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260 results for Douglas County, Kansas Territory:
Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, c. 1856
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1856
A photographic view of Massachusetts Street, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, c. 1856.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets


Surveying Equipment
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1845-1855
Albert D. Searl used this equipment to survey Kansas Territory town sites in 1854. Lawrence was surveyed on Sept. 25th and Topeka on Dec. 20th. Searl's efforts to set town limits for free-staters in Lawrence were met with violence from pro-slavery forces nearby. Searl would later survey Manhattan, Osawatomie, Burlington, & El Dorado.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Skirmishing; Surveyors; Topeka, Kansas; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Letter, Robert Gilbert to My dear Parents
Authors: Gilbert, Robert L.
Date: December 5, 1849
Robert Gilbert, a young Englishman studying at Yoxford Academy in England anticipating the Christmas holiday, wrote to his parents summarizing his studies of the past half-year. He was born in Sibton, Suffolk County, England. After graduating from Yoxford, he became a gardener in the Crystal Palace Gardens in London. Gilbert emigrated to the U.S. in 1855 and began farming nine miles north of Lawrence the same year.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; England; Farmers; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


Photograph, William H. R. Lykins house, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Authors: Leonard, 613 Kansas Ave., Topeka, KS.
Date: 1854
A view of the William H. R. Lykins house, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. This probably is the second house built by Lykins on the future site of Lawrence. He settled in the area on May 26, 1854, many weeks before the first Emigrant Aid Society party arrived. Lykins built one house northwest of the present-day Lawrence in May 1854. In August of that year, he built another house near the future site of the Emigrant Aid Company's sawmill on the south bank of the Kansas River. The photograph is from a cabinet card made by Leonard, 613 Kansas Ave., Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Houses; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leonard, J. H.; Lykins, William H. R.; Photographs and Illustrations


Letter, [Cyrus Kurtz] Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: November 18, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. This letter was to be delivered by Mr. Ingrams, and Holliday expressed the possibilities of following shortly or of staying in Lawrence to make business arrangements and put up a building in the spring. He expressed his delight in the country of Kansas and the site of a new city (not named, but likely Topeka). A Pennsylvania company of emigrants, unprepared for the journey and now suffering, had settled in Lawrence and Council Grove.

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Morris County, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Shalor Eldridge Family
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November, 1854
This portrait of Shalor Eldridge, his wife and their four daughters was taken in Westfield, Massachusetts in November 1854. Eldridge was involved with the New England Emigrant Aid Company and operated a company hotel in Lawrence, Kansas Territory which was a center for the free state movement.

Keywords: Businessmen; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographs and Illustrations


Letter, [Cyrus Kurtz] Holliday to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 3, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, the founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He told her of his planned trip up the Kansas River, his pleasure in the people of Kansas Territory, and a Thanksgiving dinner he attended. Unwilling to return to Pennsylvania, Holliday expressed desire that Mary come to Kansas Territory and described the construction of a friend's sod-covered "mansion," one such as Clarina I. H. Nichols, a lecturer and writer, inhabited.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holidays; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Houses; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Thanksgiving Day; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town site speculation


Diary
Authors: Lovejoy, Julia Louisa
Date: December 10, 1854 - January 5, 1860
Julia Louisa Hardy Lovejoy and her husband Charles came to Kansas Territory in March 1855. Julia described the trip and their first months in Kansas Territory. However, Julia's diary entries were fairly sporadic so there were significant gaps in her account of life in Kansas Territory. Her writing was very emotional when describing the illness and death of their daughter Edith, when referring to the conflict in the territory, and when writing about her religious beliefs. The diary also contained some detail about daily life. The Lovejoys had two older children (Charles J. and Juliette) and a five year old daughter Edith when they came to Kansas Territory. Their son Charles may have come to Kansas before the rest of the family. Edith died in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, on May 3, 1855. Julia was pregnant at the time and a son Irving was born September 17, 1855. Juliette married Dr. Samuel Whitehorn from Hudson, Michigan, on March 9, 1856, in Manhattan, Kansas Territory. Juliette died November 20, 1860, at Manhattan, Kansas, at the age of 21. See the biographical sketch in the "Personalities" section for more detail on the Lovejoys.

Keywords: Baldwin, Kansas Territory; Daily life; Diaries; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lovejoy, Julia Hardy, 1812-1882; Lovejoy, Julia Louisa (see Lovejoy, Julia Hardy); Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Methodists; Religion; Riley County, Kansas Territory


Letter, [C. K. Holliday] to My Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 24, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. After three weeks at the future site of Topeka, Holliday was glad for city comforts. He mentioned the site's beauty, the prospect of building a house on his farm claim, and his personal success since leaving Meadville. On December 18, 1854, he had been unanimously elected President of the Topeka Town Association and appointed temporary agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. The bottom two-thirds of page 3 and 4 (which contained Holliday's signature) have been cut and removed.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Town Association; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town sites


Illustration, Lawrence, Kansas, 1854-5
Authors: Rice, J. E.
Date: 1854 - 1855
This sketch of Lawrence, Kansas, circa 1854-5 was made by J. E. Rice. It is a view of Massachusetts and Vermont Streets facing North towards the Kansas River; a ferry is landing on the pier on New Hampshire Street. The illustration includes several homes and establishments of Lawrence's noteworthy first settlers.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Brooks, Paul R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Ferries; Fry, Samuel; Herald of Freedom; Hoyt, David Starr; Illustrations; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Kimball, S. & F.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Miller, Josiah; Pioneer House; Rice, J.E.; Sampson, Turner; Sands, J.G.; Settlement; Simpson, Samuel Newell; St. Nicholas House; Stearns, Charles


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Authors: Rice, J. E.
Date: 1855
Photograph of a sketch showing part of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855 by J. E. Rice. The sketch was photographed by H. T. Martin, 237 Kansas Ave., Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Martin, H. T.; Photographs and Illustrations; Sketches


Letter, Josiah Miller to Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: January 4, 1855
Josiah Miller, having arrived in Kansas Territory in August 1854, wrote to his father and mother in South Carolina about their impending journey to Kansas Territory. He offered them various suggestions on what provisions to bring and what routes to take, as they would be making the trip by wagon and not by railroad and boat. Miller also discussed his parents' options regarding land purchase and rent once they arrive in the new territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land claims; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Railroads; Squatters; Town lots; Travel; Wagon trains


Expense Account, C. H. Branscomb to N. E. Emigrant Aid Co.
Authors: Branscomb, Charles H.
Date: January 1, 1855 - May 1, 1856
A typical expense report submitted by Charles H. Branscomb, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory, detailing his expenditures for 1855 and part of 1856. Among the expenses Branscomb listed were travel, postage, paper, and telegraph costs.

Keywords: Account books; Branscomb, Charles H.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Financial statements; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Postal service


Territorial Census, 1855, District 2
Authors: Browne, O. H.
Date: January-February, 1855
This census was taken in order to determine eligible voters for elections to be held as proclaimed by Governor Andrew Reeder on November 10, 1854. The categories for information in the census were name, occupation, age, male, female, emigrated from, native of United States, naturalized citizen, declarant (intention to become a citizen), Negro, slave, and voter. Only white males over 21 were eligible to vote. The districts used for the census were the same as the election districts. A statistical summary of the census follows the enumeration pages. The enumerator indexed the census entries for this district and these pages appear before the census data. For District Two the place of election was the house of Paris Ellison, in Douglas City. The boundaries of each district were described in Governor Reeder's proclamation and it is difficult to determine what counties were in each district. The description of the Second District follows: "Commencing at the mouth of Big Spring Branch, on the south bank of the Kansas River; thence up said branch to its farthest source; thence by a southerly line, crossing the Wakarusa River on the east side of the house of Charles Mattingly, to the middle of the Santa Fe road; thence along the middle of said road to the line of the First District; thence by the same along the west side of the house of __Rolf to the head of the first tributary of the Kansas, above the Town of Lawrence; and thence by the said tributary to the Kansas River, and up the south bank of said river to the mouth of Big Spring Branch, the place of beginning." On the last page is a "List of settlers on the Kansas Half Breed lands opposite Douglas City." This is probably in Jefferson county, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Browne, O. H.; Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory


Territorial Census, 1855, District 1
Authors: Babcock, Carmi William
Date: January-February, 1855
This census was taken in order to determine eligible voters for elections to be held as proclaimed by Governor Andrew Reeder on November 10, 1854. The categories for information in the census were name, occupation, age, male, female, emigrated from, native of United States, naturalized citizen, declarant (intention to become a citizen), Negro, slave, and voter. Only white males over 21 were eligible to vote. The districts used for the census were the same as the election districts. A statistical summary of the census follows the enumeration pages. For District 1, the place of election was the office of Dr. Charles Robinson in Lawrence. The boundaries of each district were described in Governor Reeder's proclamation and it is difficult to determine what counties were in each district. The description of the First District follows: "Commencing at the Missouri State line, on the south bank of the Kansas River; thence along the south bank of said river to the first tributary or watered ravine running into the Kansas above the town of Lawrence, thence up that tributary to the head thereof; thence in a direct line to the west side of __Rolf's house; thence, by a due south line, to the Santa Fe Road; thence by the middle of said road to the Missouri State line; and thence by said State line to the place of beginning."

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 11, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, where he had stopped on his way to visit Governor Andrew H. Reeder at the Shawnee Indian Mission. Holliday hoped to make the growing Topeka the capital of Kansas Territory. In Lawrence, a hotel keeper had died and George W. Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom, was ill. Despite mail-delaying winter storms further east, the weather continued mildly. Holliday described his financial investments and requested money for his trip to Meadville, more urgent as the birth of their first child approached.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Capitals (cities); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town settlement


Letter, C. Robinson to E. Thayer
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 2, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts, described voting irregularities in the March 30, 1855 election of members to the territorial legislature. Robinson maintained that the election was "controlled entirely by Missourians" who came to the territory, took over the polling places, and cast illegal ballots to ensure that proslavery supporters were elected to the legislature. Robinson also reported that free staters in Lawrence had formed themselves into four military companies, and urged Thayer to send Sharps rifles and cannons for these forces.

Keywords: Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Free state perspective; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, C. Robinson to Rev. E. E. Hale
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 9, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Edward Everett Hale, commented that Free State supporters were forming military companies in response to perceived "outrageous conduct" by Missourians during the March 30, 1855, election of representatives for the territorial legislature. Robinson asked Hale to send two hundred Sharp's rifles and two cannon for the use of Lawrence settlers.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state; Guns; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Stubbs Militia Company Constitution, By-laws, and Charter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 16, 1855
The Stubbs militia company was organized on April 16, 1855, to protect Lawrence and the people of Kansas Territory. The constitution limited membership to 64 "rank and file" members and listed the duties of the various officers. The by-laws called for weekly drills, public parades once each three months, and indicated that prospective members had to be voted upon as well as paying ten dollars. Other expectations for members were detailed in the by-laws. The charter was the draft of a bill to be passed by the territorial legislature and listed the following as the incorporators of the Stubbs, a volunteer military company: Joseph Cracklin, A. Cutler, George F. Earle, John G. Crocker, Caleb S. Pratt, A. Gunther, and A. D. Searl. Although the document included the date of April 16, 1855, a date of 1858 was penciled above the title Constitution.

Keywords: Cracklin, Joseph; Crocker, John G.; Cutler, A.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Earle, Geroge F.; Free state activities; Gunther, A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Pratt, Caleb S.; Searl, Albert D.; Stubbs militia company


Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence
Authors: Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence: Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, et.al.
Date: June 2 1855
Quit-Claim Deed of the Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, turning ownership of lot #12 of Massachusetts Street over to Josiah Miller and Robert G. Elliott, of Miller and Elliott, publishers of the Kansas Free State newspaper.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Grover, Joel; Hutchinson, George W.; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Lykins, William H. R.; Miller, Josiah; Snyder, Samuel S.; Town development


Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for the Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence
Authors: Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence: Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, et.al.
Date: July 7, 1855
This Quit-Claim Deed and Bond documented the investment of $1.00 made by Josiah Miller and Robert G. Elliot, publishers of the Kansas Free State newspaper, into Lawrence town shares.

Keywords: Allen, N.; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins, William H. R.; Miller, Josiah; Real estate investment; Snyder, Samuel S.; Town shares; Wood, John P.


Certificate of Agency, James Abbott as Agent of the Kansas Herald of Freedom
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 10, 1855
This certificate granted James Abbott, now of Blanton, Kansas Territory, agency to sell subscriptions to the Kansas Herald of Freedom newspaper. The document was signed and sealed by George W. Brown, publisher and editor of the free state paper.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Business enterprises; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Herald of Freedom; Newspapers


Letter, Henry Saunders, certifying James Abbott as a militia member
Authors: Saunders, Henry F.
Date: July 25, 1855
Henry Saunders, Captain of the Wakarusa Liberty Guards, a free state militia group, wrote this letter certifying James Abbott as 2nd Lieutenant of that unit. Saunders added that Abbott was also officially employed in the task of procuring arms for the free state cause.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Saunders, Henry F.; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Mr. [Eli] Thayer
Authors: Branscomb, Charles H.; Robinson, Charles
Date: July 26, 1855
Charles Robinson, free state leader and activist, wrote to Eli Thayer, organizer of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, introducing James Abbott to him. Robinson described Abbott as trustworthy and "true as steel to the cause of Freedom in Kansas". He also expressed to Thayer that the rifles previously shipped to Lawrence had had a "very good effect", and suggested he procure more. At the end of Robinson's letter, Charles Branscomb, Secretary pro tempore of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, endorsed Robinson, an agent for the Company, and his support of Abbott.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Branscomb, Charles H.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: July 29, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote letters from several cities to his wife, Mary Holliday, after leaving their home at Meadville, Pennsylvania to return to business at Topeka, Kansas Territory. Once in Lawrence, K. T., he reported the political situation to his wife. Governor Andrew H. Reeder, who expected violence, and the fraudulently elected Territorial Legislature were at loggerheads. (Holliday had been elected to the Legislature in a reelection called by Governor Reeder during Holliday's absence, but the reelection results were rejected by the Legislature.) Holliday also mentioned the good corn crop and warm weather and expressed his love for his wife and daughter, Lillie, born March 18.

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Health; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence; Weather


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: August 12, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania of his journey to Kansas City to obtain a land warrant for Topeka and to attend the Free State Convention. Two of his articles had been published in The Herald of Freedom, a Lawrence newspaper, and he sent copies. Mentioning political difficulties, Holliday suggested that his wife wait until fall to travel to Kansas. He rented out his cabin in Topeka for profit. A deadly cholera epidemic at Fort Riley had ended.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free State Convention; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weather; Wyandot Float


Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [T. W. Higginson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: August 27, 1855
This letter, written by free state governor Charles Robinson, was sent to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist. Robinson discussed in rather general terms the troubles facing Kansas, stating that he believed this struggle did not only involve Kansas, "but I regard it as one in which the whole nation is involved." Robinson also expressed doubts that the North would support the free state settlers in the territory, writing that they can only "hope" for reinforcements, not take them for granted. He asked Higginson to stir up Northerners against the bogus legislature, and made mention of ex-Governor Reeder and opposition to the bogus legislature. In general, this letter eloquently demonstrates the passion of this free state leader and his dedication to the cause of liberty.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Bogus legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee Manual Labor School


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: August 29, 1855
Josiah Miller, making arrangements for his parents' journey from South Carolina to Kansas Territory, wrote to his father and mother from his office at the Kansas Free State newspaper. He told them of his need to purchase personal arms for his own protection and described to them a recent situation of election fraud. Miller also wrote that his goal, as a newspaper editor, was to "move men to support the Free State ticket." He added that he was having a falling out with Robert Elliott, his business partner.

