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Certificate appointing James S. Emery as a Justice of the Peace for the First District, Kansas Territory.
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: November 8, 1854
Reeder made this appointment as the territorial governor. The boundaries of the First District were described in the document based on various geographic landmarks. The district included the town of Lawrence and ran along the south side of the Kansas River to the Missouri state line. Its southern boundary was the Santa Fe road.

Keywords: Certificates; Courts; Emery, James Stanley; Justices of the peace; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Santa Fe road


Document signed by Gov. Reeder affirming that James S. Emery was sworn in to serve as Justice of the Peace
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: November 9, 1854
This was a follow up document to James Emery's appointment as Justice of the Peace for the First District, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Courts; Emery, James Stanley; Justices of the peace; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864


Journal of the Council of the Territory of Kansas, At Their First Session
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 2 through August 30, 1855
This printed document contained the actions of the First Territorial Council (Senate). It first met at the town of Pawnee near Fort Riley on Monday July 2, 1855. On July 6, 1855, the House of Representatives approved a resolution sent to them by the Council that moved the meeting of the Legislature to Shawnee Manual Labor School beginning July 16, 1855. This session of the Council concluded this first session on August 30, 1855. Included in the volume are various messages from the Governor and Acting Governor. The appendix contained reports of various committees--judiciary, special committee on exempting slaves from execution, bounds of counties and districts, elections, convention, public printing. The appendix also had the "opinion of the Supreme Court in regard to the legality of the present session" by Samuel Lecompte and Rush Elmore, a memorial from the legislature of Kansas to the President of the United States requesting the removal of Andrew Reeder, and the Rules and Orders under which the House of Representatives conducted business. The last 52 pages were an index to the volume. The members of the Council were Thomas Johnson and Edward Chapman, 1st Council District; A. M. Coffey and David Lykins, 4th Council District; William Barbee, 5th Council District; John W. Forman, 7th district; William P. Richardson, 8th district; D. A. N. Grover, 9th district; L. J. Eastin and Richard R. Rees, 10th district. The elections in the 2nd, 3rd, and 6th Council Districts were disputed but Andrew Macdonald, 2nd Council district, H. J. Strickler, 3rd district; and John Donaldson, 6th district were sworn in as members of the Council. John A. Haldeman served as the Chief Clerk.

Keywords: Barbee, William; Chapman, Edward; Coffey, A. M.; Courts; Donaldson, John; Eastin, Lucian J.; Elmore, Rush; Forman, John W.; Geary County, Kansas; Grover, D. A. N.; Halderman, John Adams; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Johnson, Thomas; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Lykins, David; Macdonald, Andrew; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Rees, Richard R.; Richardson, William P.; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Woodson, Daniel


Journal of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Kansas Territory, Legislature
Date: July 2 through August 30, 1855
This printed document contained the actions of the First Territorial House of Representatives. It first met at the town of Pawnee near Fort Riley on Monday July 2, 1855. On July 6, 1855, the House of Representatives approved a resolution sent to them by the Council (Senate) that moved the meeting of the Legislature to Shawnee Manual Labor School beginning July 16, 1855. This session of the House of Representatives concluded this first session on August 30, 1855. Included in the volume are various messages from the Governor and Acting Governor. The appendix contained reports of various committees--judiciary, special committee on exempting slaves from execution, bounds of counties and districts, elections, convention, public printing. The appendix also had the "opinion of the Supreme Court in regard to the legality of the present session" by Samuel Lecompte and Rush Elmore, a memorial from the legislature of Kansas to the President of the United States requesting the removal of Andrew Reeder, and the Rules and Orders under which the House of Representatives conducted business. The last 31 pages were an index to the volume.

