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61 results for Economic conditions:
Journey from Massachusetts to Kansas
Authors: Allen, Chestina Bowker
Date: October 17, 1854 - April 22, 1858
Chestina Bowker Allen traveled to Kansas Territory from Roxbury, Massachusetts, with her husband Asahel Gilbert Allen and five children--William, Charles, Henrietta, John, and Abbie. Apparently, they were members of the third company sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Company and began the journey to Kansas Territory in October, 1854. While the title indicated it recorded the journey to the territory, it actually documented their first three years in Kansas Territory. Mrs. Allen described their journey west with stops in Kansas City and Lawrence. They eventually settled near Rock Creek in Pottawatomie County. She wrote about many of her daily activities including assisting neighbors when ill. She mentioned a cholera epidemic in the area in 1855. She wrote about various rumors and encounters with free state supporters (which the Allen family was) and proslavery groups. She provided a great deal of information about living conditions and the price and availability of various goods. She wrote about her husband and older sons going to various communities to work and also about people that visited their home and those who boarded with them. She provided fairly stereotypical descriptions of Native Americans.The document appeared to be recopied from an original diary and included some penciled in corrections and a few annotations from a later time.

Keywords: Allen, Asahel Gilbert; Allen, Charles Bowker; Allen, Chestina Bowker; Allen, William Francis; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Diaries; Diseases; Economic conditions; Ferries; Free state supporters; Louisville, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Pottawatomie County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Rock Creek, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Steamboats


Letter, S. L. Adair to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: September 8, 1855
This long letter was written in Osawatomie to Jocelyn, who was Samuel Adair's contact with the American Missionary Association. The first three pages dealt with some disagreement over Adair's salary and support that was to be provided by the association, his efforts on behalf of religion, and prospects for a "union" church building that would be shared by several denominations. The last page discussed economic conditions in Kansas Territory and the difficulty of getting items to Kansas either via the Missouri River or by overland freighting from St. Louis. This appears to be a draft of a letter sent to Jocelyn.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; American Missionary Association; Churches; Economic conditions; Freight and freightage; Jocelyn, S. S.; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Missouri River; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Transportation


History of Kansas: and Emigrant's Guide.
Authors: Chapman, J. Butler
Date: 1855
The title page of the printed volume indicated that it contained "a description geographical and topographical--also climate, soil, productions and comparative value with other states and territories, including its political history, officers-candidates-emigrant colonies-election, abolition, squatter and pro-slavery contentions and inquisitions; with the prospects of the territory for freedom or slavery. Mr. Chapman was a resident of the territory and the information in the booklet was compiled by traveling through Kansas Territory in 1854. The description covers most of the territory and includes information about Native American tribes and lands.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Delaware Indians; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigrant aid companies - Pro-slavery; Emigration and immigration; Free state prospects; Land; Landscape; Native Americans; Proslavery; Settlement; Wyandot Indians


Letter, C. A. Wright to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Wright, Charles A.
Date: April 14, 1856
Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Wright described his recent experiences buying and selling cattle obtained from Missouri counties. He also mentioned his purchase of town shares in Manhattan, Kansas Territory, and commented on the recent emigration rush, which was increasing demand for land, filling hotels, and causing rent to increase. Wright felt optimistic about the future of peace in Kansas, having heard a story about Governor Reeder's feeling for the same.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Livestock; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town development; Town shares; Wright, Charles A.


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: April 30, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott of Dayton, Ohio, regarding his current economic situation. Marcus was quitting his private law practice for lack of demand, and remarked that there was "little chance of fair play in the courts" anyway. He intended to invest in real estate, and asked his brother and father for any money they might spare. Marcus also referred to a mass migration of men from Alabama, lead by Major Buford, who had come to settle in K.T. in support of slavery.

Keywords: Buford, Jefferson; Business enterprises; Economic conditions; Neosho, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Real estate investment; Town development


Letter, Noah Cameron to Bradford R. Wood
Authors: Cameron, Noah
Date: April 30, 1856
Noah Cameron, writing from Lawrence, expressed his views on the economic prospects for persons interested in migrating to Kansas. He advised Bradford Wood, a New York State Kansas Committee representative, to emphasize the economic opportunities in Kansas while also being realistic about the hardships that settlers would face in Kansas.

Keywords: Cameron, Noah; Economic conditions; Economic development; Emigration and immigration; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Wood, Bradford R.


