Quindaro, Wyandotte County in their twenties or early thirties.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Macauley, A. H.; Militia; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns); Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Certificate, James Abbott as Brigadier General
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 15, 1857
James Lane, from the Headquarters of the Kansas Volunteers free state militia, issued this certificate that appointed James Abbott, as Brigadier General of the 1st Brigade, to protect the ballot boxes during the upcoming elections. Election fraud, in the form of multiple votes cast by proslavery men, was a constant concern of free state supporters.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Free state cause; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866


Letter, Thos. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 24, 1857
Agent Thomas Marsh, Mass. State Kansas Committee, wrote another of his frequent and detailed letters to George Stearns on July 24, 1857, describing the census and other preparations that were being made for the upcoming election (most importantly, the legislative election in October of that year). Of special interest were the activities of Jim Lane by the Free State Convention to organize militarily for "the protection of the Ballot Boxes."

Keywords: African Americans; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speculation; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Order No. 1, from the Headquarters of the Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: August 3, 1857
E.B. Whitman, Quarter-Master General of the Kansas Volunteers, composed this formal order in response to the Topeka Legislature's adoption of James Lane's resolution to organize the people in protection of the ballot boxes during the next elections. Whitman, who had just been appointed as Quarter-Master General by Lane under the Ballot Box resolution, requested that each Company of the Volunteers elect their own Quarter-Master to take an inventory of firearms held by their own Company.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: September 12, 1857
To George Stearns on September 12, 1857, Thomas Marsh wrote that he was leaving Lawrence on a trip to "the Southern part of Kansas" for several days. He believed the "Free State men were getting into good shape for the election," which would go well if there was no "invasion" or "fraud." He also talked about some Democratic activity and mentioned the adjournment of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Marsh, Thomas J.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Commission, James Montgomery, captain
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 16, 1857
This printed commission, issued from the "Head-Quarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot-Box," was given to James Montgomery and signed by J.H. Lane and M. F. Conway, adjutant general, on September 16, 1857. Montgomery was commissioned captain of the "Little Sugar Creek Company." This would have been specifically for the territorial election, October 5, 1857.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Letter, William Hutchinson, Secretary to Dear Sir [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: October 26, 1857
William B. Hutchinson, an abolitionist from Lawrence, Kansas Territory and secretary of the Freemen of Kansas, wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday, free state activist and president of the Topeka Town Association, informing him of his appointment to a secret committee. The fifty-two members were to gather and turn in evidence against those responsible for election fraud. Holliday had also been appointed to the fund-raising subcommittee. In a later written response, Holliday refused these appointments, referring to time-consuming family and business responsibilities.

Keywords: Election fraud; Free state activities; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 26, 1857
Charles Robinson wrote this letter to his wife upon his return to Lawrence from "a tour of ten days into the southern part of the Territory." This was a political trip, and the previous night he had been involved in another political meeting, but nevertheless, Robinson wished he "was fairly clear of political affairs, but do not see how I can get out of them at present." He also mentioned the forthcoming legislative election (October 1857) which he believed would be okay "unless there are great frauds."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911


Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Dear Genl. [John Brown]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: September 29, 1857
James H. Lane wrote from Falls City, Nebraska Territory, to John Brown in Tabor, Iowa, urging Brown to get guns and ammunition to Kansas as soon as possible. Lane wanted Brown's help in preventing proslavery supporters from disrupting the October 7, 1857, election for representatives to the territorial legislature.

Keywords: Ammunition; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Guns; Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Nebraska Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, S. [Samuel] L. Adair to Mr. J. B. [John Brown]
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: October 2, 1857
Samuel Adair wrote his brother-in-law John Brown from Osawatomie on October 2, 1857, to explain why he could not come see Brown in Iowa. Much of letter describes the general poor state of health in his locale, but he also comments on the political and especially the prospects for free state success in the upcoming election--Adair was not optimistic.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state prospects; Free state support; Health; Land claims; Lecompton Land Office; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Preemption law United States; Proslavery supporters; Sickness (see Illness); Slave power; Tabor, Iowa; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, S. G. Hubbard to John Brown Esq.
Authors: Hubbard, S. G.
Date: October 6, 1857
S. G. Hubbard, a New Haven, Connecticut, supporter, wrote regarding one of Brown's political tracts, the impossibility of fund raising for the cause during this time of financial crisis, the prospects for a Free State victory in the previous day's election, and the president's recent action that "committed the [Democratic] party to the extremist doctrines of Slavery extension & Slavery Nationalization."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan administration; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Hubbard, S. G.; Kansas question; New Haven, Connecticut; Panic of 1857; Slave power