Keywords: Crops; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state activities; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspapers; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.


Kansas Free!! Gov. Reeder For Congress!!
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 8, 1855
This broadside invites the "Freeman on the Wakarusa" to attend a meeting to endorse the proceeding of the Big Spring Convention, which was organized by free state supporters as part of the actions leading up to the drafting of the Topeka Constitution. The meeting was to be held at Blanton on September 13, 1855. The document indicated that the "FREE STATE PLATFORM and the Proceedings of the CONVENTION" would be read and that the best "Orators of the Country" would be there.

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Wakarusa River


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to A. A. Lawrence
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 28, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Amos A. Lawrence, expressed his optimism about the prospects of Kansas entering the union as a free state within one year. Robinson also informed Lawrence that he had drawn upon him for $1000 to cover New England Emigrant Aid Company expenses.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Indian floats; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Election, location of capitol of Kansas, Topeka Convention, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 23, 1855
The Free-State government held a constitutional convention in Topeka from October 23 through November 11, 1855, and one of its actions was to vote on the capital of Kansas. According to these tally sheets, Topeka defeated Lawrence on the second ballot, 20 to 16. Numerous other towns received votes from the convention delegates on the first ballot.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state government; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Legal Document, Abandonment of Land near Lawrence
Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.; Updegraff, E.
Date: October 15, 1855
This document dated October 15, 1855, and signed by Caleb S. Pratt, Levin B. Dennis, Joshia Smith, and R. T. Hooton, appeared to be their statement of abandonment for any claim to "lands situated in the vicinity of Lawrence" (640 acres) as defined within the agreement. It seemed that Charles Robinson was to locate "a Wyandotte Indian Float" on this same section of land.

Keywords: Dennis, Levin B.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hooten, R. T.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pratt, Caleb S.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Joshia; Updegraff, E.; Wyandot Float; Wyandot Indians


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: October 15, 1855
Josiah Miller, at his office at the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his Father and Mother in South Carolina regarding recent events. He supported Reeder in the October 9th election over the pro-slavery candidate, John W. Whitfield, and suspected that Reeder would be elected regardless of any fraudulently cast votes. Miller elaborated on his problems with Robert Elliott, his business partner, who had no money to invest further in their newspaper. He also mentioned that the most debated topic at the recently convened Nebraska Territorial Legislature was the location of their capital, not the slavery question.

Keywords: Contested elections; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Nebraska Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 31, 1855
During the afternoon session of Wednesday, October 31, 1855, Jim Lane presented a "Resolution which was ordered to be entered upon the Journal of the convention--said Resolution being the instructions given by the people of the 2nd Representative District" at a Lawrence meeting of October 7. The "instructions" and Lane's resolution provided that "the question of excluding Free Negroes from the Territory" be submitted to a vote of the people on the day they voted on the constitution itself.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, Afternoon Session
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: November 9, 1855
During the course of the proceedings recorded for the afternoon of November 9, 1855, discussion turned to the effort by Jim Lane to first include a provision for the "removal" of all blacks and then all "slaves" from Kansas by July 4, 1860. Charles Robinson supported an amendment which changed the effective date to July 4, 1857. All other provisions were to take effect immediately upon the adoption of the constitution.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 6, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote briefly from Free State Headquarters in Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, describing the number and location of surrounding Proslavery forces and of Free State forces gathered in Lawrence. Cyrus had been working for peace, but was prepared to fight in a shortly expected attack.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Wakarusa Treaty
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles ; Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 8, 1855
A draft of an agreement between Governor Wilson Shannon, representing the territorial government, and Charles Robinson and James Lane, representing the free state movement, settling the dispute that resulted in the Wakarusa War. In essence, Robinson and Lane pledged to "aid in the execution of any legal process" against individuals involved in rescuing free state supporter Jacob Branson provided that these individuals received a hearing before a U.S. District Court judge. This compromise ended the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter/Order, Wilson Shannon to C. Robinson and J. H. Lane
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: December 9, 1855
According to D. W. Wilder, Governor Wilson Shannon arrived in Lawrence on December 7, 1855, and on December 8 made "a treaty with the Free-State Generals" ending the Wakarusa War. The paper was signed by Shannon, Robinson and Lane. With the document represented here, dated Lawrence, December 9, 1855, Governor Shannon "authorized & directed [Robinson and Lane] to take such measures & use the enrolled force under your command in such manner for the preservation of the peace & the protection of the persons & property of the people in Lawrence & vicinity as in your judgment shall best secure that end." ( A subsequent notation indicated that the order was written in Robinson's hand, but signed by Shannon.)

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Certificate, Head Quarters Kansas Volunteers
Authors: Kansas Volunteers
Date: December 12, 1855
This certificate, signed by Charles Robinson and James Lane, was issued by the Head Quarters of the Kansas Volunteers, a Free state militia group led by Robinson. It documented Robert Gilbert's service "in defending the City of Lawrence. . .from demolition by foreign invaders" during the Wakarusa War. Gilbert had arrived in Kansas Territory only weeks before, having traveled from his native England.

Keywords: Battles; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Free state regiment; Gilbert, Robert L.; Hunt, Morris; Immigrants; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wilder, Solomon


Muster Roll of Captain Samuel Walker, Company D, Second Regiment, 1st Brigade, Kansas Volunteeers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 12, 1855
This muster roll listed men who served in the Wakarusa War from November 27 to December 12, 1855. The second regiment was commanded by Col. C. K. Holliday. This company was recruited from the area around Bloomington, Kansas Territory. The information provided included name, title if an officer, and age. This muster roll also included annotations about the value of property such as saddles, clothes, horses, etc. taken or destroyed by the "enemy." Officers, in addition to Captain Samuel Walker, were A. Curliss, George Umbarger, (?) Miller, T. W. Wolverton, D. C. Buffum, A. I. Smith, A. Jones, R. Dunn, R. Hasseltine, R. Miller, and J. C. Dunn. Ages of the company ranged from 17 to 50 years old.

Keywords: Bloomington, Kansas Territory; Buffum, David C.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Volunteers; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Walker, Samuel Douglas


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 13, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday, who had been appointed colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Kansas Troops, hoped that the Wakarusa War would be the last armed conflict in Kansas Territory. Writing from Free State Headquarters in Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, he described the preparations of troops in Lawrence during the War. He told Mary of his receipt of a draft and the sale of a bond, and assured her that the boats to Kansas were still running.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state regiment; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Money; Proslavery activities; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, unsigned [Marc Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: December 15, 1855
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marcus recounted the events of the Wakarusa War, and described the actions of the Missourians prior to their attack, which supported his idea that it was premeditated. He told about his experience as a prisoner in the Missourians' camp and his interview with Governor Shannon regarding a peace treaty between the two groups. Marcus was pleased with the terms of the treaty, but was wary of Shannon's motives, saying that he was trying to "ring in" the free state party.

Keywords: Ammunition; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Barber, Thomas W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weapons (see also Guns)


Portrait, Andrew H. Reeder
Authors: Hall, Cyrenius
Date: 1855
Portrait of Andrew H. Reeder, first territorial governor. In 1855 Reeder was removed from office by President Pierce and was forced to leave Kansas when threatened by a pro-slavery grand jury. He escaped with the help of Thomas and Julia Stinson, who dressed him in women's clothing. Later, Reeder disguised himself as a woodcutter (as depicted in this painting) and escaped via a steamer on the Missouri River. Artist Cyrenius Hall painted this portrait in 1880.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Stinson, Julia; Stinson, Thomas N.; Violence


Photograph, First House in Lawrence
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1855
This was the first house in Lawrence, a log cabin, belonging to Clark Stearns (also known as Charles Stearns). It was located at 620 Massachusetts Street.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Stearns, Charles; Town development


Directory, City Directory of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
Early directory lists landowners and landholdings by street address and includes names of prominent political figures of Kansas' Territorial period. The settlement previously known as "Wakarusa" had only been known as Lawrence for less than a year.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


Directory, City of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
This transcript of the 1855 City of Lawrence Directory not only lists landowners and landholdings by street address, but also includes an index of landholdings by last name of the landowner.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


Photograph, Ruins of the Free State Hotel
Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: 1856
An illustration of the Free State Hotel ruins, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856, copied from Kansas: Its Interior and Exterior Life by Mrs. Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to A. H. Shurtleff
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1856
William Hutchinson, secretary of the Kansas Central Committee, wrote from Lawrence to A. Havington Shurtleff, agent for the New York State Kansas Committee. Hutchinson was responding to Shutleff's request for an assessment of the efforts to send emigrant parties and relief to Kansas Territory. Overall, Hutchinson offered a fairly negative view of the efforts of the eastern emigrant aid societies to send relief and emigrants to the territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Relief; Shurtleff, A. Havington


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
View of Massachusetts Street from Fort to Ave, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, March, 1856.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets


Photograph, Camp Saunders, Kansas Territory
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
View of Camp Saunders, a Pro-Slavery stronghold, located 12 miles southwest of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Camp Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Fort Saunders); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery


Photograph, Pioneers near Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Unidentified pioneers near Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Pioneers


Bill of Plastering, Hiram Hill to B. Johnson
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 5, 1856
This handwritten bill charged Hiram Hill for plastering work (presumably in his new home in Lawrence, Kansas Territory) done by B. Johnson. Johnson initialed the document, and noted his receipt of Hill's payment in full.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Labor; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment


Letter, Thomas A. Hendricks to John A. Halderman
Authors: Hendricks, Thomas A.
Date: January 16, 1856
Thomas A. Hendricks, commissioner, General Land Office, Lecompton, wrote to J. A. Halderman of Leavenworth regarding a request for information about the preemption laws. He indicated that circulars were being sent and briefly discussed Indian reserves that are not subject to preemption but rather were "to be sold by the United States, on account and for the benefit of said Indians."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Delaware Indians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Hendricks, Thomas A.; Indian reserves; Iowa Indians; Native Americans; Preemption law United States; United States. General Land Office


Ledger, Cost of House Bill at Lawrence, Kansas
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 1856
This informal ledger provides a list of amounts Hiram Hill paid for home building materials and one year of insurance for his new home in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Hill immigrated to the Territory from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment


Ledger, Accounts Paid
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 1856
This informal ledger documents expenses paid and monies lent by Hiram Hill during a visit to Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Included on his provisions list are prices for buffalo skins and overshoes.

Keywords: Account books; Debt; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Money; Prices


Washington Birth-Day Ball by the Kansas Rifles No. One.
Authors: Kansas Rifles No. One
Date: February 22, 1856
The Kansas Rifles No. One sponsored this ball to be held at the Free State Hotel in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, "in honor of the Day which gave birth to th Immortal Washington." The committee of arrangements consisted of J. W. Colburn, James H. Lane, A. Cutler, A. D. Searl, W. L. Brigden, Chas. Robinson, John G. Cropsker, James R. White, E. Emmerson, and B. F. Swift. Tickets to the event were $2.00.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Community life; Cutler, George A.; Daily life; Dance parties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parties; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Searl, Albert D.


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 26, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday reported an uncertain peace from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. President Franklin Pierce's January 24th announcement had commanded assemblies organized against the constitutional territorial government to disperse, and whether Missourians would carry out a threatened attack at the March 4th meeting in Topeka was unknown. Cyrus hoped to visit Meadville and sent a message to Professor Hammett. He also told Mary of his commission as Brigadier General of the Free State military.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Missourians; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Invitation to Washington's Birth-day Ball
Authors: Kansas Rifles Number 1
Date: February 1856
A printed invitation to a Washington's birthday ball hosted by the Kansas Rifles No. 1 at the Free State Hotel on February 22, 1856.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Entertainment; Free State Hotel; Invitation; Kansas Rifles Number 1; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to My Dear Parents and Sister
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: April 6, 1856
In this, his first extant letter from Kansas Territory, Oscar Learnard wrote his parents and sister in Vermont that Lawrence was now his "distant and strangely romantic retreat." This letter recorded Learnard's early impressions of "unfortunate abused Kansas." The situation was bad, but the reality of "Kansas affairs" was being distorted in the Eastern press. Learnard made reference to the bogus laws, the Free State movement, and the anticipated congressional investigation.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Vermont


Letter, G. W. Deitzler to Bradford R. Wood
Authors: Deitzler, George W.
Date: April 7, 1856
Deitzler, writing from Lawrence, offered recommendations to Wood, a New York State Kansas Committee representative, on the best emigration route to Kansas. Deitzler suggested that New York emigrants consider settling on Shawnee Reserve land in Kansas as soon as it was opened to settlement. He also requested monetary aid from the New York State Kansas Committee for free state settlers already in Kansas.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Wood, Bradford R.


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr.
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: April 9, 1856
Samuel N. Simpson wrote to Hiram Hill from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, updating him on the status of Hill's rents and outlining the rental agreements he had arranged with the various tenants. Simpson mentioned he had raised the $5000 for the church, as promised, and that Hill's money could not be invested in Wyandotte lands until they were properly surveyed. He added that he had recently brought firearms to Kansas Territory, stating " I think our trouble in Kansas has only begun -- but let the war and even dissolution come -- the quicker the better."

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: April 30, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, regarding recent land propositions and "excitement": U.S. Troops had been in and out of Lawrence daily, looking to arrest various citizens. Simpson also described his attempts to negotiate land ownership with others who were interested in developing West Lawrence, and sought the approval of Hill in the matter.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Military; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; United States. Army


Photograph, Free State Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Authors: Gibbons, Robert O.
Date: 1856
A painting of the Free State Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas Territory by Robert O. Gibbons. In May 1856, the proslavery sheriff of Douglas County, Samuel Jones, led a posse into Lawrence, the major Free-State stronghold. The chief damage was the burning of the Free-state Hotel shown in this painting.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Gibbons, Robert O.; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Public letter with Interrogatories
Authors: Whitman and Searl
Date: May 8, 1856
Edmund A. Whitman and Albert D. Searl established an Emigrants' Intelligence Office in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. They stressed the importance of finding out information about the country before making a decision about acquiring land in a particular area. This printed letter outlines several issues to be considered and also presents a series of twenty-two questions that they recommend be answered when considering where to settle. While a few of the questions relate to the slave versus free state controversy, most are general concerns to be considered in selecting a place to live. Whitman and Searl produced at least one early Kansas map.

Keywords: Business; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrants' Intelligence Office; Emigration and immigration; Immigrants; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Immigration and early settlement; Land acquisition; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Settlement; Whitman and Searl; Whitman, E. B.


Rules and Regulations, Eldridge House
Authors: Eldridge, T. B.; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899
Date: May 10, 1856
The Eldridge House (or hotel) was built in Lawrence, Kansas Territory by the New England Emigrant Aid Society. It was something of a headquarters for the free state movement and as such it was targeted for destruction by Sheriff Jones' proslavery posse, which sacked Lawrence on May 21, 1856, less than two weeks after this document was created. This pocket-sized card contained twelve "rules and regulations" for residents, including the admonition to "lock and bolt the door when you retire," a prohibition against "all kinds of Gaming," and the notice that "persons without Baggage are expected to pay in advance."