Letter, Nelson Rusk to Wm. Barnes
Authors: Rusk, Nelson
Date: July 13, 1856
Nelson Rusk, writing from Topeka, described for William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, economic conditions and political events in Kansas. Rusk commented on the high cost of living and described in negative terms Col. Edwin V. Sumner's dispersal of the free state legislature on July 4, 1856.

Keywords: Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Cost and standard of living; Economic conditions; Free state legislature; Prices; Rusk, Nelson; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 19, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote to his brother, Edwin Parrott, from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Marcus described to his brother the situation in the area stemming from the Battle of Hickory Point, which occurred six days earlier. He said that the free state men involved in the battle were arrested and held in prison in Lecompton without examination, while the proslavery men met no consequence. Marcus mentioned other incidents that led him to believe crimes and schemes were taking place against free state supporters. He also brought up money and land investments again, requesting money.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Real estate investment; Town development


Letter, R. J. Hinton to Gentlemen [National Kansas Committee]
Authors: Hinton, R. J.
Date: October 10, 1856
R. J. Hinton wrote this letter from Lawrence to the members of the National Kansas Committee, offering his suggestions about how to sustain the struggling settlers of Kansas. He proposed the idea of bringing the manufacturing industry into the territory as a source of employment. He also mentioned that a flour mill would be greatly appreciated by Kansans.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Flour mills; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Guns; Hinton, Richard Josiah; House furnishings; Manufacturing; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Settlement; Sewing machines; Steam power; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Friend [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: October 11, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, reporting that free staters were "still live" in Lawrence, and that most border ruffians had retreated for the time being. Simpson updated Hill on the status of his properties and new construction in the town. Thaddeus Whitney, he said, was "absent from town", however, and Missourians had stolen some valuable building materials. Simpson added that he had helped many destitute families with the monetary aid Hill had sent.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development


Letter, W. F. M. Arny to Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 23, 1856
W. F. M. Arny, an agent of the National Kansas Committee, wrote this letter to Thaddeus Hyatt while traveling on the Missouri River. The main focus of this letter revolved around committee business and the state of affairs in Kansas. During this visit to Kansas, Arny had reorganized the Kansas Central Committee in order to increase its efficiency, and he included in this letter a revised list of its officers and members. He also wrote about his conversation with Governor Geary concerning the various volunteer companies created by free state men. The letter ends with a brief description of the suffering of the settlers, their meager diet, and their desperate need for more provisions.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Chicago, Illinois; Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Election, Presidential, 1856; Firearms; Food; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Illness; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Money; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Relief funds; Sickness (see Illness); Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, A. Curtis to William Hutchinson
Authors: Curtis, A.
Date: December 21, 1856
Curtis reported on the conflict between the Kansas Central Committee and W. F. M. Arny, general agent for the National Kansas Committee, over the distribution of supplies. Curtis claimed that Arny issued supplies to individuals who were engaged in speculative ventures and who were not in need of relief. Curtis attached to the letter an itemized list of the supplies that he believed were inappropriately issued by Arny.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Curtis, A; Economic conditions; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas Central Committee; National Kansas Committee


Letter, A. Finch to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Finch, H.
Date: December 22, 1856
This letter, written from Osawatomie by A. Finch to Thaddeus Hyatt, chairman of the National Kansas Committee, provided general information about the inhabitants of Osawatomie and neighboring areas. It included a list of about half of the settlers residing in Osawatomie at this time, including the four pro-slavery voters. Mr. Finch went into detail about the most fertile areas that would be excellent sites for free state settlements, and about the economic conditions and financial needs of the settlers.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Chestnut, William; Churches; Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Finch, H.; Geer, Samuel; Hawley, John H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Mills and mill-work; Money; Natural resources; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Sears, W. A.; Settlement; Storrs, N. S.; Timber; Town settlement; Updegraff, Andrew


Letter, R. G. Elliot to Dear Sister
Authors: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: May 8, 1857
Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence along with Josiah Miller, wrote to his sister from Delaware, Kansas Territory. Elliott told her that last season the area had been the site of "ruffian outrages," but since this time it had evolved into a thriving area with a large population of free state men, whose presence raised property values. The town was not without its share of "bloated ruffians" or stray dogs, however. Elliott also mentioned that a couple of proslavery men had even subscribed to his newspaper, though he did not intend to change the "character" of the paper, which continued to favor the free state cause.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state supporters; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to Gen. J. H. Lane
Authors: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: September 7, 1857
James Abbott, wrote from his travels in Hartford, Connecticut, to James Lane, General of the Kansas free state militia. Abbott was attempting to raise money and supplies for the free state cause by soliciting donations from supporters in the East. However, he reported that "this season of the year is always unfavorable for all benevolent enterprises" and that the "bank and brokers panic" was making matters even more difficult. Abbott longed for "one more big fight in Kansas" even if it should cost him his life or the lives of others as "the object is worth all it will cost."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Economic conditions; Finance; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar E. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: September 22, 1857
S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. Learnard told Oscar of his desire to move the rest of the family to Kansas Territory, if only at least to see his "much praised and extolled land." He also commented on the recent slowing of the economy, and gave Oscar business advice. Throughout S.T. Learnard's letter, his strong opposition to slavery in Kansas is made clear.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Crops; Economic conditions; Herald of Freedom; Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; National politics; Vermont