Letter, Henry H. Williams to Capt'n. [John] Brown
Authors: Williams, Henry H.
Date: October 12, 1857
With regard to the recent legislative election, Henry Williams of Osawatomie informed Brown that "it went off right" largely because the Free State men were throughly organized for their protection and the protection of the ballot box. Williams himself led a company of 80 men and believe word of the preparedness contributed to a quiet and successful election day.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state militia; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Stubbs militia company; Tabor, Iowa; Weapons (see also Guns); Williams, Henry H.


Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: October 21, 1857
William Hutchinson, Secretary of the Kansas Central Committee, informed James Abbott of his appointment to an investigative committee created to "expose the recent frauds upon the elective franchise, and to provide for the summary punishment of all those who are implicated therein." The committee, which was appointed "privately", was conceived by a resolution passed in a meeting of the Freemen of Kansas in Mass Convention of October 19.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Bogus legislature; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state activities; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857


Speech of Senator Douglas, of Illinois, on the President's Message
Authors: Douglas, Stephen
Date: December 9, 1857
Senator Stephen Douglas delivered this speech in the United States Senate, responding to President Buchanan's decision to let Congress determine whether or not to admit Kansas into the Union. Douglas approved of the decision, as he believed it was not an Executive matter. Douglas reiterated the point that the members of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention were appointed to frame a sample government, subject to the approval of the Territory's citizens, not to make a government themselves. Although he disapproved of the means used to submit the Lecompton Constitution to Congress, Douglas judged that the free state government in Topeka was an unlawful legislative body.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election fraud; Free state legislature; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Missouri compromise; Popular sovereignty; Slavery; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Pamphlet, Address to the American People on the Affairs of Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
This address recounted the history and purpose of the formation of the Kansas State Government of Topeka, in peaceful opposition to that of the Territory. The free state message accused the systems of the Territorial Government of encouraging influence from abroad in their election process, and indicated that they had nothing inherently against Missouri's citizens as a whole, but implored that they not attempt to violate the rights of Kansas settlers. The address stated that the Territory was "organized for defence" by a pledge from Governor Walker, and appealed that outsiders remain in their homes for the benefit of all.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Big Springs Convention; Border disputes and warfare; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Election fraud; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Missourians; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Schuyler, Philip Church; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited from the city of Leavenworth. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. All of the members are from Leavenworth and their ages range from 22 to 38. The captain was William Kempf. With the exception of the 1st Lieutenant Joseph Mrosowsky who was born in Poland, all of the members of the company were born in Germany though they had lived various places before coming to Kansas.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Germans; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Kempf, William; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth City; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Jefferson County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Jefferson County. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas and residence in Kansas. The remarks column noted if the company member had a weapon. The ages of company members range from 15 to 56. The captain was Simeon Hull.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballott Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from Delaware City. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. The ages of company members range from 18 to 54. The captain was A. Cutter.

Keywords: Cutter, A.; Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from the areas of Walnut Creek and Fall Creek. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. This muster roll also included information under remarks about whether or not the members had weapons. All of the members are from Leavenworth County and their ages range from 18 to 66. The captain was Horace L Dunlap. This muster roll lits two free state men who, according to Captain Dunlap, refused to enroll.

Keywords: Dunlap, Horace L.; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns)