Keywords: Boardinghouses; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Eldridge, Thomas B.; Gaming restrictions; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Legal document, Free Passage to Josiah Miller out of Kansas Territory
Authors: Donalson, I.B. ; Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: May 16, 1856
Josiah Miller, of the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence, was arrested for treason by South Carolina soldiers and was tried in a military tent near Lecompton. He was defended by James Christian and was acquitted. Governor Shannon and I. B. Donalson, U. S. Marshall of the Kansas Territory, issued him this pass on his way out of the territory so that he would not be arrested again by border ruffians.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Christian, James; Courts; Donalson, Israel B.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


"Southern Rights" flag
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 21, 1856
Pro-slavery forces carried this flag while attacking the anti-slavery stronghold of Lawrence. Sheriff Samuel Jones led the group in sacking the town on May 21, 1856. A group of South Carolinians known as the Palmetto Guards participated in the attack, and flew their "Southern Rights" flag over the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper offices and the Free State Hotel before destroying the buildings.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Flags and banners; Free State Hotel; Herald of Freedom; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Palmetto Guards; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; South Carolina; Violence


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: May 23, 1856
Written just two days after the sack of Lawrence, this letter contained Learnard's observations of and reflections on "the fearful disaster to which this unfortunate town has been subjected." The town's citizens, wrote Learnard, chose not to resist the authority of the U.S. marshal but were nevertheless brutalized by Sheriff Jones and a posse of Missourians. He also mentioned Governor Reeder, Governor Shannon and David R. Atchison, who "made a speech."

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Missourians; Proslavery support; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence


Senate Executive Documents, 34th Congress, 3rd session, Report of the Secretary of War
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 23, 1856 - November 12, 1856
Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, submitted a number of documents in his report to the President that was submitted to the "Two Houses of Congress" on December 2, 1856. There were three sections of documents. Part 1 consisted of letters from the Secretary of War (Davis) and the Adjutant General ( S. Cooper) (pp. 27--35) to Colonel E.V. Sumner, General P. F. Smith, the governors of Kentucky and Illinois, and Major Emery, in relation to a militia force to be employed to aid the legitimate Territorial Government in Kansas Territory. Part 2 (pp.35--61) contained various reports from Colonel E. V. Sumner, commaning officer of the 1st Cavalry at Fort Leavenworth about events in Kansas. The reports include correspondence from Wilson Shannon, territorial governor, and various officers of the 1st Cavalry from Lecompton, Tecumseh, and other locations in the territory. Part 3 (pp. 62-146) was headed "Reports for the Department of the West" and included correspondence from various military officers about the activities of United States troops at various locations in Kansas Territory. This section contained several letters from Daniel Woodson and John Geary, territorial officials. A few non-Kansas items relating to dealings with Native Americans were interspersed among the Kansas Territory correspondence.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Cooke, Philip St. George; Davis, Jefferson; Deas, George; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Military; Sackett, Delos B.; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, Jas Finley to Dear Sister
Authors: Finley, James Agnew
Date: May 24, 1856
James A. Finley, a Lawrence resident at the time of the Sack of Lawrence, wrote to his sister recounting the events that had transpired only three days before. Concisely but vividly he described events as they unfolded from the morning of May 21st, when David Atchison "planted 2 cannon upon the hill above town." Finley, a more fortunate man than many in Lawrence that day, claimed to have suffered no losses in the incident.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Finley, James Agnew; Free state perspective; Guns; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Smith, George W.; United States marshals; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Wm Phillips to Respected Madam [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Phillips, William
Date: May 26, 1856
William Phillips, after visiting Charles Robinson in jail, wrote to Sara Robinson updating her on her husband's situation. Phillips reported to her that Charles was being held on two counts: one for high treason and the other for usurping office. He also related to her the events of the sack of Lawrence and the resulting destruction of her home.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Phillips, William; Preston, Colonel; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


Letter, G. W. Brown to Eli Thayer, Esq.
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: June 4, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. G. W. Brown described the sack of Lawrence and the destruction of his printing press, commented upon the harshness of his prison conditions, and asked Eli Thayer to do anything in his power to help secure his release.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Herald of Freedom; Journalism; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Press; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Slave power; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Treason


Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: June 6, 1856
From an embattled Lawrence, Learnard again wrote of near daily "occurrences of exciting interest," including skirmishes between the two "antagonistic parties" and actions of federal troops to "quell disturbances." The problem was with Missourians who had crossed over the border, not "actual settlers." Learnard claimed to be ready to do battle with them over the issue of "slavery or liberty in this country," and predicted that if things continued in this same direction, the entire country would soon be "embroiled in civil war."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Civil war; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Federal troops; Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Skirmishing; Slavery; Vermont; Violence


Daybook
Authors: Emery, James Stanley
Date: July 4, 1856 through June 19, 1857
Account book entries recorded Emery's loss of personal property as a result of July 1856 violence between free state and proslavery advocates. Emery also recorded his expenses for making repairs to his damaged law office.

Keywords: Account books; Arson; Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Fires; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lawyers; Violence


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr.
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: July 7, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported to Hill that the Topeka Legislature had recently been dispersed by U.S. Troops under order of President Pierce, and that southern emigrants were coming into Kansas Territory by "hundreds" while the northern emigrants found themselves forced out by proslavery supporters. Short on time, Simpson kept his report regarding Hill's properties short; Whitney had almost finished his home, offers had been made on various lots, Mr. Fuller continued to be a problem.

Keywords: Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell


George Washington Brown, Near Lecompton, KT to I.B. Donaldson
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 9, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Brown wrote to Israel B. Donaldson, the U.S. Marshal in Kansas, requesting that he terminate and settle a contract with his wife, Mrs. Lois Brown, for boarding the prisoners. Brown asked to board with fellow prisoners John Brown, Jr. and Henry H. Williams and sought to distance himself from Charles Robinson and his followers.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Mrs. George Washington; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Herald of Freedom; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States marshals; Williams, Henry H.


Certificate, Lecompton Town Company, one share
Authors: Lecompton Town Company
Date: July 10, 1856
William L. Blair was issued this certificate for one share of stock in the Lecompton Town Company on July 10, 1856, signed by the company's secretary, Samuel J. Jones, notorious sheriff of Douglas County. The certificate was apparently transferred at some point to J. A. Halderman.

Keywords: Blair, William L.; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lecompton Town Company; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Town site speculation


Letter, O.E. Learnard to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: July 23, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote his father, S.T. Learnard, that he was disappointed in the attitude of people in Vermont and throughout the North who continued to support the Pierce administration. If they did so because they were Democrats, they should learn from Andrew H. Reeder, J. H. Lane, William Y. Roberts, and others who had seen the light. Learnard admitted "a few cases" of free state retaliation "upon their oppressors," and then gave some "facts" about the "Patawotamie" incident, while not mentioning John Brown by name. Learnard believed that the reports about mangled bodies were untrue.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Northern Democrats; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Roberts, William Young; Vermont; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: July 24, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill, reporting on the status of Hill's various real estate investments, "all doing well". Simpson was able to take possession of a town lot owned by tenant Fuller instead of a rent payment. The majority of the lots of West Lawrence were allotted to Simpson, who intended to build an avenue through it immediately. Simpson expressed for old times back in Massachusetts at the Hill's home, and predicted that the "dark times" in Kansas would pass by the next spring. Meanwhile, he said border ruffians still killed and robbed, only to seek the protection of U.S. Troops and escape punishment.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Skirmishing; Town development; Town lots


George Washington Brown, Near Lecompton, KT to his mother
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 24, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856, on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Brown, despite his imprisonment, expressed optimism about Kansas's prospects of becoming a free state.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Lecompton, Kansas Territory


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: August 10, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote from Lawrence of his continued commitment to the "Sacked City," insisting that he would not be "bullied or frightened" by those committing outrages in Kansas Territory. He commented on the political composition of the territory and Lawrence, where he found many Douglas Democrats. Although there were some "fanatics" and "abolitionists," most residents of Lawrence were "western men" who had been driven to oppose the administration by the outrages. He insisted that the significance of the New England Emigrant Company had been exaggerated and that although more violent confrontations were likely, Kansas would eventually be free.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Douglas Democrats; Dragoons; Free State Party; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pierce administration; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.


Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Sir [J. A. Halderman]
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
The former governor wrote this letter from Easton, Pennsylvania, to his former secretary and attorney, J. A. Halderman, in order to secure his services in an effort to retrieve some personal papers and settle some matters of business pertaining to town lots and shares. According to Reeder, "the Sheriff posse at the sacking of Lawrence broke open my trunk and stole the contents. The clothing is probably by this time worn out" and he was not concerned about other contents, with the exception of "some private papers" that someone had informed him could be retrieved. He asked Halderman to get the papers, which included "certificates of stock in Leavenworth, Tecumseh, Lecompton, Lawrence, Easton, Pawnee" etc., and then take care of business matters that were reflected therein--"some obligations for money, leases contracts Receipts & etc." Reeder also asked Halderman "to attend to my Leavenworth lots" and went into considerable detail about these matters.

Keywords: Businessmen; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Easton, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leases; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Stock certificates; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town shares


Charles Robinson to Messrs. Allen, Blood, Hutchinson and others
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: August 16, 1856
Charles Robinson was writing from Camp Sackett, near Lecompton, Kansas Territory, where he was being held prisoner on treason charges. He wrote to encourage free state supporters to negotiate with pro-slavery forces in order to defuse tensions in northeast Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Antislavery; Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Treason


Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: September 9, 1856
From Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Oscar Learnard wrote briefly to some Vermont friends of his recent "military" experience as "Lieutenant Colonel of the 4th regiment (cavalry) of Kansas Volunteers." At the time, Learnard said "the whole Territory presents a scene of wide spread desolation," but he also claimed Kansas was a beautiful place full of opportunity for agriculturalists and real estate investors. At present, however, one should only come if well armed and via "the new road" [Lane Trail].

Keywords: Agriculture; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state regiment; Lane Trail; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Militia; Real estate investment; Vermont


Buffum Tombstone
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Sept. 17, 1856
Tombstone of David C. Buffum, a free-stater from Massachusetts who was killed by the pro-slavery Kickapoo Rangers on Sept. 17, 1856. Buffum was plowing a field on his farm near Lawrence when the Rangers (including Henry Titus and Sheriff Samuel Jones) stole his horse and shot him. Before he died, Buffum was heard to express the sentiments chiseled on his tombstone: "I am willing to die for the cause of Freedom in Kansas."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buffum, David C.; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state perspective; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kickapoo Rangers (militia); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Proslavery activities; Titus, Henry Theodore; Tombstones; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 19, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote to his brother, Edwin Parrott, from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Marcus described to his brother the situation in the area stemming from the Battle of Hickory Point, which occurred six days earlier. He said that the free state men involved in the battle were arrested and held in prison in Lecompton without examination, while the proslavery men met no consequence. Marcus mentioned other incidents that led him to believe crimes and schemes were taking place against free state supporters. He also brought up money and land investments again, requesting money.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Real estate investment; Town development


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 29, 1856
Marcus Parrot wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, regarding the aftermath of the Battle of Hickory Point, which had occurred on September 13. Marcus told him that border ruffians had seized his personal letters, home, and furniture, and were questioning him about a phrase Edwin had written to him in a letter, which suggested the assassination of Judge Lecompte. Marcus stated that Governor Geary had done more damage to the Free State cause than all of his predecessors together, and feared that, if Fremont was defeated in the upcoming Presidential election, their cause would be completely lost.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brindle, William; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free soil; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: September 30, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father, Thomas Parrott. In this letter, Marcus told his father about the events that had befallen him, his letters and possessions being seized by border ruffians. He added that a letter from his brother, Edwin, in which Edwin suggested the assassination of Judge Lecompte, was drawing attention to the two of them. Marcus describes Lawrence as a dangerous place for free state supporters at this time, stating that Governor Geary "has failed to accomplish anything" in his consideration of the uprisings between free state and proslavery men.

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas


Letter, L. B. Russell and C. J. Higginson to Charles H. Branscomb
Authors: Higginson, Charles J.; Russell, Le Baron
Date: October 1, 1856
Le Baron Russell and Charles J. Higginson, members of the New England Emigrant Aid Company Executive Committee, wrote from Boston to Charles H. Branscomb in Kansas. Russell and Higginson informed Branscomb, an agents for the company, that he would oversee the rebuilding of the Free State Hotel in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. The hotel had been destroyed during the May 21, 1856 sack of Lawrence.

Keywords: Branscomb, Charles H.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Free State Hotel; Higginson, Charles J.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Russell, Le Baron


Page from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 4, 1856
This front page of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper is half-filled with an illustration of the "Free State Prisoners": George W. Brown, John Brown, Jr., Judge G.W. Smith, Charles Robinson, Gaius Jenkins, Henry Williams, and George Deitzler, at their camp near Lecompton, Kansas Territory. All had been arrested during the past May, either for charges of treason or for bearing arms against the Government.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, Jr.; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Illustrations; Jenkins, Gaius; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.; Williams, Henry H.


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 7, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his father, Thomas Parrott. Marcus told him of his preparation to defend the free state men accused of murder for their role in the recent skirmishes surrounding the Battle of Hickory Point; he was not optimistic of the outcome, calling his position "embarrassing". Marcus added news of the recent election of a new Territorial Legislature, and shared poll statistics that showed a vast majority of free state supporters in several voting areas. Though this was a positive turn, he stated again that the free state cause would be in the hands of the new President.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Proslavery activities


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Friend [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: October 11, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, reporting that free staters were "still live" in Lawrence, and that most border ruffians had retreated for the time being. Simpson updated Hill on the status of his properties and new construction in the town. Thaddeus Whitney, he said, was "absent from town", however, and Missourians had stolen some valuable building materials. Simpson added that he had helped many destitute families with the monetary aid Hill had sent.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development


Deed for Nathaniel S. Higgins
Authors: Emery, James Stanley
Date: November 5, 1856
Nathaniel S. Higgins of Fair Haven, Massachusetts purchased half of an undivided lot (Number 30) and the stone or concrete building currently occupied by Emery on Massachusetts Street, Lawrence, from James S. Emery for $500. If Emery was able to acquire title to share number 97 of the town of Lawrence from the government, the sale of the half lot and the building would not take effect.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Higgins, Nathaniel S.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate transactions; Town shares


Names of prisoners in custody at Lecompton
Authors: Hoogland, Edward
Date: November 12, 1856
A list of free state prisoners in custody at Lecompton, Kansas Territory. Most of the prisoners had been captured at the Battle of Hickory Point on September 13, 1856. The list records each prisoner's name, previous state of residence, and reason for imprisonment. The last page of the document lists prisoners who had been released. The list was prepared by Edward Hoogland by order of Governor John Geary.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoogland, Edward; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners


Account Book, 1856-57
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: December 1856 - April 1857
This cloth bound journal, identified as "Dr. Chas Robinson Account Book, 1856-1866," contains territorial entries for 1856 and 1857 only--entries such as, "S. W. Simpson To Joel Walker For Draft (for the purchase of land)" for $500 and "Notes Receivable // To Sales of Stock // For Thaddeus Hyatt's Note . . . The understanding is that Hyatt shall not receive his certificate for shares until he has put on the Kaw River a Steamboat of 40 tons buthen, worth $5000., and suitable to navigating the Kaw River."