Keywords: Browne, O. H.; Courts; Davis County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Geary County, Kansas; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Johnson, Alex S.; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Marshall, F.J.; Mathias, William G.; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Stringfellow, John H.; Wilkinson, Allen; Woodson, Daniel


By Authority. Official Message of His Excellency Gov. A. H. Reeder, to the First Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Kansas.
Authors: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: July 3, 1855
This printed version of Reeder's address included a review of how the land that became Kansas was acquired by the United States and of various legislation and treaties that applied before the passage of the Kansas Nebraska Act. Reeder also identified some of the responsibilities of the Legislature including establising a means of determining if Kansas was to be slave or free, establishing counties, setting up a judicial system, levying taxes, organizing a militia, determining a permanent seat of government, and creating a constitution. He also included some statistics from the first official census, which recorded 2,904 qualified voters out of 8,521 residents (only free males could vote). Reeder indicated the need to resolve the issue of selling intoxicating liquors to Native Americans.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Census; Courts; Kansas Territory. Council; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Native Americans; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864


Indictment of H. Miles Moore
Authors: Grover, C. H.
Date: March 1856
Charles H. Grover, the district attorney for the First District in Kansas Territory, signed an indictment of Henry Miles Moore of Leavenworth, K. T. for unlawfully exercising the powers of Attorney General. Moore was elected Attorney General of the Free State government on January 15, 1856, under the provisions of the Topeka Constitution.

Keywords: Attorneys general; Courts; Free State Party; Free state government; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Grover, Charles H.; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Legal document, Free Passage to Josiah Miller out of Kansas Territory
Authors: Donalson, I.B. ; Shannon, Wilson , 1802-1877
Date: May 16, 1856
Josiah Miller, of the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence, was arrested for treason by South Carolina soldiers and was tried in a military tent near Lecompton. He was defended by James Christian and was acquitted. Governor Shannon and I. B. Donalson, U. S. Marshall of the Kansas Territory, issued him this pass on his way out of the territory so that he would not be arrested again by border ruffians.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Christian, James; Courts; Donalson, Israel B.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877


Testimony taken before grand jury investigating the Pottawatomie murders
Authors: Hall, Amos ; Jackson, Harvey ; McDaniel, I. R.; Shaw, Isaac
Date: May 1856
A portion of the testimony taken before a Franklin County grand jury, under the direction of Judge Sterling G. Cato, charged with identifying the parties involved in the May 24, 1856 killings on Pottawatomie Creek.. Included are the statements of Harvey Jackson, Amos Hall, I. R. McDaniel, Luther ?, and Isaac Shaw. Hall stated that he had seen "Old Man Brown" [John Brown] in a wagon on May 22, 1856. A one page explanation of the testimony signed by Edward Hoogland is attached.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Free state activities; Hall, Amos; Hoogland, Edward; Jackson, Harvey; McDaniel, I. R.; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Shaw, Isaac


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Wife [Mary Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: June 9, 1856
Writing from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday in Meadville, Pennsylvania, Cyrus K. Holliday repeated his previous letter's instructions that neither she nor Mr. Nichols come to Kansas Territory until he wrote again. He mentioned turmoil in district courts and described the positions and numbers of Proslavery forces under General John W. Whitfield and Free-State forces. Colonel Edwin V. Sumner and his federal troops from Fort Leavenworth were attempting to maintain peace.

Keywords: Courts; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879


Letter, Your Affectionate Son & brother [John Brown, Jr.?] to Dear Father [John Brown] & Brother
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: September 8, 1856
Still in the custody of territorial officials, John Brown, Jr., wrote to express his remorse upon learning of the death of his brother Frederick--at least he was relieved to learn that his father and Jason were safe, as early reports had them dead or missing. "Poor Frederick has perished in a good cause!" wrote John, Jr., "the success of which cause I trust will yet bring joy to millions." He then wrote of his forthcoming trial and possible plan to "escape in case it should appear best."

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Wealthy; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Sickness (see Illness); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Father [Thomas Parrott]
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 7, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his father, Thomas Parrott. Marcus told him of his preparation to defend the free state men accused of murder for their role in the recent skirmishes surrounding the Battle of Hickory Point; he was not optimistic of the outcome, calling his position "embarrassing". Marcus added news of the recent election of a new Territorial Legislature, and shared poll statistics that showed a vast majority of free state supporters in several voting areas. Though this was a positive turn, he stated again that the free state cause would be in the hands of the new President.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Parrott, Thomas; Proslavery activities


Letter, Jonathan Crews to Thomas N. Stinson
Authors: Crews, Jonathan
Date: November 21, 1856
Jonathan Crews, writing from LaPorte, Indiana, expressed strong proslavery views on the situation in Kansas. Crews described his trip home to Indiana from Kansas and discussed several Indiana court cases involving his business interests.

