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207 results for Brown, John, 1800-1859:
John Brown Melodeon
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1846-1857
Abolitionist John Brown gave this melodeon to his daughter, Ruth Brown Thompson, as a wedding present. It was played at John Brown's funeral on Dec. 8, 1859. He originally purchased the melodeon from a musician in New York. Patent dates stamped on the instrument range from 1846 to 1857. It was manufactured by Carhart & Needham Organs and Melodeons of New York.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Carhart & Needham Organs and Melodeons; Entertainment; Funerals; Marriage; Music; New York; Objects; Thompson, Ruth (Brown); Violent deaths


Photograph, Samuel Lyle Adair family
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1849
Portrait of Samuel Lyle Adair, Charles Storrs Adair, Florella Brown Adair, and Emma Florilla Adair. The family settled near Osawatomie, Kansas Territory, where Adair was a minister and free state supporter. His wife was a half sister to John Brown and he occasionally stayed with the Adairs. The family was involved in various free state and relief activities.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Children; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Religion


Letter, Ruth [Brown Thompson] to Dear Mother [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown Thompson, Ruth
Date: November 15, 1854
From the family's place in North Elba, New York, daughter Ruth wrote to say that "Father arrived here last night and is well with the exception of a cold." To quickly, she "rejoiced to hear that he has given up the idea of going to Kansas," and instead, Ruth now believed, would be moving to North Elba. Ruth wrote of the preparations she and husband Henry Thompson would make for Mary Brown's move and of other members of the family.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Kansas Territory; North Elba, New York; Thompson, Ruth (Brown)


Letter, Salmon Brown to Dear Father [John Brown]
Authors: Brown, Salmon
Date: June 22, 1855
From Osawatomie, son Salmon Brown wrote his to John Brown who had stopped in Rockford, Illinois, on his journey to Kansas Territory, where he was expected "before fall." Along with references to the provisions and clothing that might be needed, and the crops of corn, beans, turnips, and squash they expected to harvest, Salmon wrote "There are slaves owned within three miles of us."

Keywords: African Americans; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Salmon; Crops; Free state settlers; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Rockford, Illinois; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Letter, [John Brown, Jr.] to Dear Father [John Brown]
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: June 22, 1855
This rather lengthy letter from John Brown, Jr., at Brownsville, K.T., to his father, John Brown, regarding the Kansas family's current situation, physically and economically. John, Jr., provides a hand-drawn map of the family's settlement in Franklin County (he calls it "Brown Co.") just west of Osawatomie.

Keywords: Agriculture; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Crops; Farmers; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Free state settlers; Land claims; Missourians; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Ottawa Indians; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. L. Brown [Jason Brown] to Dear Father, [John Brown] Mother, [Mary Brown] Brothers & Sisters
Authors: Brown, Jason
Date: June 23, 1855
From Osawatomie, Kansas Territory (or from the Browns' settlement which was located in southeastern Franklin Co.), son Jason wrote the family regarding there current circumstances. Overall, he was "well pleased with the country," which he described as "very rich and beautiful," despite the fact that he and his wife Ellen had just "laid little Austin in the grave." The Browns were still living in tents and needed stoves, but "All well."

Keywords: Agriculture; Akron, Ohio; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Salmon; Free state settlers; Land claims; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter, Owen Brown to S. L. Adair and Family
Authors: Brown, Owen , 1771-1856
Date: August 8, 1855
Owen Brown wrote from Munroe Falls Ohio to Samuel and Florella Adair in Osawatomie, Kansas that his son John Brown will start for Kansas Territory in a week. He mentioned that he has a "warlike spirit" and that it is necessary for defense but he hopes nothing more. He also expressed some of his religious beliefs. The letter contained a postscript written by John Brown. Florella Brown Adair was a half sister of John Brown.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Owen, 1771-1856; Free state cause; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Munroe Falls, Ohio; Ohio; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children All
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 4, 1855
In Scott Co., Iowa ("about 4 miles West of the Mississippi"), on his way to Kansas Territory, John Brown wrote the family to say all was well despite some delays caused by their freight in Chicago and a sick horse. Brown commented mostly on the nature of there journey to date and some miscellaneous business matters.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Brown, Oliver; Brown, Watson, 1835-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Iowa; Kansas City, Missouri; Missouri; Travel


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: October 13, 1855
One week after arriving at his sons' settlement ("Brownville") near Osawatomie, Brown wrote the family back east that although most were sick when he first arrived, they "appear now to be mending." The trip across Missouri was without incident, except for problems with a sick horse and their "heavy load." Brown then wrote briefly of the Adairs, the "most uncomfortable situation" in which he found his children upon his arrival, and other things including prairie fires and finally the political situation in the territory. In fact, at this early date, John Brown "believe[d] Missouri is fast becoming discouraged about making Kansas a Slave State & think the prospect of its becoming Free is brightening every day."

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Election, Topeka Constitution delegates to convention, October 1855; Free state; Free state settlers; Missouri; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Settlement; Weather


Letter, S. L. Adair to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: October 15, 1855
Writing from Osawatomie, Samuel Adair mentioned that his family had been sick and that others in the area had been ill and/or died. The bulk of the letter dealt with elections held by both proslavery and antislavery supporters in October, 1855, and the number of Missourians that voted in the proslavery election on October 1. He also discussed the territorial legislature that met at Shawnee Mission. The letter also indicated that a relative and his son and son-in-law had arrived in Kansas Territory and that he had brought a number of weapons. This is probably referring to John Brown, who was a half brother of Adair's wife Florella. Adair mentioned that he was concerned about Brown's war-like attitude. Adair briefly discussed a slaveholder who had left the territory because of his concern about the "outcome." This appears to be a draft of a letter sent to Jocelyn.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Elections; Free state activities; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Slaveholders; Slavery


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: November 2, 1855
In this letter from "Brownsville, Kansas Territory," John Brown made some observations about the harshness of the weather, the health of his Kansas children, their general lack of preparedness for the winter, and the farm work that needed to be accomplished. His only comment about the political situation in the territory came in closing: "I feel more, & more confident that Slavery will soon die out here; & to God be the praise."

Keywords: Agriculture; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Crops; Farmers; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Houses; Slavery; Weather


Muster Roll of Captain John Brown's company, Fifth Regiment, 1st Brigade, Kansas Volunteers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 12, 1855
This muster roll listed men who served in the Wakarusa War from November 27 to December 12, 1855. The fifth regiment was commanded by Col. George W. Smith. This company was recruited from the area around Osawatomie, Kansas Territory. The information provided included name, title if an officer, and age. Officers, in addition to Captain John Brown, were William Updegraff, Henry H. Williams, James J. Holbrook, Ephraim Reynolds, R. W. Wood, Frederick Brown, John Yelton, Henry Alderman, H. Harrison Updegraff, Daniel W. Collis, and William Partridge. William Partridge furnished one keg of powder and 8 pounds of lead that were used by the company. Ages of the company ranged from 19 to 55 years old. This was a small company and the other members were Amos D. Alderman, Francis Brennon, William W. Caine, Benjamin L. Cochran, Jeremiah Harrison and John Brown's sons John, Jr., Owen, and Sallmon

Keywords: Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Owen; Brown, Salmon; Free state activities; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Militia; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Partridge, William; Smith, George W.; Updegraff, W. W.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Williams, Henry H.


Letter, John Brown to Orson Day Esqr.
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: December 14, 1855
In mid-December 1855, John Brown wrote to Orson Day (a brother in law) of White Hall, New York, from Browns Station, Kansas Territory, regarding the "Kansas War" (Wakarusa War) from which he had "just returned." The territory was, according to Brown, "now entirely in the power of the Free State men," and he continued to "believe the Missourians will give up all further hope of making Kansas a Slave State."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Browns Station, Kansas Territory; Firearms; Free state cause; Free state constitutions; Missourians; Proslavery prospects; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: December 16, 1855
Soon after his return from Lawrence, where he and other volunteers had successfully defended that place, John Brown wrote from Osawatomie to give his family "a brief account of the invasion," the so-called Wakarusa War. As it turned out, Brown provided some interesting details about their preparations and arrival in the besieged city and the negotiations that were ongoing when the Browns came on the scene. The Free State leaders, according to Brown, skillfully accomplished and signed an agreement with Governor Shannon that was "much to their own liking."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Barber, Thomas W.; Bogus legislature; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Coleman, Franklin M.; Dow, Charles W.; Free state cause; Free state militia; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery supporters; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


John Brown portrait
Authors: Ruggles, Quartus
Date: 1855-1859
John Brown portrait by Quartus Ruggles, 1889. Brown was an abolitionist who came to Kansas in 1855. Although in the territory for only about three years, he was involved in several skirmishes and helped free some Missouri slaves. Brown was hanged for treason on December 2, 1859 for attempting to overtake the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Ruggles, Quartus; Slavery


John Brown Surveyor's Compass
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
While in Kansas John Brown was employed as a surveyor, an occupation which allowed him to move around freely to locate and observe proslavery camps. This compass was made by Phelps and Gurley of Troy, New York.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state supporters; New York; Objects; Phelps and Gurley; Surveyors


Receipts and Expenditures, State Kansas Committee
Authors: Massachusetts State Kansas Committee
Date: c. 1856 - 1857
One of many ledger-type listings of donations to and expenditures of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee for the support of Kansas settlement and the activities of "Capt J[ohn] Brown" and other free state partisans.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state cause; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Receipts; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Whitman, E. B.


Manuscript Volume, Items of 1856
Authors: Hanway, James
Date: 1856
This little journal/ledger contained a five-page account of the May 24, 1856, killings on Pottawatomie Creek, apparently written by James Hanway shortly after the incident. He mentioned the five victims by name and wrote: "The settlement is plunged into a perfect commotion. A meeting of the settlers was held on the 26th and they mutually agreed to protect each other from foreign or internal foes. All men of real good sense, condemned these midnight assassinations and also the killing of men who are attending to their concerns". This was a somewhat different perspective of the situation than expressed by Hanway in his 1860 letter to James Redpath. Nevertheless, the responsibility for "all such blood tragedies" is with the pro-slave men.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Doyle, James P.; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Hanway, James; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Proslavery activities; Violence; Violent deaths; Wilkinson, Allen


Stock Certificate, New England Emigrant Aid Company
Authors: New England Emigrant Aid Company
Date: January 15, 1856
Dated January 15, 1856, this certificate of stock--one share--in the New England Emigrant Aid Company was issued to "John Brown Lawrence K.T."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Stock certificates; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every One
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: February 1, 1856
From Osawatomie, Brown wrote of the continued severe winter and "the fierce Winds of Kansas," as well as his desire to visit the family at North Elba, New York. But he also mentioned that they had "just learned of some new, & shocking outrages at Leavenworth; & that the Free State people there have fled to Lawrence." Although more conflict threatened, Brown expected little action until the weather improved.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Salmon; Free state supporters; Household activities; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; North Elba, New York; Proslavery activities; Weather


Letter, J. R. Giddings to My Dear Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed) , 1795-1864
Date: March 17, 1856
Congressman Joshua R. Giddings an abolitionist Republican from Ohio and good friend of the Brown family there, wrote from the U.S. "Hall of Reps" regarding his desire to provide support for Brown and his cause in Kansas and of his belief that the federal troops there would not be used "to shoot the Citizens of Kansas." Although he indicated a need for more "men and arms" in the territory to insure victory, Giddings was "confident there will be no war in Kansas."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Free state support; Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed), 1795-1864; Kansas Nebraska Act; Pierce administration; United States. Army; United States. Congress. House


Letter, Owen Brown to Dear Son John [Brown]
Authors: Brown, Owen , 1771-1856
Date: March 27, 1856
Owen Brown, who died at age 85 on May 8, 1856, wrote his son, John Brown, about mundane family matters, his delight at the regular arrival of letters from his son, and his faith in God. He also mentioned correspondence with Congressman J. R. Giddings and the vote in Congress to send a committee "to Kansas to investigate the situation."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Owen, 1771-1856; Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed), 1795-1864; Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); Religion; United States. Congress


Letter, Your Affectionate Husband & Father [John Brown] to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: April 7, 1856
From "Brown's Station" in the southeastern corner of Franklin County, K.T., Brown wrote the family about a variety of matters, including family finances/business interests and, as usual, his faith in God ("trust us to the care of 'Him who feeds the young Ravens when they cry'"). Brown also mentioned the house they were building for Orson Day, his brother in law, and the "rumors" of what was to come in the political arena. "For one I have no desire (all things considered) to have the Slave Power cease from its acts of aggression. 'Their foot shall slide in due time.'"

