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73 results for Democratic Party (U.S.):
Letter, A. A. Lawrence to My dear Sir [Charles Robinson]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: January 31, 1856
From Boston, January 31, 1856, Amos Lawrence wrote to advise his friend Charles Robinson submit to the authority of recognized officers of the U.S. government, no matter how unjust their actions appeared. He suggested that Robinson follow the "Fabian policy" of non-violent, peaceful resistance, and do what he could to discourage "all aggression" on the part of free-state men.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Massachusetts; Pierce administration; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slave power; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Letter, Milton M. Powers to Dear Friend, Cyrus K. Holliday
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: June 7, 1856
Milton M. Powers, Deputy Clerk of Court in Columbus, Ohio wrote to Cyrus K. Holliday, Free State leader and founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory. Powers had read of Holliday's activities in northern newspapers. A presentation of the Wrongs of Kansas, emphasizing Andrew H. Reeder and Samuel N. Wood's experiences, had emotionally motivated Powers to write and assure Holliday of his support. Once a Jeffersonian Democrat, but convicted that the party had abandoned its principles, Powers had become a Republican. He stated that the entire nation was attuned to events in Kansas Territory, and he believed that these events would have intense impact on the nation's future.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Columbus, Ohio; Democratic Party (U.S.); Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; National politics; Newspapers; Powers, Milton M.; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, Jonathan Watson[,] J. H. Baker[,] Thos. S. Chase [&] E. H. Chase to Col. C. K. Holliday
Authors: Baker, J. H.; Chase, E. H.; Chase, Thos. S.; Watson, Jonathan
Date: July 29, 1856
This letter, sent by a Republican Party caucus committee in Titusville, Pennsylvania, requested that Cyrus K. Holliday speak at a convention in August. They described a local political shift, as Democrats agreed to support the Republican presidential nominee. Cyrus already had left Topeka on July 7th, intending to bring his wife, Mary, and daughter, Lillie, to Kansas Territory. Responding to invitations such as this, Cyrus spoke about 130 times on behalf of the Republican presidential candidate, John Charles Fremont, who supported admittance of Kansas as a free state. Though speaking mostly in Pennsylvania, Cyrus saw little of his family until after the November election, which Fremont lost.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Pennsylvania; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Speeches, addresses, etc.


Andrew H. Reeder, Easton, PA to William Hutchinson
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 25, 1856
Reeder described his efforts to raise money for the Free State cause in his travels through the northern states.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; National Kansas Committee; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Newspaper article, Journal of Commerce
Authors: Journal of Commerce
Date: September 22, 1856
This clipping, enclosed in a letter from A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt dated September 22, 1856, argued that the emigration sponsored by New England emigrant aid societies was "indiscreet," although not illegal. The article placed the blame for the current troubles on the free-state settlers in Kansas, stating that Missouri settlers were only responding to the provocation of anti-slavery supporters.

Keywords: Bills, legislative; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state cause; Immigrants; Kansas Nebraska Act; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Missouri; Missouri compromise; Pierce administration; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery; Topeka Constitution; United States Government; United States. Congress; United States. Constitution


Letter, R. P. Bourn to Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Bourn, R. P.
Date: October 18, 1856
R. P. Bourn, writing from Nicholasville, Kentucky, addressed this letter to Franklin Crane of Topeka. Bourn discussed politics both in Kansas and at the national level, including the Presidential election of 1860. He made his anti slavery beliefs clear.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Slavery


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Doctor [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: November 24, 1856
Cyrus Holliday wrote from Meadville, Pennsylvania to Doctor Franklin Crane, an influential citizen in Topeka, Kansas Territory. Holliday gave his opinions about the prospects for Kansas entering the union as a free state and the stand of the Democratic party. He also discussed the sale of part of his corn crop in Kansas.

Keywords: Crane, Franklin Loomis; Crops; Democratic Party (U.S.); Emigration and immigration; Free state prospects; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Meadville, Pennsylvania


Letter, Caleb S. Pratt to My Dear Sir [Rev. T. W. Higginson]
Authors: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: December 1, 1856
This letter was written by Caleb Pratt from Lawrence, Kansas, to Thomas W. Higginson in Worcester, Massachusetts. He thanked Higginson for the revolvers that he had furnished for Pratt's artillery company; Pratt truly appreciated "the high minded reflecting men of the north." Pratt also spoke of the uneasy peace, stating that the free state population were still prepared to fiercely resist any encroachment on their liberty, although they were at times discouraged and war-weary. He also mentioned the election of President Buchanan less than a month before. Pratt informed Higginson of the escape of the free state prisoners from Tecumseh, although he was sure that Higginson was already aware of the incident. Apparently, Pratt had hoped to help with their escape, but he was too late. Other prisoners had also effected an escape from the Lecompton prison.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state militia; Free state perspective; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pratt, Caleb S.; Prisoners; Stubbs militia company; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore


Letter, B. Darrach to Rev. S. L. Adair
Authors: Darrach, Barstow
Date: December 17, 1856
Doctor B. Darrach wrote from the New York Hospital and commented on published reports that imply that prospects for Kansas becoming a free state are improving. Darrach shared his thoughts on Republicans and Democrats at the national level and also on reactions of southerners. Darrach also described his personal plans that will prevent him from returning to Kansas.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Darrach, Barstow; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state perspective; New York; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Southerners


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: December 20, 1856
Just released from "prison" after three months, John H. Kagi wrote to his father (who still resided in their native Ohio but was then in Nebraska City) from Topeka, regarding the poor state of his health and finances, as well as politics and future plans. Kragi wanted his father and/or his father's money in KT as soon as possible.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state legislature; Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Ohio; Topeka Tribune


Pamphlet, "The Coming Struggle: or, Shall Kansas Be a Free or Slave State?"
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
This pamphlet, authored anonymously by "One of the People" directs the question "Slavery or Liberty?" primarily to a Northern audience. The context of the argument supports Kansas achieving status as a free state, though it pointedly states that "the Free States desire not to control the internal arrangements of their sister States; but while they are willing that State rights should be respected, they will not submit to the nationalization of Slavery".