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Financial statements; Grover, Joel; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Steamboats; Walker, Joel; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [John Calhoun, Esq.]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: December 3, 1856
Charles Robinson wrote to John Calhoun, the Surveyor General in Lecompton, about the paperwork that he himself had filed the last year regarding a "float" ownership in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Robinson had found that the ownership notice was not on file with the government, and was sending Calhoun proof of ownership in an attempt to correct the problem. John Calhoun was an avid pro-slavery supporter, having once said that he was "too lazy to work" and "wanted the negroes to do it for him".

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land claim disputes; Land surveys; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Tennery, William M.; Wyandot Float


Experiences of R. S. Griffithe, N. W. Spicer, and J. A. Harvey
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 6, 1856
These testimonies, collected by the National Kansas Committee, record the experiences of these three settlers during the turbulent times of Bleeding Kansas. These testimonies focus on each settler's involvement in free state activities and their interaction with border ruffians. Griffithe and Spicer both served in the free state militia, and Harvey, who had commanded an emigrant train from Chicago, was the commander of a free state company.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Griffithe, R. S.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Spicer, N.W.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Topeka, Kansas; Violence


Quit-Claim Deed, Charles A. Wright to George W. Collamore
Authors: Wright, Charles A.
Date: December 25, 1856
Quit Claim Deed for Charles Wright, signing ownership of land on New Hampshire and Rhode Island streets in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to George W. Collamore. Collamore would become mayor of Lawrence in 1863.

Keywords: Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Wright, Charles A.


Narrative, the Murder of Charles Dow, by Isaac Goodnow
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: 1856
This written account reports on the incidents surrounding the murder of Charles Dow, including various skirmishes and military action which followed, leading up to the Wakarusa War. Dow was a free state supporter and was murdered by Franklin Coleman, who, according to Goodnow, had turned proslavery only after coming to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dow, Charles W.; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Skirmishing; Violence; Violent deaths


James Lane Telescope
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855-1857
Spyglass used by James Lane and other free-state leaders of Lawrence in observing the movements of Missourians.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects


Pamphlet, "Affairs in Kansas"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This pamphlet contains a proclamation made by President Franklin Pierce and a speech by Senator Isaac Toucey. Also included are printed copies of letters and papers which date from December 1, 1855 to February 18, 1856, and communicate between Governor Wilson Shannon and other officials in Kansas Territory and the President and officials of the federal government which relate to "difficulties" in Kansas Territory. In this document, free state efforts are described as those of a "secret military organization" working against the legitimate Territorial Government.

Keywords: Buckley, H.H.; Calhoun, John; Clarke, George W.; Davis, Jefferson; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Hargis, S.N.; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marcy, William L.; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Richardson, William P.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee Mission; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Toucey, Isaac; Weapons (see also Guns); Westport, Missouri


Brief for Applicant in the matter of the "Wyandott Robitaille Float."
Authors: Weer, William
Date: Circa 1856
William Weer served as legal counsel for the Wyandotte Reserve and presented this brief on behalf of William Lykins and Robert Robitaille apparently to the Commissioner of the Land Office at Lecompton, Kansas Territory. Lykins and Robitaille were attempting to receive a patent for land that was also claimed by the Lawrence Association, Gaius Jenkins, Charles Robinson, S. J. Livingston, George G. Mathews, and William Savage. The brief contained a short history of the Wyandot tribes removal west and various treaties involving land. The claim involved parts of the city of Lawrence. The brief cited various cases and laws upon which Mr. Weer based his arguments.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Indian floats; Indian lands; Jenkins, Gaius; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Livingston, S. J.; Lykins, William H. R.; Mathews, George G.; Native Americans; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robitaille, Robert; Savage, William; United States. General Land Office; Weer, William; Wyandot Float; Wyandot Indians


Photograph, James Henry Lane
Authors: Rohe, A.
Date: 1857
Photograph of an illustration of James Henry Lane "shouting defiance into the convention's ears and the battery's muzzles at Constitution Hall," Lecompton, Kansas Territory. The illustration is copied from Life of General James H. Lane by John I. Speer.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Lecompton buildings; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, R. L. Williams house
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
Stone house built by R. L. Williams in the summer of 1857, Franklin, Kansas Territory. The photograph was taken c. 1890.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin buildings; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Houses; Photographs and Illustrations; Williams, R. L.


Photograph, Ferry crossing the Kansas River
Authors: Hogan, Thomas
Date: 1857
Drawing of a ferry crossing the Kansas River with a view of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1857, copied from Beyond the Mississippi by Albert D. Richardson, 1867.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Ferries; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Wagons


Letter, Wilson Shannon to John A. Halderman
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: January 4, 1857
Wilson Shannon, an Ohio Democrat who preceded John W. Geary as governor of KT (August 1856--August 1857) and was considered a proslave partisan, wrote Halderman from Lecompton regarding some legal matters--specifically, "some land warrants" being sent to Halderman in Leavenworth. Obviously, Halderman the attorney was trusted and respected by men on both sides of the political imbroglio.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Land titles; Lawyers; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Ohio; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


Letter, C. A. Wright to Mr Hill
Authors: Wright, Charles A.
Date: January 4, 1857
Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, having recently recovered from an extended illness. Wright told him that "peace and quietness seam [sic] to reign throughout the Territory" and anticipated that Kansas would become a free state without too much more trouble from the border ruffians. He added that two new hotels were being built in town, one by Thaddeus Whitney, in order to accommodate the spring emigration rush. Wright directed Hill to write him in New York, as he would be traveling East for the next two months.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Whitney, Thaddeus L.; Wright, Charles A.


Letter, Richard McAllister to Mrs. Charles Robinson
Authors: McAllister, Richard
Date: January 9, 1857
Richard McAllister, Deputy Secretary to Governor Geary, wrote to Sara Robinson from Lecompton, enclosing an invitation to the Citizens' Ball on January 15th. McAllister had traveled to Washington with Governor Geary, and was with him when Geary's assassination was attempted. Geary's aim as governor was to put an end to political violence in Kansas by eliminating guerrilla warfare on the part of both free state and proslavery supporters.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; McAllister, Richard; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911


Invitation, Mrs. Charles Robinson to the Citizens' Ball
Authors: McAllister, Richard
Date: January 15, 1857
This invitation was sent to Sara Robinson by Richard McAllister, Deputy Secretary to Governor Geary, enclosing it with a letter sent to her on January 9th. Governors Geary and Shannon were to be in attendance at the ball in Lecompton City, along with several other distinguished guests who supported the Territorial Legislature (considered "bogus" by free state supporters).

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; McAllister, Richard; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stevens, Robert S.; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, H. M. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, H.M
Date: January 18, 1857
H. M. Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported that, since two new hotels were being built in addition to the Emigrant Aid Hotel, Hill's fellow investors in the Cincinnati House (hotel), may want to discontinue its use as a hotel. He suggested that the building might better serve as a store or shop.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Retail businesses; Simpson, H.M; Simpson, Samuel Newell


Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to H. M. Simpson, Esq.
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 31, 1857
Hiram Hill drafted a letter from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to H. M. Simpson, brother of Samuel N. Simpson, in Kansas Territory. Hill responded to H. M.'s favorable impressions of property investments in K.T., and hoped that his anticipations would come to pass. Hill planned to travel to the Territory as soon as his affairs were in order, and inquired about further investment prospects and the going wage for construction tradesmen. He spoke favorably of Governor Gerry (sic, Geary), but feared that the "bogus legislature" would impede his ability to govern.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment; Simpson, H.M; Town development


Letter, Henry Campbell to Friend Colmore [George Collamore]
Authors: Campbell, Henry
Date: February 4, 1857
Henry Campbell wrote to his friend George Collamore, a future mayor of Lawrence, regarding recent trends in real estate sales. Campbell expressed disapproval of the "Bogus Legislature" and referred to a recent shooting in Tecumseh where Judge Rush Elmore, an associate justice of the Territorial Supreme Court, a leading delegate at the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, and a slave holder, was seriously wounded. Campbell also mentioned the upcoming sale of Wyandotte.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Campbell, Henry; Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town development; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Henry Campbell and H.M. Simpson to C. Robinson
Authors: Campbell, Henry ; Simpson, H.M
Date: 13 February 1857
Quit-Claim Deed for Henry Campbell and H.M. Simpson, passing ownership of part of a lot on Massachusetts street on to Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Campbell, Henry; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Simpson, H.M


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Charles Robinson and S.C. Pomeroy
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: February 14, 1857
A. A. Lawrence, writing from Boston, sent a letter along with notes and stock valued at $12,696.14 to Charles Robinson and S.C. Pomeroy, who were acting as Trustees of Lawrence University. He instructed that the money be held in trust, with the intrest income to be used "for the advancement of religious and intellectual education of the young in Kansas." However, Lawrence added that he wanted the funds returned to him if Kansas should not become a free state after its acceptance into the Union.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Lawrence University; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Universities and colleges


Letter, J. Henry Muzzy to Dear Sir [Eli Thayer]
Authors: Muzzy, J. Henry
Date: March 3, 1857
J. Henry Muzzy wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts. Muzzy informed Thayer that free state supporters in Kansas were not, as Thayer had predicted, discouraged by James Buchanan's election as president in November 1856. He observed that the territory had been quiet during the winter of 1856-1857, but warned that the "ruffians" likely would engage in efforts during the spring of 1857 to discourage eastern emigration to Kansas. Muzzy also commented on the dilemma that free staters faced in deciding whether to pay the taxes levied by the proslavery "bogus legislature." He and his fellow free state supporters were not inclined to pay taxes imposed by a "foreign power," but they also realized that if Governor Geary called in U.S. troops to enforce the law they would have no choice but to pay. Muzzy concluded by stating that he was thankful for the end of the "reign of Frank Pierce," contending that "any change at Washington can hardly be for the worse."

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Muzzy, J. Henry; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Relief; Taxation; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Letter, Henry Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: March 16, 1857
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, soliciting his approval for the sale of a town lot in West Lawrence to Mr. Nathan Starks. Parker added that Lykins, the previous owner of the lot, had also sold his mill, and wished to settle his business immediately. He also asked Hill if he would be willing to invest in the construction of a court house for Douglas County.

Keywords: Courthouses; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Parker, Henry F.; Starks, Nathan; Town lots


Methodist Episcopal Church in Kansas, Educational Convention
Authors: Oakley, Walter
Date: March 17-18, 1857
This item described an education convention held by the Methodist Episcopal Church in Kansas at Blue Mound, Kansas Territory. The purpose of the convention was to "found a University." L. B. Dennis was chosen as the chairman and Walter Oakley was the secretary. The document stated the need for the university and indicated that proposals had been received from the towns of Blue Mound, Prairie City, Centropolis, Topeka, Palmyra, and Lawrence. The proposal from Palmyra was accepted and they promised to provide eight hundred acres of land and to purchase $20,000 in "university stock." The institution founded by this convention was named Baker University and the town of Palmyra became Baldwin City. An association was set up to support the "erection and endowment" of the university.

Keywords: Baker University; Baldwin, Kansas Territory; Blue Mound, Kansas Territory; Dennis, Levin B.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Oakley, Walter; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`; Schools


Letter, E. [Ephraim] Nute to Rev. E. E. [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: April 6, 1857
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute included a list of books that he wished to add to his Unitarian church library. Nute commented on the difficulties experienced by those attempting to spread Christianity in Kansas. He also observed that immigration to Kansas was increasing.

Keywords: Books; Churches; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Entertainment; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Libraries; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Reading; Relief; Religion


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Rev. E. E. [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 7, 1857
Charles Robinson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Robinson complained about the lack of respect he had received from New England Emigrant Aid Company leaders. He was particularly upset about criticisms of his financial ability. Robinson expressed anger at what he perceived as Eli Thayer's and the New England Emigrant Aid Company's opposition to the development of the town of Quindaro. Robinson included excerpts from a letter he received from James Redpath outlining Thayer's criticisms of Robinson's involvement with Quindaro.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Letter, Nathan Starks to Messrs. [Owners of the West Lawrence Town Site]
Authors: Starks, Nathan
Date: April 21, 1857
Nathan Starks wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to the "Owners of that portion of the Town Site known as West Lawrence", regarding his previous requests to make town lot purchases from the Town Company. Starks found it difficult to conduct this business transaction since the various owners of the town site, including Hiram Hill were not based locally. Ultimately, Starks hoped to acquire enough land to build housing for his machinery, with housing for his employees adjacent to his business.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Starks, Nathan; Town development; Town lots; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Report of Accounts Received, S.N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: April 27, 1857
Samuel Simpson prepared this list of rents and monies from business transactions he had collected in the name of Hiram Hill since the previous summer.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development


Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for Samuel I. Jones to Josiah Miller
Authors: Jones, Samuel I.
Date: April 30, 1857
This quit-claim deed, executed by Samuel I. Jones as administrator for Thomas Connelly [deceased?], turned ownership of lots 62 and 64 on Rhode Island street to Josiah Miller.

Keywords: Blord, S.H.; Connelly, Thomas; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jones, Samuel I.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Real estate transactions; Sampson, Turner


Letter, E. B. Whitman to S. L. Adair
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: May 15, 1857
Whitman, located in Lawrence, was the general agent for the National Kansas Committee that was distributing relief supplies in Kansas Territory. He wrote that he was sending Adair potatoes and corn to be distributed for planting. Evidently Adair had written him previously about some boxes of supplies he expected and Whitman speculated they were either in Wyandotte or St. Louis on the Steamer Light Foot on the Kansas River.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lightfoot (steamboat); National Kansas Committee; Relief; Steamboats; Whitman, E. B.


Page from Harper's Weekly, "Famous Places in Kansas"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: June 6, 1857
This page, taken from an issue of Harper's Weekly, features engraving illustrations of the Governor's Mansion in Lecompton, Kansas Territory, and James Lane's fort on Mount Oread, near Lawrence, Kansas Territory. A caption explains the history of each structure and the personalities who frequent them.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Mount Oread; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Photograph, Governor's Mansion, Lecompton, Kansas Territory, 1856
Authors: Unknown
Date: 1857
Photograph of an illustration showing the Governor's Mansion, Lecompton, Kansas Territory, 1856, copied from Harper's Weekly, June 6, 1857.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Houses; Lecompton buildings; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations


Letter [transcript], Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: June 15, 1857
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother in Chester, South Carolina, before their departure for Kansas Territory. Miller informed them of banking practices and his new business enterprise-- raising stock. He also discussed the value of prairie land versus timbered land. Miller referred to the "bogus" election of the day before, which elected delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Lecompton. Free state men did not vote, and only 2,071 votes were polled. This clearly showing that, had the election been conducted fairly, the free state men would have won the majority.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Business enterprises; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Illinois; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, Ladd [Erastus] & Prentiss to H. Hill Esq.
Authors: Ladd, Erastus D
Date: June 27 & 29, 1857
Erastus Ladd wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, who had returned from the Territory to Massachusetts. Ladd explained that the delay in Hill's receiving a map of West Lawrence was on account of the sinking of the steamboat on which the maps were shipped. He also asked Hill for his confirmation of the maintenance agreement several of Hill's renters claimed were in place. Ladd told Hill that new businesses had rented space in his Cincinnati House (previously a boarding house).