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Watson, 1835-1859; Day, Orson; Free state activities; Free state cause; Proslavery activities; Slave power; Thompson, Ruth (Brown); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Letter, Sister M. [Martha] L. Davis to Brother and Sister [Samuel and Florella Adair]
Authors: Davis, Martha Lucretia Brown
Date: June 8, 1856
Martha provided information on the death of Father Brown. She also wrote that they had heard of the conflict at Osawatomie and that "John and two of his sons" had been arrested. She expressed anxiety for their safety.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Davis, Martha Lucretia Brown; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Indictment of Orville Chester Brown, John Brown, Sr., John Brown, Jr. et al., U.S. District Court, Territory of Kansas, Second District
Authors: United States. District Court for Lykens County
Date: May 1856
During the "May Term" of the U.S. District Court for Lykens (Miami) County, a grand jury issued this indictment covering the April 16, 1856, actions (among others) of this group of "persons of evil minds and dispositions." These men, according to the indictment, "did unlawfully and wickedly conspire, combine, confederate and agree together mutually to aid and support one another in a forcible resistance to the enactments of the laws passed by the Legislature of said Territory of Kansas. . . ." Specifically, they had conspired "forcibly to resist and oppose the collector of taxes in and for the county and Territory aforesaid . . ."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; District Court (see United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)); Free state activities; Kansas Legislature; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Taxation; United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Testimony taken before grand jury investigating the Pottawatomie murders
Authors: Hall, Amos ; Jackson, Harvey ; McDaniel, I. R.; Shaw, Isaac
Date: May 1856
A portion of the testimony taken before a Franklin County grand jury, under the direction of Judge Sterling G. Cato, charged with identifying the parties involved in the May 24, 1856 killings on Pottawatomie Creek.. Included are the statements of Harvey Jackson, Amos Hall, I. R. McDaniel, Luther ?, and Isaac Shaw. Hall stated that he had seen "Old Man Brown" [John Brown] in a wagon on May 22, 1856. A one page explanation of the testimony signed by Edward Hoogland is attached.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Free state activities; Hall, Amos; Hoogland, Edward; Jackson, Harvey; McDaniel, I. R.; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Shaw, Isaac


List of participants and casualties at the battle of Black Jack
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: June 2, 1856
According to this document listing the participants and those "men wounded in the battle of Palmyra or Black Jack," son-in-law Henry Thompson was "dangerously wounded."

Keywords: Black Jack, Battle of; Black Jack, Kansas Territory; Bondi, August; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Oliver; Brown, Owen; Brown, Salmon; Carpenter, A.O.; Free state militia; Militia; Missourians; Palmyra, Kansas Territory`; Pate, Henry Clay; Proslavery supporters; Thompson, Henry; Whitman, E. B.


Articles of agreement, Exchange of prisoners following battle of Black Jack
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: June 2, 1856
On June 2, 1856, John Brown, et al, signed this "article of agreement" with their defeated foe, Captain H. C. Pate and his lieutenant for the exchange of prisoners, including John Jr. and Jason Brown, at the home of John T. "Ottawa" Jones.

Keywords: Black Jack, Battle of; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Pate, Henry Clay; Prairie City, Kansas Territory; Shore, Samuel T.


Letter, William H. Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: July 15, 1856
William H. Leeman, a follower of John Brown in Kansas and eventually a casualty of the Harpers Ferry raid, wrote this letter to his mother while "traveling across the prairies of Iowa" in July 1856. Although he briefly mentions an encounter with "2,000 border ruffians," he assures his mother that he is safe, in good health, and well armed, and that he is much happier in this "adventure" than had he staid home and "worked in a shop."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cannons; Free state militia; Iowa; Leeman, William H.; Militia; Missouri; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, S. L. A. [Samuel Lyle Adair] to Bro. John Brown
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: July 16, 1856
From Osawatomie, Samuel Adair wrote his brother-in-law John Brown regarding monies Adair had received for the "free State men in Kansas" and specifies how these funds were distributed.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter, O.E. Learnard to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: July 23, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote his father, S.T. Learnard, that he was disappointed in the attitude of people in Vermont and throughout the North who continued to support the Pierce administration. If they did so because they were Democrats, they should learn from Andrew H. Reeder, J. H. Lane, William Y. Roberts, and others who had seen the light. Learnard admitted "a few cases" of free state retaliation "upon their oppressors," and then gave some "facts" about the "Patawotamie" incident, while not mentioning John Brown by name. Learnard believed that the reports about mangled bodies were untrue.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Northern Democrats; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Roberts, William Young; Vermont; Violence; Violent deaths


Painting, Directing John Brown to the Free State Camp
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: August 3, 1856
Painting of John Brown being led to a Free State camp by Samuel Reader. John Brown disguised himself as a surveyor to monitor the activites of proslavery forces in the Kansas Territory. Here, the artist depicts himself leading Brown to a camp on Pony Creek in Brown County on August 3, 1856.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Brown County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state; Free state activities; Objects; Reader, Samuel James; Surveyors


Letter, [J.H. Lane] to His Excellancy C. [Charles] Robinson, et al
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: August 10, 1856
In a brief letter from Topeka that is very difficult to decipher, Jim Lane informs Robinson, Gen. George W. Deitzler, George W. Brown, John Brown, "& others" of his arrival with "a sufficient force" to do battle for the free state cause. He seems to counsel quick and decisive action.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Deitzler, George W.; Free state cause; Free state government; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letters, J. H. Lane to "Friends" [Robinson and others] and C. Robinson to "Dear Sir" [J.H. Lane]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles
Date: August 11, 1856
Copied by R. J. Hinton from his journal in preparation of one of his publications on the Kansas war, the first letter is Jim Lane's offer to rescue the Lecompton prisoners (Robinson, George W. Brown, Gaius Jenkins, et al) and Charles Robinson's reply, suggesting that in light of current congressional activity the plan was ill-advised. Both were dated August 11, 1856.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Congress (See United States. Congress); Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.


Letter, H. [Harris] Stratton to Mr. Brown [John Brown]
Authors: Stratton, Harris
Date: August 12, 1856
In this brief note from Topeka, Harris Stratton told John Brown that "Gen Joe Cook" (Jim Lane) wanted Brown to come to Lawrence as they were expecting "a fight on Washington Creek."

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stratton, Harris; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory


Letter, [John Brown, Jr.] to [John Brown]
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: August 14, 1856
Although this document is unsigned, it is almost certainly a letter from John Brown, Jr., to his father. The former was at a "camp" near Lecompton, still in the custody of territorial officials, and he wanted his father to come for a visit. John, Jr. provides instructions on how this might be done safely; he believed it could be, but warned, "don't let them get you."

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners


Letter, [John Brown, Jr.?] to [John Brown?]
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: August 16, 1856
Two days after encouraging his father to visit him at the prisoners' "camp" near Lecompton, John Brown, Jr., wrote to say "I had not better try to meet you just now." He thought things looked "favorable" for the free state prisoners and wrote of what he had heard of the Battle of Fort Titus, which took place that very day, August 16, 1856.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sackett, Delos B.; Titus, Henry Theodore


Letter, H. J. Strickler to [Thomas N.] Stinson
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: September 2, 1856
Hiram Jackson Strickler, adjutant general of Kansas Territory, writing from Lecompton, Kansas Territory, briefly described for Thomas N. Stinson the Battle of Osawatomie that took place on August 30, 1856. In the battle, pro-slavery forces led by John W. Reed defeated free state forces led by John Brown. Brown's son Frederick was killed in the engagement. Strickler's comments indicated that he held a pro-slavery perspective.

Keywords: Battles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Battle of; Proslavery perspective; Reed, John W.; Stinson, Thomas N.; Strickler, Hiram Jackson; Town companies


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 7, 1856
Just over a week after the Battle of Osawatomie, John Brown wrote his family from Lawrence about the death of "our dear Frederick" and the ensuing engagement, in which Brown himself was slightly wounded. Brown's small force "killed & wounded from 70 to 80 of the enemy" before escaping, and through it all "Jason fought bravely by my side."

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state militia; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie, Battle of; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Your Affectionate Son & brother [John Brown, Jr.?] to Dear Father [John Brown] & Brother
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: September 8, 1856
Still in the custody of territorial officials, John Brown, Jr., wrote to express his remorse upon learning of the death of his brother Frederick--at least he was relieved to learn that his father and Jason were safe, as early reports had them dead or missing. "Poor Frederick has perished in a good cause!" wrote John, Jr., "the success of which cause I trust will yet bring joy to millions." He then wrote of his forthcoming trial and possible plan to "escape in case it should appear best."

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Wealthy; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Sickness (see Illness); United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)


Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 13, 1856
Charles Robinson wrote to John Brown from Lawrence on September 13, 1856, a short note encouraging Brown to give Governor Geary, who "talks of letting the past be forgotten," a chance and to come to town to "see us." A note from John Brown, Jr., on the bottom of the page, however, advised caution, as he had "no doubt an attempt will be made to arrest you as well as Lane."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Chas. H. Branscomb to John Brown Esq.
Authors: Branscomb, Charles H.
Date: September 22, 1856
From Boston, Massachusetts, Charles Branscomb wrote Brown a brief note conveying "fifty or one hundred dolls as a testimonial" from those who admired Brown's "conduct during the war."

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Branscomb, Charles H.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et al
Authors: Hunt, George W.; Stearns, C.
Date: September 29, 1856
On behalf of a committee of Lawrence citizens, Hunt and Stearns wrote the State Central Committee of Kansas "to urge upon your attention several important points in reference to the present condition of Kansas." They were convinced that a "storm" from Missouri was about "to burst upon the devoted heads of the freemen of Kansas" and "perhaps to deluge Kansas with rivers of blood." The committee urged the state and national organization to help them prepare for the storm, while things were relatively calm, with an adequate supply of arms and ammunition and men. But, with a veiled reference, perhaps, to John Brown, they called only for "moral heroes" who would not follow the "principles of Border Ruffianism."

Keywords: Ammunition; Beecher Bibles; Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; State Central Committee of Kansas; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Watson Brown to Dear Mother, [Mary Brown] Brother and Sister
Authors: Brown, Watson , 1835-1859
Date: October 30, 1856
En route to K.T. via St. Charles, Iowa, Watson Brown wrote the family that he was in "fine spirits besides being in good company we are in the company of a train of Kansas teams loaded with Sharps rifles and canon.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Watson, 1835-1859; Douglass, Frederick, 1818-1895; Iowa; Lane Trail; Sharps rifles; Smith, Gerritt


Letter, J. [Jeremiah] R. Brown to Brother and Sister Adair [Samuel and Florella]
Authors: Brown, Jeremiah Root
Date: November 1, 1856
Jeremiah Brown wrote from Hudson, Ohio, to the Adairs in Osawatomie. He had been raising funds to send to Kansas and mentioned other efforts to aid people in Kansas Territory. He wrote about helping various Brown family members. He also wrote about his concerns about the "aggression of the slave power."

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, Jason; Brown, Jeremiah; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Hudson, Ohio; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Ohio; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief funds; Slave power


Letter, William Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: November 9, 1856
Writing to his Mother from Nebraska Territory on November 4, 1856, Leeman, who "belong[ed] to Old Browns company," said he had just left Kansas Territory because, after driving the "Border Ruffians" out, the governor and "his troops were after us [and] we were obliged to leave the territory." Leeman hoped to go back to his 160 acre farm in Kansas soon and encouraged his Mother to come when the troubles were over.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state settlers; Jayhawking; Leeman, William H.; Militia; Nebraska Territory; Osawatomie, Battle of; Sharps rifles


Letter and Bill, S. [Samuel] L. Adair to William Hutchinson
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: November 7, 1856
The first page of this four-page document lists five items for which Samuel L. Adair requested payment ($21.25) from the KSCC; these include provisions, medicine, the "balance yet unpaid of money advanced to pay lawyers fees for prisoners at Tecumsee in June last," and the "bill paid for lumber and nails for coffin of Frederick Brown & David Garrison," two of the men killed during the battle of Osawatomie, August 30, 1856. The accompanying letter justified the request.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Garrison, David R.; Medicine; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. K. [John Kagi] to My Dear Sisters
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: November 20, 1856
Killed during John Brown's Harpers Ferry raid in October 1859, John Henry Kagi, sometimes known as Brown's "Secretary of War," was "in prison at Lecompton" when he wrote this letter to his sister on November 20, 1856. Kagi, along with John Ritchie and several other free-state partisans, had been arrested by U.S. Marshal I.B. Donelson, supported by federal troops, on September 18 at Topeka and subsequently charged with "highway robbery." (See, Kansas Historical Collections, 4:561) Although "in prison," Kagi assured his sister that he was safe and could be rescued at anytime; "I hesitate only because we may get out some other way, and because a forcible rescue would bring on a terrible winter war, which I do not wish to see."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Donalson, Israel B.; Free state militia; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Newspapers - Free State; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Testimony of Thomas Bedoe
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 2, 1856
The testimony of Thomas Bedoe, a portion of the Journal of Investigations of Kansas, was apparently collected by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. It describes in detail the time Mr. Bedoe spent serving in the free state militia in the Osawatomie and Lawrence areas. He was a part of the Battle of Osawatomie and this account provides valuable information about the events preceding the battle.