Keywords: Catholic Church; Democratic Party (U.S.); Missouri compromise; National politics; Popular sovereignty; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Secession; Sectionalism (United States); Slavery


Letter, Wilson Shannon to John A. Halderman
Authors: Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: January 4, 1857
Wilson Shannon, an Ohio Democrat who preceded John W. Geary as governor of KT (August 1856--August 1857) and was considered a proslave partisan, wrote Halderman from Lecompton regarding some legal matters--specifically, "some land warrants" being sent to Halderman in Leavenworth. Obviously, Halderman the attorney was trusted and respected by men on both sides of the political imbroglio.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Land titles; Lawyers; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Ohio; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


Letter, C. G. Dick to Brother Samuel Adair
Authors: Dick, Campbell Graham
Date: April 21, 1857
Dick was Adair's brother-in-law and wrote from his home in Marshall, Highland County, Ohio. He wrote that he supported the American Missionary Association as it promoted Christianity but he was pessimistic about the chances for Kansas entering the Union as a free state. He wrote that the Democratic party was controlled by the south. He asked Adair to inform him if free state men intended to vote in the elections called by the Bogus Legislature.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; American Missionary Association; Bogus legislature; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state supporters; Marshall, Ohio; Ohio


Letter [transcript], Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: June 15, 1857
Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother in Chester, South Carolina, before their departure for Kansas Territory. Miller informed them of banking practices and his new business enterprise-- raising stock. He also discussed the value of prairie land versus timbered land. Miller referred to the "bogus" election of the day before, which elected delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Lecompton. Free state men did not vote, and only 2,071 votes were polled. This clearly showing that, had the election been conducted fairly, the free state men would have won the majority.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Business enterprises; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Illinois; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, A. [Alson] C. Davis to J. A. Halderman
Authors: Davis, Alson C.
Date: June 19, 1857
Alson C. Davis, a Democrat legislator and party leader from Leavenworth (later Wyandotte) County, wrote from Wyandotte that he strongly favored "the establishment of a first class democratic paper" in Leavenworth. He believed this was vital "to the Cincinnati Platform Democracy" and was willing to pledge an additional $400 to the cause; a Mr. Beach had previously offered to give Halderman "a bonus of two thousand dollars" with which to start such a newspaper.

Keywords: Davis, Alson C.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Partisan press; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, [Tho. Ewing, Jr.] to Dear Father [Hon. T. Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: August 5, 1857
The first letter in this letter press book mainly concerned with political affairs in the territory was addressed to Ewing, Sr., in Lancaster, Ohio, and dated Leavenworth, Kansas, August 5, 1857. Responding to the father's observations about the situation in Kansas, Ewing, Jr., wrote "I have all along regarded the attempt at an organization of a State Government, while we are a Territory, as the extreme of folly . . ." and some additional observations about the Topeka movement. Ewing "intend[ed] to stand clear of the political arena in Kansas while the leaders of the Democracy are made up of political murderers, and while the free state party is but the football for the Free soilers in the Northern States."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free Soil Party; Free State Party; Free soil; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lancaster, Ohio; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: September 12, 1857
To George Stearns on September 12, 1857, Thomas Marsh wrote that he was leaving Lawrence on a trip to "the Southern part of Kansas" for several days. He believed the "Free State men were getting into good shape for the election," which would go well if there was no "invasion" or "fraud." He also talked about some Democratic activity and mentioned the adjournment of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Marsh, Thomas J.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, P. S. Post to Judge J. A. Halderman
Authors: Post, Philip Sidney
Date: September 23, 1857
With this letter, P. S. Post sent Halderman "some copies of the first no. of the 'Wyandott Citizen'--our new democratic paper." This was obviously the project A. C. Davis had corresponded with Halderman about the previous June, as Davis is commended for his support. This short-lived newspaper was edited by Ephraim Abbott. (In 1858 Post would be involved with the founding and publication of the Western Argus in Wyandotte.)

Keywords: Abbott, Ephraim; Davis, Alson C.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Halderman, John Adams; Journalism; Newspapers; Partisan press; Post, Philip Sidney; Wyandotte Citizen; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 26, 1857
Charles Robinson wrote this letter to his wife upon his return to Lawrence from "a tour of ten days into the southern part of the Territory." This was a political trip, and the previous night he had been involved in another political meeting, but nevertheless, Robinson wished he "was fairly clear of political affairs, but do not see how I can get out of them at present." He also mentioned the forthcoming legislative election (October 1857) which he believed would be okay "unless there are great frauds."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911


Letter, S. G. Hubbard to John Brown Esq.
Authors: Hubbard, S. G.
Date: October 6, 1857
S. G. Hubbard, a New Haven, Connecticut, supporter, wrote regarding one of Brown's political tracts, the impossibility of fund raising for the cause during this time of financial crisis, the prospects for a Free State victory in the previous day's election, and the president's recent action that "committed the [Democratic] party to the extremist doctrines of Slavery extension & Slavery Nationalization."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan administration; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Hubbard, S. G.; Kansas question; New Haven, Connecticut; Panic of 1857; Slave power


Letter, M. [Martin] F. Conway to F. [Franklin] B. Sanborn
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: November 16, 1857
Shortly before he was to leave Washington, D.C., for a return trip to the territory, Conway wrote Sanborn in Concord, Mass., about his disappointment at again being separated from his wife and child, but he focused most of his comments on the Lecompton machinations and his continued belief that the Free State Party had be wrong to participate in the territorial election (thus giving that government legitimacy).