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: October 16, 1857
Hiram Hill wrote from a steamboat en route to Kansas Territory to his brother. Hill reported no major trouble on the journey until he had reached St. Louis and discovered that there had been a "run on the Missouri Bank" : no Eastern money was available, and businesses were not accepting paper money. Hill seemed to attribute this money shortage to a recent rush of emigration, and thought the situation would improve in the winter, though at the moment in Lawrence and Quindaro things were at a standstill since no one could withdraw money.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Money; Steamboats; Travel


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [Gov. Charles Robinson]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: October 19, 1857
Amos Lawrence wrote to Charles Robinson from Boston, praising him as a leader, "a lover of liberty and a lover of his country." Lawrence also communicated his happiness as a result of the recent election of the Territorial Legislature on October 6, 1857. However, he described the economic conditions of the country as being in a state of "financial derangement," and he hoped that Robinson would not be adversely affected by the staggering interest rates.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Foster, Daniel; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, Chauncey Shaffer to Brother Denison
Authors: Shaffer, Chauncey
Date: October 27, 1857
This letter from Chauncey Shaffer, a New York attorney, to Joseph Denison, an agent for Bluemont College, is one example of many letters received by Denison and Isaac Goodnow which pledged monetary support for the creation of the college in Manhattan, Kansas Territory. In this case, Shaffer would do his best to raise $5000, but cautioned against expecting too much, as tough financial times were upon them.

Keywords: Bluemont Central College; Business enterprises; Denison, Joseph; Economic conditions; Universities and colleges


Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: February 3, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported that money had been scarce that season, that the float of West Lawrence was still being investigated by Washington, and discussed town lot values related to the "float" status of the land. Parker also updated Hill on recent political events; the Legislature had convened and was discussing moving the Territorial capital. More significantly, a box of votes from the recent Lecompton Constitution election had been discovered under a woodpile, and the Legislature was busy making "stringent" laws to curb future acts of election fraud.

Keywords: Capitals (cities); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Hill, Hiram; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate investment; Temperance movement; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, R. G. Elliott to Dear Sister
Authors: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: February 15, 1858
Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his sister from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, regarding his financial investments. Elliott told her that he was a person who had had both good and bad fortune and, though he was not immediately wealthy and might have to wait to build a house, he had many shares in town properties that should be worth at least $3000-4000.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Elliott, Robert G.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Travel


Letter, Lucian J. Eastin to My Dear Sir [Gov. James Denver]
Authors: Eastin, Lucian J.
Date: February 20, 1858
Lucian J. Eastin, a proslavery supporter and editor of the Herald in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, wrote to Governor James Denver praising him for his efforts and congratulating him for his successes. Eastin told Denver that he feared the Lecompton Constitution would not pass, and he referred to recent incidents of election fraud. He also requested money from Denver so that he could print Denver's recent address and proclamation to the Kansas people.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Eastin, Lucian J.; Economic conditions; Election fraud; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Newspapers; Proslavery supporters; United States. Congress


Letter, Albert C. Morton to Hiram Hill
Authors: Morton, Albert C.
Date: February 27, 1858
Albert Morton wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton predicted a good property market for the coming spring, despite the "hard money matters" which had been the situation during the winter. He reported that the Shawnee lands would open soon, to have them paid for by the end of the summer, and that Hill's land investments in Manhattan were "in good standing". Morton added that Samuel Simpson has been busy lately, traveling back and forth from Quindaro to Lawrence.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Hill, Hiram; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Morton, Albert C.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, A.C. Morton to Mr. Hill
Authors: Morton, Albert C.
Date: April 30, 1858
Albert Morton wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton reported that the arrival of two new Eastern businessmen had brought business growth to the town, including a sash and blind factory and new three-story brick building. Despite these new constructions, Morton described the atmosphere as "dull". Though it was a bad time to sell land, since money was scarce, with the recent opening of Indian lands to settlement it was an optimum time to buy land at a low price.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Economic conditions; Hill, Hiram; Indian lands; Morton, Albert C.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Town development; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, E. Nute to [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: May 10, 1858
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute inquired about the possibility of Hale arranging a loan of $2000 at reasonable interest for the completion of the Unitarian Church in Lawrence. He reported on the high rates of interest being charged for loans in Kansas Territory and on the general effects of the panic of 1857 on the territorial economy. Nute also expressed his dissatisfaction with the Buchanan administration's handling of the Lecompton Constitution and his hope that a change in presidential administration in 1860 would result in Kansas' admission as a free state.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Blood, James; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Loans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Panic of 1857; Religion; Unitarian church buildings