Keywords: Battles; Bedoe, Thomas; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shombre, Henry J.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Stanton, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas


Letter, G. S. Lewis to Bro. [Samuel] Adair
Authors: Lewis, G. S.
Date: December 12, 1856
Mr. Lewis was a friend of Samuel Adair and wrote to him from Albany, Athens Co., Ohio. Mr. Lewis was concerned about the safety of the Adair family and commented on the trials they must be suffering. He commented on the bravery of Charley, the Adair's son who helped warn Osawatomie of the coming of proslavery forces prior to the Battle of Osawatomie. Mr. Lewis commented on John Brown, Gov. Geary, John Freemont, and the political situation in Kansas and nationally. He also reported on rumors of slave insurrections in Kentucky and Tennessee.

Keywords: Adair, Charles; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Albany, Ohio; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lewis, G. S.; Ohio; Osawatomie, Battle of; Proslavery activities; Slave insurrections


Testimonies of Nathaniel Parker, Horace L. Dunnell, Hinton S. Dunnell, Alexander MacArthur, James Hall, Jerome Hazen, and Charles Henry Caulkins
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 7, 1856
These testimonies, presumably taken down on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, include personal information about each settler, such as their age, occupation, etc., as well as their experiences in Kansas and their involvement in border warfare and skirmishes with pro-slavery settlers. Each account is descriptive and provides tremendous detail about their individual experiences. The testimonies of MacArthur, Hall, and Hazen are combined into one, with this group testimony split into two separate sections.

Keywords: Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Caulkins, Charles Henry; Cutter, Calvin M.; Dunnell, Hinton S.; Dunnell, Horace L.; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Guns; Hall, James; Harvey, James A.; Hazen, Jerome; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; MacArthur, Alexander; Missouri River; Parker, Nathaniel; Prisoners; Prisons; Proslavery activities; Skirmishing; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns); Weston, Missouri; Wounds and injuries


Testimony of James H. Holmes
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 8, 1856
This testimony of James Holmes is a portion of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, a collection of personal stories recorded by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Mr. Holmes had studied agricultural chemistry before entering Kansas Territory, and his initial reason for emigrating was his desire to undertake agricultural experiments. He had also intended to join with Clubbs Vegetarian Settlement, which was located on the Neosho River near the north line of the Osage Reserve. He goes into detail about the Neosho valley and its vegetation, mineral deposits, etc. The rest of his account deals with his involvement in the free state militia and his role in defending Osawatomie.

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cline, Captain; Emigration and immigration; Free state militia; Harvey, James A.; Holmes, James H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Violence


Letter, S .[Salmon] P. Chase, of endorsement for "Captain John Brown"
Authors: Chase, Salmon Portland
Date: December 20, 1856
The Free Soil/Republican governor of Ohio, Salmon P. Chase, Columbus, Ohio, wrote this letter of introduction/endorsement for "Captain John Brown" who was "a gentleman in every way worthy of entire confidence."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Columbus, Ohio; Free Soil Party; Free state cause; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Account of the Battle of Osawatomie
Authors: Brown, Spencer Kellogg
Date: c. 1856
This account of the battle and its aftermath, written by Spencer Kellogg Brown, was compiled from his shorthand diary. It describes the battle and his experiences as a young teenager taken prisoner by pro-slavery forces. He traveled with the Missouri troops and their other prisoners, and then for several weeks he lived under house arrest with Dr. James Keith from Lexington, Missouri. This particular account is unique because it gives very detailed descriptions of how ordinary citizens became entangled in the fighting.

Keywords: Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Spencer; Garrison, David R.; Keith, James; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sears, W. A.; Westport, Missouri; White, Martin


John Brown Sword
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
The sword is believed to have been brought to Kansas Territory from Ohio by John Brown in 1856. That year, pro-slavery forces destroyed the homes of John Brown's sons in Franklin County. While leaving the state, the Brown family camped at the home of Otis Potter, near Lawrence. In gratitude, the Browns presented this sword to Potter.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Ohio; Potter, Otis; Swords and daggers; Weapons (see also Guns)


Kansas Experience of George Cutter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: January 1, 1857
This reminiscence is presumably from the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, which was compiled by the National Kansas Committee under the leadership of Thaddeus Hyatt. George Cutter was with Frederick Brown shortly before the Battle of Osawatomie, and like Brown, he was wounded during an altercation with border ruffians. While he was not directly involved in this battle, this reminiscence is still a rather fascinating account.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Cutter, George; Darrach, Barstow; Everett, John R.; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Gillpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reid, John W.; Sears, W. A.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns); White, Martin; Wounds and injuries


Letter, B. Darrach to Rev. S. L. Adair
Authors: Darrach, Barstow
Date: January 8, 1857
Darrach at New York Hospital commented on events at the national level and the prospect of little support for the free state cause from Congress or the President. He reported that John Brown was in New York speaking about Kansas and trying to raise some funds and other support.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Darrach, Barstow; Free state perspective; National politics; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869


Resolutions, National Kansas Committee
Authors: National Kansas Committee
Date: January 24, 1857
"At a meeting of the National Kansas Committee held at the Astor House in the City of New York," January 1, 1857, it was resolved that $5,000 should be committed to John Brown for "any defensive measures that may become necessary." The committee also authorized a set amount of "arms & supplies."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Guns; National Kansas Committee; New York, New York; Weapons (see also Guns)


Memorandum, Articles wanted for an outfit of fifty volunteers
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. January 1857
Among the articles itemized in this "Memorandum of articles wanted as an outfit for fifty volunteers to serve under my [John Brown?] direction during the Kansas war" are wagons, horses, blankets, frying pans, etc., at an estimated cost of $1,774.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Horses; Militia; Wagons


Letter, Horace White to John Brown Esq.
Authors: White, Horace
Date: February 18, 1857
On National Kansas Committee letterhead, assistant secretary Horace White wrote Brown from Chicago to say that the items Brown had requested were being gathered and shipped.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Free state support; National Kansas Committee; White, Horace


Letter, F. B. Sanborn to Dear Friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Sanborn, Franklin
Date: February 19, 1857
While in Boston, Franklin Sanborn wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson, a Northern abolitionist and agent with the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. The first part of the letter dealt with business, but Sanborn also mentioned a recent speech at the State House where John Brown made an appearance. He hoped that Higginson and his friends in Worcester County would aid "the good old man."

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My dear Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: February 19, 1857
Amos Lawrence, Boston, sent John Brown $70 which had been donated by the people of East Jaffrey, New Hampshire, for Brown's "own personal use, & not for the cause in any other way than that. Lawrence did not believe Brown would receive much financial support from the National Kansas Committee: "the old managers have not inspired confidence, & therefore money will be hard for them to get now & hereafter."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Finance; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; National Kansas Committee; New Hampshire


Letter, S. G. Hubbard to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Hubbard, S. G.
Date: March 2, 1857
From New Haven, Connecticut, S. G. Hubbard, "Yours for Free Kansas," wrote John Brown about a date for his forthcoming meeting in that city.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state support; Hubbard, S. G.; New Haven, Connecticut; Speeches, addresses, etc.


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: March 6, 1857
During his funding raising tour, Brown wrote his wife from Hartford, Connecticut, regarding family matters and finances, and about the press coverage he was getting: "I shall send you some Newspapers soon to let you see what different stories are told of me. None of them tell things as I tell them."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Brown, Owen; Hartford, Connecticut; Newspapers


Letter, S. G. Hubbard to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Hubbard, S. G.
Date: March 9, 1857
According to S. G. Hubbard who wrote Brown on March 9, 1857, "arrangements for the Hall have fallen through" in his city of New Haven, and Brown might have to settle for "a private conference," if he was interested in this alternative.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Hubbard, S. G.; New Haven, Connecticut; Political parties; Speeches, addresses, etc.


Letter, E. Brigham to Mr. [John] Brown
Authors: Brigham, E.
Date: March 9, 1857
In this letter of support from Boston, March 9, 1857, Brigham told Brown how he had been moved by the "touching appeal" in the New York Tribune of March 4 and assured Brown he had done as much as he could, considering his present economic condition, for Kansas. But he goes on to comment on the importance of the free state cause to New Englanders, who really weren't doing all they could or should do to help.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Brigham, E.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause


Letter, W. F. N. Arny to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: March 11, 1857
From Louisville, Kentucky, W. F. N. Arny wrote to inform Brown of the contents of the 14 boxes of clothing Arny had prepared for shipment to "J.B." in care of "Jonas Jones Tabor Iowa." The shipment, which included coats, pants, quilts, etc., is itemized on three additional sheets of paper.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Clothing and dress; Emigrant aid companies; Free state support; Iowa; Kentucky


Letter, Your Affectionate Husband & Father [John Brown] to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children All
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: March 12, 1857
In this brief letter to his family from Springfield, Mass., John Brown mentioned letters from some of the children and his speaking engagements in Connecticut, specifically at Canton "where both Father & Mother were raised." People there had given him $80 and a monument inscribed to honor Frederick.

Keywords: Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Canton, Ohio; Finance; Free state support


Letter, Eli Thayer to Friend [John] Brown
Authors: Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899
Date: March 18, 1857
In this brief letter from Worcester, Mass., Eli Thayer wrote Brown with regard to his appearance at Concord and possibility of Brown coming to Worcester.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Massachusetts; Speeches, addresses, etc.; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Worcester, Massachusetts


Letter, Eli Thayer to Friend [John] Brown
Authors: Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899
Date: March 19, 1857
In this brief follow up to his March 18 letter, Eli Thayer wrote Brown to say that "next Monday" would be a good time for Brown's speech on "the free State Cause of Kansas which is the Cause of mankind" in Worcester.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Speeches, addresses, etc.; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Worcester, Massachusetts


Letter, Chas. Blair to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Blair, Charles
Date: March 20, 1857
During his 1857 fund raising tour, Brown made arrangements with a Connecticut blacksmith, Charles Blair, for the production of a number of spears or "pikes" for use in the Kansas territory. On March 20, Blair wrote from Collinsville that he had the first dozen "spears" ready to send and was eager to see Brown to work out the details for the production of more. (He wrote of production details and cost estimates--this first dozen would cost $12 if Brown decided he wanted no more.)

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Jayhawkers; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: March 20, 1857
While John Brown was touring the East in March of 1857 he received this letter from Amos Lawrence, Boston, who informed Brown that he (Lawrence) had recently "sent to Kansas near $14,000 to establish a fund" for the support of common and secondary schools. As a result, Lawrence wrote he was short of cash and could not give Brown what he had requested. Nevertheless, "in case anything shd occur while you are engaged in a great & good to shorten yr life, you may be assured that yr wife and children shall be cared for more liberally than you now propose."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Education; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886


Letter, James H. Greene to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Greene, James H.
Date: March 24, 1857
James Greene, who had spent two years in Kansas himself, wrote from his Jefferson (hometown of Senator Benjamin F. Wade), Ashtabula Co., Ohio, newspaper office (Ashtabula Sentinel) to inform his friend that he would be publishing Brown's circular "soliciting aid for Kansas" and to ask what Brown's future plans were. The news from the territory was not good, according to Greene, and he wondered if there would be war or peace. Greene was still hopeful that the "free state men will eventually triumph," but most of his neighbors believed Kansas "will be a Slave State."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed), 1795-1864; Greene, James H.; Herald of Freedom; Press; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Wade, Benjamin Franklin


Contract, Charles Blair and John Brown for fabrication of spears
Authors: Blair, Charles ; Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: March 30, 1857
Executed on March 30, 1857, with this agreement Blair promised to produce and deliver "One Thousand Spears; with handles fitted of equal quality to one doz already made and sent to Springfield, Mass." Specifications are briefly described, and then the contract reads: "In consideration whereof, John Brown late of Kansas" agreed to make a partial payment of $500 within ten days and another $450 as a final payment thirty days later.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Jayhawkers; Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Eli Thayer to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899
Date: March 30, 1857
Thayer, the president of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote Brown from his home in Worcester, Mass., that he (Thayer) and his associates had "not the remotest idea of relinquishing Kansas" and that he would send Brown $50. Thayer also asked when Brown planned to visit Worcester.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Kansas question; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Speech, John Brown
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: ca. March 1857
During the spring of 1857, John Brown traveled to several Northeastern cities (specifically, in Brown's home state of Connecticut) to solicit financial support for the Kansas crusade. In the speech delivered from these handwritten notes, Brown outlined some of the many sacrifices he and others had made to give his audience a sense of what was needed and discussed the unfolding situation in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Buford expedition; Cato, Sterling G.; Crops; Finance; Free state cause; Hartford, Connecticut; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Proslavery activities; Speeches, addresses, etc.


Letter, H. B. Hurd to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Hurd, H. B.
Date: April 4, 1857
From Chicago, National Kansas Committee secretary H. B. Hurd sent John Brown a copy of a resolution passed by the committee on April 1, 1857: first, in light of the fact that the public was no longer contributing to the cause, the committee could not continue its normal operations; and second, the secretary was to inform major donors that the committee would necessarily close "operations unless immediately sustained by liberal Contributions." Thus, Hurd could not send Brown the $500 dollars requested (apparently to cover the first payment to Charles Blair for the "spears").