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Free State Party; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Slavery; United States. Congress


Letter, Geo. S. Boutwell to "My dear Sir" [Governor Salmon P. Chase]
Authors: Boutwell, George S.
Date: November 24, 1857
George Boutwell of Indianapolis, Indiana, wrote the governor of Ohio, Salmon P. Chase, regarding the forthcoming vote on the Lecompton Constitution--for the constitution with or without slavery. Boutwell explained why he believed the best alternative for Kansas free staters was to "abstain from voting." He asked Chase to encourage his Kansas friends to follow this course. (Chase likely forwarded this letter to Robinson.)

Keywords: Boutwell, George S.; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Columbus, Ohio; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Free state cause; Lecompton Constitution; Slavery; United States. Congress


Resolution, Democratic Party
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
This resolution seems to be responding to the history of accusations of election fraud on the part of the proslavery voters, claiming that the recent Democratic election loss was due to the "importation of Abolitionists, many of who perjured themselves by falsely swearing that they were legal voters". Also resolved was that Governor Walker's collaboration with the Abolitionists and free soilers be rebuked, and that men from the Southern states have equal property rights with those of the North. The Democrats also documented their support for the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free soil; Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery support; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Minutes, Democratic Convention
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
These notes regarding the proceedings of a Democratic Convention name newly elected officers of the Kansas branch of the party, and other "preparatory business". In the following days, resolutions against Territorial Governor Walker and Secretary Stanton were drawn, for their "complicity with the enemies of the Democratic Party". F.J. Marshall was nominated as the Democratic candidate for governor, "to bear up the banner of our Party . . .against the Black Republicans".

Keywords: Black Republicans; Democratic Party (U.S.); Hereford, J.T.; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marshall, F.J.; Martin, Moses; Mathias, William G.; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, John A. Martin to Sir
Authors: Martin, John A., 1839-1889
Date: c. 1858
In his capacity as chairman of the Atchison County Republican Central Committee, John Alexander Martin apparently wrote this draft of a letter to a member of the Democratic opposition, responding to an invitation to make a speech in support or participate in a discussion of the proposed Wyandotte Constitution. The campaign for its ratification took place in August and September 1858. Martin expressed a willingness to speak out for the constitution, but he objected to the proposed format ("the programme of discussion you have laid down"). Martin insisted that the Republicans were "proud" of the constitution and "are willing to go before the people with the members of the Democratic party" and discuss its provisions "on any fair terms."

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Black Republicans; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, Rush Elmore to James Stallworth
Authors: Elmore, Rush
Date: January 11, 1858
From Lecompton, Rush Elmore, an associate justice of the territorial supreme court, a leading delegate at the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, and a slave holder, wrote this letter of introduction for Halderman to "hand" the Hon. James A. Stallworth, a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Elmore's home state of Alabama. Halderman was apparently making a trip to Washington, D.C., and Elmore asked the Congressman to show him every courtesy. Elmore called his "friend" Halderman "a gentleman of some prominence not only in his county but throughout the Territory," and wrote "You will be able to learn many important & interesting facts in relation to the Territory and its Political parties from him."

Keywords: Alabama; Democratic Party (U.S.); Elmore, Rush; Halderman, John Adams; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Stallworth, James A.; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: January 14, 1858
S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, VT, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. The author mentioned various friends and relatives, several of whom had traveled to and settled in Kansas Territory. He reiterated his desire to move his family to Kansas Territory as well. S.T. also communicated his disgust with the Democrats, who "are chained to the car of slavery and are ready to do any dirty work the slave power wish them to do."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Daily life; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Emigration and immigration; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; National politics; Vermont; Weather


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My dear friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: January 16, 1858
E. B. Whitman wrote Sanborn this lengthy letter from Lawrence, describing the political events that had unfolded in the territory since the October 5, 1857, election. Among many other things, he mentioned the split that took the "National democrats" out of the movement over the issue of participation in the state elections under the Lecompton Constitution, January 1857. This "Free State ticket" was, according to Whitman, "a disgrace to the cause," but it attracted a good number of votes and won "a good working majority in both houses and so our people proclaim a victory." Whitman, who had long been a faithful supporter, was seemingly losing confidence in John Brown, as were "the people."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Education; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Elections; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Herald of Freedom; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Territorial government; United States. Congress; United States. Senate; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to George L. Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: February 20, 1858
This rather lengthy report from Lawrence addressed many issues, especially those surrounding the Lecompton constitutional controversy. With "the Topeka Movement . . . abandoned," the question was what would take its place to resist the Lecompton Constitution if it were accepted by the Congress. The territorial legislature had formally "protested against the admission of Kansas into the Union under the Lecompton Constitution," and "the Mass of the people are determined" to resist its imposition. Whitman went on to make many other interesting observations about the political situation, regarding Democrats and Republicans and even abolitionists: "men who seek here and now, on this issue, to break the back bone of slavery forever." In addition to the political, Whitman described his "labor of distributing the clothing . . . for the relief of Kansas," and discussed in some detail the financial situation regarding the Committee, his personal debt, and Kansas relief and support to John Brown.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Buchanan administration; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, T. J. Robinson to Governor [James W. Denver]
Authors: Robinson, Thomas J.
Date: March 3, 1858
Thomas J. Robinson, writing from Washington D.C. to Governor James W. Denver, speculated that Kansas would be admitted as a state under the Lecompton Constitution. Robinson suggested that Denver's future political prospects would improve from such an occurrence.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Herndon, Lou; Lecompton Constitution; Robinson, Thomas J.; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); Town promotion