Letter, Chas. Chadwick to Mr. H Hill
Authors: Chadwick, Charles
Date: August 24, 1858
Charles Chadwick wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, regarding economic conditions in town. Chadwick asked that Hill promptly pay his debt to Abelard Guthrie, a fellow Quindaro investor, who was on the brink of bankruptcy. He added that Clinton County, Missouri, had voted not to invest in the Parkville and Grand River Railroad that fall, which had damaged the possibility for a boom in economic activity for the coming fall. Chadwick reported that heavy rains had hindered transportation on local rivers, but was optimistic that October might bring some money to the town through land sales. No news had been heard from Causin, the Washington attorney who was assisting Hill to retain some disputed lands.

Keywords: Causin, Nathanial Pope; Chadwick, Charles; Economic conditions; Hill, Hiram; Land sales; Money; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad companies; Railroads economic aspects; Railroads finance; Real estate investment; Water transportation; Weather; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: August 25, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker described the situation in K.T. as "dull. . .every man you se [sic] here Looks blue and no Business and allmost [sic] Every Family are Sick". He told Hill that the Cincinnati House was the only property of his that was occupied, all other of Hill's homes and buildings were vacant; many people were selling their property. Parker closed his letter with a mention of the recent election to ratify the Lecompton Constitution under the English bill.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; English Bill; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to M. F. Conway
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: August 28, 1858
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory. Webb gave instructions to Conway on several New England Emigrant Aid Company business matters including the potential sale of the mill in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Webb comments on the decline in real estate values in Kansas Territory in the aftermath of the Panic of 1857.

Keywords: Batcheller, Kansas Territory; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Real estate; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town lots; Wabaunsee County, Kansas Territory; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, John Vansickle to Dear Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: September 1, 1858
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County to the recipient (most likely a family member) regarding his business selling goods. Money was scarce for him, though the crops were faring well. Vansickle included the current prices for various commodities and told of his plans to travel East the following spring. He expressed concern that he had not heard from many of his friends since moving to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Business enterprises; Crops; Daily life; Economic conditions; Merchants; Prices; Vansickle, John H.; Xenia, Kansas Territory


Letter, A. C. Morton to Mr. Hill
Authors: Morton, Albert C.
Date: August 3, 1858
Albert Morton wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton had recently returned to Quindaro in order to vote on the Lecompton Constitution as submitted by the English bill. Having arrived there, he found the place to be "dull". Morton described many empty houses and buildings, left behind from settlers selling out to return home; money had also been lost in investments and bridges were washed out in floods. However, the Town Company had invested in a flour mill, which had commenced operations. Morton also discussed matters of buying and selling land warrants with Hill.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, August 1858; English Bill; Hill, Hiram; Lecompton Constitution; Morton, Albert C.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Voting


Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to Mr. Guthrie
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: October 23, 1858
Hiram Hill drafted a letter to Abelard Guthrie in Quindaro, Kansas Territory, in which he responded to Guthrie's request for repayment of his loan. Hill told Guthrie that he had his own financial difficulties stemming from his disputed claim, his inability to sell and rent his properties, and Guthrie's failure to fulfill his part of a contract to the Town Company by not grading certain roads. Hill was also frustrated with a lack of success regarding his land dispute claim against Robert Robetaille, and seemed to indicate his plan to withdraw his claim.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Finance; Guthrie, Abelard; Hill, Hiram; Land claim disputes; Morton, Albert C.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Town development; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, A. C. Morton to Mr. Hill
Authors: Morton, Albert C.
Date: October 30, 1858
Albert Morton wrote from Leavenworth City, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton had "given up living in Quindaro" and planned to settle in Leavenworth City. Recently ill, he had left Quindaro along with many settlers and business owners. Morton reported that Abelard Guthrie continued to be optimistic about Quindaro's prospects for survival, but he remained skeptical. If Hill still planned to visit Quindaro in the spring, Morton would meet him there.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Guthrie, Abelard; Hill, Hiram; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Morton, Albert C.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment