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Hurd, H. B.; National Kansas Committee; Smith, Gerritt; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, William Henry Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: April 1, 1857
One of several letters in this collection written by young William Leeman, a native of Maine, to members of his family (mother, father, and sisters) during his travels with one of John Brown's company through Iowa and Nebraska, back to Kansas. Several letters were written late in 1856 and early 1857 from Archer, Nebraska Territory, but this one, dated April 7, 1857, was sent from Plymouth, presumably in Brown County, Kansas Territory. Leeman wrote of his plan to return home and bring his family to Kansas, perhaps as early as the summer, if there were no more "trouble" in the territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state settlers; Houses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leeman, William H.


Letter, Chas. Blair to Mr. [John] Brown
Authors: Blair, Charles
Date: April 15, 1857
On April 15, 1857, Blair wrote Brown regarding the latter's report to him that the National Kansas Committee had turned down his request for funds to cover the first payment on the spears. Blair had stopped production, awaiting "further order from you," but said he was willing to make 500 instead of 1000 for the same rate.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hartford, Connecticut; Jayhawkers; National Kansas Committee; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Joseph Bryant to Friend [John] Brown
Authors: Bryant, Joseph
Date: April 23, 1857
One of Brown's devoted "Christian friends," Joseph Bryant, New York, wrote to pledge his continued support, both financial and spiritual; although Bryant was "poor in purse," he could give some financial help and would solicit more from others.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Bryant, Joseph; Finance; Free state supporters; New York, New York; Religion; Religious communities


Letter, Chas. Blair to J. [John] Brown Esq.
Authors: Blair, Charles ; Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: April 29, 1857
Brown's blacksmith, Charles Blair, wrote from Collinsville that he had received a draft for $200 and would be pleased to proceed with the completion of the first half of Brown's spear order. Blair seems eager to accommodate Brown in any way possible in order to make this deal work for both of them and the cause.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Jayhawkers; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, James H. Holmes to My dear friend [John] Brown
Authors: Holmes, James H.
Date: April 30, 1857
From Lawrence, on April 30, 1857, Holmes wrote to urge Brown to contact him directly regarding the ominous state of affairs in the territory at that time. Acting governor Frederick Stanton had announced that the "Bogus" laws would be enforced and "The people shout--Never!" Stanton promised "war to the knife and the knife to the hilt."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Holmes, James H.; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Taxation; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, James [H. Holmes] to Dear friend [John] Brown
Authors: Holmes, James H.
Date: April 30, 1857
On April 30 after he had received correspondence from Brown (still in Springfield, Mass.), Holmes wrote again in reply and to further explain the state of affairs in Kansas. He is critical of Charles Robinson's willingness to compromise with the proslavery leaders and is confident that "the free-state men wont do it." A friend, Archibal Kandell, had been recently "kidnapped" (or "abducted into Missouri") from his claim near Osawatomie.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Holmes, James H.; Missouri; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, T. W. Carter to George L. Stearns
Authors: Carter, T. W.
Date: May 1, 1857
This is the first of three letters from T. W. Carter, agent for the Massachusetts Arms Company, Chicopee Falls, to George Luther Stearns, president of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee and major personal backer of John Brown, regarding the shipment of 200 revolvers to Capt. Brown.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Carter, T. W.; Firearms; Massachusetts Arms Company; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Letter, T. W. Carter to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Carter, T. W.
Date: May 25, 1857
This letter from T. W. Carter announced the shipment of 200 revolvers, etc., to John Brown, via Iowa City, and informed him that the bill for the same had been sent to George S. Stearns, as requested.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Carter, T. W.; Free state cause; Iowa City, Iowa; Jayhawkers; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Charles Mayo to G.W. Collamore
Authors: Mayo, Charles
Date: June 17, 1857
Charles Mayo wrote from Olathe, Kansas Territory, to George Collamore, seeking his advice. Mayo told Collamore that the proslavery citizens of Olathe were urging him to accept the appointment of Magistrate in the county, though Mayo worried how that might affect his standing with the free state party.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collamore, George W.; Free state perspective; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Lawyers; Mayo, Charles; Olathe, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, Augustus Wattles to Jas. Smith Esq.
Authors: Wattles, Augustus
Date: June 18, 1857
From Lawrence on June 18, 1857, Augustus Wattles wrote Jas. Smith (Is this a Brown alias?) regarding affairs in Kansas Territory, specifically referring to several of the Free State Party's leaders: "Holmes' is at Emporia plowing. Conway's here talking politics. Phillips is here trying to urge the free State men to galvanize the Topeka Constitution into life. . . ." and Robinson had "dispirited the Free State party" by his absence from the legislature last winter, making it "difficult to make them rally again under him." Although one hears "much against Brown" he is "as good as ever."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state legislature; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Herald of Freedom; Holmes, James H.; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, James; Topeka Constitution; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, William A. Phillips to My Dear Friend [John Brown]
Authors: Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893
Date: June 24, 1857
To "Jas. Smith" (that is, John Brown), William A. Phillips wrote from Lawrence that he would likely not be able to meet Brown en route to KT at Tabor, Iowa, but would arrange for a few others to do so. Phillips believed Brown "should come into Kansas" if he wanted to but "there is no necessity for active military preparations now."

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Census; Free State Party; Free state militia; Holmes, James H.; Land claims; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Smith, James


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: July 17, 1857
In a very brief letter to his "wife & children," John Brown wrote from Iowa, en route to Kansas, that travel was slow because of the freight they were hauling and that little news of interest was coming from Kansas." He closed: "I would give anything to know that I should be permitted to see you all again in this life. But Gods will be done. To his infinite grace I commend you all."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Iowa; Kansas Territory; Religion; Transportation; Travel


Letter, Thos. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: August 5, 1857
Again from Lawrence, Marsh wrote Stearns on August 5 to ask for clarification about an order he had received from Amos Lawrence to pay John Brown $335. Brown was not in Kansas at that time and could "not be of much service if he is away from the Territory."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cheyenne Indians; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, A. A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [Gov. Charles Robinson]
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: August 14, 1857
A. A. Lawrence, from Boston, wrote to Charles Robinson, giving his impressions of recent political and business events. Lawrence gave his support for the upcoming Missouri election, which he believed would break up the pro-slavery party. He praised Robinson's handling of Lawrence's trust funds and properties, stating "Old Brown ought to report to you. It is bad policy to have a ranger like him with money and arms at his disposal, and only accountable to people here."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Finance; Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, N. Hawkins [John Brown] to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859; Hawkins, N.
Date: August 17, 1857
Using the alias Nelson Hawkins, John Brown wrote his family from Tabor, Iowa, on August 17, 1857, regarding some family matters and their slow trip to Kansas. He seems to suggest that if things continue quiet in K.T. he might soon direct his attention to the East.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Free state cause; Hawkins, N.; Iowa; Tabor, Iowa


Letter, A. [Augustus] Wattles to Dear Sir [John Brown?]
Authors: Wattles, Augustus
Date: August 21, 1857
Augustus Wattles wrote to John Brown from Lawrence, August 21, 1857, regarding several matters but focused again on problems within the Free State movement because of a loss of confidence in Charles Robinson's leadership. Robinson had openly criticized G. W. Brown and the Herald of Freedom and the factious party could accomplish little, but Wattles was confident that free staters would vote in and win the October election for territorial legislature.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Herald of Freedom; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, Owen Brown to Dear Mother [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown, Owen
Date: August 27, [1856]
On August 27, 1856, from Tabor, Iowa, Owen Brown wrote to tell his mother that according to all accounts "Father is the most daring courageous man in Kansas" and to relate other happenings in K.T. involving Jim Lane and Governor Shannon. Another invasion from Missouri was rumored, but free state recruits were assembling and "the Missourians are trembling in their Boots."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Brown, Owen; Crops; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Weapons (see also Guns); Woodson, Daniel


Letter, Chas. Blair to Capt.[?] [John] Brown
Authors: Blair, Charles
Date: August 27, 1857
Charles Blair once again wrote to John Brown regarding the spears, the production of which was on hold. Blair couldn't afford to proceed on his own account (even though he didn't expect much of a profit) and thought the situation in Kansas might have taken "such a turn" that the weapons might no longer be needed there.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Oliver; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, F. B. Sanborn to My dear Friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Sanborn, Franklin
Date: August 28, 1857
Franklin B. Sanborn, an ardent supporter of John Brown, wrote this letter in Boston to one of his associates, Thomas W. Higginson. He spoke of John Brown, who was poised on the northern border of Kansas Territory, ready to bring supplies in to relieve the free state settlers. Brown had become discouraged about the free state cause "in consequence of persons not fulfilling his expectations." Sanborn wondered if Higginson or the Worcester Committee could do something to assist Brown, especially with his financial difficulties. If the committee did not have the funds, Sanborn suggested that Higginson should seek funds from his friends and associates. In closing, Sanborn offered his support for a disunion convention.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state supporters; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Worcester, Massachusetts


Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: September 7, 1857
James H. Lane, whose extant correspondence is scarce, here wrote from Lawrence to John Brown regarding his (Lane's) efforts "in perfecting an organization for the protection of the ballot box at the October Election," and Lane encouraged Brown to come "with all the materials you have." Lane was confident Brown could enter the territory safely but offered all required assistance--protection, transport, etc.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, John Brown to Genl. J. [James] H. Lane
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 16, 1857
In response to Jim Lane's September 7 call for assistance, John Brown wrote from Tabor, Iowa, on September 16, 1857: "I suppose that three good teams with well covered waggons, & ten really ingenious industrious men with about $150 in cash, could bring it about in the course of eight or ten days."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Horses; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Tabor, Iowa; Wagons


Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Dear Genl. [John Brown]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: September 29, 1857
James H. Lane wrote from Falls City, Nebraska Territory, to John Brown in Tabor, Iowa, urging Brown to get guns and ammunition to Kansas as soon as possible. Lane wanted Brown's help in preventing proslavery supporters from disrupting the October 7, 1857, election for representatives to the territorial legislature.

Keywords: Ammunition; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Guns; Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Nebraska Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John Brown to Genl. Jas. H. Lane
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 30, 1857
At the end of September 1857, Brown wrote to tell Lane that it would "be next to impossible in my poor state of health" to travel to K.T. "on such very short notice. I think, considering all the uncertainties of the case, want of teams, &c, that I should do wrong to set out. I am disappointed in the extreme."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Tabor, Iowa; Transportation; Travel


Letter, S. [Samuel] L. Adair to Mr. J. B. [John Brown]
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: October 2, 1857
Samuel Adair wrote his brother-in-law John Brown from Osawatomie on October 2, 1857, to explain why he could not come see Brown in Iowa. Much of letter describes the general poor state of health in his locale, but he also comments on the political and especially the prospects for free state success in the upcoming election--Adair was not optimistic.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state prospects; Free state support; Health; Land claims; Lecompton Land Office; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Preemption law United States; Proslavery supporters; Sickness (see Illness); Slave power; Tabor, Iowa; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, W. B. Edmonds [E. B. Whitman?] to Hawkins [John Brown]
Authors: Edmonds, W. B.; Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 5, 1857
From Lawrence, October 5, 1857 (election day), "W. B. Edmonds" (appears to have been assumed name of E. B. Whitman) wrote to tell Brown that he hoped to see Brown in Kansas "soon," but he was unable to fulfill all Brown's requests, for funds and teams--the latter being especially hard to come by.

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Edmonds, W. B.; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Finance; Free state prospects; Hawkins, N.; Horses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Panic of 1857; Sickness (see Illness); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, S. G. Hubbard to John Brown Esq.
Authors: Hubbard, S. G.
Date: October 6, 1857
S. G. Hubbard, a New Haven, Connecticut, supporter, wrote regarding one of Brown's political tracts, the impossibility of fund raising for the cause during this time of financial crisis, the prospects for a Free State victory in the previous day's election, and the president's recent action that "committed the [Democratic] party to the extremist doctrines of Slavery extension & Slavery Nationalization."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan administration; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Hubbard, S. G.; Kansas question; New Haven, Connecticut; Panic of 1857; Slave power


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Sir [G. L. Stearns]
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 11, 1857
E. B. Whitman, an agent of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee, reported from Lawrence about money problems and his efforts to provide assistance to John Brown, etc. He also observed that free state men seemed to have won the election, said all was "peaceful in the territory" right then, and reported less than favorably on the organizational work done by T. J. Marsh.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Henry H. Williams to Capt'n. [John] Brown
Authors: Williams, Henry H.
Date: October 12, 1857
With regard to the recent legislative election, Henry Williams of Osawatomie informed Brown that "it went off right" largely because the Free State men were throughly organized for their protection and the protection of the ballot box. Williams himself led a company of 80 men and believe word of the preparedness contributed to a quiet and successful election day.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state militia; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Stubbs militia company; Tabor, Iowa; Weapons (see also Guns); Williams, Henry H.