Keywords: Business; Courts; Crews, Jonathan; Indiana; Proslavery; Stinson, Thomas N.


Promissory Note, Wm. Clark and E. Updegraff
Authors: Clark, William ; Updegraff, E.
Date: December 18, 1856
Under the terms of the promissory note, William Clark and E. Updegraff agreed to pay a $10.50 fine to Shawnee County imposed on them for card playing.

Keywords: Cards, playing; Clark, William; Courts; Crime; Entertainment; Ethics; Legal documents; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Updegraff, E.


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sisterr"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: February 13, 1857
On February 13, 1857, Kagi informed his sister in Bristol, Ohio, that he wouldn't be able to make the expected spring trip home afterall. He did plan to travel to Nebraska City for a few days, but because he was due to appear in court later in the spring, or lose the $8000 bail that had been posted for him, he didn't have time to journey east. He planned to be back in Topeka for the "Great Mass Convention" of freestate me on March 10. (See, Wilder, Annals of Kansas, 157)

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Courts; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory


Letter, James Peckham to Friend [Henry Miles] Moore
Authors: Peckham, James
Date: March 20, 1857
Peckham, writing from New York City, described the strong anti-slavery feelings that had emerged among many Northerners in the wake of the March 6, 1857, Dred Scott Supreme Court decision.

Keywords: Antislavery; Courts; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Peckham, James; Scott, Dred; United States. Supreme Court


Town Organization of Hyatt, Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May, 1857
This printed item documented the organization of the town of Hyatt in Anderson Couty, Kansas Territory. Issac Hull and C. J. Farley served as the officers at a May 2, 1857, meeting that unanimously adopted a "declaration of rights" and "articles of fraternization" suggested by W. F. M. Arny. Arny was elected mayor of Hyatt for a year. The document also included information about the organization of Anderson County. D. N. Buffum presided at the county organization meeting held May 4, 1857, and Albert Blauvelt served as secretary. After the resolutions organizing the county were approved, W. F. M. Arny was named judge and associate judges were J. Y. Campbell, Col. Harvey, Solomon Kaufman, and B. Tyler. Election judges--S. P. Hand, John S. Robinson, and Darius Frankinberger-were also selected.

Keywords: Anderson County, Kansas Territory; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blauvelt, Albert; Buffum, D. N.; Campbell, J. Y.; Courts; Farley, C. J.; Frankinberger, Darius; Hand, S. P.; Hull, Issac; Hyatt, Kansas Territory; Judges; Kaufman, Solomon; Robinson, John S.; Town development; Tyler, B.


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 20, 1857
In his August 20, 1857, report to Stearns, Marsh again asked for some clarification on a couple payment issues and described his role for the committee (Mass. State Kansas Committee) with regard to Jim Lane's efforts to organize protection for free state voters. For a short while, things looked good for the Free State cause, but Governor Walker's conduct to date had been disruptive and Judge Cato and friends began to issue arrest warrants.

Keywords: Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Authors: Miller, Josiah
Date: February 11, 1858
Josiah Miller, serving as Probate Judge for Douglas County, wrote to his Father and Mother in Illinois. He offered them more advice as to their financial investments in Kansas and their journey to the Territory. Miller commented that, even though the laws put in place by the bogus legislature had been repealed, it was "hard to tell whose laws are in force." He also voiced his support for a bill which would make accepting a position under the Lecompton Constitution a felony punishable by death.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Judges; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Miller, Josiah; Travel


Act of Incorporation
Authors: Fields, Henry C.
Date: June 8, 1858
This handwritten copy of the act of incorporation for Wyandotte City declares that this town will be incorporated into Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory. It was decided in court after several taxpayers presented a petition requesting their incorporation into the territory and permission to establish a local government. This document was recorded by Henry C. Fields, clerk of the court at Leavenworth.