Letter, Abelard Guthrie to Hiram Hill, Esq
Authors: Guthrie, Abelard
Date: November 11, 1858
Abelard Guthrie, a member of the Quindaro Town Company, wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, rebutting Hill's accusations that he had acted in bad faith regarding certain enterprises of the Town Company. Guthrie stated that he had intended to begin the grading work on Kansas Avenue and other roads, but had found that the Company's funds were depleted; he suspected a swindling. He defended himself in light of other land purchases and business transactions and expressed extreme frustration at his bleak financial situation.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Fraud; Guthrie, Abelard; Hill, Hiram; Land acquisition; Quindaro Town Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Roads; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, H. F. Parker to Hiram Hill Esq
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: November 15, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported that currently he was only able to collect $33.33 in rent from Hill's tenants, a small fraction of what was owed. He added that many settlers were leaving for California and hopes for gold mining in the West; many homes and businesses were vacated. Parker closed by stating "I am sick of Kansas if Business is to go as it has the Last year".

Keywords: California; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Gold mines and mining; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate business


Pamphlet, Report of Samuel W. Greer, Territorial Superintendent of Common Schools
Authors: Greer, Samuel W
Date: December 30, 1858
Samuel Greer, having been appointed Territorial Superintendent of Public Instruction by the Free State Party's Central Committee only four months before, reported on the status of the public education system in the Territory. Greer emphasized that perfection should not be anticipated as K.T. had little financial revenue to contribute at that time. He proposed dividing the school system by municipal townships and sub-districts for easier management. Greer did however find praise for the school in Lawrence, relating that "the best order prevails. . .the scholars. . .are advancing rapidly in their studies", and referring to the school as example to "awaken a spirit of generous emulation in other parts of the Territory."

Keywords: Economic conditions; Education; Greer, Samuel Wiley; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Schools; Superintendent of Public Instruction; Taxation


Letter, H. Learnard to Friend Oscar [Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, H.
Date: February 9, 1859
H. Learnard wrote from Granville, Vermont, to Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. The author updated Oscar regarding his family and mutual friends, and he inquired about work, land, and money value in Kansas Territory. He also indicated that he would like to travel there, though Oscar's father advised him against it.

Keywords: Daily life; Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Land acquisition; Learnard, H.; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Real estate investment; Vermont


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to M. F. Conway
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: February 19, 1859
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory. Webb provided instructions to Conway on several New England Emigrant Aid Company business matters including the sale of property in Atchison, Kansas Territory. Webb state that it would be desirable to hold the Atchison property until real estate values increased, but he informed Conway that the Company needed cash immediately and that the properties should be sold as soon as possible.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Branscomb, Charles H.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Real estate; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: March 15, 1859
Although Ingalls began this relatively brief letter from Sumner with comments on the local election (he won the race for city attorney), he devoted most of it to the Pike's Peak Gold Rush--"the amount and character of the emigration to Pike's Peak is truly astonishing. . . . [T] military roads are already thronged with anxious hundreds, on foot, dragging hand carts, on mules, and with ox teams."

Keywords: Business; Cities and towns; Economic conditions; Elections; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Pettit, John; Pikes Peak gold rush; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation; Travel


Letter, Geo. S. Park to I. T. Goodnow
Authors: Park, George S.
Date: June 7, 1859
George Park wrote from Parkville, Missouri, to Isaac Goodnow in New York City. Park confessed to Goodnow that he would not be able to pay into their investments this season, on account of hard economic times. However, he was willing to sell his property in Manhattan, which had been a "continual drain" on him from the beginning. Park criticized Goodnow's efforts: "I think you are too fast That country hardly wants a college yet. We perhaps had better have waited until times are better."