Keywords: District Court (see United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Maps; Prentiss, S.B.; Real estate investment; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, E.D. Ladd to Hiram Hill Esq.
Authors: Ladd, Erastus D
Date: July 14, 1857
Erastus Ladd wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, in Massachusetts. Ladd enclosed with this note a map of Lawrence along with a list of Hill's properties in West Lawrence. He also alluded to a "town site question", which may refer to questionable business practices on the part of Samuel N. Simpson, during the development of Quindaro, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Maps; Real estate investment; Town development; Town lots; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, T. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 18, 1857
Thomas J. Marsh, who arrived in the Kansas Territory on July 11, 1857, made Lawrence his base of operation. He had made the journey as an agent for the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. His objective was to observe and financially support free state efforts to capture the legislature at the polls in early October (this included conducting a census). During his first week in Kansas Territory, Marsh attended the "entirely harmonious" Free State Party convention in Topeka and reported on initial efforts to organize the campaign. He also seemed very concerned about "petty, personal feuds" among the leadership in the territory. Marsh had personally discussed this issue with the men involved and believed the "discordant elements have been harmonized." Upon his return to Lawrence, Marsh found "U. S. Dragoons parading the streets" and Governor Walker threatening to make numerous arrests because of the unauthorized election of city officials the previous Monday.

Keywords: Blood, James; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dragoons; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Constitution; Travel; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: July 20 [1857]
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother, recently settled in Illinois. He discussed with them family news, and attached a postscript regarding their land warrants in Kansas Territory. Miller also referred to the free state supporters' rejection of a charter put in place by the "bogus legislature" in Lecompton, and the subsequent meeting of the free state legislature in Topeka. A census had been taken by free state men in the largest pro-slavery localities. According to Miller, this census found that free state men outnumbered proslavery supporters by at least 1 to 7.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Miller, Josiah; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 21, 1857
From Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Marsh wrote his third letter in four days to keep his Massachusetts colleague informed about Gov. Walker's occupation of Lawrence. Marsh, who knew the governor when he was secretary of the treasury under President James K. Polk, had a chance to visit with Walker but found out nothing regarding his current intentions. And the city's residents were "attending to their ordinary affairs as though he were not in their midst"--with some 600 dragoons. Marsh then mentioned, among other things, his visit with G. W. Brown, one of the "hostile chiefs." As with the others, Marsh reportedly emphasized the importance of harmony through the elections and the fact "that their differences was a source of grief to all their friends East, no matter who was right, or who was wrong."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dragoons; Factionalism; Free State Party; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Railroads; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Travel; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Broadside, Mass Convention!
Authors: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: July 25, 1857
J. B. Abbott as secretary of the 10th district committee of the Free State party prepared this broadside to advertise a meeting to nominate 2 Senators and 7Representatives for the Legislature. Abbott wrote that the district invluded the following precincts: "Fish's Hotel, Palmyra, Blanton, Willow Springs, Franklin, Lawrence, and Benicia. The meeting was to be held in Lawrence on July 25, 1857. Note: The broadside did not include a time for the meeting.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Benicia Precinct, Kansas Territory; Blanton, Kansas Territory; Broadsides; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Kansas Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`; Willow Springs, Kansas Territory


Statement of votes polled and tally sheet for election of officers under the Topeka Constitution, Lawrence precinct
Authors: Blackman, William I. R.; Mallory, A. H.; Robinson, Alfred
Date: August 3, 1857
An official statement and accompanying tally sheet detaling the results of the "State Election" held under the authority of the Topeka Constitution. This document was from the Lawrence precinct and was certified by election judges W. I. R. Blackman, A. H. Mallory, and Alfred Robinson. Election participants were primarily free state supporters who cast votes for state officials, representatives to the U.S. Congress, and U.S. senators; they also indicated whether they were for or against the Topeka Constitution.

Keywords: Blackman, William I. R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Elections; Free state constitutions; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mallory, Anson H.; Robinson, Alfred; Topeka Constitution


Letter, E. [Ephraim] Nute to [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: August 3, 1857
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute described efforts to establish a high school in Lawrence as well as a university in Kansas Territory. He also advised Hale to pay close attention to the activities of Francis Serenbetz, a German Congregational minister who was the leader of a group of German immigrants who settled in Humboldt, Kansas Territory. In Nute's opinion, Serenbetz was an "unmitigated humbug and nuisance" who came to Kansas for self-interested reasons. Nute urged Hale to stop sending settlers to Kansas who lacked financial resources or a willingness to work to support themselves.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Elections; Emigrant aid companies; Germans; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Schools; Serenbetz, Francis M.; Topeka Constitution; Universities and colleges


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 11, 1857
On August 11, 1857, Marsh reported from Lawrence that the governor was "still here with his Troops, but nobody pays any regard to him, or them." According to D. W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas, however, all but forty troops left on August 3, the day of the election under the Topeka Constitution, which Marsh also mentioned. His primary concern remained the October election, which many feared would not be fairly conducted despite the governor's promises, and the growing talk of another Free State Party boycott of the polls.

Keywords: Cato, Sterling G.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Free State Party; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Constitution; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 27, 1857
In this letter from Lawrence, K.T., Marsh reported that despite opposition from Judge Martin Conway, the delegates at the Grasshopper Falls Convention on August 26 "voted to go into the [October] Election with all the power they have." So, the stage was set for the campaign that needed all the financial support Stearns's committee could give it through Marsh.

Keywords: Congressional delegate; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Convention; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Letter, E. D. Ladd to Mr. H. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Ladd, Erastus D
Date: September 3, 1857
Erastus Ladd wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Ladd asked for Hill's suggestion as to what to do about a delinquent renter. He updated Hill regarding the status of various land investments, and included a note about Samuel Simpson's sale of half of his investment in West Lawrence. Ladd anticipated a free state election, and the development of a railroad line between Lawrence and the Delaware lands.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: September 7, 1857
Nearly two months into his K.T. assignment and stay in Lawrence, Marsh reported several significant observations about the Free State Party: Governor Walker's apparent commitment to a fair canvas, the rapidly approaching territorial election (October 1857), and the money so far spent and needed for the campaign. He also observed that the Constitutional Convention was opening in Lecompton, and wrote: "If you could see the town, and people of Lecompton, and had the opportunity that I have had to witness their Plantation Manners--I think you would at once be reminded of the Scriptural inquiry, 'Can any good thing, come out of Nazareth?'"

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Commission, James Montgomery, captain
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: September 16, 1857
This printed commission, issued from the "Head-Quarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot-Box," was given to James Montgomery and signed by J.H. Lane and M. F. Conway, adjutant general, on September 16, 1857. Montgomery was commissioned captain of the "Little Sugar Creek Company." This would have been specifically for the territorial election, October 5, 1857.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)


Letter, T.J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: September 28, 1857
In this letter to Stearns, Marsh expressed confidence that the October election would turn in favor of the Free State Party. Marsh had been traveling in the "Southern Counties" and was encouraged: "You may rest assured, that the people are united and earnest." He predicted a victory for Marcus Parrott and "a good working majority" for the Free State Party in both houses of the legislature. Unless he received further instructions from the committee, Marsh planned to leave Kansas about three days after the election.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Crusader of Freedom; Doniphan, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Receipt, John D. Hicks to A. A. Lawrence
Authors: Hicks, John D.
Date: September 29, 1857
This receipt and accompanying sales contract documents the purchase of $7113.30 worth of hardware and household items by A.A. Lawrence from John D. Hicks. George Collamore signed the sales contract as witness to the deal. Ingle Barker, of the Mammoth Hardware and Stove Store, was named as the Executor and Administrator of the "goods and chattels" in the name of A.A. Lawrence, and would be responsible for the sale of these goods to settlers in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Barker, Ingle; Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hicks, John D.; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store; Merchandise; Merchants; Receipts; Retail businesses


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Dear Sir [Samuel Adair, presumably]
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 5, 1857
Whitman wrote from Lawrence, presumably, to Samuel Adair to ask for his assistance in distributing remaining clothing before winter. He included instructions for notifying the public of the availability of relief goods and indicated that the first priority for receiving materials is for who Adair "knows to be in absolute want." Whitman felt the task of distribution should not take more than one week. He also wanted Adair to estimate the number of poor families in his community.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Sir [G. L. Stearns]
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 11, 1857
E. B. Whitman, an agent of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee, reported from Lawrence about money problems and his efforts to provide assistance to John Brown, etc. He also observed that free state men seemed to have won the election, said all was "peaceful in the territory" right then, and reported less than favorably on the organizational work done by T. J. Marsh.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Mr. [G. L.] Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 25, 1857
In this report from Lawrence, Whitman complained about his money problem and wrote that John Brown, who, according to Sanborn, had been in Iowa for some weeks, would be in Lawrence for "a very important council" of the military organization. "Look for something decisive this winter and Satisfactory." He informed Stearns that he (Whitman) would take care of "J. B.'s wants" as soon as he could, but there was a limit to what he could borrow on his own account. "I am willing to work, wear out, die if need be in the cause, but I cannot send a brick always without straw."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state militia; Iowa; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Quit Claim Deed, Hiram Hill to S.N. Simpson
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: November 2, 1857
Hiram Hill sold and quit-claimed one-half of his interest in the development of West Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Samuel N. Simpson for $10,000. This amount of land was equivalent to one-seventh of the total shares invested in the land designated the "Joel Walker float", also known as West Lawrence. Joel Walker was affiliated with the Quindaro Town Company and was a fellow free state supporter.

Keywords: Chadwick, Charles; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town lots; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Lecompton Constitution (as printed in D.W. Wilder's Annals of Kansas (1868)).
Authors: Lecompton Constitutional Convention
Date: November 7, 1857
The Lecompton Constitution, the second constitution drafted for Kansas Territory, was written by proslavery supporters. The document permitted slavery (Article VII), excluded free blacks from living in Kansas, and allowed only male citizens of the United States to vote. There were three separate votes on the Lecompton Constitution: December 21, 1857, January 4, 1858, and August 2, 1858. In the final vote, residents of Kansas Territory rejected the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery; Slavery


Lecompton Constitution (manuscript version)
Authors: Lecompton Constitutional Convention
Date: November 7, 1857
The Lecompton Constitution, the second constitution drafted for Kansas Territory, was written by proslavery supporters. The document permitted slavery (Article VII), excluded free blacks from living in Kansas, and allowed only male citizens of the United States to vote. There were three separate votes on the Lecompton Constitution: December 21, 1857, January 4, 1858, and August 2, 1858. In the final vote, residents of Kansas Territory rejected the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Constitutional conventions; Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery; Slavery


Illustration, St. Nicholas Hotel, Lawrence, KS
Authors: Watson, B.I.
Date: November 15, 1857
An unknown artist drew this pencil sketch of St. Nicholas House, a wagon stop built in 1854 in Lawrence, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hotels; Illustrations; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; St. Nicholas House; Town development


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: December 2, 1857
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother, in Sparta, Illinois. Miller spoke of political unrest surrounding the existence of both the Lecompton Constitution and the Topeka Constitution. He demanded that judges in the territory have the power to arrest border ruffians, who "were responsible for everything to do with the Lecompton Constitution." Miller also expressed his concern over a letter he had received from a relative, concerning the manner in which he himself was handling the family's financial investments in the Territory.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Free State Party; Gold mines and mining; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Map, Palmyra, Kansas Territory
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
Palmyra, Kansas Territory was a small town settled on 320 acres in Douglas County south of Lawrence, and served primarily as a service station to settlers traveling West on the Santa Fe Trail. In 1858, the town purchased land to the South, and donated it to establish Baker University and the city of Baldwin, both of which have survived to the present day.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Maps; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`


Law Brief, Gaius Jenkins vs. the Robetaille Float, James H. Lane
Authors: Unknown
Date: c. 1858
This law brief was prepared on the behalf of Gaius Jenkins by his attorneys, defending his ownership of land that was also claimed by James Lane. This composition stated that Jenkins settled on his claim during October 1854, while Lane settled next to him in 1855, and that Lane sold Jenkins half of his land shortly thereafter for $800. These points, added to various witness testimonies, show that Jenkins was the rightful owner of the land in dispute. Lane killed Jenkins in June 1858 in an argument over this same matter.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Legal documents; Robitaille, Robert; United States. General Land Office


Invitation to a ball at the Free State Hotel
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1858
An invitation to a ball held on January 29, 1859, at the Free State hotel with proceeds going toward refurnishing the hotel.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Allen, Lyman; Babcock, Carmi William; Blood, James; Branscomb, Charles H.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Emery, James Stanley; Entertainment; Free State Hotel; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; McClure, W. M.; Mead, Andrew J.; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Searl, Albert D.; Smith, George W.; Winchell, J. M.


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Authors: Lamon, W. H.
Date: c. 1858
A view of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, looking southeast from Mt. Oread, late 1850s or early 1860s. The photograph was taken by W. H. Lamon.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lamon, W. H.; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Stereographs


Account Book, 1858-59
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: January 1858 - June 1859
This cloth bound journal, identified as "Account Book of Gov. Charles Robinson, January 1, 1858--June 15, 1872," began with an "Inventory of Property belonging to C. Robinson," land and shares, as well as a list of people to whom he owed money. The inventory referred to Lawrence property, a "Wyandotte Float," and shares in the towns of Topeka, Quindaro, etc.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Financial statements; Fitchburg, Massachusetts; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Wyandot Float; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Pamphlet, Rules for the Government of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Kansas Territory, Legislature
Date: January 4, 1858
This pamphlet outlines procedures for conducting business in the Territorial Legislature. This document was officially adopted by the Third Session of the Territorial Legislature held at Lecompton, and includes lists and directory information of members and officers in both the House of Representatives and the Council, as well as "Rules and Orders" for both of those groups.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Territorial government


Letter, R.C. Brant to Hiram Hill
Authors: Brant, R.C.
Date: January 5, 1858
R.C. Brant, a Baptist missionary who had settled in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, wrote to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, regarding the use of Hill's land. Brant owned a town lot next to Hill's, and wished to make improvements to his land, which would require that he use Hill's lot. Brant explained that he had many visitors coming and going who would see the beauty of the area and might be inclined to settle in the area if he be allowed to improve his own lot. A note at the end of the letter supports Brant's credibility as a permanent citizen of Lawrence who had already made improvements to the town.

Keywords: Baptists; Brant, R.C.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missionaries; Real estate investment; Town development


Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: February 3, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported that money had been scarce that season, that the float of West Lawrence was still being investigated by Washington, and discussed town lot values related to the "float" status of the land. Parker also updated Hill on recent political events; the Legislature had convened and was discussing moving the Territorial capital. More significantly, a box of votes from the recent Lecompton Constitution election had been discovered under a woodpile, and the Legislature was busy making "stringent" laws to curb future acts of election fraud.