Letter, John T. Jones to Mr. John Brown
Authors: Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy)
Date: October 13, 1857
"Ottawa Jones," a mixed-blood Indian who lived on Ottawa Creek in Franklin Co., wrote John Brown on October 13, 1857, regarding a financial claim/account that he was trying unsuccessfully to collect on for his friend, Brown. Jones closed by asking God to bless and reward Brown in his struggle "to bring about liberty for all men."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Finance; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Ottawa Creek, Kansas Territory; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Mr. [G. L.] Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 25, 1857
In this report from Lawrence, Whitman complained about his money problem and wrote that John Brown, who, according to Sanborn, had been in Iowa for some weeks, would be in Lawrence for "a very important council" of the military organization. "Look for something decisive this winter and Satisfactory." He informed Stearns that he (Whitman) would take care of "J. B.'s wants" as soon as he could, but there was a limit to what he could borrow on his own account. "I am willing to work, wear out, die if need be in the cause, but I cannot send a brick always without straw."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state militia; Iowa; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Dr Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: October 30, 1857
On October 30, 1857, from Falls City [Nebraska Territory ? ], Jim Lane wrote to urge Brown to do all he could "to get the guns to Kansas." He actually believed they would probably not be needed, but "One thing is certain if they are to do her any good it will be in the next few days."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Guns; Jayhawkers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, George L. Stearns to E. B. Whitman
Authors: Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867
Date: November 14, 1857
In response to several letters from Whitman about money, George Stearns wrote from Boston to clarify a few issues. He gave an account of available funds and provided instruction on the distribution and/or sale of clothing for the Kansas emigrants. Stearns also commented on his support for Brown which included "authority to draw on me for money" if necessary "to establish order by force." He felt circumstances were apparently changing for the better--"I should not be willing to have any of my funds used for that purpose."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state support; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Relief; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear Sister"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: December 27, 1857
On December 27 (or perhaps 29), Kagi wrote this letter to his sister from Springdale, Iowa, in the midst of "a very long & tedious journey." He informed her that his party would leave on the "cars" for Chicago soon, but cautioned her "not for your life" to tell anyone where he was or what he was about, and told her that he would soon be taking an assumed name. [According to historian Stephen Oates, To Purge This Land With Blood, John Brown returned to Kansas in November 1857 and enlisted Kagi and a few others in a new company, which set out in early December for Ohio and some additional training in preparation for Brown's planned assault on the Slave Power in Virginia; on the way, around numerous campfires, Brown apparently encouraged and instructed his young recruits on the just nature of their cause, etc. As it turned out, the company wintered at Springdale while Brown went alone to Ohio.]

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Iowa; Kagi, John Henry


Photograph, John Brown
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1857
Tintype protrait of John Brown, probably taken in 1857. John Brown was an abolitionist who was willing to use violence to end slavery. He followed his sons to Kansas and soon became involved in some of the violence that marked the territorial period. He was involved in the May 24, 1856, Pottawatomie Massacre in which Brown and several of his followers brutally killed five proslavery settlers near Pottawatomie Creek in Miami County. He also led free state forces at the Battle of Black Jack on June 2, 1856, and at the Battle of Osawatomie on August 30, 1856. In October 1859, Brown led an attack on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in an effort to incite a slave rebellion. Although his plan failed and he was hanged for his actions, his radical abolitionist activity added to the growing tensions between North and South.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Photographs and Illustrations


Circular, To the Friends of Freedom
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: ca. 1857
"To The Friends of Freedom" is a published circular signed by John Brown, with testimonial statements by Charles Robinson and Gerrit Smith. Brown here appealed for "contributions of pecuniary aid" to help sustain the free-state cause in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state support; Osawatomie, Battle of; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Gerritt


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My dear friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: January 16, 1858
E. B. Whitman wrote Sanborn this lengthy letter from Lawrence, describing the political events that had unfolded in the territory since the October 5, 1857, election. Among many other things, he mentioned the split that took the "National democrats" out of the movement over the issue of participation in the state elections under the Lecompton Constitution, January 1857. This "Free State ticket" was, according to Whitman, "a disgrace to the cause," but it attracted a good number of votes and won "a good working majority in both houses and so our people proclaim a victory." Whitman, who had long been a faithful supporter, was seemingly losing confidence in John Brown, as were "the people."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Calhoun, John; Conway, Martin Franklin; Democratic Party (U.S.); Education; Election fraud; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, December 1857; Elections; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Herald of Freedom; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Territorial government; United States. Congress; United States. Senate; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Chas. Blair to Mr. [John] Brown
Authors: Blair, Charles
Date: February 10, 1858
On February 10, 1858, Blair reported from Collinsville, Connecticut, on the status of the spear production; he had most of the material ready to assemble the entire lot, but "I do not feel quite willing to go on and spend any more money and then have them left on my hands." He seemed to be sincere in his efforts to work with John Brown on this, and Blair did "feel disposed to blame" Brown for the situation, Blair's generosity and commitment to the cause only went so far.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John [Brown, Jr.] to Dear Father [John Brown]
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: February 13, 1858
From Lindenville, Ashtabula Co., Ohio, John Jr. wrote his father on February 13, 1858, to report that he was ready to travel to Washington, D.C., if Brown wanted him to and to enlist the assistance of Marcus Parrott if needed. (It is unclear what kind of legislative business he intended to pursue there.) John Jr. closes by making what appears to be a veiled reference to the Underground Railroad in Pennsylvania and by relating his plan to move soon to North Elba.

Keywords: Ashtabula County, Ohio; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; North Elba, New York; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Underground railroad; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Friend [F. B. Sanborn ?]
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: February 18, 1858
As a follow up to his more lengthy report of January 16, Whitman wrote from Lawrence on February 18, 1858, about the turbulent course of Kansas politics during the last month. Again, he attacked Robinson's efforts to compromise with the forces behind the "Lecompton Swindle," and described the other factions plan of action should Congress adopt the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Constitutional conventions; Election, Leavenworth Constitution delegates to convention, March 1858; Free State Party; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, John Brown, Jr. to My Dear General [E. B.] Whitman
Authors: Brown, Jr., John
Date: February 26, 1858
To his Kansas friend "General Whitman," John Brown Jr. wrote from his farm in Ashtabula, Ohio, regarding his continued commitment to the cause of Kansas and the state of his health. Brown wanted Whitman to know the reason for his sudden departure in October 1856: "the symptoms of mental abberation were again manifest to myself at least, and I knew that I must change scenes & circumstances, or again loose my balance entirely." But despite the hardships endured and the resulting illness, "Kansas is deguerotyped upon my heart, a stormy yet glorious picture."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Illness; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Topeka; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slavery; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Fred. Douglass to My dear Friend [John Brown]
Authors: Douglass, Frederick , 1818-1895
Date: February 27, 1858
This brief letter from the prominent African American abolitionist Frederick Douglass simply sought to change a Philadelphia meeting date between Douglass and Brown from March 5 to March 10.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Douglass, Frederick, 1818-1895; Philadelpia, Pennsylvania


Letter, John Brown to My Dear Wife [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: March 3, 1858
In this short, mostly personal letter from New York, John Brown wrote his wife that he was "having a constant series of both great encouragements & discouragements," even though he had found "a much more earnest feeling among the colored people than ever before; but that is by no means universal."

Keywords: African Americans; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; New York; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Smith, Gerritt


Letter, Maurice Maitland [J. H. Kagi] to "My Dear Sister"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: March 5, 1858
On his 23rd birthday, March 5, 1858, Kagi (now alias "Maurice Maitland") wrote a very circumspect letter from Springdale, Iowa, expressing his satisfaction with "the present plitical prospects"--"Every thing is working just to suit me--nothing could suit me better"--and his interest in knowing "what you have learned about J. H." (presumably, himself, J.H. Kagi).

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Kagi, John Henry; Springdale, Iowa


Letter, Henry Thompson and Ruth [Brown] Thompson to Dear Father [John Brown]
Authors: Thompson, Ruth (Brown); Thompson, Henry
Date: April 21, 1858
From their home at North Elba, New York, April 21, 1858, Henry and Ruth (Brown) Thompson wrote separate letters to "Father," John Brown. Henry Thompson assured his father-in-law that he would leave home immediately and reengage in the "enterprise" but for his obligations to his wife and three children. Ruth simply asked her father not to blame her for Henry's decision not to go with Brown: "I should like to have him go with you if I could feel that he would live to come back."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Owen, 1771-1856; Free state cause; Thompson, Henry; Thompson, Ruth (Brown)


Letter, J. W. Loguen to My Dear Friend & Bro. [John Brown?]
Authors: Loguen, Jermain Wesley
Date: May 8, 1858
Rev. J. W. Loguen, the Syracuse abolitionist and U.G.R.R. superintendant, wrote to John Brown in Canada regarding his plan to "go to the Mountains," and asked whether or not Harriet Tubman, among others, was with him.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Canada; Loguen, Jermain Wesley; Slave insurrections; Tubman, Harriett


Letter, J. [John] Kagi to Friend Adda
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: May 15, 1858
John H. Kagi, one of John Brown's most trusted lieutenants, wrote from St. Catherine, Canada, to inform his friend, albeit in "figurative" language, about the change in their plans--"all depends upon caution."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Ashtabula County, Ohio; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Canada; Kagi, John Henry


Letter, Richard Realf to Dear Uncle [John Brown?]
Authors: Realf, Richard , 1834-1878
Date: May 31, 1858
The Englishman, Richard Realf, another of Brown's trusted followers, wrote to his "uncle" (John Brown?) from Cleveland, Ohio, regarding the threat of arrest that faced him and some of his associates (George Gill, John Kagi, et al), as well as the expenses they were incuring. He also was troubled by the news that certain people knew of certain of their activities, including "a certain Mr. Reynolds (colored) who attended our convention" and "has disclosed its objects to the members of a secret society (colored) called "The American Mysteries" or some other confounded humbug."

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cleveland, Ohio; Cook, John E.; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas Territory; Realf, Richard , 1834-1878; Shakers


Letter, M. F. Conway to My dear Sir [George L. Stearns]
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: June 13, 1858
Somewhat disturbed that Stearns of Boston had published his (Conway's) letter regarding "money for the Leavenworth Constitution," Martin F. Conway, Lawrence, wrote to say that there was nothing "improper or dishonorable in this transaction" and went on to reflect on the nature of the Free State Party/movement at that time. Charles Robinson was "at work to destroy the influence of the Republican wing of the Free State Party," but people back East should not conclude "that the bottom is going to fall out of Kansas because there is division in the Free State Party." Conway expected both Robinson and James H. Lane to fall from prominence because of changing circumstances in Kansas.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Free State Party; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867


Articles of Agreement for Shubel Morgan's Company
Authors: Morgan, Shubel
Date: July 12, 1858
In July 1858, fifteen men including Shubel Morgan, alias John Brown, J. H. Kagi, James Montgomery, and Augustus Wattles signed this document and thus "agree[d] to be governed by the following rules" of conduct. The rules included "gentlemanly and respectful deportment," obedience to the commander's orders, "no intoxicating drinks," etc.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state militia; Kagi, John Henry; Military; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Morgan, Shubel; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, John Brown to Wm. Hutchinson
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: August 3, 1858
From Moneka, Kansas, John wrote to William Hutchinson regarding his (Brown's) "Revolvers," which had been distributed on loan to others in Kansas. Brown had been spending some weeks near the Kansas-Missouri border, "on the claim upon which the whole sale murders [Marias des Cygnes Massacre, May 19, 1858] were committed," as a show of force to more would-be invaders.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missourians; Proslavery activities; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister, and Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: September 23, 1858
From Lawrence, Kagi wrote that he had spent several weeks at Osawatomie caring for "Old B." [John Brown], who had "now quite recovered." Things were hard right then, but Kagi was confident that "better times [were] dawning" and that his reward would certainly come "in the end," since "the success of [their] great cause" was "drawing very near." "Few of my age have toiled harder or suffered more in this cause than I, and yet I regret nothing that I have done; nor am I in any discouraged at the future."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Health; Kagi, John Henry; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness); Trading Post, Kansas Territory; Wattles, Augustus


Contributors List, National Kansas Committee
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: September 29, 1858
This list of "notes received for seeds" distributed by R. H. Waterman "under the direction of E. B. Whitman" is signed "John Brown Agt Nat. Kan. Com.," September 29, 1858. The notes were, according to Brown, given to him "in past payment or security on account."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state support; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, John Brown to J. T. Cox
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: October 7, 1858
In this letter dated October 7, 1858, Ottumwa, John Brown again signs himself as an agent of the National Kansas Committee and claims to have the authority to receive from Cox any money or notes, etc., received from the Committee that he might have in his possession. Brown, of course, was continuing to tap all available sources for the financing of his operations, but not every one connected with the NKC would be supportive of these particular efforts.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Cox, J. T.; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; National Kansas Committee; Ottumwa, Kansas Territory


Receipts, John Brown to M. F. Conway
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: October 18, 1858
This document consists of a four-page itemized listing (individuals' name and amount due) of the "notes" received by Martin F. Conway from "Captain John Brown." Conway endorsed the document at Lawrence, K.T., on October 18, 1858, and wrote, in part, "the said Notes to be safely kept or collected by me, as may, in my discretion, seem best."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Finance; Free state settlers; Free state support; Relief funds


Letter, Hugh S. Walsh to Lewis Cass, Secretary of State
Authors: Walsh, Hugh Sleight
Date: November 19, 1858
Acting Governor Hugh S. Walsh wrote from Lecompton, Kansas Territory to Secretary of State Lewis Cass. Walsh requested permission to use $3000 remaining from funds appropriated for the August 1858 election as a means to offer rewards for the capture of James Montgomery, John Brown, and other Free State supporters allegedly engaged in violence in southeastern Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cass, Lewis, 1782-1866; Jayhawkers; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Proslavery perspective; Violence; Walsh, Hugh Sleight


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Friend [Franklin B.] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: December 14, 1858
After returning to Lawrence from a trip east, Whitman wrote Franklin B. Sanborn a mostly personal letter regarding the preparations for the winter and need to extend the loan owed to Sanborn--he had crops enough for subsistence but little cash. Near the end, Whitman commented briefly on the political situation, which was "quiet" at present, but "the difficulties in Linn & Bourbon Counties are renewed" and "J. B. is on the ground and engaged in 'Regulating.'"