Keywords: Courts; Glick, Charles S.; Killen, Daniel; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; McKay, William; Petitions; Russell, George; Town settlement; Town sites; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, John F. King to Tho. Ewing Jr
Authors: King, John F.
Date: July 1, 1858
Ewing's correspondent, John F. King of Lawrence, had just given testimony in the Lane-Jenkins hearing that supported Lane's testimony that he shot Gaius Jenkins in self-defense on June 3, 1858, and wrote to provide Ewing (one of Lane's attorneys) with some information regarding "the exact position of the court." In the preliminary hearing, conducted by three justices of the peace (Erastus D. Ladd and two others) beginning on June 15, the decision was that no murder had been committed.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Jenkins, Gaius; Justices of the peace; King, John F.; Ladd, Erastus D.; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. J. I. [John J. Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: October 24, 1858
After nearly two weeks in the territory, Ingalls was somewhat more optimistic about his prospects, and in this letter to his father, Elias Ingalls, John Ingalls wrote of the gold rush and his legal business, which "opens very well." but he was still weary of "social conditions," as there were no churches in Sumner and "a total disregard of the Sabbath." Atchison, where he had gone in a futile search for an Episcopal Church, was little better in this regard.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Churches; Community life; Courts; Free state settlers; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Lawsuits; Pikes Peak gold rush; Religion; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Weather


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: November 21, 1858
Much of this interesting letter, dated November 21, 1858, from Sumner, describes the Ingalls law practice and the nature of a "frontier" court proceedings that often attracted "nearly all the population." According to Ingalls, "the chief difficulty arising [in the courts came] from the conflict of the two Codes, adopted by two hostile legislatures, each of which had adherents who call the other 'bogus.'" Ingalls also discussed the business of land sales, as something many successfully combine with the practice of law.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Coal; Courts; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Land sales; Lawyers; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Pikes Peak gold rush; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Thanksgiving Day; Weather


Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to General [James W. Denver]
Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight
Date: November 22, 1858
Acting Governor Hugh S. Walsh, writing from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to former territorial governor James W. Denver, described his strategy for the upcoming session of the territorial legislature. Walsh expressed the opinion that the legislature, due to voting irregularities, was not truly representative of the people of the territory. He hoped to convince the legislators to resign and call for new elections.

Keywords: Census; Courts; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Election fraud; Elections; Kansas Territory. Governor; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Walsh, Hugh Sleight


Letter, Tho. Ewing, Jr. to Dear Sir [Wm. S. Reyburn]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: November 23, 1858
In his capacity as attorney for H. B. Denman, who had just "bought of [John A.] Halderman the interest of the latter in the ferry, Ewing wrote Reyburn, Philadelphia, to encourage "an amicable settlement" to avoid taking their disagreement to court. The nature of their dispute was not entirely clear, but Ewing insisted that if not settled it could undermine the legitimacy of the ferry company's charter in the eyes of the soon to be constituted State government.

Keywords: Courts; Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Ferries; Halderman, John Adams; Lawsuits; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Philadelpia, Pennsylvania; Reyburn, William S.


Letter, Sherman [W. T.] & Ewing [Thomas] to Mess. Hart & Gordon
Authors: Sherman & Ewing
Date: December 22, 1858
Typical of much of the legal correspondence represented in this collection, the Leavenworth firm of Sherman & Ewing wrote to clients in Piqua, Ohio, regarding efforts to collect an overdue debt. In this case it was from a young man named F. N. Hamlin, a partner in a Leavenworth shoe store.

Keywords: Courts; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Hamlin, F. N.; Lawsuits; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Piqua, Ohio; Sherman & Ewing; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; William H. Lee and Co.


Letter, W.T. Sherman to Robert Campbell
Authors: Sherman, William T. ((William Tecumseh), 1820-1891
Date: January 17, 1859
This was another letter to Robert Campbell regarding the debt that Sherman, Ewing & McCook was trying to collect. With the others, this conveyed a sense of the legal and financial transactions that seemed to have been a major part of this firm's business and the financial activities of the territory.