Keywords: Capitals (cities); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Hill, Hiram; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate investment; Temperance movement; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: February 11, 1858
Josiah Miller, serving as Probate Judge for Douglas County, wrote to his Father and Mother in Illinois. He offered them more advice as to their financial investments in Kansas and their journey to the Territory. Miller commented that, even though the laws put in place by the bogus legislature had been repealed, it was "hard to tell whose laws are in force." He also voiced his support for a bill which would make accepting a position under the Lecompton Constitution a felony punishable by death.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Judges; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Miller, Josiah; Travel


Letter, R. G. Elliott to Dear Sister
Authors: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: February 15, 1858
Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his sister from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, regarding his financial investments. Elliott told her that he was a person who had had both good and bad fortune and, though he was not immediately wealthy and might have to wait to build a house, he had many shares in town properties that should be worth at least $3000-4000.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Elliott, Robert G.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Travel


Letter, E. B. Whitman to George L. Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: February 20, 1858
This rather lengthy report from Lawrence addressed many issues, especially those surrounding the Lecompton constitutional controversy. With "the Topeka Movement . . . abandoned," the question was what would take its place to resist the Lecompton Constitution if it were accepted by the Congress. The territorial legislature had formally "protested against the admission of Kansas into the Union under the Lecompton Constitution," and "the Mass of the people are determined" to resist its imposition. Whitman went on to make many other interesting observations about the political situation, regarding Democrats and Republicans and even abolitionists: "men who seek here and now, on this issue, to break the back bone of slavery forever." In addition to the political, Whitman described his "labor of distributing the clothing . . . for the relief of Kansas," and discussed in some detail the financial situation regarding the Committee, his personal debt, and Kansas relief and support to John Brown.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Buchanan administration; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Whitman, E. B.


Account Book, 1858-1872
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: March 1858
Charles Robinson's March 1858 "Account Book" entries included land deals involving James Blood and another with Alfred Gray of Quindaro.

Keywords: Account books; Blood, James; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Gray, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Nathan Starks to Hiram Hill Esq
Authors: Starks, Nathan
Date: March 8, 1858
Nathan Starks wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, asking for Hill's assistance in securing his old homestead in Massachusetts. Starks described his situation: he had moved to K.T. seeking better health and business, but had been disappointed in both of those, the social scene, and the lawlessness of the land. He hoped to return to his old homestead in Massachusetts after a year of life in Kansas Territory, provided that it had not been sold.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Mills and mill-work; Real estate investment; Starks, Nathan


Letter, E. B. Whitman to George L. Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: April 13, 1858
Whitman wrote a rather lengthy update on the Kansas situation for Stearns, focusing on the political machinations of the previous few and the uncertain situation created by the Lecompton debate. Of territorial leadership, Whitman observed: "While Kansas is blessed with many of the truest men of the age, men who are fully up to the emergency, she is also cursed with some of the most unprincipled demagogues that ever afflicted any country." There was much confusion and disagreement about the best course of action for free state men to take, now that many acknowledge the death of the Topeka movement. He then turned to the work of the Minneola/Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March 1858.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. Congress; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, John P. Wheeler to Geo. W. Collamor, Esq.
Authors: Wheeler, John P.
Date: April 13, 1858
John Wheeler, Secretary of the Sumner Company, wrote to George Collamore, future mayor of Lawrence, from Sumner, Kansas Territory, inviting Collamore to purchase an interest in the developing town, named for the Massachusetts Republican, Charles Sumner.

Keywords: Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sumner Town Company; Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Wheeler, John P.


Receipt, Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store to George Collamore
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 14, 1858
George Collamore, Lawrence resident and future mayor, purchased various metal containers at Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Collamore would later be killed during Quantrill's raid on Lawrence in 1863.

Keywords: Barker, Ingle; Business; Collamore, George W.; Commerce; Domestics; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Ethnic groups; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mammoth Hardware & Stove Store; Receipts


Letter, unknown [H. F. Parker?] to Mr. H. Hill
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 27, 1858
The author of this letter, most likely Henry F. Parker, wrote to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, communicating to Hill roughly the amount of property taxes he owed and seeking confirmation of the specific lot numbers Hill owned.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate investment; Taxation; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to M. [Martin] F. Conway
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: April 30, 1858
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory. Webb provided Conway with a detailed description of the property owned by the company in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Webb was quite critical of Charles Branscomb's, the company's previous general agent, administration of company property in the town.

Keywords: Branscomb, Charles H.; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Real estate; Town development; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Free State Ticket - Minneola/Leavenworth Constitution
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 1858
This document listed persons who ran for office in Kansas Territory in May 1858.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Branscomb, Charles H.; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state constitutions; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Ladd, Erastus D.; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Soule, Amasa; Stewart, John E.; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Walden, John Morgan; Whig Party (U.S.)


Letter, H.J. Parker to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: May 2, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker included a list of accounts paid and received on the first page. He looked forward to Hill's visit to K.T. in the fall, but was afraid he would be disappointed as "everybody has the blues"; the scarcity of money was taking its toll on the community. However, Parker said many new houses were being built, though the builders themselves were paid in town lots or lumber instead of money.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Prices; Real estate investment; Rent


Letter, John S. Brown to Rev. Mr. [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Brown, John S.
Date: May 2, 1858
John S. Brown wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Brown informed Hale that he had substituted for Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, for the previous six months while Nute lectured in the East. Brown stated that he wanted to serve in Kansas as a missionary but lacked financial resources. He asked Hale for funds to support his missionary efforts.

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Unitarian churches


Letter, E. Nute to [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: May 10, 1858
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute inquired about the possibility of Hale arranging a loan of $2000 at reasonable interest for the completion of the Unitarian Church in Lawrence. He reported on the high rates of interest being charged for loans in Kansas Territory and on the general effects of the panic of 1857 on the territorial economy. Nute also expressed his dissatisfaction with the Buchanan administration's handling of the Lecompton Constitution and his hope that a change in presidential administration in 1860 would result in Kansas' admission as a free state.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Blood, James; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Loans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Nute, Ephraim; Panic of 1857; Religion; Unitarian church buildings


Benefit Ball
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 21, 1858
This invitation was to a ball to be held on the anniversary of the destruction of the Free State Hotel. It was to celebrate the opening of the Eldridge House, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Tickets cost $5.00 and the proceeds were to be used for furnshing the new hotel. Thirty nine men from 17 different communities were listed on the invitation.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Community life; Daily life; Dance parties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Free State Hotel; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parties


Letter, P. R. Brooks, Lawrence, K. T. to his father
Authors: Brooks, P. R.
Date: June 6, 1858
This letter described the land claim dispute between James Lane and Gaius Jenkins, which ended with Lane killing Jenkins. Brooks wrote that Jenkins was well respected, mentioned his widow and children and indicated that his funeral was well attended. He also made passing reference to the "Linn county tragedy."

Keywords: Brooks, Paul R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, John F. King to Tho. Ewing Jr
Authors: King, John F.
Date: July 1, 1858
Ewing's correspondent, John F. King of Lawrence, had just given testimony in the Lane-Jenkins hearing that supported Lane's testimony that he shot Gaius Jenkins in self-defense on June 3, 1858, and wrote to provide Ewing (one of Lane's attorneys) with some information regarding "the exact position of the court." In the preliminary hearing, conducted by three justices of the peace (Erastus D. Ladd and two others) beginning on June 15, the decision was that no murder had been committed.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Jenkins, Gaius; Justices of the peace; King, John F.; Ladd, Erastus D.; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Shooting of Gaius Jenkins
Authors: Unknown
Date: July 24, 1858
A page from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 24, 1858, showing the shooting of Gaius Jenkins by James H. Lane, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, June 3, 1858. The page also contains portraits of James H. Lane and Gaius Jenkins.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations


Letter, G. W. Brown to Dear Sir & Brother
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 28, 1858
Writing on International Order of Oddfellows letterhead, George W. Brown of Lawrence informed his correspondent, apparently of White Cloud, Doniphan County, that he had enclosed an application for a subordinate lodge charter. The recipient of this letter might have been Sol Miller.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Clubs; Community life; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; Independent Order of Odd Fellows; International Order of Odd Fellows; Kansas Chief; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; White Cloud, Kansas Territory


Account Book, 1858-1872
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: August - September 1858
Robinson's August and September 1858 "Account Book" entries included several for the "Quindaro Company," which was being actively promoted and developed at this time. Specific items included reference to the purchase of "2 yoke cattle" for $150, "expenses of C.R. at Washington," and an itemized list of supplies and services for the infant river town.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Financial statements; Gray, Alfred; Kansas Land Trust Company; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Quindaro Town Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Schools; Stevens, Robert S.; Town companies; Washington, D.C.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Financial Statements, M. F. Conway to N. E. Emigrant Aid Company
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: August 1, 1858 - January 1, 1859
These monthly financial statements, submitted by Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory, detailed company income and expenditures for a six month period between July and December 1858. Conway provided particularly full accounts of his traveling expenses during frequent trips around the territory.

Keywords: Account books; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Financial statements; Food; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Stagecoaches; Transportation; Travel


Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: August 25, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker described the situation in K.T. as "dull. . .every man you se [sic] here Looks blue and no Business and allmost [sic] Every Family are Sick". He told Hill that the Cincinnati House was the only property of his that was occupied, all other of Hill's homes and buildings were vacant; many people were selling their property. Parker closed his letter with a mention of the recent election to ratify the Lecompton Constitution under the English bill.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; English Bill; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to M. F. Conway
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: August 28, 1858
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory. Webb gave instructions to Conway on several New England Emigrant Aid Company business matters including the potential sale of the mill in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Webb comments on the decline in real estate values in Kansas Territory in the aftermath of the Panic of 1857.

Keywords: Batcheller, Kansas Territory; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Real estate; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town lots; Wabaunsee County, Kansas Territory; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, A. C. Morton to Mr. Hill
Authors: Morton, Albert C.
Date: August 3, 1858
Albert Morton wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton had recently returned to Quindaro in order to vote on the Lecompton Constitution as submitted by the English bill. Having arrived there, he found the place to be "dull". Morton described many empty houses and buildings, left behind from settlers selling out to return home; money had also been lost in investments and bridges were washed out in floods. However, the Town Company had invested in a flour mill, which had commenced operations. Morton also discussed matters of buying and selling land warrants with Hill.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, August 1858; English Bill; Hill, Hiram; Lecompton Constitution; Morton, Albert C.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Voting


Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to James W. Denver
Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight
Date: October 15, 1858
Hugh S. Walsh, Secretary under Governor Denver, now Acting Governor, wrote from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to James W. Denver in Wilmington, Ohio. Only days earlier Denver ended his term as governor of Kansas Territory. Walsh updated him on political events occurring in Kansas Territory. He also mentioned that a delegate convention planned to meet at Lawrence on November 10, and that he would do what he could to "clog" the convention until there is a "fair apportionment [of representatives] based on population" to avoid any independent actions taken on the part of free state supporters.

Keywords: Apportionment; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Newspapers; Proslavery support; Roberts, William Young; Walsh, Hugh Sleight


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: November 6, 1858
S.T. Learnard wrote from Montpelier, Vermont, to his son Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. The author commended Oscar for his honorable conduct in supporting right and justice, while expressing his dissatisfaction with his fellow Vermont State Legislators who "appear to be ignorant of the nature and effect of Laws and pay but little attention to their passage." He also asked his son to dispose of his land interests in Lawrence and requested that Oscar update him on his business and future prospects.

Keywords: Business; Business enterprises; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Real estate investment; Vermont


Letter, H. F. Parker to Hiram Hill Esq
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: November 15, 1858
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported that currently he was only able to collect $33.33 in rent from Hill's tenants, a small fraction of what was owed. He added that many settlers were leaving for California and hopes for gold mining in the West; many homes and businesses were vacated. Parker closed by stating "I am sick of Kansas if Business is to go as it has the Last year".

Keywords: California; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Gold mines and mining; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate business


Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to Dear General [James Denver]
Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight
Date: November 21, 1858
Hugh S. Walsh, Acting Governor of Kansas Territory, wrote from Lecompton to James W. Denver, recently resigned governor of Kansas Territory. Walsh updated Denver on various issues of Territorial governance, including Indian affairs, James Montgomery, land offices, postal service, and the Leavenworth Constitution. On several occasions he conveyed distrust of various men expressing interest in government positions, especially the newly appointed Governor Medary, though Walsh did concede that Medary had "tact."

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Indian agents; Land; Leavenworth Constitution; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Postal service; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Walsh, Hugh Sleight


Oddfellows Lodge of White Cloud, Kansas Territory
Authors: International Order of Odd Fellows
Date: c. December 15, 1858
This document listed the names of those men who are becoming Charter members of the International Order of Odd Fellows' chapter in White Cloud, Kansas Territory. It also records which members have paid. According to the note on the bottom of the first page, the White Cloud Lodge was instituted on December 15, 1858.

Keywords: Clubs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; International Order of Odd Fellows; White Cloud, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Lecompton, Kansas Territory, 1858
Authors: Beaulieu
Date: 1858
Photograph of an illustration showing the city of Lecompton, the current territorial capital of Kansas, copied from Leslie's, December 25, 1858.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations


Leslie's Illustrated, Panoramic view of Lawrence.
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 25, 1858
Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 25, 1858, showing a panoramic view of Lawrence. The scene includes businesses, homes, and cattle and sheep grazing on a hill overlooking Lawrence. The illustration is captioned, "City of Lawrence, Kansas Territory."

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Town settlement


Leslie's Illustrated, Panoramic View of Lecompton
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 25, 1858
Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper depicting panoramic view of Lecompton. Scene includes steamboats on the Kansas River and immigrant wagons. Captioned, "City of Lecompton, Territorial Capital of Kansas."

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Immigration and early settlement; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Objects; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement


Circular, Lawrence University
Authors: Bishop, William ; Board of Trustees of Lawrence University; Miner, Dr. C. E.
Date: ca. 1858
Advertisement for the development and opening of Lawrence University. Outlines Faculty members, subjects, and academic programs that will be available, as well as fee schedules.

Keywords: Bishop, William; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Landscape; Lawrence University; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Teachers


Constitution, By-Laws, and Rules of Tecumseh Lodge, No. 3, of the Independent Order of Good Templars of Kansas.
Authors: Independent Order of Good Templars
Date: 1858
This lodge was located in the city of Tecumseh, Douglas County, Kansas Territory. Male and female members were allowed. The primary purpose of the organization was to oppose the manufacture, sale, purchase, or use of alcoholic beverages.

Keywords: Clubs; Community life; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Independent Order of Good Templars; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Temperance; Women


Map, Ream's sectional map of the territory of Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1858
Map of Kansas Territory counties, with Washington, Dickinson, and Clay counties as a Western boundary.