Letter, R. S. Stevens to J. W. Denver
Authors: Stevens, Robert S.
Date: April 3, 1858
Robert S. Stevens, writing from Washington, D.C. to Governor James W. Denver, reported upon the U.S. House of Representative's passage of the Crittenden-Montgomery resolution, which proposed to resubmit the Lecompton Constitution to a vote in Kansas Territory. While Stevens, and by implication Denver, supported the Crittenden-Montgomery resolution, he contended that it was in the Democratic Party's best interests for Kansas to be admitted under the Lecompton Constitution. Stevens also commented on his efforts to get New York Indian lands in Kansas opened to preemption.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Land sales; Lecompton Constitution; Native Americans; New York Indian Reserve; Stevens, Robert S.; United States. Congress


Letter, Galusha A. Grow to Gov. C. Robinson
Authors: Grow, Galusha Aaron
Date: May 5, 1858
Congressman Galusha Aaron Grow, a Pennsylvania Republican, wrote Robinson regarding the Lecompton debate and the need to get a large free state vote against that proposed constitution. If it were "the dough faces will be exterminated next fall."

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, August 1858; English Bill; Grow, Galusha Aaron; Lecompton Constitution; Proslavery supporters; United States. Congress


Letter, [C. Robinson] to "My Dear Sir" [Henry Wilson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: May 12, 1858
This important document is reportedly a copy of a letter from Charles Robinson, Lawrence, May 12, 1858, to Massachusetts Senator Henry Wilson in which the Kansas governor expresses confidence that the Lecompton Constitution will be overwhelmingly defeated in the upcoming election and makes numerous observations about the state of politics--present and future--in Kansas. Robinson believed that half the Democrats would oppose the Lecompton instrument because they knew that freestaters would dominate any state government that would be admitted under it and subsequently "the Constitution would be changed in the 'twinkling of an eye.'" Thus, he predicted no Kansas admission until at least December 1859, and in the meantime expected Democrats to "take the lead in aiding in developing the resources of Kansas, & [the Democratic Party] will claim to be the special friends of our infant State."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, August 1858; Election, Lecompton Constitution, August 1857; English Bill; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state supporters; Journals; Lecompton Constitution; Partisan press; Press and politics; Press and propaganda; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: September 14, 1858
S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. S.T. mentioned his recent election to the Vermont State Legislature, in which the Republicans "swept the kitchen clean" of the Democratic candidates. He also asked about land operations in Kansas Territory, but added that he was opening a store of his own in Vermont. He discussed the possibility of obtaining buffalo and otter skins from Kansas to add to his store inventory.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Democratic Party (U.S.); Elections; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Merchandise; Merchants; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Vermont


Letter, J. Thompson to J. W. Denver
Authors: Thompson, J.
Date: October 10, 1858
Thompson, writing from the Department of Interior in Washington, D.C. to Governor James W. Denver, urged Denver to remain in the position of territorial governor as a service to the Buchanan Administration and the Democratic party. Thompson indicated that President Buchanan believed Denver could prevent Kansas from seeking admission to the union until it had "the requisite population." Denver, in spite of Thompson's appeal, left office on October 10, 1858.

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Kansas Territory. Governor; Thompson, J.


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Gov. [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: October 19, 1858
The benefactor of the city of Lawrence and much free-state activity generally, wrote Robinson from Boston, Mass., on several issues, including the establishment of a college and business/financial matters, but he made interesting reference to his (Lawrence's) own candidacy for governor on the American Party ticket. He did not expect to win, but instead proposed to simply be working to keep the "Americans" in line for a unified opposition to the Democrats in 1860.

Keywords: American Party; Boston, Massachusetts; Democratic Party (U.S.); Education; Election, Presidential, 1860; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to Dear Governor [James Denver]
Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight
Date: October 28, 1858
Hugh S. Walsh, Acting Governor of Kansas Territory, wrote to former Governor James Denver regarding recent political events. The first part relates incidents arising from the mishandling of prisoners by Marshals Robbins and Walker, who had arrested and imprisoned them, leaving them "without a bailiff or any charge whatever." The second part discusses political strategies for appeasing some free state party members in order to win their support. Among those, Walsh proposes that a Kentuckian man become the next governor and that during the Democratic Convention of November 25 they adopt the Cincinnati Platform, which would uphold popular sovereignty in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Cincinnati Platform; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Davis, Alson C.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Elmore, Rush; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Sykes, T.B.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Walsh, Hugh Sleight


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [R. B. Mitchell]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: December 15, 1858
In this letter to Robert B. Mitchell of Paris in Linn County, Ewing commented on the summer and fall "disturbances in Linn & Bourbon" counties, and he predicted that many of the "scoundrels" responsible--presumably men on both sides of the slavery issue--would one day end up in the as yet to be established "penitentiary." Ewing wrote Mitchell, at that time a member of the territorial legislature, about the organization of the Democratic Party in Leavenworth and reported on several "of our free state friends" who had joined with the "Democracy." (Subsequently, despite Ewing's plea that moderates not take this action but "just bide their time," Mitchell joined the Democrats in 1859 and accepted their nomination for congressman.)

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free State Party; Free state perspective; Fuller, Perry; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mitchell, Robert Byington; Paris, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Smith, Samuel C.