Keywords: Business enterprises; Economic conditions; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Park, George S.; Parkville, Missouri; Pikes Peak gold rush; Real estate investment; Town lots; Universities and colleges


Letter, E. S. Whitney to Uncle Hiram
Authors: Whitney, E.S.
Date: November 24, 1859
E. S. Whitney, niece of Hiram Hill, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to her uncle in Massachusetts. Whitney reported that money was scarce; the family was living in a hotel in town and they had begun renting their house. Her husband, Thaddeus Whitney, was unable to collect debts owed to him in order to travel to Pikes Peak. They all had recently suffered from an illness, but Thaddeus had begun building a new home on New Hampshire street.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Hill, Hiram; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pikes Peak gold rush; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Whitney, E.S.; Whitney, Thaddeus L.; Women


Letter, unsigned [Charles Chadwick] to Hiram Hill
Authors: Chadwick, Charles
Date: December 14, 1859
Charles Chadwick wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Chadwick reported that the Republicans (anti-slavery supporters) had been successful in recent elections. However, the economy was worse than the year before, according to Chadwick, money was scarce, and the city of Quindaro had not started collecting property taxes because the amounts would exceed the value of the property. A newspaper "The Kansas Tribune" had begun to circulate after a period in which there had been no newspaper, and the Parkville and Grand River Railroad was slated to be constructed through the town.

Keywords: Chadwick, Charles; Economic conditions; Elections; Hill, Hiram; Newspapers - Free State; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad companies; Railroad land grants; Rent; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Taxation; Telegraph; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, John Vansickle to Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: February 20, 1860
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County about building his new home, the development of new roads in his area, and preparations for the recipient's coming visit. Vansickle also related a story in which a former Jayhawker was caught stealing a horse and "cabeled to a Post Oak Lim between heven and Erth. . .in token. . .of our Love for John Brown the People think of making Several Such Sacrifices."

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Economic conditions; Jayhawkers; Prices; Proslavery support; Roads; Sawmills; Settlement; Vansickle, John H.; Xenia, Kansas Territory


Letter, Wm R. Clark to Dear Bro. [Isaac] Goodnow
Authors: Clark, William
Date: February 29, 1860
William Clark wrote from New England to Isaac Goodnow in Manhattan, Kansas Territory. Clark responded to a letter sent to him earlier by Goodnow, in which Goodnow asked Clark if he would act as a financial officer of Bluemont College. Clark admitted he did have reasons that might motivate him to accept, but added that he had "so little adaptation as to that [work] of begging money." He also feared, considering the present economic conditions in New England and within the Methodist Church, that he would not be successful in garnering any support for a College in Kansas Territory, as local interests currently prevailed. Clark declined the appointment.

Keywords: Bluemont Central College; Business enterprises; Economic conditions; Finance; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Methodist Church; Universities and colleges


Letter, John James Ingalls to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: April 3, 1860
Ingalls devoted much of his April 3, 1860, letter from Sumner to the territory's agricultural prospects, which were still not particularly good: "Corn, pork, and hides" were Kansas's only exports, and they were not very profitable as prices were low. "Considerable attention," wrote Ingalls, "is being paid to the hemp crop" and the wheat seemed to be doing pretty well; various kinds of fruit also "flourishes. . . . I have never seen finer apples than the farmers across the river bring to market. . . . But little is raised in Kansas yet, though much attention is being given to 'orchardizing' this spring." Ingalls was actually considering a move to the Gold County (Colorado) for better business prospects.

Keywords: Agriculture; Business; Colorado gold fields; Crops; Economic conditions; Economic development; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Land speculation; Pikes Peak gold rush; Speculation; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Telegraph


Letter, J. H. Vansickle to Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: August 17, 1860
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County regarding the dry weather and economic conditions that were causing a mass emigration out of Kansas Territory. Settlers in Kansas during 1860 were suffering during a particularly severe drought.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Droughts; Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Vansickle, John H.; Weather; Xenia, Kansas Territory


Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to the New York Tribune (Copy No. 1)
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: August 24, 1860
This copy was titled "Thaddeus Hyatt's Letters from Kansas, The fact of the Drougth. Introduction of the facts, an appeal and an apology!" Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, was trying to dispel information coming from Leavenworth that reported that conditions in Kansas were being exaggerated. He felt efforts to deny "the present deplorable condition of things" were motivated by economic concerns. Hyatt wrote that they suffered because of the drought, not their own actions, and that the free North should aid them. The letter was well written and contained a great deal of emotional rhetoric. The letter was copied (by hand) by W. F. M. Arny. The last page of the letter elaborated on its origins.

Keywords: Droughts; Economic conditions; Famines; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Herald; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; National politics; New York Tribune; Newspapers; Relief; Relief funds


Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to the New York Tribune (Draft No. 3)
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 14, 1860
Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, wrote this letter to the New York Tribune in order to make New Englanders aware of the destitution and suffering of settlers in Kansas Territory. Hyatt gave accounts of conditions in Americus and Emporia townships in Breckenridge County, and also in Jackson and Lawrence. The letter reported the condition of crops, cattle disease, etc. It contained similar information to other statements from Kansas settlers during the drought of 1860.