Report of the President of the Council and Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Kansas, on the result of the vote of December 21st for the Lecompton Constitution, and on the result of the election of Januray 4th under said Constitution.
Authors: Babcock, Carmi William; Deitzler, George W.; Denver, James William, 1817-1892
Date: January 14, 1858
This printed document reported the votes on the Lecompton Constitution from elections held on December 21, 1857, and January 4, 1858. It was prepared by G. W. Deitzler, Speaker of the House and C. W. Babcock, president of the Council of the territorial legislature. The vote showed a majority of 5,574 for the constitution with slavery but 3,012 of those votes came from areas the authors felt were sparsely settled and thus indicated fraudulent votes. The same charges of fraud applied to the election for state officials, though the free state candidates claimed a small majority in all races. The results of the vote on the Lecompton Constitution on January 4, 1858, showed a majority of 10,000 against the Lecompton Constitution as presented in a proclamation from J. W. Denver, Secretary and Acting Governor.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Deitzler, George W.; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Elections; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Lecompton Constitution; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My dear friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: January 16, 1858
E. B. Whitman wrote Sanborn this lengthy letter from Lawrence, describing the political events that had unfolded in the territory since the October 5, 1857, election. Among many other things, he mentioned the split that took the "National democrats" out of the movement over the issue of participation in the state elections under the Lecompton Constitution, January 1857. This "Free State ticket" was, according to Whitman, "a disgrace to the cause," but it attracted a good number of votes and won "a good working majority in both houses and so our people proclaim a victory." Whitman, who had long been a faithful supporter, was seemingly losing confidence in John Brown, as were "the people."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Education; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Elections; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Herald of Freedom; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Territorial government; United States. Congress; United States. Senate; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: February 3, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported that money had been scarce that season, that the float of West Lawrence was still being investigated by Washington, and discussed town lot values related to the "float" status of the land. Parker also updated Hill on recent political events; the Legislature had convened and was discussing moving the Territorial capital. More significantly, a box of votes from the recent Lecompton Constitution election had been discovered under a woodpile, and the Legislature was busy making "stringent" laws to curb future acts of election fraud.

Keywords: Capitals (cities); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Hill, Hiram; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate investment; Temperance movement; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to Capt. Bayne
Authors: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: February 3, 1858
James Abbott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Captain O. P. Bayne, explaining his delay in responding to Bayne's request for military aid. Abbott told him that his engagement with the committee investigating election fraud in the December 21 and January 4 elections had caused him to pass the request to General Phillips (possiblity William A. Phillips). Phillips, instead of responding directly, waited for Major General James Lane to return to town and approve the action. Abbott was apologetic, stating "if I had been at liberty I would have started at once. . .entirely independent of the Territorial Militia."

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Bayne, O. P.; Election fraud; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [Gov. [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: February 3, 1858
Amos Lawrence wrote to Charles Robinson from Boston, communicating his dismay at the allegedly fraudulent election procedures taken in order to get the Lecompton Constitution adopted. Lawrence advised that an end to the "agitators' " operations be achieved at once, before the pro-slavery Senators could be put under the protection of the Federal Government.

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


General Lane's answer to the President's message
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: February 13, 1858
Address by General Lane in response to the President's message about Lane and Kansas. Lane rebukes the President's message about him and Kansas. Described the many elections that Kansas had gone through and the intrusion of Missourians into Kansas to rig the elections.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Antislavery; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature)


Letter, Lucian J. Eastin to My Dear Sir [Gov. James Denver]
Authors: Eastin, Lucian J.
Date: February 20, 1858
Lucian J. Eastin, a proslavery supporter and editor of the Herald in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, wrote to Governor James Denver praising him for his efforts and congratulating him for his successes. Eastin told Denver that he feared the Lecompton Constitution would not pass, and he referred to recent incidents of election fraud. He also requested money from Denver so that he could print Denver's recent address and proclamation to the Kansas people.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Eastin, Lucian J.; Economic conditions; Election fraud; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Newspapers; Proslavery supporters; United States. Congress


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [Gov. Charles Robinson]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: March 3, 1858
Amos Lawrence wrote from Boston to Charles Robinson in Kansas Territory, regarding questionable ratification of the Lecompton Constitution. Lawrence advised that the best course of action to take was to "rid the territory of all traitors to the popular right", though such action should take place only if it could "avoid open hostilities altogether."

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lecompton Constitution; National politics; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, H. J. Marshall to Governor [James] Denver
Authors: Marshall, H.J.
Date: March 15, 1858
H. J. Marshall wrote from Washington, D. C. to Governor Denver regarding recent Congressional proceedings. Marshall supposed that the Lecompton Constitution would be defeated, and that the election returns of the past January 4 would be thrown out due to fraudulent activities. He also expressed the majority support for Denver's proclamation of February 26, which denied James Lane's authority to organize the territorial militia, and "show[ed] the base conduct of the same and his party of out-laws."