Keywords: Campbell, Robert; Courts; Finance; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Russell, Majors, and Waddell; Salt Lake, Utah; Sherman, Ewing & McCook; Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; Weston, Missouri


Letter, J. P. Root to Hon. Charles Robinson
Authors: Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: January 17, 1859
Joseph Root wrote to Charles Robinson from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, informing him of a development that was splitting the Republican (anti-slavery) Party. Root mentioned that a large majority of the free state House members had begun to call themselves "Radicals," or extreme Republicans. He stated that he would leave the party if, in order to be a Republican, he had to be a member of the "Jim Lane Montgomery Men." Root also informed Robinson that a court had been established in Lawrence in order to try violent offenders from Linn, Lykins, and Bourbon counties.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Roberts, William Young; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Smith, Samuel C.


Letter, Sherman [W. T.], Ewing [Thomas] & McCook to Geo. B. Parker
Authors: Sherman, Ewing & McCook
Date: April 4, 1859
Although unclear as to the exact nature of the litigation, this letter from the Leavenworth firm pertained to the taking of depositions in "the case against the steamboat 'Isabella.'" The "Isabella" was a side-wheeler which made regular runs to Sioux City during 1858, and in this case apparently came to the aid of the "Kate Howard" when ice forced her to "give up her trip."

Keywords: Courts; Isabella (steamboat); Kate Howard (steamboat); Keiser, John D.; Lawsuits; Lawyers; McCook, Dan; Missouri River; Parker, George B.; Sherman, Ewing & McCook; Steamboats; Transportation


Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: June 27, 1859
The main focus of this letter, written from Lawrence by Samuel F. Tappan, is the case of Dr. John Doy, who had just been convicted of abducting slaves from Missouri. Doy had been sentenced to five years imprisonment, but his lawyers got a two month suspension so they could file an appeal with the state Supreme Court. Tappan outlined the evidence against Doy, which he said rested on the testimony of one proslavery man. He also reiterated the story behind the Doy kidnapping in case the recipient, Thomas Higginson, was not aware of all the details. The letter ended by mentioning the strength of the Democratic Party in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: African Americans; Courts; Democratic Party (U.S.); Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawyers; Missouri; Slaves; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913


John Brown pike
Authors: Collins and Company
Date: October 18, 1859
Pike used by slaves at the insurrection planned by John Brown at the U.S. arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia, October 18, 1859. Armed with pikes and guns, Brown's army, primarily slaves, took hostages from the community and took over the arsenal. Brown's army was overwhelmed by U.S. troops led by Colonel Robert E. Lee. Brown was tried and hanged for treason on December 2, 1859.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Collinsville, Connecticut; Courts; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Swords and daggers; United States Government; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, H. J. Espy to S. N. Wood
Authors: Espy, H. J.
Date: November 28, 1859
H. J. Espy, a probate judge in Council Grove, wrote in response to a letter from Wood, who seemed to have challenged Espy's "charge" that Wood was "connected with the Underground Rail Road." Espy explained that "as I understand the term, Underground Rail Road, I believe there is an inseparable connection between it and the republican party. . . ."

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Courts; Espy, H. J.; Judges; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Underground railroad; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, Paul Shepherd to James Redpath
Authors: Shepherd, Paul
Date: January 3, 1860
From Dover, Michigan, Paul Shepherd--formerly of Kansas Territory--wrote Redpath to pass along "some useful information, in repect to John H. Kagi." Of most interest, perhaps is Shepherd's account of the "shoot out" at Tecumseh between Kagi and Judge Rush Elmore, who Kagi had accused of "being a prime mover in the murderous attack upon him" at Lecompton in mid-January 1857.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Border ruffians; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Moffett, Charles; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery perspective; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka boys; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Father [Thomas Ewing, Sr.]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: March 9, 1860
Thomas Ewing, Jr., wrote from Leavenworth to his father in Ohio seeking his assistance with a legal matter involving claims to the land "reserved to certain half breeds of the Kansas tribe." Most of this land was occupied by squatters and questions of legal title and transfer were being litigated in the territorial and federal courts.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Courts; Elmore, Rush; Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Kansa Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Kansa Indians; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Land claim disputes; Land speculation; Lawyers; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Ohio; Pettit, John; Squatters; Territorial Supreme Court (see Kansas Territory. Supreme Court)