Keywords: Agriculture; Americus Township, Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory; Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory (see also Lyon County, Kansas); Crops; Droughts; Economic conditions; Emporia Township, Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory; Famines; Grain; Livestock; Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Poverty; Relief


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: October 7, 1860
In this rather lengthy letter from his home in Sumner, Ingalls commented on many different facets of his personal and professional life to date in Kansas Territory and about his prospects for the future; these included his law practice (now mostly in Atchison), his interest in journalism and politics, and his interest in a variety of speculative opportunities. The future of Kansas looked good to Ingalls, despite continued problems with drought that was forcing many to sell out.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Journalism; Land speculation; Lawyers; Sumner, Kansas Territory


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Dear [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: October 10, 1860
In this letter, S. C. Pomeroy wrote from Atchison, Kansas to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. The letter revolved around the suffering of the settlers and their desperate search for provisions and employment. Pomeroy also mentioned the prospect of obtaining a large amount of buffalo meat, as well as the failed corn crop and the generally destitute condition of the settlers. He truly feared for the lives of the settlers during the upcoming winter.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Bison; Crops; Economic conditions; Elmore, Rush; Famines; Food; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Grain; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Topeka, Kansas; Vegetables


Article, "The Drouth and Famine in Kansas"
Authors: New York Daily Tribune
Date: October 10, 1860
This newspaper article, published in the New York Daily Tribune from October 10, 1860, outlined the basic details of the suffering and destitution of settlers in Kansas. It also included reprints of two circulars originating from Kansas Territory. One was from the Presbytery of Highland, and the other was from the Central Relief Committee based in Leavenworth. The first reprinted circular provided information about the dire situation and gave the names of the members of this committee. The second circular requested that the elders and deacons of each church in Kansas ascertain how many families needed immediate assistance in order to present a full report to the Central Relief Committee.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Central Relief Committee; Churches; Clothing and dress; Crops; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Droughts; Economic conditions; Famines; Food; Grain; Highland, Kansas Territory; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Presbyterian Church; Reaser, Rev. J. G.; Relief; Relief funds; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, [W. F. M.] Arny to Brother [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 15, 1860
W.F.M. Arny, agent of the National Kansas Committee, continued to send Thaddeus Hyatt, president of this committee, copies of letters he had received from Kansas settlers. These letters described the economic conditions resulting from the continued drought during 1860. The reports were submitted by Rev. J. W. Fox, Ridgeway, Kansas Territory; the "Committee on the Little Osage," Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Dr. I. W. Robinson, Manhattan, Kansas Territory; and Joseph M. Todd and others, Greenwood Township, Greenwood County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Agriculture; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Crops; Droughts; Economic conditions; Famines; Fox, J. W.; Greenwood County, Kansas Territory; Greenwood Township, Greenwood County, Kansas Territory; Livestock; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Medicine; Relief; Ridgeway, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Robinson, I.; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Todd, Joseph M.


Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to James Buchanan
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: October 16, 1860
Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, wrote this letter to the President of the United States in an effort to obtain assistance for the suffering inhabitants of Kansas. He described in detail the needs of the settlers, including their lack of adequate winter clothing and the scarcity of food. According to his personal observations, Hyatt concluded that the only options left to Kansas settlers were exodus or starvation. He also asked that all government lands be removed from the market, especially those in the New York Indian Reserve.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Diseases; Droughts; Economic conditions; Famines; Food; Health; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Indian reserves; Relief; Sickness (see Illness)


Letter, Joseph Denison to Br. [Isaac] Goodnow
Authors: Denison, Joseph
Date: November 9, 1860
Joseph Denison wrote from Cincinatti, Ohio, to Isaac Goodnow, who was also traveling in the East. Denison had been traveling in the Midwest as part of an effort to raise a relief fund for citizens of Kansas Territory, who had suffered as a result of a severe drought. His fellow churchmen and abolitionists were eager to help, as they believed that "the recent Republican victories are due in great part to the settlers and suffers in Kansas" who "must be helped or they will be starved out of the Territory."

Keywords: Denison, Joseph; Economic conditions; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Railroads; Relief; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); de Vivaldi, Charles F.


Letter, J. H. Vansickle to Dear Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: November 27, 1860
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County regarding the current economic conditions in Kansas Territory. Vansickle stated that the weather had remained dry for almost 12 months, and that corn and other crops had become valuable commodities. He added that the ruffians and the lawless part of the community would not help themselves by working when they had the chance. Vansickle concluded by saying he had plenty of food, and he discussed land claim opportunities with the recipient.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Droughts; Economic conditions; Land acquisition; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Prices; Vansickle, John H.