Letter, S.C.S [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [C. Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: December 29, 1858
In this letter from Lawrence, December 29, 1858, Smith mentions a few business matters (e.g., the railroad convention) but concentrates on the border conflict, with specific criticism leveled at John Brown and James Montgomery. "Captains Brown & Montgomery continue their 'reign of terror' in Linn and Bourbon counties. . . ."

Keywords: African Americans; Bleeding Kansas; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Newspapers; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad conventions; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves; Smith, Samuel C.


The Issue Fairly Presented: The Senate Bill for the Admission of Kansas as a State
Authors: Democratic National Committee
Date: ca. 1858
This pamplet, voicing the opinions of the Democratic National Committee, charged Black Republicans with inciting violence by their opposition to Kansas' admission to the Union under the Lecompton Constitution. As abolitionists, their "fanatical organization" purposely prolonged the conflict by promoting chaotic Territorial politics via their support of the Topeka movement. The document pointed out the role of emigrant aid societies in settling Kansas, blaming them as a source of conflict since Nebraska had had no aid sociey assistance and was not experiencing violence. Also included in the pamphlet was a summary of a debate in which Michigan's settlement and admission to the Union was compared to the current situation in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Black Republicans; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state government; Michigan; Proslavery perspective; Territorial government; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Letter, E. C. Andreas to Friend [William] Goodnow
Authors: Andreas, E.C.
Date: January 25, 1859
E. C. Andreas wrote from New England to his friend William Goodnow in Kansas Territory. Andreas reacted to news he had heard regarding "commotion" in the Territory caused by "modern Democrats" and border ruffians, calling them "far worse than fever & ague." He communicated the opinion that there was little hope for Kansas to be admitted to the Union under the current Congress and Administration. Andreas also mentioned Goodnow's management of his land titles.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buchanan administration; Crops; Democratic Party (U.S.); Goodnow, William E.; National politics; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas)


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [J. M. Winchell]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: April 13, 1859
This letter from Ewing in Leavenworth to James M. Winchell at "Wyandott" addressed a question regarding real estate in the latter's city and the upcoming Osawatomie convention for the founding of the Republican Party in Kansas. Ewing believed the "opposition" would "have no difficulty in carrying the county: but if the party is badly managed at Osawattomie [sic], & at subsequent conventions, our county is surely gone and probably the Territory."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Land speculation; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Real estate; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [G. W. Brown]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: April 13, 1859
With regard to the formation of the Republican Party at the forthcoming Osawatomie convention, Ewing told George W. Brown, editor of Lawrence's Herald of Freedom, why he believed this was the right course for the "opposition" to take at this time. The Free State Party had, in his opinion, accomplished its objectives, and the Democratic Party contained a proslave faction and was affiliated with the administration. Ewing's objective was "to secure an organization of the Republican or opposition party at Osawattomie [sic], on a just and rational platform, and led by honest & conservative men."

Keywords: Big Springs Convention; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie convention; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Proslavery; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Father [Thomas Ewing, Sr]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: May 11, 1859
Among other rather mundane items, Ewing told his father back in Ohio that the Democrats had just held a convention at Tecumseh, "which Hugh [Ewing] and Hamp attended," and about the economic conditions in Leavenworth, which were much tied to the success of the "Pikes Peak movement."

Keywords: Construction; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Physicians; Pikes Peak gold rush; Railroads; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; St. Joseph, Missouri; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: June 10, 1859
From Sumner on June 10, 1859, just days after the election for delegates to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, Ingalls wrote his father about the "well fought" contest in a county (Atchison) that was "an old stronghold of pro-slavery democracy." Ingalls won, of course, even though he at first "regarded the contest as a hopeless one," but still feared that the Democrats could control the convention; if so, "Kansas may be a Slave State after all. . . . It is Estimated that there are five hundred slaves in the territory today by virtue of the Dred Scott decision. A family recently came to this place from Kentucky with five."

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Dred Scott decision; Election, Wyandotte Constitution delegates to convention, June 1859; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Osawatomie convention; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Slaves in Kansas Territory


Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: June 27, 1859
The main focus of this letter, written from Lawrence by Samuel F. Tappan, is the case of Dr. John Doy, who had just been convicted of abducting slaves from Missouri. Doy had been sentenced to five years imprisonment, but his lawyers got a two month suspension so they could file an appeal with the state Supreme Court. Tappan outlined the evidence against Doy, which he said rested on the testimony of one proslavery man. He also reiterated the story behind the Doy kidnapping in case the recipient, Thomas Higginson, was not aware of all the details. The letter ended by mentioning the strength of the Democratic Party in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: African Americans; Courts; Democratic Party (U.S.); Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawyers; Missouri; Slaves; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Leandre Martin]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: July 2, 1859
In his reply to a June 25 letter from Leandre Martin, Osawatomie, Ewing, Jr. agreed there was little doubt that "several hundred illegal & fraudulent votes" for the Democrats impacted Leavenworth's early June election for delegates to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention. (Democrats captured all ten spots in the county's delegation.) The problem was establishing proof for individual cases of fraud totaling 450, the Democratic majority in the county.

Keywords: Contested elections; Democratic Party (U.S.); Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, [Marc Parrott] to Dr. Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: c. 1859
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin Parrott, of Ohio. Marcus inquired about the "mixed politics" he had heard about in Ohio. He also remarked that he anticipated being a candidate for Congress, and expressed his interest in visiting Pike's Peak. Marcus added that he would leave the following morning for Wyandotte in order to attend the Constitutional Convention there, and projected that there would be trouble since the Republicans held a heavy majority.