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Crops; Farmers; Free state legislature; Insurance; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, John Vansickle to Dear Father
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: December 28, 1858
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County, Kansas Territory, to his father back East. Vansickle advised him not to travel to the Territory to visit him in light of recent events. Vansickle referred to the release of Benjamin Rice by James Montgomery and a band of free state men. Rice had been in a Fort Scott prison for killing a proslavery man. Shortly thereafter, according to Vansickle, John Brown entered Missouri, freed slaves and stole property. He also told his father that the newspapers communicated little of the story, as victims of crimes and anyone whose opinion was published would be subject to mob violence.

Keywords: Battles; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little, J. H.; Newspapers; Rice, Benjamin; Vansickle, John H.; Xenia, Kansas Territory


Letter, S.C.S [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [C. Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: December 29, 1858
In this letter from Lawrence, December 29, 1858, Smith mentions a few business matters (e.g., the railroad convention) but concentrates on the border conflict, with specific criticism leveled at John Brown and James Montgomery. "Captains Brown & Montgomery continue their 'reign of terror' in Linn and Bourbon counties. . . ."

Keywords: African Americans; Bleeding Kansas; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Newspapers; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad conventions; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves; Smith, Samuel C.


Letter, Your Friend [most likely John Brown] to Capt. James Montgomery
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: January 2, 1859
This brief letter from a "Friend"--most likely John Brown--to James Montgomery, the Linn County jawhawker, was addressed from "Turkey Creek," January 2, 1859: "Osawattomie men made a drive into Missouri the other night, since which some of the settlers & other friends have made a stand on the line to prevent an invasion. You are requested to hold yourself in readiness to call out reinforcements at a moments notice."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Jayhawking; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory


Letter, William Hutchinson to "Dear Helen"
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: January 3, 1859
A resident of Lawrence and correspondent from the New York Tribune, William Hutchinson wrote his wife Helen from Mapleton, northern Bourbon County, right after the first of the year, 1859, to tell her about "the wars" in the southern part of the territory and about the activities of "Old" John Brown and his followers. Hutchinson met with the "war council," as well as with James Montgomery, advised against "rash measures," and, with Montgomery, participated in a large meeting of the citizens "to devise a plan for peace." (A note on the back of page 4, by R.J. Hinton, reads, "Copied by my wife from original. Interesting." A good number of the documents in this folder are copies--mostly handwritten.)

Keywords: Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Hamilton, Charles A.; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Paola, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers; Trading Post, Kansas Territory; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, John Brown to Gents [Old Brown's Parallels]
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: January 3, 1859
Designated "Old Brown's Parallels" and dated January 3, 1859, from Trading Post, Kansas, this is one of the better-known John Brown documents from Kansas. Written for publication in the newspapers just before his final departure from the territory, Brown began by stating "two parallels"--one being the failure of government to do anything about the murder of free-state men (Marias des Cygnes Massacre) May 1858; the other being his recent raid into Missouri to free eleven slaves and take "some property." In the latter incident, only one white man, a slave owner, was killed, but "all 'Hell is stirred from beneath,'" as the governor of Missouri was demanding the capture of those "concerned in the last named 'dreadful outrage.'"

Keywords: African Americans; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border disputes and warfare - Proslavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan administration; Civil rights; Free State Party; Fugitive slaves; Hamilton, Charles A.; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Press and propaganda; Slaveholders; Slaves; Trading Post, Kansas Territory


Letter, John N. Gardner to Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: Gardner, John N.
Date: January 9, 1859
This letter, written from Buffalo by John N. Gardner, is addressed to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Mr. Gardner related the tale of Mrs. H.G. Hyzen of Waitsfield, Vermont, an ardent supporter of John Brown who claimed to have a clairvoyant vision of him in his prison cell. The entire letter is a passionate piece of correspondence, speaking frequently of liberty and the "Total Annihilation of that Scourge of Humanity, Human Slavery." The letter also mentioned other abolitionists--Henry C. Wright and Mrs. Child--who wrote letters to John Brown.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Gardner, John N.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Prisoners; Prisons; Slavery; Vermont; Waitsfield, Vermont


Letter, J. G. Anderson to "Dear brother," J. Q. Anderson
Authors: Anderson, J. G.
Date: January 14, 1859
From near Lawrence, Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote about his recent call "into the service," whick took him to Fort Scott and into Missouri with "Old [John] Brown as they call him," where they liberate "ten slaves." Anderson provides some interesting details of their current action and journey, and he observed: "Brown has drawn a paralel [sic] which will be published in the Tribune."

Keywords: Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Jayhawking; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Rice, Benjamin; Slaves; Underground railroad


Letter, R. Harding to Mr. [John] Bayless
Authors: Harding, R.
Date: January 22, 1859
R. Harding wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to John Bayless regarding the recent business discussed in the Territorial Legislature. Harding indicated that many members of the Legislature were intent on "Stealing Thunder", or receiving the glory for policies first introduced by others. He thought that, in light of recent difficulties with skirmishes in Linn and Bourbon Counties, Governor Medary would soon lose his. Harding seemed to support James Montgomery, who was responsible for many of those skirmishes, stating that "the provocation was evidently great and now he certainly has the sympathies of a large majority of the community best acquainted with the facts."

Keywords: Bayless, John; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Harding, R.; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871


Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to Friend [Captain James] Montgomery
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: January 23, 1859
William Hutchinson, writing from Lawrence to Captain James Montgomery, described reports of an effort by John Brown to liberate a free state prisoner being held at Paris, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Paris, Kansas Territory


Letter, M. F. Conway to Dear Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: January 23, 1859
Martin F. Conway of Lawrence wrote to Brown on January 23, 1859, to explain that he (Conway) had not seen E. B. Whitman, but Conway did not think Brown could depend on Whitman, who was "dissatisfied with your proceedings in Lawrence," for any more financial support. Conway offered his full support ("I am at your service"), but he was rather pressed for cash at that time.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Mary [Brown] to Dear Brother Willie [Brown]
Authors: Brown, Mary Ann Day , 1816-1884
Date: January 30, 1859
This letter, written by Mary Brown from Lawrence, was addressed to her brother William, who was studying at Phillip Exeter Academy. Mary and William were the children of John Stillman Brown, a Unitarian minister who lived west of Lawrence. The main focus of the letter is the story of how Dr. Doy was captured by Missourians while aiding fugitive slaves. Mary was convinced that someone had told the Missourians about the plan of escape. She also mentioned her father's religious work and "Old" John Brown's work to free Missouri slaves.

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy, John; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Fugitive slaves; Missourians


Letter, John Vansickle to Dear Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: February 4, 1859
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County responding to his recipient's previous letter. Vansickle seemed hopeful, as he saw there was a "prospect of peace" in his part of the country, and his business and crops were successful. He also commented on James Montgomery and John Brown, criticizing that they "free more horses than negros," calling them scoundrels and warning his recipient to "never vindicate thare [their] cause." Vansickle added that he would assist the recipient in coming to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Crops; Land claims; Merchants; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Vansickle, John H.; Xenia, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Mary [Holliday]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 6, 1859
Cyrus K. Holliday, soon to return to Topeka after a productive territorial legislative session in Lawrence, wrote to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He wrote about a festival held at the Eldridge House, and reported on several other incidents of note: the arrest of John W. Doy, captured by Missourians while helping former slaves travel to Iowa; John Brown's avoidance of capture by [John P.] Woods (at the Battle of the Spurs on January 31, 1859); and Charles Fischer's escape after being twice arrested as "a fugitive slave." Holliday also wrote that the legislature had passed and Governor Samuel Medary would approve a bill granting Josephine Branscomb a divorce. Despite Holliday's efforts, the constitutional convention would be held at Wyandotte in July. He had refused [Alfred L.] Winans' request for a recommendation.

Keywords: Branscomb, Josephine; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Divorce; Doy, John; Fisher, Charley; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Holliday, Mary; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Spurs, Battle of the; Winans, A. L.; Wood, John P.; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Letter, [E. Nute] to [Unidentified recipient]
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: February 14, 1859
Ephraim Nute wrote from Lawrence on February 14, 1859, regarding "the disaster that befel the last expedition from this place with fugitives." The party, led by Dr. John Doy, was in route to Oskaloosa when captured and taken to Missouri, where "the colored people, both free and slaves, have been shipped for the New Orleans market." Doy and his son had been jailed at Platte City, Missouri, and were to be tried for "stealing a slave from Weston." Nute was quite sure this operation had been betrayed from within, as "Great rewards were offered, spies sent out & men hired in this place to watch & aid in recovering the run away property."

Keywords: African Americans; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Holton, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Nute, Ephraim; Oskaloosa, Kansas Territory; Spurs, Battle of the; Underground railroad; United States marshals; United States. Army


Letter, E. N. [Ephraim Nute] to Unidentified recipient
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: February 24, 1859
Ephaim Nute of Lawrence provides an interesting description of the plight of one of the Doy party's fugitive slaves, captured and jailed at Platte City until his escape and dangerous flight back to Lawrence. "We have him now hid & are to day making arrangements to have him set forward tomorrow 30 miles to another depot. I think they (there are 2 others to go) will not be taken again without bloodshed." Nute also mentioned his involvement in the "Charley Fisher affair in Leavenworth." Fisher, a black fugitive, had actually come to Nute's house "disguised in female attire."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Canada; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, John; Fisher, Charley; Free state cause; Fugitive slaves; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Nute, Ephraim; Platte City, Missouri; Proslavery settlers; Underground railroad


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Friend [Franklin] Sanborn
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: February 26, 1859
National Kansas Committee agent Whitman wrote to Sanborn from Lawrence with disturbing news about "John Brown's proceedings." Brown had been accused by Democrats during the previous legislative session of "subsisting upon the proceeds of notes given for seeds and clothing," and initially Whitman defended Brown against these charges--to Whitman's dismay, he later found them to be true. Whitman seemed sincere in his desire not to believe the worst about the man he had aided for several years, but he was at a loss for an adequate explanation for Brown's action under the guise of an agent of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; National Kansas Committee; Relief funds; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Smith, Gerritt; Whitman, E. B.


Reception of [John] Brown & party at Grinnell, Iowa
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: February 26, 1859
John Brown wrote these notes on the generous "Reception of Brown & Party at Grinnell, Iowa," where they were "kept for two days free of cost," re-supplied, and provided with significant cash for their journey north. Brown also mentioned friends at Tabor and "our reception among the Quaker Friends" at Sprindale, Iowa, on February 26.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Free state supporters; Grinnell, Iowa; Quakers (see Society of Friends); Tabor, Iowa


Letter, E. Nute to Unidentified recipient [F. B. Sanborn?]
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: ca. February 1859
Ephraim Nute wrote of just receiving work that "Doct. [Samuel Gridley?] Howe" was "about to sail from New York" on account of his health; but whether or not it was restored, "he has lived already to a glorious result." Nute also mentions continued preparations for the trial of Dr. Doy, still "in that wretched Platte City jail."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Concord, Massachusetts; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, John; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Nute, Ephraim; Platte City, Missouri; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Tabor, Iowa


Letter, Your Affectionate Husband & Father [John Brown] to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children All
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: March 2, 1859
From Springdale, Cedar County, Iowa, Brown wrote this short letter to tell his family that all was "well," despite that persistent "ague," and to discuss some family business matters: buying a team, etc.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Health; Horses; Iowa


Letter, Frank Walker to M. B. Walker
Authors: Walker, Frank
Date: March 4, 1859
Frank Walker of Mound City, Kansas Territory, wrote to Mr. B. Walker (from the context, presumably a brother) recounting recent skirmishes between the free state men led by James Montgomery and the pro-slavery "scamps" in Bourbon and Linn counties. Walker dubbed Montgomery one of "the likedest man in Kanzas," though at the time, in pro-slavery Linn County, he was considered an outlaw. Walker's letter included references to an incident occurring on Dec 16, 1858 in Fort Scott, in which Montgomery and his men attacked a pro-slavery prison to save a fellow free state man. Walker concluded by encouraging his family to obtain a land warrant in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state perspective; Guns; Land acquisition; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Walker, Frank; Walker, M.B.; Weapons (see also Guns); Wounds and injuries


Letter, S. G. Hubbard to Capt. John Brown
Authors: Hubbard, S. G.
Date: March 21, 1859
From New Haven, Connecticut, Hubbard wrote to inform Brown that he still believed in Brown's sincerity and supported continued efforts for the cause but could not send much money at that time. Many of their friends in Connecticut had lost everything since 1857 and others "will not give anything whatever toward the spear contract."