Minutes, meetings "on the behalf of sufferers in Kansas"
Authors: Denison, Joseph
Date: December 3, 1860
Joseph Denison recorded minutes of preliminary meetings that organized efforts to raise money and donations on behalf of the citizens of Kansas Territory, who had suffered as a result of severe drought. He also composed an announcement entitled "The Kansas Famine", which predicted that at least 30,000 in the Territory would "inevitably perish during the coming winter" were help not secured.

Keywords: Beecher, Henry Ward; Denison, Joseph; Droughts; Economic conditions; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Minutes; Poverty; Relief


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: December 20, 1860
Marcus Parrott wrote from Washington, D.C., to his brother, Edwin Parrott, regarding the political situation there. Marcus suspected that an organization existed, on the part of Virginia and Maryland, to block the presidential inauguration of Abraham Lincoln, and stated that, if the national situation did not better itself, that he had "no doubt that he [Lincoln] will sacrifice his life" improving it. He added that economic conditions were poor, and that many Congressmen were left unpaid.

Keywords: Dennison, William, 1815-1882; Economic conditions; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; National politics; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Secession; Washington, D.C.


Letter, Wm [William Goodnow] to Dear Brother [Isaac Goodnow]
Authors: Goodnow, William E.
Date: December 22, 1860
William Goodnow wrote from Manhattan, Kansas Territory, to his brother Isaac Goodnow, updating him on personal and business matters. He reported that the plastering and joint work in the College building was mostly done, and that he had ceased to work on the construction of their own new house until the spring. Responding to the secession of South Carolina, William exclaimed that the Union had been "smashed into a cocked hat!" He added that the Denison family was well but for colds, and confirmed that those settlers who had suffered on account of the drought and poor economic conditions were receiving aid.

Keywords: Bluemont Central College; Construction; Denison, Joseph; Economic conditions; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Goodnow, William E.; Health; Relief; School buildings; Secession; South Carolina


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Honl. Amos A. Lawrence
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: December 22, 1860
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Samuel N. Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts regarding the poverty in which Gaius Jenkins' family found themselves. James Lane had killed Jenkins in 1858 over a land claim, and it appeared that he was now taking measures to "keep her [Mrs. Jenkins] poor as long as possible." Simpson reminded Lawrence of his request to pay Jenkins fifty dollars as compensation for his imprisonment by federal troops at Camp Sackett, near Lecompton, in 1856. Jenkins had declined the payment at the time, but Simpson now solicited it on behalf of his widow and family.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, Jr.; Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Deitzler, George W.; Economic conditions; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Relief; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Smith, George W.


Letter, Phoebe Atkins to Dear friends
Authors: Atkins, Phoebe
Date: January 6, 1861
Phoebe Atkins wrote to her friends regarding her living conditions in Oskaloosa. She described how settlers had to travel as far as Atchison to obtain provisions and prevent starvation. She also spoke of the necessity of finding work and her recent illness.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Atkins, Phoebe; Daily life; Economic conditions; Illness; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Labor; Oskaloosa, Kansas Territory


Letter, [Mary Holliday] to Dear H [Cyrus K. Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Mary
Date: February 2, 1861
Mary Holliday wrote from Topeka to her husband, Cyrus K. Holliday, in Washington, D. C. She described farm and financial difficulties, especially her frustration with John, an incompetent hired hand. She also considered releasing her "girl" to save money and taking in Sister Tite as an unpaid but potentially helpful guest. Mary requested instructions concerning lumber, asked for seeds and carpets, and mentioned local happenings. She hoped that the statehood of Kansas would encourage Cyrus to return quickly. The letter has no signature.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Household activities; Livestock; Servants; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Topeka, Kansas; Weather


Starvation in Kansas
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: February 4, 1860
This document was an appeal to "The President of the Country, To the Churches, To Congress, To State Legislatures, To Philanthropists, and To the humane everywhere!!" to support those suffering in Kansas. The document was written by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, and it was endorsed by S. C. Pomeroy, chairman of the Kansas Relief Committee and general agent for distribution. This particular Kansas Relief Committee had been formed to combat the effects of the drought of 1860. This short appeal contained eloquent and emotional rhetoric in "behalf of 40,000 starving Americans."

Keywords: Droughts; Economic conditions; Famines; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Relief Committee; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Poverty; Relief; Relief funds


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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