Keywords: Allen County, Kansas Territory; Anderson County, Kansas Territory; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory (see also Lyon County, Kansas); Brown County, Kansas Territory; Butler County, Kansas Territory; Calhoun County, Kansas Territory (see also Jackson County, Kansas Territory); Clay County, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Davis County, Kansas Territory; Dickinson County, Kansas Territory; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Dorn County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Godfrey County, Kansas Territory; Greenwood County, Kansas Territory; Hunter County, Kansas Territory; Jackson County, Kansas Territory (see also Calhoun County, Kansas Territory); Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Madison County, Kansas Territory; Maps; Marshall County, Kansas Territory; McGhee County, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Nemaha County, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie County, Kansas Territory; Richardson County, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Washington County, Kansas Territory; Weller County, Kansas Territory; Wilson County, Kansas Territory; Woodson County, Kansas Territory


Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Authors: Parker, Henry F.
Date: January 5, 1859
Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported the amount of city, country, township, institutional, and school taxes that Hill would owe. He told Hill he would pay the city tax for now, and wait to hear from him regarding the others. Parker observed that current sales of lots were slow, but that he had received an offer on one of Hill's lots.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Starks, Nathan; Taxation; Town lots


Letter, S. C. S. [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: January 6, 1859
Samuel Smith wrote to Dr. Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, regarding the latest election events within the Kansas Territorial Legislature. The positions of Speaker and Clerk were not secured by William Roberts and himself, as had been expected, but had been filled by Alfred Larzalere and Byron P. Ayres as a consequence of some questionable internal party politics, so described by Smith. Smith also wrote Robinson of George Deitzler's desire to resume correspondence with him, and of a recent incident in which James Lane's portrait was defaced.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Ayres, Byron P.; Babcock, Carmi William; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Branscomb, Charles H.; Deitzler, George W.; Delahay, Mark W.; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elder, P.P.; Elections; Free State Party; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Hutchinson, George W.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Larzalere, Alfred; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); McLane, George W.; Methodist Church; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Vaughan, Champion; Wright, John W.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, S. Medary to My Dear Sir
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: January 12, 1859
Samuel Medary wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to an unknown recipient in Washington, D. C. Medary expressed his disapproval at the way the U. S. Marshall handled the "troubles" in Linn and Bourbon counties that were brought on by free-state radical James Montgomery and his men. He added that the legislature, newly in session, was difficult to work with, as there very few "reliable democrats" in it. Medary also described the legislature's debate over Montgomery's fate.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Danford, Addison; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Roberts, T.R.; Violence; Wright, John W.


Letter, [Governor] S. [Samuel] Medary to My Dear Sir [former governor James W. Denver]
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: January 13, 1859
Governor Samuel Medary, writing from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to former governor James W. Denver, reported on his successful effort to convince the Territorial House of Representatives to pass a bill establishing a special court to try James Montgomery and other free state supporters allegedly engaged in violence in southeast Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Jayhawkers; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Violence


Letter, J. P. Root to Hon. Charles Robinson
Authors: Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: January 17, 1859
Joseph Root wrote to Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, informing him of a development that was splitting the Republican (anti-slavery) Party. Root mentioned that a large majority of the free state House members had begun to call themselves "Radicals," or extreme Republicans. He stated that he would leave the party if, in order to be a Republican, he had to be a member of the "Jim Lane Montgomery Men." Root also informed Robinson that a court had been established in Lawrence in order to try violent offenders from Linn, Lykins, and Bourbon counties.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Smith, Samuel C.


Letter, R. Harding to Mr. [John] Bayless
Authors: Harding, R.
Date: January 22, 1859
R. Harding wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to John Bayless regarding the recent business discussed in the Territorial Legislature. Harding indicated that many members of the Legislature were intent on "Stealing Thunder", or receiving the glory for policies first introduced by others. He thought that, in light of recent difficulties with skirmishes in Linn and Bourbon Counties, Governor Medary would soon lose his. Harding seemed to support James Montgomery, who was responsible for many of those skirmishes, stating that "the provocation was evidently great and now he certainly has the sympathies of a large majority of the community best acquainted with the facts."

Keywords: Bayless, John; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Harding, R.; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871


Diary
Authors: Hubbell, Willard Orvis
Date: February 1, 1859 - April 30, 1859
This three month excerpt from a personal diary probably was written by Willard O. Hubbell. The diary described Hubbell's routine daily activities as a twenty-five year old bachelor working as a tinner in Lawrence. Hubbell was active in fraternal organizations and frequently attended dances and other social gatherings.

Keywords: Clubs; Community life; Dance parties; Diaries; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; Freemasons; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: April 10, 1859
Hiram Hill wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his brother. Hill traveled to Lawrence to settle various business matters, but found himself preoccupied with repairing rat damage to the foundation of one of his homes. He had found renters for all of his buildings himself, as he was not inclined to trust anyone to do the business for him since "they are a promising set of cutthroats". Hill would not travel to Manhattan or Topeka but would stop in Quindaro before heading back to Massachusetts.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Anniversary Ball
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 20, 1859
The citizens of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, were giving this ball to benefit the fire department but the event was to be held on the anniversary of the destruction of the Free State Hotel on May 20, 1856. The event was to be held at the Eldridge House and music was provided by the Lawrence Quadrille Band.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Community life; Daily life; Dance parties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Free State Hotel; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parties


Letter, William A. Phillips, State Marshall, to Joel Grover
Authors: Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893
Date: June 24, 1859
William A. Phillips, Kansas State Marshall, wrote to Joel Grover, at the time a Douglas County Commissioner, appointing him to take the census in a township northwest of Lawrence. Grover had previously served in the Wakarusa War as captain of the first military company in Lawrence. Later, he became active in local government and held various positions until his death in 1879.

Keywords: Census; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Grover, Joel; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to M. F. Conway
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: August 17, 1859
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to Martin F. Conway, general agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas Territory. Webb expressed disappointment about the manner in which a territorial claims committee viewed New England Emigrant Aid Company claims for damages. He also stated his concern about seeing the Company listed as a delinquent taxpayer in the Lawrence Republican newspaper.

Keywords: Claims (see Damage claims or Land claims); Conway, Martin Franklin; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Property tax; Taxation; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Simpson Brothers to Hiram Hill Esq.
Authors: Simpson, W.A.
Date: October 7, 1859
W.A. Simpson wrote for the Simpson Brothers from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Simpson reported that the Lawrence City Council had passed a sidewalk ordinance, and had received a reasonable estimate for the work and materials to place them on Hill's properties.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, W.A.; Town development


Letter, E. S. Whitney to Uncle Hiram
Authors: Whitney, E.S.
Date: November 24, 1859
E. S. Whitney, niece of Hiram Hill, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to her uncle in Massachusetts. Whitney reported that money was scarce; the family was living in a hotel in town and they had begun renting their house. Her husband, Thaddeus Whitney, was unable to collect debts owed to him in order to travel to Pikes Peak. They all had recently suffered from an illness, but Thaddeus had begun building a new home on New Hampshire street.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Hill, Hiram; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pikes Peak gold rush; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Whitney, E.S.; Whitney, Thaddeus L.; Women


Report of the Territorial Superintendent of Common Schools
Authors: Greer, Samuel W
Date: December 31, 1859
This printed report was submitted to the Kansas Territorial Legislature by Gov. Medary on January 4, 1860. S. W. Greer, the Territorial Superintendent of Common Schools reported that fifteen counties had submitted reports and schools were taught in 136 districts comprising 7,029 children. He reported on how he visited school districts and included some information on various types of schools in the state. He wrote that the pay for the superintendent was inadequate, due to the value of territorial scrip being worth 30 cents on the dollor. He indicated that he had to use $500 of his own funds in the past year. He wrote about the need to establish normal schools (for training teachers) and to hold teachers' institutes. He wanted to increase the standards for teacher qualifications. He also discussed various aspects of educational methodologies of the period. He included short reports from the following counties: Douglas, Anderson, Jackson, Nemaha, and Osage as well as some statistics from all organized counties. This report was taken from the Journal of the House of Representatives, Kansas Territory, 1859, pages 34 through 82.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Anderson County, Kansas Territory; Community life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Greer, Samuel Wiley; Jackson County, Kansas Territory (see also Calhoun County, Kansas Territory); Kansas Territory. Legislature; Native Americans; Nemaha County, Kansas Territory; Osage County, Kansas Territory; School buildings; Superintendent of Public Instruction


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
J. N. O. P. (Dr. John P.) Wood filed claim #321 for costs resulting from boarding prisoners in Lecompton during 1856. His itemized claim also included various property and animals that were taken from him also during 1856. This is one of the few claims filed for costs that fell into the "public" class. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Food; Groceries; Household equipment; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Wood, John P.


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Absalom White filed claim #246 for the loss of an arm as a result of being struck by a bullet at a battle with southerners near the H. T. Titus [probably Hency C.] home in Douglas County. The arm was subsequently amputated. The claim was not allowed on the grounds that White was "engaged in rebellion and making unwarranted attack on the person and property of a private citizen." Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Titus, Battle of; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; White, Absalom


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Claim #240 was filed on behalf of Ann Hooper, who lived with her son John L. Hooper, near Lawrence. The items listed were destroyed or stolen in August and September, 1856, and included animals, crops and household items. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Crops; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hooper, Ann; Hooper, John L.; Horses; House furnishings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Livestock; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Women


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Benjamin S. Hancock submitted claim # 163 for agricultural equipment, livestock, and crops that were destroyed at various times in 1855 and 1856. His list of livestock and other items claim is very detailed. He lived near Lecompton in Douglas County. His losses were caused by the territorial militia under the command of several including William Martin, John Randolph, Colonel Titus, General Richardson, and General Stringfellow. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Crops; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hancock, Benjamin S.; Livestock; Martin, William; Militia; Randolph, John; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Stringfellow, John H.; Titus, Henry Theodore


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
William Green Price submitted claim # 109 for the loss of goods from his home and grocery store in September, 1856 by the territorial militia. The detailed listing of items included alcoholic beverages and a variety of goods from the store. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Alcoholic beverages; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Groceries; Grocery trade; Militia; Price, William Green; Retail businesses; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
John Wakefield, Douglas County, Kansas Territory, filed claim # 96 for damages caused by the territorial militia on September 1, 1856. He was a farmer and his loses included crops of potatoes, corn, and a garden as well as a house and its furnishings. He also claimed damage to his well. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Crops; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; House furnishings; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Wakefield, John A.


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
James Campbell submitted this claim (#80) for damages suffered on August 15, 1857 from 200 men under the command of Captain Walker. Mr. Campbell lived in Douglas County and claimed the loss of various household and agricultural items. Mr. Campbell must have either been a slave owner or had a free black employee because he claimed bedding and wearing apparel for a negro. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: African Americans; Campbell, James; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; House furnishings; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Charles Robinson presented this claim (# 61) for losses suffered at the hands of the "territorial militia and marshal's posse" on May 21, 1856. His list of losses included a frame house, barn, medical library and surgical instruments. He also claimed $10,000 for false imprisonment that was not approved. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Guns; Medicine; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Weapons (see also Guns)


Abstract of Census Returns listing Number of Voters and Number of Inhabitants
Authors: Undersigned Citizens of Kansas Territory, John Stroup (first signature)
Date: 1859
This abstract of census returns showed information at the township level for most Kansas counties. Some counties were listed but no data was entered. It listed the number of voters in three different ways--the number of votes cast June 7, 1859; number of voters June 7, 1859 under 6 month provision; and number of voters under 3 month provision. It also listed the number of inhabitants. The election on June 7, 1859 was to elect delegates to the Wyandotte constitutional convention.

Keywords: Allen County, Kansas Territory; Anderson County, Kansas Territory; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory (see also Lyon County, Kansas); Brown County, Kansas Territory; Butler County, Kansas Territory; Census; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Davis County, Kansas Territory; Dickinson County, Kansas Territory; Dorn County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Geary County, Kansas; Greenwood County, Kansas Territory; Hunter County, Kansas Territory; Jackson County, Kansas Territory (see also Calhoun County, Kansas Territory); Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Madison County, Kansas Territory; Marshall County, Kansas Territory; McGhee County, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Morris County, Kansas Territory; Nemaha County, Kansas Territory; Osage County, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie County, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Wabaunsee County, Kansas Territory; Washington County, Kansas Territory; Wilson County, Kansas Territory; Woodson County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


By-Laws of Tecumseh Lodge No. 15, A. F. and A. M., Tecumseh, K. T.
Authors: Tecumseh Lodge No. 15, A. F. and A. M.
Date: 1859
The various types of freemasons groups are part of a secret international society. This lodge was located in Tecumseh, Douglas County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Clubs; Community life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; Freemasons; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
Taylor Stephens operated a liquor and tobacco store in the town of Franklin, Douglas County. His claim (#157) stated that in September, 1856, a large number of men commanded by John W. Reid either drank, destroyed, or carried off the various items he listed. It is not clear whether Stephens operated a store or a tavern but his claim gives a detailed listing of various alcoholic beverages. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: Alcoholic beverages; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Reid, John W.; Retail businesses; Stephens, Taylor; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Illustration, Lawrence, Kansas in 1859
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1859
A drawing of Lawrence, Kansas Territory as it appeared in 1859, looking northeast from Mount Oread. It specifically includes Eldridge House, Lawrence University, and various churches.

Keywords: Churches; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Illustrations; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mount Oread; Universities and colleges


Citizens of Lawrence! L. Arms in area for negro hunting
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1860
This document warned the citizens of Lawrence that a U.S Marshal named L[eonard] Arms was searching Lawrence for slaves and that they had the right to keep him out of their homes.

Keywords: African Americans; Arms, Leonard; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Slaves; United States marshals


Photograph, Edward Payson Fitch
Authors: Clark's Daguerreotype Rooms, No. 59 Court Street, Boston.
Date: c. 1860
Portrait of Edward Payson Fitch, a native of Massachusetts, who arrived in Kansas Territory in 1854. He was member of the third group of settlers sponsored by the New England Emigrant Aid Company. On August 21, 1863, he was killed in his house by one of Quantrill's raiders. The daguerreotype was made by Clark's Daguerreotype Rooms, No. 59 Court Street, Boston, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Daguerreotypes; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fassett's Gallery; Fitch, Edward Payson; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Authors: Lamon, W. H.
Date: c. 1860
A view of Massachusetts Street looking north from Henry Street, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, early 1860s. The photograph was taken by W. H. Lamon.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Covered wagons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Horses; Lamon, W. H.; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Stereographs; Streets; Wagons


Annual Message of Governor Medary
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: January 3, 1860
Governor Medary addressed his annual message to the Council and House of Representatives of Kansas Territory from the executive office in Lecompton, Kansas Territory on January 3, 1860. At this point, the Wyandotte Constitution had been approved and was awaiting action by Congress. Medary outlined a number of issues that the legislature needed to resolve. These included the organization of counties and townships, setting interest rates, public schools, procedures for selling public lands, bank charters, a penitentiary, a territorial library, and railroads. He indicated that he believed a law passed by the last session of the legislature deprived many citizens of the right to vote that that law needed to be changed.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Laws; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Prisons; Railroads; Schools; Voting


Certificate, Election proclamation for J.C. Bartlett
Authors: Board of State Canvassers, State of Kansas
Date: January 15, 1860
Certificate by the Board of [Kansas] State Canvassers proclaiming the election of J.C. Bartlett as a Representative of the Eighth District, which was comprised of Douglas, Johnson, and Wyandotte counties. Bartlett was elected during the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 29, 1860. The certificate is signed by the Governor, Samuel Medary.