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy, John; Free state support; Hubbard, S. G.; New Haven, Connecticut; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, E. B. Whitman to Geo. L. Stearns Esq.
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: March 1859
Here Whitman wrote about his support on behalf of the National Kansas Committee of several activities: Dr. Doy's defense, John Brown (despite the fact that he had obtained additional funds "under false pretences"), and the organization of the Republican Party which was to be undertaken at convention in Osawatomie later that spring. Whitman feared that without some effort "the genuine standard Republicans" would fail to control the movement. He also mentioned an "unfortunate" altercation between Martin Conway and Charles Robinson on the streets of Lawrence.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Factionalism; Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie convention; Railroad land grants; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Dear Friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 17, 1859
In this letter, Samuel Tappan continued to keep Thomas Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts apprised of the current situation in Kansas Territory. He mentioned such topics as the Pike's Peak gold rush and the affairs of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, stating his belief that Robinson and Pomeroy were innocent of any charges of speculation. He praised John Brown's work to free slaves and the work of the Doy family in that same endeavor. However, he did not agree with Charles Robinson, who too readily looked to the interests of the Republican Party instead of supporting John Brown's work in the territory. Tappan appreciated the Atlantic Monthly magazine and Higginson's contributions to it.

Keywords: African Americans; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy, John; Free state perspective; Fugitive slaves; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas City, Kansas Territory; Land speculation; Pikes Peak gold rush; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913


Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: June 8, 1859
From Cleveland, Ohio, Kagi jokingly wrote his sister that in the absence of any letters from the family, he had feared they had set off for "Pikes Peak, and had died of suffering on the route, as others have." Kagi expected to leave in order to take up his "business in earnest" shortly--that is, to implement Brown's plan and move on Harpers Ferry.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Crops; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Kagi, John Henry; Pikes Peak gold rush; Weather


Letter, "C. Whipple [A.D. Stevens] to "Jenny" [Dunbar]
Authors: Stevens, Aaron D.
Date: October 7, 1859
The last of three "love letters" written by Aaron D. Stevens, alias Charles Whipple, to a girl he apparently had only recently met but with whom he desperately desired a closer relationship was dated October 7, 1859, "near Harper's Ferry." (He had been writing for at least a month and had not received a letter from her.) Stevens rode with John Brown in Kansas, participated in the Harpers Ferry raid on October 18, 1859, and died on the Charlestown gallows in the spring of 1860.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Jayhawkers


John Brown pike
Authors: Collins and Company
Date: October 18, 1859
Pike used by slaves at the insurrection planned by John Brown at the U.S. arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia, October 18, 1859. Armed with pikes and guns, Brown's army, primarily slaves, took hostages from the community and took over the arsenal. Brown's army was overwhelmed by U.S. troops led by Colonel Robert E. Lee. Brown was tried and hanged for treason on December 2, 1859.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Collinsville, Connecticut; Courts; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Swords and daggers; United States Government; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, John Brown to Hon. Thos. Russell
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: October 21, 1859
From his jail cell in Charles Town, Virginia, just days before he was to go on trial for treason, John Brown wrote seeking legal counsel for himself and fellow prisoners. Brown mentioned his wounds, but said they were "doing well," expresses special concern for "the young men prisoners," and closed "Do not send an ultra Abolitionist."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Lawyers; Russell, Thomas; Slavery


Letter, L. [Leigh] R. Webber to Miss Brown [daughter of John Stillman Brown]
Authors: Webber, L. R.
Date: October 22, 1859
This letter, written by Leigh R. Webber from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, was addressed to Miss Brown, a daughter of John Stillman Brown. Webber wrote about sickness in the Brown family and about other personal matters, such as her father's work as a minister. He also kept her apprised of politics, both in Kansas and on the national scene, and spoke briefly of John Brown's "insane undertaking."

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fires; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Religion; Sickness (see Illness); Slave power; Webber, Leigh R.


Letter, L. Maria Child to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Child, Lydia Maria Francis , 1802-1880
Date: October 26, 1859
Lydia Maria Child, "an earnest friend of Kansas," wrote John Brown from Wayland, Mass., on October 26, 1859, regarding her opposition to violence but her admiration for his courage and commitment to the cause of freedom. She had hoped to come to his aid in prison, but in the meantime assured Brown "that no honest man ever shed his blood for freedom in vain, however much he may be mistaken in his efforts."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Kansas question


Letter, H. B. Hurd to E. B. Whitman Esq.
Authors: Hurd, H. B.
Date: October 26, 1859
H. B. Hurd, the secretary of the National Kansas Committee, Chicago, Illinois, wrote to assure Whitman that he (Whitman) had "full authority to act in reference to said notes & accounts," not Capt. John Brown.

Keywords: Blood, James; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Chicago, Illinois; Doy, John; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Hurd, H. B.; National Kansas Committee; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, H. O. Wagoner to Wendell Phillips, Esqr.
Authors: Wagoner, Henry O.
Date: November 6, 1859
H.O. Wagoner of Chicago, who had entertained John Brown one afternoon in the fall of 1858, wrote to one of the nation's leading abolitionist supporters of Brown, Wendell Phillips of Boston, Mass., regarding the latter's "oration, delivered in Brooklyn, on the character--facts of history, and circumstances with reference to 'Capt John Brown,' that noblest of God's heroes, who struck the great blow at Harper's Ferry."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Osawatomie, Battle of; Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884; Wagoner, Henry O.


Letter, John Brown to My Dear Wife [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: November 16, 1859
In this letter to his wife, from the Charlestown, Virginia, jail, John Brown wrote mainly of his children--especially the daughters--and his ideas about the proper education for them, in light of the fact that some of his Eastern supporters were offering to provide assistance in this area: "You my wife perfectly well know that I have always expressed a decided preference for a very plain but perfectly practical education for both Sons & Daughters."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Charles Town, Virginia; Charlestown, Virginia; Education; Music; Wattles, Sarah G.


Letter, G. [George] W. Brown to Friend [John A.] Halderman
Authors: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: November 19, 1859
In a brief note, something of a follow up to his November 1 letter, G. W. Brown told Halderman that 150 copies of "to-days" (November 19) Herald of Freedom had been sent by "Express" and that another 150 would go out the next day. "I think your friends will be pleased with the present number," wrote the editor, "as it more than sustains all I have said in the past in regard to old John Brown, besides it gives some raps at Conway which will be difficult to overcome."

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Herald of Freedom; Newspapers


Letter, John Q. Anderson to "Capt [John] Brown"
Authors: Anderson, John Q.
Date: November 25, 1859
John Anderson, of Eddyville, Iowa, the brother of one of the Harpers Ferry raiders, Jeremiah Goldsmith Anderson, wrote to Captain Brown, who was awaiting execution in Charlestown, Va., jail, seeking more information about his brother's death at Harpers Ferry. He had been "two years a target in Kansas for the Border Ruffians and all, for what? Why because he purchased a claim & wished to settle on it & live by the sweat of his own brow. And now has died trying to enforce the golden rule."

Keywords: Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state settlers; Harpers Ferry, Virginia


Anti-Slavery Mass Meeting
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November 26, 1859
Advertisement of an anti-slavery meeting which was to be held on December 2, 1859, in Lawrence on the day that John Brown was executed.. This advertisement is on display in the Kansas Museum of History, Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Letter, Mary A. Brown to Dear children one & all
Authors: Brown, Mary Ann Day , 1816-1884
Date: November 28, 1859
Writing from somewhere "near" Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where she was staying with Lucretia Mott while her husband awaited execution for the Harpers Ferry raid, Mary Brown informed her children that their father wrote "very comforting letters" and of course was secure in his faith. Mrs. Brown wrote of the sympathy that was directed her way and of the belief that their sacrifice would yet do much "for the poor slave." Mrs. Brown expresses her own very articulate anitslavery views (slavery, "the greatest sin that ever rested on our nation") and had been uplifted by the opportunity to hear several "antislavery sermons."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Mott, Lucretia; Parker, Theodore


Letter, A. D. Stevens to "My Dear Friend" [Jennie Dunbar]
Authors: Stevens, Aaron D.
Date: December 3, 1859
From his jail cell at Charlestown, Virginia, Stevens wrote his love interest, Jennie (recepient information is on a handwritten copy, also in folder 10), regarding his actions and prospects ("Slavery demands that we should hang for its protection") and the fact that he regretted nothing except that he would not live to "see this Country free."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Slave power; Slavery


Letter, James Hanway to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Hanway, James
Date: December 5, 1859
In response to the Redpath/Hinton notice in the Lawrence Republican, Hanway wrote from his home in Shermansville, Franklin County, to share his story about "our friend John Brown," and he hoped their efforts would convey to all Brown's "the character" and "motives" and "place him in his true light before the world." Hanway highlights the attempted "rescue of Lawrence" in May 1856; the subsequent "'Tragedy'" on Pottawatomie Creek, about which Brown personal told Hanaway, "it was a just act, to take the lives of those 5 pro-slave ruffians"; how John Brown was a surveyor who used his profession to gather intellegence among proslavery settlers; the fact, according to Hanway, that the Doyles and others were actively engaged in efforts to run free state settlers out of the area; and specifically denies the story that Frederick Brown was "insane."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hanway, James; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Proslavery settlers; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shermansville, Kansas Territory; Slave power; Surveyors


Letter, S. [Samuel] Medary to My Dear Sir [John A. Halderman]
Authors: Medary, S. (Samuel) , 1801-1864
Date: December 10, 1859
From Lecompton, territorial Governor Samuel Medary wrote to J. A. Halderman to express his disappointment with his (Medary's) and the Democratic Party's showing in the December 6 elections for state offices under the Wyandotte Constitution. Medary ran against Charles Robinson in the "state's" first gubernatorial contest and lost 7,908 to 5,395. Medary made a number of interesting observations in what amounted to a post election analysis of the outcome. The party should have won, in Medary's estimation, but as a result they would "have to submit to the eternal disgrace of having it [Kansas] go forth as a Black Old John Brown state."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, State Officials, December 1859; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, Harvey Jones to Rev. S. L. Adair
Authors: Jones, Harvey
Date: December 14, 1859
Jones, who lived in Wabaunsee, K.T., wrote to Rev. Adair after John Brown's attack at Harper's Ferry. Jones asked Adair to write to him about John Brown's character and whether he was associated with a church. Jones, like Adair, was a Congregational minister.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Jones, Harvey; Wabaunsee County, Kansas Territory; Wabaunsee, Kansas Territory


Letter, William F. Creitz to "Col. James Redpath"
Authors: Creitz, William F.
Date: December 17, 1859
William F. Creitz of Holton, who had served under Aaron Stevens as captain of a Kansas militia company, wrote Redpath regarding "the particulars of 'Old John Brown's' final departure from this territory." Brown and company, which included "eleven fugitives," reached Holton on January 27, 1859, and Creitz described the events that followed, to which he was an "eyewitness" and participant, including the Battle of the Spurs. Creitz's "article" was prepared "to assist you [Redpath] in your praiseworthy undertaking that of publishing the lives of those heroic men." Redpath published "Echoes of Harper's Ferry" in 1860, and Richard J. Hinton used this material in his "John Brown and His Men (1894).

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Battles; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Holton, Kansas Territory; Jackson County, Kansas Territory (see also Calhoun County, Kansas Territory); Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Militia; Nebraska Territory; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Slave power; Spurs, Battle of the; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Underground railroad; United States marshals


Letter, Wm. Keller to Sir Mr. [Thomas H. ?] Webb
Authors: Keller, William
Date: December 20, 1859
From Cottonwood Falls, Kansas Territory, on December 20, 1859, William Keller wrote to Thomas H. Webb (Boston, New England Emigrant Aid Co.) regarding the events leading up to (Missouri raid in late December) and including the so-called Battle of the Spurs, January 31, 1859, involving "old John Brown," some of his men, and eleven fugitive slaves.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Battles; Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cottonwood Falls, Kansas Territory; Fugitive slaves; Keller, William; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Slaves; Spurs, Battle of the; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka Academy; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Whipple, Charles (see also Stevens, Aaron)


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Hon. Edward Everett]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: December 21, 1859
In the wake of John Brown's execution, Ewing wrote to congratulate the renowned Whig congressman, governor, and U.S. senator from Massachusetts, Edward Everett, for the sentiments expressed by Everett and others at "the great meeting at Fanueil Hall to give expression to the opinion of the conservative people of Boston respecting the foray of old John Brown." Nevertheless, Ewing had to point out "an erroneous statement" in Everett's speech "to the effect that the migration of free negroes into the Territory of Kansas is prohibited by law." This of course was not the case and Ewing believed to say so did disservice to the people of Kansas, "who, after achieving their own liberties . . . Have not disgraced themselves by denying the freedom of the Territory to any human being."