Letter, Wm Handy to Dear Sir [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Handy, William
Date: April 3, 1860
This letter, written in Boston by William Handy, was addressed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a radical abolitionist minister from Worcester, Massachusetts. In this letter, Handy proposed strategies to deal with the potential arrest of James Redpath in the aftermath of Harper's Ferry. Higginson and Redpath had both supported John Brown's raid on the arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in 1859. After John Brown's execution some of his followers had fled the country, but Higginson and Redpath had both remained in the United States. Handy feared that Redpath would be arrested, so he wanted to figure out the best way to protect Redpath's rights.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Courts; Handy, William; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; United States Government


Letter, [William] Handy to My Dear Sir [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Handy, William
Date: April 6, 1860
This letter was written by William Handy of Boston and was addressed to Thomas W. Higginson, a supporter of John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia. Handy wanted to let Higginson know about a meeting in Boston to decide upon a plan of action. By this point, John Brown had been executed and several of his followers had fled the country. Most of those who remained in the United States wanted to resist the government; consequently, Handy emphasized that at this meeting "none but fighters are eligible." Handy believed that it would not be wise to rely on the legal system to give Brown's supporters a fair trial. Handy also spoke of a beautiful pistol that would soon be presented to Miss Sanborn "for her bravery in defending her brother." He also mentioned that Franklin Sanborn had been arrested in Concord for some misdemeanor; he was unsure of the details.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Courts; Handy, William; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Father [Thomas Ewing, Sr.]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: April 21, 1860
Three days after he argued for the defense in a fugitive slave case, Ewing, Jr., reported to his father (Thomas Ewing, Sr., Ohio) that his "argument on the motion [i.e., to quash the indictment against one of the nine Leavenworth citizens, including D.R. Anthony, charged with the violation] added greatly to my stature as a lawyer in the public view." This opportunity arose in connection with the so-called "Charley Fisher rescue cases." (See coverage in the Daily Times, Leavenworth, April 19, 1860, and April 24, 1860.)

Keywords: Anthony, Daniel R.; Courts; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Fisher, Charley; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pettit, John; Territorial Supreme Court (see Kansas Territory. Supreme Court); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory); Vaughan, Champion


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear John [John J. Brasee]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: May 19, 1860
Ewing wrote this letter to John J. Brasee of Lancaster, Ohio (Ewing's hometown), in response to an apparent inquiry into the grounds for and the chances of someone acquiring an easy divorce in K.T.

Keywords: Adultery; Brasee, John J.; Courts; Divorce; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Pettit, John; Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Hon. John Sherman]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 22, 1861
To Congressman, soon to be U.S. senator, John Sherman of Ohio, Ewing wrote to encourage Sherman to support Charles Robinson's appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. "It is a matter of very great importance to the people of Kansas that a Comr should be apptd who would exert himself to have the numerous reserves in our borders reduced, and such of the Tribes removed southward as wish to get out of our way . . . ." Ewing also mentioned the pending bill for "the admission of Kansas."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Courts; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Native Americans; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pettit, John; Presidential appointments; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; Washington, D.C.


Court document conveying property to James S. Emery
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: July 16, 1861
This document settled a court case from the Second District Court of the Territory of Kansas, decided in November 1860. Emery was successful in getting a judgment against the Delaware Town Company of Lawrence which resulted in his acquiring property in Leavenworth County. Repine was the sheriff of Leavenworth County when the land was conveyed to Emery.

Keywords: Courts; Delaware Town Company of Lawrence; Emery, James Stanley; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Repine, Alexander; Town companies


Photograph, Josiah Miller
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Although born in South Carolina, Josiah Miller was a free state supporter. He attended college in Indiana and law school in New York. He came to Kansas in 1854 and on January 5, 1855, established the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence. The newspaper office was destroyed by order of the territorial government on May 21, 1856 because is was deemed a nuisance. He was capturned by Buford's proslavery forces and was tried for treason against the state of South Carolina. He supported John C. Fremont. In 1857, he was elected probate judge of Douglas County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state supporters; Journalists; Judges; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Newspaper publishing; Photographs and Illustrations


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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