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Free State Party; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; National politics; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pikes Peak, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: July 5, 1859
On the first day of the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, Ingalls wrote from Wyandotte, Kansas, with observation on the city and the nature of the convention, which he considered "not a very superior one." Nevertheless, the Republicans had a big majority, and Ingalls was "on some of the most important committees in the convention and shall be obliged to do some hard work."

Keywords: Celebrations; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas City, Missouri; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); St. Louis, Missouri; Steamboats; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Correspondence, Champion Vaughan to S.O. Thacher, et al
Authors: Vaughan, Champion
Date: July 7, 1859
Vaughan, editor of the Leavenworth Times, wrote this letter soon after the convention convened to introduce and lend his support to three "Delegates elect from Southern Nebraska to the Kansas Convention." They had convinced Vaughan that efforts toward annexation were not just more Democratic politics.

Keywords: Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Times; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Thacher, Solon O. (Solon Otis), 1830-1895; Vaughan, Champion; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Hugh [Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: July 27, 1859
In this letter to Hugh Ewing in Washington, D.C., Ewing, Jr. sought his brother's consent to donate "a lot" to Leavenworth's German Catholic to help with the construction of a "new building" (the pastor wanted to hold a raffle for the property to raise money). Perhaps more importantly, Ewing, Jr. wrote of political developments in which their business associate Hamp Denman was a likely Democratic nominee for governor, and he (T.E., Jr.) felt "strongly inclined to take the place on our [the Republican] ticket of Chief Justice of Supreme Court (a nomination he received in October; Ewing subsequently won election to that office in the December general election). Ewing also observed that the Republican Party was weaker in Leavenworth County than he anticipated and predicted that "the new Constitution [Wyandotte] will be unpopular in this County & and lose us many votes--not so much for its failure to exclude negroes as for its unjust & dishonest apportionment . . ."

Keywords: African Americans; Apportionment; Catholic Church; Churches; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Hugh; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Halderman, John Adams; Johnston, Sanders W.; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Miege, John Baptist; Mitchell, Robert Byington; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution


Speech, Fellow Citizens--In Support of the Wyandotte Constitution
Authors: Martin, John A., 1839-1889
Date: c. July 1859
This eleven-page document was a speech or essay, most likely in John Alexander Martin's handwriting, in support of the proposed Wyandotte Constitution, which was ratified by the voters of the territory on October 4, 1859. Martin, a twenty-year-old Atchison editor, served as secretary for the convention which finished its work at the end of July. Thus, this speech, attacking the Democrats for conspiring to defeat this latest free-state constitution and for "the Lecomptonizing of Kansas," was undoubtedly delivered several times during the months of August and September 1859. It covered the various issues opponents were likely to use to defeat it at the polls and stressed that in light of actions of "a servile judiciary" slavery could not be removed from Kansas until it was admitted as a "sovereign state."

Keywords: Buchanan administration; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); English Bill; Free state constitutions; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Lecompton Constitution; Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Missouri compromise; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Scott, Dred; Slave power; Slavery; Squatter sovereignty; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: August 14, 1859
Back in Sumer on August 14, 1859, Ingalls wrote regarding the convention's recently completed work and the prospects for the Wyandotte Constitution, now "before the people." The Democrats were "taking strong ground against it" because of the state boundaries set by the delegates (excluded "Southern Nebraska & Pike's Peak"), there was to be no exclusion of "free negroes" from Kansas, and of the "apportionment," which gave the Republicans, and thus their proposed constitution, a big advantage. "The democracy are furious about it [the apportionment] of course and some temporizing Republicans are inclined to smooth the matter over by explanations and euphimisms. I adopt a different ground . . . ." Ingalls argued that he "was not aware of any extreme favors or kindnesses extended to the people of Kansas in the last four years by the democratic party which warranted any very delicate considerations form the party in power today."

Keywords: Apportionment; Boundaries; Buchanan administration; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Wyandotte Constitution ratification, October 1859; Exclusion, African Americans; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Land speculation; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Pikes Peak, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, H. [Henry] Wilson to Dear [Charles] Robinson
Authors: Wilson, Henry , 1812-1875
Date: August 15, 1859
The senator from Natick, Mass., wrote to express to Robinson in Lawrence his and his friend's anxiety "about your new state." Wilson believed it a mistake for Kansas to have organized the Republican Party before gaining admission to the Union, but now that that had been done, "Don't for God's sake let the Democrats carry it."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress; Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875


Correspondence, John A. Martin to J. M. Winchell
Authors: Martin, John A., 1839-1889
Date: September 7, 1859
In the weeks following the close of the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, John A. Martin, the convention's secretary, and James M. Winchell, president of the convention, were occupied with the campaign for its ratification. This letter from Martin, dated Atchison, September 7, 1859, addressed some of the steps that had been and should be taken in the document's behalf during the bitter, partisan campaign leading up to the October 4, 1859, referendum.

Keywords: Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Nebraska Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Congress. Senate; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, F. M. Cummins to S. N. Wood
Authors: Cummins, F. M.
Date: October 3, 1859
From El Mendaro, Madison Co., K.T., F. M. Cummins wrote to Wood regarding the latter's candidacy for the territorial legislature in the election of November 8, 1859. He asked Wood to clarify his position on general issues concerning loyalty to Republican principles and a boundary issue that had negatively affected Madison County. (The 23rd District included Madison, Chase, and Morris counties; Wood ultimately lost this election to T. S. Huffaker, the Democratic nominee, but defeated a third candidate, S. G. Britton, who was mentioned as the local favorite by Cummins. A month later, Wood won a seat in the state senate under the Wyandotte Constitution.)