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Election fraud; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Marshall, H.J.; United States. Congress


Speech of Hon. John Crittenden of Kentucky on the Admission of the State of Kansas
Authors: Crittenden, John
Date: March 17, 1858
John J. Crittenden, a Senator of Kentucky, delivered this speech, which addressed the debate over Kansas Territory's admission to the Union under the Lecompton Constitution, on the floor of the Senate. Crittenden, himself a Southerner, contended that there was enough evidence to indicate that the Constitution that had been submitted was not well supported by the citizens of Kansas Territory, and proposed an idea which would become known as the "Crittenden Amendment" which called for the ratification of the whole Lecompton Constitution by a popular vote in the Territory before Kansas could be admitted as a state under it.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Crittenden Amendment; Crittenden, John J. (John Jordan), 1787-1863; Election fraud; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lecompton Constitution; Popular sovereignty; Slavery


Letter, Galusha A. Grow to Gov. C. Robinson
Authors: Grow, Galusha Aaron
Date: May 5, 1858
Congressman Galusha Aaron Grow, a Pennsylvania Republican, wrote Robinson regarding the Lecompton debate and the need to get a large free state vote against that proposed constitution. If it were "the dough faces will be exterminated next fall."

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, August 1858; English Bill; Grow, Galusha Aaron; Lecompton Constitution; Proslavery supporters; United States. Congress


Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to General [James W. Denver]
Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight
Date: November 22, 1858
Acting Governor Hugh S. Walsh, writing from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to former territorial governor James W. Denver, described his strategy for the upcoming session of the territorial legislature. Walsh expressed the opinion that the legislature, due to voting irregularities, was not truly representative of the people of the territory. He hoped to convince the legislators to resign and call for new elections.

Keywords: Census; Courts; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Election fraud; Elections; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Walsh, Hugh Sleight


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: October 13, 1859
Marcus Parrott wrote from Manhattan, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott. Marcus had been traveling around Fort Riley and prepared for a trip from Manhattan to Topeka. He asked his brother how his election went, and contrasted what must be Edwin's election experience with his own, over which the "fear of a fraudulent defeat" always hovered. Despite this fear of fraud, Marcus stated that his Black Republican friends would support him, "ready to correct any errors".

Keywords: Black Republicans; Election fraud; Elections; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Hunting; Junction City, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Mormon Church; Ohio; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: November 11, 1859
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott. Marcus, up for reelection as delegate to Congress and anxious to receive the voter returns, shared his feelings with his brother. He mentioned a problem in Pikes Peak that was delaying the results, and advised Edwin that he should look for him in Ohio in two weeks. Marcus also suggested that Edwin accompany him to Washington, stating "it would be good training ground for the Ohio Legislature".

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ohio; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879


Letter, C. [Charles] E. Griffith to Capt. J. [James] Montgomery
Authors: Griffith, Charles E.
Date: November 15, 1859
Charles Griffith, an Osawatomie newspaper publisher writing from that town, informed Captain James Montgomery that he believed voting fraud had occurred in the November 8, 1859, territorial legislature election. Griffith claimed that, in the absence of the fraud, Montgomery would have won a seat in the territorial house of representatives.

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, November 1859; Elections; Griffith, Charles E.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Letter, Leander Martin to Capt. Jas. Montgomery
Authors: Martin, Leander
Date: December 13, 1859
Leander Martin, writing from Osawatomie, K. T., encouraged James Montgomery to contest the results of the November 8, 1859, election for representatives to the territorial legislature. Montgomery was defeated by William R. Wagstaff in a race for a seat in the territorial house of representatives. Montgomery's response was written at the bottom of the letter.

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, November 1859; Elections; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Martin, Leander; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Letter, James Montgomery to L. [Leander] Martin
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: December 18, 1859
James Montgomery, writing from Mound City, K.T., responded to Leander Martin's suggestion that he (Montgomery) contest the results of the November 8, 1859 election for representatives to the territorial legislature. Montgomery lost a race for a seat in the territorial house of representatives to William R. Wagstaff. Montgomery indicated that he had no plans to contest the election himself but would not object if others contested it on his behalf. Martin's letter is included at the top of the document.

Keywords: Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, November 1859; Elections; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Martin, Leander; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from the area of Easton. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, and where from to Kansas. Instead of listing where the company members lived in Kansas, this muster roll indicated how long they had been in Kansas under the column "residence is Kansas." The remarks column noted if the company member had a weapon. The ages of company members range from 18 to 52. The captain was Joseph Hicks.

Keywords: Easton, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Hicks, Joseph; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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