Keywords: Bartlett, J.C.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Letter, R. G. Elliott to Dear Sister
Authors: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: January 24, 1860
Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his sister from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Elliott told her that the Territorial legislature had just began its session, and he explained how it came to be held in Lawrence. He updated his sister on his current occupation as a Deputy at the Treasurer's office and cleared up a rumor that he had received $40,000 compensation for damages during the sack of Lawrence. He had only received $4,000, and he had immediately invested it in Territorial land warrants.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Pikes Peak gold rush; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Telegraph


Veto Message of Governor Medary, on the Bill Prohibiting Slavery in Kansas.
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: February 20, 1860
Samuel Medary presented a very detailed message about why he was vetoring a bill prohibiting slavery in Kansas that had been passed by the territorial House of Representatives. This printed document contained a long discussion about the sovereignty (or lack thereof) by the federal government, territories and states and how that applied to the institution of slavery. He ultimately argued that the law passed contained no means of enforcement but only enacted the "declaratory" statement about slavery contained in the Wyandotte Constitution.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Slavery


Letter, Joseph Gardner to George L. Stearns
Authors: Gardner, Joseph
Date: May 29, 1860
Joseph Gardner, a free-state partisan of Douglas County and member of the Doy rescue party, wrote Stearns requesting firearms and ammunition as there were people in the vicinity of St. Joseph, Mo., who reportedly were preparing to "make war upon my house." Word had reportedly gone out that Gardner was "harboring fugitives" [fugitive slaves).

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Firearms; Fugitive slaves; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; St. Joseph, Missouri; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Underground railroad


Letter, Caleb S. Pratt to George L. Stearns
Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: May 30, 1860
Pratt, who seemed to have been acting as Stearns' agent in Lawrence at this time, wrote regarding the Joseph Gardner request for firearms. On his own initiative, Pratt "allowed him [Gardner] to take 7 Rifles and 4 sabres to his house with permission to use the same if necessary . . ." This was a temporary loan that awaited Stearns' endorsement.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Firearms; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Pratt, Caleb S.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Letter, Joseph Gardner to George L. Stearns
Authors: Gardner, Joseph
Date: June 9, 1860
From Lawrence, Kansas, Joseph Gardner described one of the last battles of the border war. The attack Gardner had feared came "last night between 12 & 1." With the arms Stearns had made available, the attackers were repulsed, but "one of my [Gardner's] colored men, who had fought most nobly," took "a tremendous charge of buck shot" and died. His last words were "fight, fight hard!!"

Keywords: African Americans; Battles; Border ruffians; Clinton, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Firearms; Fugitive slaves; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory


Letter, G. M. Beebe to John Bayless Esq.
Authors: Beebe, George M.
Date: September 20, 1860
George Beebe, Territorial Secretary, wrote from Lecompton, Kansas Territory, to John Bayless, responding to Bayless' previous solicitation for his opinion. Beebe referred to an act of 1860 which would abolish all county offices, including the office of Superintendent of Schools, in his opinion. John Bayless was the first Superintendent of Schools in Doniphan County.

Keywords: Bayless, John; Beebe, George Monroe; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Schools


Circular, An appeal from Kansas!
Authors: Byrd, J. H.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Reynolds, Charles ; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877
Date: December 14, 1860
This circular detailed the beginnings of the Territorial Executive Committee, which was in charge of collecting relief to aid the struggling settlers of Kansas during the drought of 1860. This committee met in Lawrence, Kansas Territory on November 14, 1860 and passed several resolutions. From 24 Kansas counties 101 delegates were present, and out of this number four men were elected officers, including Samuel Pomeroy. The circular concluded with "Suggestions and Directions to those who purpose Aiding us in our Distress."

Keywords: Bodwell, Lewis; Byrd, J. H.; Circulars; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fairchild, George H.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lines, C. B.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Reynolds, Charles; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Advertisement calendar produced of O. Wilmath Books and Stationery
Authors: Wilmarth, O.
Date: 1860
O. Wilmarth's business was located in the Eldridge House, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. This advertisement calendar for 1860 indicated that Wilmarth was a wholesale and retail dealer in books and stationery. He also sold newspapers, magazines, and periodicals as well as wall paper and window shades.

Keywords: Advertisements; Books; Business; Business enterprises; Commerce; Community life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Retail businesses


Photograph, Lecompton, Kansas, 1861.
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1861
An exterior view of the U. S. Land Office building, Lecompton, Kansas, 1861.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton buildings; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; United States. General Land Office


Photograph, Julia Louisa Hardy Lovejoy
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Circa 1861
Julia Lovejoy and her husband Charles Haseltine Lovejoy came to Kansas in 1855. Rev. Lovejoy was the second traveling Methodist preacher in Kansas Territory. They built the first house on the Manhattan Town Company site but moved to a farm near Baldwin, Kansas Territory in 1857.

Keywords: Baldwin, Kansas Territory; Cartes de visite; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lovejoy, Julia Hardy, 1812-1882; Lovejoy, Julia Louisa (see Lovejoy, Julia Hardy); Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Women


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1863
A view of Massachusetts Street looking north , Lawrence, Kansas, 1863-1864. This carte-de-visite shows buildings constructed during the Kansas territorial period.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets


Photo, Business Street with Covered Wagons
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Summer 1863
View West on 7th Street, Lawrence, KS.

Keywords: Business; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Town development; Wagons


Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1865
A view of Massachusetts Street looking south, Lawrence, Kansas, 1865-1866. This carte-de-visite shows buildings constructed during the territorial period of Kansas history.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Horses; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets; Wagons


Recollections of 1854
Authors: Savage, Joseph
Date: June 23, 1870 - September 29, 1870
Originally published as an almost weekly column in the Western Home Journal, Lawrence, Kansas, beginning June 23, 1870, "Recollections of 1854" were written by Joseph Savage. Savage was born in Hartford, Vermont, on July 28, 1823, and came to Kansas Territory with the New England Emigrant Aid Company's second party. The "Recollections" provide a detailed and personal account of Savage's journey from Boston to Kansas Territory, and the first few months of settlement in Lawrence. The original Savage narrative, which appeared in twelve installments (June 23, 30, July 7, 14, 21, 28, August 4, 11, 18, September 8, 22, 29, 1870), has been faithfully transcribe in its entirety by Shelley Hickman Clark, University of Kansas Law School. The text version provides the content of these newspaper columns but images of the original newspaper columns are not available. See also 'Lawrence in 1854: Recollections of Joseph Savage," Kansas History 27 (Spring-Summer 2004), http://www.kshs.org/publicat/history/2004spring_clark.pdf.

Keywords: Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Savage, Joseph; Travel


John Speer's Reminiscences of Jas. Skaggs, formerly a slave owner near Lecompton
Authors: Speer, John
Date: July 13, 1895
Mr. Speer described his knowledge of the slaves owned by James Skaggs. Mr. Skaggs lived on Kaw half-breed lands about a mile from Lecompton. Speer also described an encounter he had in 1870 or 1871 with a former slave of Mr. Skaggs who owned property near Parker in Montgomery County. The former slave apparently rented a house and some farm land to his former owner Mr. Skaggs. Speer also described slaves owned by Judge Rush Elmore. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Skaggs, James; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speer, John, 1817-1906


Letter, Wm. Leamer to F. G. Adams, Sec., State Hist. So.
Authors: Leamer, William
Date: July 13, 1895
Writing from Lecompton, William Leamer described several families who had slaves when he arrived in Kansas Territory in 1856. The information is very brief. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), 1824-1899; African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Leamer, William; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Reminiscences of Mrs. J. B. Abbott, De Soto, Sept. 1, 1895
Authors: Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett
Date: September 1, 1895
This reminiscence, apparently, was based on an interview by Miss Zu Adams with Mrs. J. B. Abbott in 1895 and typed from notes she had taken during the visit. Mrs. Abbott states that their home was one of the Underground Railway stations. She described the escape of a young male slave who came to the house while her husband was absent. Miss Adams was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett; African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad; Women


Letter, Thos. R. Bayne to Miss Zoe Adams
Authors: Bayne, Thomas R.
Date: September 11, 1895
Mr. Bayne wrote from Williamstown, Kansas describing slaves that he had owned. He also listed a number of other families who owned slaves in Kansas during the territorial period in southern Jefferson and northern Douglas counties. He offered a southerners perspective on owning slaves. This item is from information collected by F. G. Adams and Miss Zu Adams in 1895. They contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society.

Keywords: African Americans; Bayne, Thomas R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery perspective; Skaggs, James; Skaggs, Thomas; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Wallis, John


Reminiscences of Slave Days in Kansas
Authors: Armstrong, John
Date: circa 1895
John Armstrong assisted a slave named Ann Clarke, owned by G. W. Clarke, to escape into Iowa. He described the event in detail, including how she escaped, was captured, and escaped again. He also described slaves owned by a Mr. Bowen who lived on Washington Creek in Douglas. Armstrong lived on Washington Creek and later in Topeka. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: African Americans; Armstrong, John; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad


Reminiscence of John Sedgwick Freeland
Authors: Freeland, John Sedgwick
Date: 1895
Mr. Freeland gave a detailed account of the slaves owned by Judge Rush Elmore and his wife. The reminiscence contained some stereotypical views and phrases concerning African Americans. This account was prepared by either F. G. or Zu Adams after an interview with Mr. Freeland. They contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society.

Keywords: African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Freeland, John Sedgwick; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Shawnee Mission; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Photograph, James S. Emery
Authors: Bowman, photographer
Date: 
James Stanley Emery had a law practice in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He was associated with the New England Emigrant Aid Company, but he also worked as a journalist for the New York Daily Times. He was involved in numerous free state activities both in Kansas and in the East.

Keywords: Bowman, photographer; Cabinet photographs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Free state supporters; Journalists; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lawyers; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Josiah Miller
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Although born in South Carolina, Josiah Miller was a free state supporter. He attended college in Indiana and law school in New York. He came to Kansas in 1854 and on January 5, 1855, established the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence. The newspaper office was destroyed by order of the territorial government on May 21, 1856 because is was deemed a nuisance. He was capturned by Buford's proslavery forces and was tried for treason against the state of South Carolina. He supported John C. Fremont. In 1857, he was elected probate judge of Douglas County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state supporters; Journalists; Judges; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspaper publishing; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Rev. John H. Byrd
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Rev. John H. Byrd was active in efforts to secure aid for residents of Kansas Territory who were suffering from the drought in 1860. He lived in Lawrence, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Byrd, J. H.; Card photographs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Carmi William Babcock
Authors: Fassett's Gallery
Date: 
Carmi Babcock was an active free state supporter and early resident of Lawrence. He was a lawyer and a banker, as well as being the first postmaster of Lawrence and the second mayor of the city. He was involved in Lawrence civic and social activities.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Cartes de visite; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fassett's Gallery; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Postal service


Photograph, Albert Dwight Searl
Authors: Storm, F. D.
Date: 
Albert Dwight Searl was a surveyor and map maker in Kansas Territory. He was a resident of Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas Territory. This image was taken a number of years after the territorial era.

Keywords: Card photographs; Cartographers; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Searl, Albert D.; Storm, F. D.; Surveyors


Photograph, John E. Stewart
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John E. Stewart was a free state supporter and was active in a number of the territorial confrontations between free state supporters and proslavery supporters. He also helped slaves to escape on the Underground Railroad. Stewart was listed on the Free State ticket as running for the Territorial House of Representatives for Douglas County in May 1858.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Photographs and Illustrations; Stewart, John E.


Photograph, Thomas N. Stinson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Thomas N. Stinson, an Indian trader, was a resident of Tecumseh, Kansas Territory. He was a promoter for the town of Tecumseh. He had been adopted by the Shawnee tribe and given the Indian name of Ne Kahn. He had proslavery leanings.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Engravings; Ne Kahn; Photographs and Illustrations; Pottawatomi Indians; Stinson, Thomas N.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Samuel F. Tappan
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Samuel F. Tappan was born in Massachusetts and came to Kansas when he was in his twenties. He listed his occupation as a journalist but was best known as secretary at the Leavenworth and Wyandotte Constitutional conventions. He was a free state supporter and settled in Lawrence. This image was taken a number of years after the territorial era.

Keywords: Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitution; Photographs and Illustrations; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Wyandotte Constitution


Photograph, John Speer
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Speer was a free state supporter and early resident of Lawrence. He was a journalist and editor. He was also involved in numerous free state activities.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Engravings; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Journalists; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Speer, John, 1817-1906


Narrative, Account of the Life of Fredrick Brown
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: c. 1857
In this undated document, Samuel Adair related significant events in the life of Frederick Brown, one of John Brown's five sons. Frederick, alongside his father, participated in the Pottawatomie Massacre and other raids against proslavery supporters in Kansas Territory until his roadside murder by Martin White in August of 1856. This document also contains part of a letter to the Rev. S. S. Jocelyn recounting the winter's hardships.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state constitutions; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Violence; Violent deaths; Weather; White, Martin


Circular, Defense Strategies for Lawrence
Authors: Committee of Safety, Lawrence, Kansas
Date: after 1863
This printed document, published by the Committee of Safety, outlines emergency procedures for the citizens of Lawrence in case of a "hostile demonstration." It also lists points of rendezvous within the city and suggests that a man always "take his side-arms with him."

Keywords: Bushwackers; Churches; Committee of Safety, Lawrence, Kansas; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Free state activities; Guns; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Skirmishing; Weapons (see also Guns)


Narrative, Autobiography of Robert S. Gilbert
Authors: Gilbert, Robert L.
Date: undated
Robert Gilbert, an Englishman who had immigrated to the United States and settled in Douglas County in 1855, recounted some events of his early life. This autobiography includes notes on his birthplace, education, profession, and journey to America, "the land of the free." After arriving in Douglas County, Gilbert would defend Lawrence with other free state men in the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Emigration and immigration; England; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Kansas Territory; New York; Transportation; Travel


Stereograph, Eldridge Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1860s
Photo images featuring the Eldridge Hotel, located "323 miles West of St. Louis, Missouri". The Eldridge House (or Hotel) was built in Lawrence, Kansas Territory by the New England Emigrant Aid Society. It was something of a headquarters for the free state movement and as such it was targeted for destruction by Sheriff Jones' proslavery posse, which sacked Lawrence on May 21, 1856.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stereographs


Photograph, Willaim Hutchinson
Authors: Clinedinst Photography
Date: 
William Hutchinson served as secretary of the Kansas Central Committee and assisted with efforts to send emigrant parties and relief to Kansas Territory. He settled in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He served as a delegate to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state supporters; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Gaius Jenkins
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Gaius Jenkins was born in New York state in 1812. He and his wife came to Kansas City, Missouri in 1853. He moved to Lawrence, Kansas Territory, in 1854 and was active in the free state cause, serving as a Colonel in the Free State Militia. He was taken prisoner along with John Brown, Jr.; Charles Robinson and several others and held near Lecompton. He was killed in Lawrence on June 3, 1858, by James Lane over a land dispute.

Keywords: Ambrotypes; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Prisoners


Photograph, Oscar E. Learnard
Authors: Mettner Studios of Lawrence
Date: 
Oscar E. Learnard came to Kansas from Vermont in the fall of 1855. He first settled in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, but later was one of the founders of Burlington in Coffey County, Kansas Territory in the spring of 1857. He served on the territorial council. He was president of the May 18, 1859, convention at Osawatimie where the Republican Part was organized. This photograph was taken later in his life by Mettner's Studio, Lawrence, Kansas.

Keywords: Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Council; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Photographs and Illustrations; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Photograph, George W. Deitzler
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
George W. Deitzler was a free state supporter and resident of Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He was an officer in the Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box. He was also part of a free state group, along with Charles Robinson and John Brown, Jr., that was arrested and held prisoner near Lecompton. He was active in social activities in Lawrence.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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