Keywords: Chase County, Kansas Territory; Cummins, F. M.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Huffaker, T. S.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Madison County, Kansas Territory; Morris County, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, H. Miles Moore to Major J. [Jesse] Morin
Authors: Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826
Date: October 12, 1859
Moore, an anti-slavery Democrat wrote to Jesse Morin, register of the federal land office in Fort Scott, K. T., to seek Morin's support in his bid for the Democratic Party nomination for attorney general. Moore was unsuccessful at the October 25, 1859, Democratic Convention in his effort to secure the nomination.

Keywords: Attorneys general; Democratic Party (U.S.); Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Morin, Jesse; Northern Democrats


Letter, J. F. Newton to S. N. Wood
Authors: Newton, J. F.
Date: October 13, 1859
In this letter from Emporia, Newton complimented a Wood article on Emporia that gave "hell" to the local Republicans and encouraged Wood to do it again in the next issue of his newspaper. Factionalism was dividing the local party, and Newton mentioned several locals, such as [Charles V.] Eskridge, by name. "O yes a majority of the Republican central committee and Democrats hurrah for old Breckinridge this shows what shrewd Republicans we have give them 'hell' in your next."

Keywords: Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory (see also Lyon County, Kansas); Democratic Party (U.S.); Emporia, Kansas Territory; Eskridge, Charles V.; Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Newspapers; Newton, J. F.; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, S. [Salmon] P. Chase to S. N. Wood
Authors: Chase, Salmon Portland
Date: October 18, 1859
From Columbus, Ohio, Governor Salmon P. Chase wrote Wood, a former Ohioan, regarding Kansas politics and his (Chase's) political prospects, speculating about the senatorial contest and the presidential contest of 1860. Chase also was pleased that the Wyandotte Constitution passed by a good margin and believed it would be political "suicide" for the Democratic majority in the Senate to oppose it. "To reject Kansas would be to throw away all." On the back is a "confidential" note from Chase's clerk, M. W. Delahay.

Keywords: Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ohio; United States. Congress. Senate; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, F. M. Cummins to S. N. Wood
Authors: Cummins, F. M.
Date: November 13, 1859
Writing from El Mendaro, Madison County, K. T., F. M. Cummins speculated about Wood's November 8, 1859, election defeat. (Interestingly, when the territorial legislature convened in January 1860, Wood and not his Democratic opponent, T. S. Huffaker, represented the 23rd District.) In a faded letter, Cummins wrote that "the ill timed article in your [Wood's] issue of Oct 31st [the Kansas Press, Council Grove] on Jim Lane pretty effectively "cooked" your prospects in Madison County. . . ." Cummins went on to mention Wood's candidacy for the state senate (election of December 6, the first under the Wyandotte Constitution) and wrote: "Being a Lane man myself and knowing your opposition to him I cannot wish you success. . . ."

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Cummins, F. M.; Democratic Party (U.S.); El Mendaro, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, November 1859; Factionalism; Huffaker, T. S.; Kansas Press; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Madison County, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, S. [Samuel] Medary to My Dear Sir [John A. Halderman]
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: December 10, 1859
From Lecompton, territorial Governor Samuel Medary wrote to J. A. Halderman to express his disappointment with his (Medary's) and the Democratic Party's showing in the December 6 elections for state offices under the Wyandotte Constitution. Medary ran against Charles Robinson in the "state's" first gubernatorial contest and lost 7,908 to 5,395. Medary made a number of interesting observations in what amounted to a post election analysis of the outcome. The party should have won, in Medary's estimation, but as a result they would "have to submit to the eternal disgrace of having it [Kansas] go forth as a Black Old John Brown state."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, Olin Thurston to Friend [John A.] Halderman
Authors: Thurston, Olin
Date: December 30, 1859
Olin Thurston of Humbolt, Kansas, wrote J. A. Halderman to comment on the past election for state offices, to thank him for "your gallant fight in behalf of the Democracy, and to assure him that "we of southern Kansas are always ready to co-operate with our friends in Leavenworth."

Keywords: Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Humboldt, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Thurston, Olin


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to My dear Sir [John Hanna]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 26, 1860
In this letter to a friend in Greencastle, Indiana, Ewing made numerous observations about the state of Kansas politics, of which he wrote: "Politics in Kansas you know are a business to those caught in the whirlpool." Ewing thought the state government was "pretty well officered" but was concerned about prospects for the senatorial contest. "Lane is nearly dead with the politicians. . . But he is a power with the people. . . . I look on Lane as a decidedly bad man," even though he recognized Lane's positive "service to the cause before the [Lawrence free-state] Convention in Decr 1857."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Democratic Party (U.S.); Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state cause; Hanna, John; Journalism; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Congress. Senate; Vaughan, Champion


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Hamp B. Denman
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: February 23, 1860
Ewing's friend and business associate, Hamp B. Denman, went to Washington, D.C., to seek appointment as register of the U.S. Land Office in Lecompton. President Buchanan "--that damned old scoundrel!"--rejected Denman.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; United States. General Land Office


Letter, R. S. Stevens to S. N. Wood
Authors: Stevens, Robert S.
Date: April 2, 1860
R. S. Stevens, a Democratic attorney who had a variety of financial interests in Kansas during the 1850s and 1860s, wrote this letter to Wood from Washington, D.C., where he (Stevens) seemed to be lobbying for a number of concessions for himself and Kansas Territory. Specifically, he wrote of mail routes and "grants for R Rr" [railroads], which would not be forthcoming because of the Republicans who "care[d] nothing about us [Kansas] except so far as political capital can be made." Much of the letter is a condemnation of the Republican Party, which he also wrote was holding up Kansas admission so it could be used against the Democrats, and the final page addressed action, or inaction, with regard to Indian treaties and land.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic National Convention (1860 : Charleston, S.C.); Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Presidential, 1860; Indian lands; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Railroad land grants; Railroads; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; Stevens, Robert S.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, Findley Patterson to John A. Halderman
Authors: Patterson, Findlay
Date: April 4, 1860
Patterson, the land office receiver at Junction City, May 1858 to April 1861, wrote with regard to problems within the Kansas Democratic Party. Recent differences between members over participation in the party's national convention at Charleston, S.C., had been aired in the press, and Patterson thought this unfortunate since "the future prosperity of our country depends upon the success of that party. Democrats should, he contended, not let relatively small policy issues overshadow the fundamental principles they share. Patterson pledged his support for the nominee of the convention, whomever it was, but favored "Judge Douglass [Stephen Douglas] . . .as we have been intimate personal, as well as political friends for several years."

Keywords: Davis County, Kansas Territory; Democratic National Convention (1860 : Charleston, S.C.); Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Presidential, 1860; Geary County, Kansas; Halderman, John Adams; Junction City, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Patterson, Findlay; United States. General Land Office


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to S. N. Wood
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: April 17, 1860
From Washington, D.C., Pomeroy wrote to express his concern for the Woods who had just lost their "'House & Effect'" in a fire. But as consolation Pomeroy informed Wood that Kansas was "going to be admitted 'into the family of States,' this season." Then, making reference to the 1856 dispersal of the Topeka free state legislature, Pomeroy wrote: "I wonder if our State Legislature could not be called together at Topeka upon the 4th of July, to commemorate the day of our being 'dispersed' by the United States Soldiers!!" Although optimistic, Pomeroy conceded politics might still hold up admission, if the anti-Seward forces thought Kansas votes might influence the decision of the upcoming Chicago convention.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Atchison, Kansas Territory; Deitzler, George W.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Fires; Free state legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; United States. Congress


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Charley [Charley Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: May 1, 1860
In a letter to Charley Ewing, his younger brother, Thomas Ewing made some interesting observations about national presidential politics and parties. He was hopeful that the Republican Party in convention at Chicago would nominate a good "National man," but if they didn't he would "hope for the election of [Stephen A.] Douglas."

Keywords: Charleston, South Carolina; Chicago, Illinois; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Presidential, 1860; Ewing, Charles; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Political conventions; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Whig Party (U.S.)


Letter, James Montgomery to George L. Stearns
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: November 27, 1860
From Mound City, James Montgomery wrote Stearns about recent trouble at Fort Scott and acting governor George M. Beebe's visit. He came, according to Montgomery, to ascertain for himself if the rumors about Montgomery's activities were correct. He left satisfied that the free staters were acting properly and "promising to do what he could to reform abuses" in the federal courts and protect their rights. Although things were quiet at present and Montgomery mentioned the arrival of more fugitive slaves, who could now stay safely in Kansas, he warned that the introduction of federal troops into southern Kansas would create an explosive situation.

Keywords: Beebe, George Monroe; Bowie knife; Democratic Party (U.S.); Firearms; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Fugitive slaves; Guns; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, J. B. Woodward to S. N. Wood
Authors: Woodward, J. B.
Date: December 2, [1860]
From Junction City, Woodward wrote to inform Wood that he (Woodward) was "elated with the idea" that Wood might move his newspaper to Junction City and promised to do all he could to support the paper if the relocation came about. According to Woodward his town needed "a Press just as rabid and saucy as yours" that could effectively counter opposition. Reference was made to a "Geery," apparently H. T. Geery, who switched to the Democratic Party and started a Junction City newspaper. This may have been the Kansas Frontier, which was published by H.N. Short and H.T. Geery at least by the spring of 1861. (Only two extant copies exist; the first is vol. 1, no. 8, May 25, 1861.)

Keywords: Davis County, Kansas Territory; Democratic Party (U.S.); Geary County, Kansas; Geery, H. T.; Junction City, Kansas Territory; Kansas Frontier; Newspapers; Partisan press; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )


Letter, James Montgomery to F. B. Sanborn
Authors: Montgomery, James , 1814-1871
Date: January 14, 1861
Just two weeks before Kansas would be admitted to the Union and in the midst of the early secession crisis, Montgomery (Mound City) told Franklin B. Sanborn (Boston) that he (Montgomery) did not favor an invasion of "the slave states so long as they keep themselves at home," but Missouri was crossing the line and interfering in Kansas affairs. He also commented on recent mob violence in Boston and General Harney's futile efforts to enforce the Fugitive Slave law in southern Kansas.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Democratic Party (U.S.); Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Harney, William S.; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Martial law; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Secession; Slavery


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 26, 1861
Marcus Parrott wrote from Washington, D.C. to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Ohio. Marcus began his letter berating his brother for his inconsistent correspondence; he himself, though very busy, managed to write Edwin regularly. Marcus also voiced his frustration with Congress, declaring this to be his last week as a Delegate, and predicted that both Republicans' and Democrats' stubbornness would cause the country to permanently divide. Kansas would become a state on January 29, only three days later.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Blair, Frank; Brown, Thomas; Democratic Party (U.S.); National politics; Ohio; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Secession; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Photograph, John Calhoun
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Calhoun was the Surveyor General of Kansas and Nebraska Territories. He was an active Democrat and served as President of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Democratic Party (U.S.); Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Photographs and Illustrations; Surveyor General (see United States. Surveyor General)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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