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Constitutions; Everett, Edward, 1794-1865; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Exclusion, African Americans; Slavery


Letter, L. F. Parsons to "Dear Friends Redpath & Hinton"
Authors: Parsons, Luke F.
Date: December 1859
Parsons, "a soldier under John Brown" in Kansas, who fought in the battles of Black Jack and Osawatomie (see, Twenty-fifth Biennial Report, KSHS, 135-136), wrote this letter from Osawatomie to James Redpath and Richard J. Hinton in response to their "notice in the Republican in regard to publishing the life of John Brown & associates at Harpers Ferry & your request for information." In addition to his Kansas activities, Parsons was with Brown and company in Iowa during the winter of 1857-58 and mentions, as did Kagi and others, the "Lyceums" conducted by Brown around their evening campfires and the "thorough course of military instruction under Col. Whipple as Drillmaster." Parsons, who was obviously proud of his association with Brown, apparently just missed being in on the Harpers Ferry raid--he had returned to KT during the long wait and was not recalled.

Keywords: Black Jack, Battle of; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Owen; Cleveland, Ohio; Cook, John E.; Coppoc, Barclay; Coppoc, Edwin; Forbes, Hugh; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Fugitive slaves; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas City Metropolitan; Kansas City, Missouri; Leeman, William H.; Moffett, Charles; Osawatomie, Battle of; Parsons, Luke F.; Pate, Henry Clay; Quakers (see Society of Friends); Realf, Richard , 1834-1878; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Rice, Benjamin; Springdale, Iowa; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Tabor, Iowa; Tidd, C. P.; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, C. G. Allen to Redpath and Hinton
Authors: Allen, C. G.
Date: December 1859
Allen, a "minister of the Gospel" at Cottonwood Falls, K.T., wrote in response to the Redpath/Hinton call for "anecdotes & reminiscences" concerning "the brave & philanthropic [John] Brown," who the preacher first met in Lawrence in 1856. Allen left Lawrence when a call came for volunteers to aid in the defense of Osawatomie in August of that year and while there engaged saw his first "Border Ruffians," who he described as "miserable specimens of humanity. They were ragged & dirty. Their cloths & faces were to a considerable extent covered with tobacco spit." Allen and the men he was with actually missed the Battle of Osawatomie by moving south before the attack in an effort to find the attackers before they reached the town.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Stanton, Kansas Territory


John Brown "Parallels" Desk
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: January, 1859
This secretary was used in the home of Augustus Wattles at Moneka, Linn County. Family tradition holds that John Brown, while visiting Wattles in January, 1859, wrote his "Parallels" defense at this desk. The tradition further relates that the Wattles children watched Brown as he wrote, peering through cracks in the floor above. To hide his own location and to protect Wattles from retaliation, Brown indicated the "Parallels" were written at Trading Post instead of at Moneka. In this document Brown compares the authorities' hunt for him (for liberating Missouri slaves) to the lack of a search for the perpetrators of the Marais des Cygnes Massacre.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, John, 1800-1859; House furnishings; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Objects; Underground railroad; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, Salmon Brown to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Brown, Salmon
Date: January 10, 1860
From North Elba, New York, Salmon Brown wrote R. J. Hinton briefly regarding his father role in the Pottawatomie Creek killings of May 24, 1856. Reportedly, Gov. Charles Robinson had told James Redpath that John Brown had confessed to him that "he helped kill the Doyles" but "if Gov. R said so he lies." Brown would not have confided in Robinson, since he had not "put any confidence in Robinson after that Lawrence treaty" (ending Wakarusa War in December 1855). Salmon doesn't answer the question, but portrays the killing of "those spies" as the heoric "first blow with the sword against Slavery in this county" and insists that "they were life preservers and they saved Kansas."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Salmon; Free state cause; Hinton, Richard Josiah; North Elba, New York; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: January 20, 1860
Charles Robinson wrote several letters to his wife in Lawrence as he traveled East in January 1860. From the Astor House, New York, on January 20, he wrote that Congress was not yet in session and that everyone expected the Democrats to oppose Kansas admission. It was possible that Robinson could "be sent for as a witness in Harpers Ferry affair" (Congressional investigation/hearings).

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; New York; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas); United States. Congress


Letter, Harrison Anderson to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Anderson, Harrison
Date: January 27, 1860
The elder brother of Harpers Ferry raider Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote Hinton to provide information on his brothers activities in Kansas Territory, beginning in "June or July 1857," when he settle in norther Bourbon County. J.G. Anderson was actively engaged in free-state activities in southern Kansas, including efforts to defy the bogus authority through the establishment of what was called a "Squaters court." (According to a January 29, 1860, letter--also in this folder--from another brother, John Q. Anderson of Eddyville, Iowa, brother Harrison was still living in at Little Osage, KT, and he had "frequently entertained" John Brown.)

Keywords: Abolitionists; Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Proslavery activities; Squatters


Letter, John Vansickle to Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: February 20, 1860
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County about building his new home, the development of new roads in his area, and preparations for the recipient's coming visit. Vansickle also related a story in which a former Jayhawker was caught stealing a horse and "cabeled to a Post Oak Lim between heven and Erth. . .in token. . .of our Love for John Brown the People think of making Several Such Sacrifices."

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Economic conditions; Jayhawkers; Prices; Proslavery support; Roads; Sawmills; Settlement; Vansickle, John H.; Xenia, Kansas Territory


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Vernon [Thomas Vernon]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: February 23, 1860
Along with a request that his friend Thomas Vernon purchase a list of used books for him in New York City, Ewing commented on the presidential nomination and the fact that the Republicans were "not so extensively engaged in preaching the irrepressible conflict as before John Browns day." Ewing hoped the party picked someone "at least as moderate" as Abraham Lincoln, whom he "could heartily support."

Keywords: Bates, Edward, 1793-1869; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Election, Presidential, 1860; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; New York, New York; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Vernon, Thomas


Letter, John Ritchey to "Friend Stevens" [A.D. Stevens]
Authors: Ritchie, John , 1817-1887
Date: March 7, 1860
Topeka's "John Ritchey" [Ritchie] wrote this letter dated March 7, 1860, to A. D. Stevens from Franklin, Indiana, where he had "been spending the winter with his family." Although Ritchey mentioned John Brown and his own fervent views in opposition to "Slavery," the focus of his brief comments to his former Kansas comrade, who was scheduled to die on the Charlestown gallows on March 17, were an expression of concern for Steven's eternal soul: "I can see but one way left for me to be of any service to you and that is to direct your mind to the Savior. 'Ye must be born again.'"

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Religion; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Slavery; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka boys; Topeka, Kansas Territory


Letter, James Hanway to My dear Sir [James Redpath]
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 12, 1860
From Shermansville, Franklin County, K.T., James Hanway, a friend and follower of John Brown during the Kansas troubles, wrote to an associate, presumably James Redpath, about a book entitled The Public Life of John Brown. Redpath was not named in document, but he wrote this book on John Brown, which was published by "Thayer & Eldridge" in 1860. Hanway enjoyed the book, thought it was, "on the whole," "a correct life of the old man," but offered to author "the facts," especially as regards the Pottawatomie massacre of May 1856. In this lengthy, detailed letter, Hanway, who was with John Jr., and some others who were not on Pottawatomie Creek when the killings took place, argued that the action was fully justified under the circumstances and that Brown gave the orders, even though he personally killed none of the victims.

Keywords: Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Hanway, James; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Massacres; Ottawa Creek, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Thompson, Henry


Letter, Theodore [Hyatt] to Dear Brother [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Hyatt, Theodore
Date: March 27, 1860
This letter, written by Theodore Hyatt of New York, was sent to his brother Thaddeus, president of the National Kansas Committee. The main purpose of the letter was to keep Thaddeus informed about business dealings in Atchison, Kansas Territory. S.C. Pomeroy and Benjamin Stringfellow were attempting to attract the freighting business to Atchison through "inducements" in the form of town lots. However, the letter also discussed the current situation, since Thaddeus had been imprisoned in Washington D.C. for aiding John Brown and collecting funds to support the Brown family after John's death in 1859. Theodore briefly mentioned that he was "laying low" on that issue until he could collect all the funds obtained and pay it to Thaddeus.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Hyatt, Theodore; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Prisons; Russell, Majors, and Waddell; Town lots


Letter, R. S. Stevens to S. N. Wood
Authors: Stevens, Robert S.
Date: April 2, 1860
R. S. Stevens, a Democratic attorney who had a variety of financial interests in Kansas during the 1850s and 1860s, wrote this letter to Wood from Washington, D.C., where he (Stevens) seemed to be lobbying for a number of concessions for himself and Kansas Territory. Specifically, he wrote of mail routes and "grants for R Rr" [railroads], which would not be forthcoming because of the Republicans who "care[d] nothing about us [Kansas] except so far as political capital can be made." Much of the letter is a condemnation of the Republican Party, which he also wrote was holding up Kansas admission so it could be used against the Democrats, and the final page addressed action, or inaction, with regard to Indian treaties and land.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic National Convention (1860 : Charleston, S.C.); Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Election, Presidential, 1860; Indian lands; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Railroad land grants; Railroads; Republican National Convention (1860 : Chicago, Ill.); Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; Stevens, Robert S.; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Rev Thomas W Higginson
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: June 24, 1860
Samuel Tappan wrote this letter from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Thomas Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts. Tappan was leaving for Colorado in a week or two, presumably to meet some family members working the gold fields. He also mentioned Theodore Parker, a supporter of John Brown who had a terminal illness and passed away while in Italy. The Leavenworth Times had also mentioned his death, albeit briefly. Tappan also spoke of James Redpath's biography of John Brown, including a portion of the book that discussed a mail coach robbery in the summer of 1856.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Colorado; Crime; Gold mines and mining; Higginson, Charles J.; Pikes Peak gold rush; Postal service; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Violence


Statement, C. A. Foster, Was John Brown present and participating in the masacre at Pottowatomie Creek
Authors: Foster, Charles A.
Date: July 12, 1860
Signed C. A. Foster, Boston, July 12, 1860, this brief statement asserts that John Brown "was not present" at the Pottawatomie Massacre, "but that he knew that it was going to be done" and "he approved it."

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Foster, Charles A.; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, L. Maria Child to Dear Mrs. [Mary] Brown
Authors: Child, Lydia Maria Francis , 1802-1880
Date: December 2, 1860
One year after the execution of John Brown, on December 2, 1860, Mrs. Child wrote the Brown's widow, Mary Brown, regarding the impact her husband's actions and commitment to the cause had had on the country and efforts for "emancipation." She also sent along "a trifle" to help support the Brown family financially.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Slavery


Autobiography, Volume 2
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: Circa 1896
These sections of this volume of the autobiography were titled "Border War, Kansas Territory, 1856," and "Hickory Point." Sketches and watercolors by Reader accompanied portions of the text. The Border War section described events in which Reader participated as part of a free state militia. This section provided detail about militia activities as well as contact with John Brown and Aaron Stevens (Captain Whipple). The second section described the Battle of Hickory Point which occurred on September 13, 1856. The accounts in the autobiography were based on Reader's diaries.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hickory Point, Kansas Territory; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles)


Photograph, Stone house built by Augustus Wattles
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1940
Ruins of a stone house built by Augustus Wattles, Linn County, Kansas Territory, 1857-1859. John Brown wrote his "Parallels" in this house. The photograph was taken c. 1940.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Houses; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, Wendell Phillips to Dear Friend [Mary Brown]
Authors: Phillips, Wendell
Date: February 25. Year not identified.
It would appear that abolitionist Wendell Phillips wrote this letter to the widow of John Brown shortly after Brown's December 1859 execution to convey to her some financial support--specifically, a $200 bank draft. Phillips mentioned Annie, one of the Brown daughters, and closed with, "What ripe fruit your noble husband's devotion is producing."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884


Letter, Oliver Brown to Dear Folks
Authors: Brown, Oliver
Date: May 16 [1857?]
From Colinsville, Hartford Co., Connecticut (most likely, May 16, 1857), Oliver Brown wrote to his family regarding his current employer, "Mr. [Charles] Blair," who had agreed to pay Oliver $200, plus room and board, for one year. "Mr. Blair is now at work making 1000 Kansas butter knifes for Father," wrote Oliver Brown. He mentioned the presence of Brown relatives in that area and the favorable "reputation of the family [Browns] in Kansas" reflected among the residents there.

Keywords: Antislavery movements; Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Brown, Oliver; Collinsville, Connecticut; Hartford, Connecticut; Weapons (see also Guns)


Photograph, James Redpath
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
James Redpath came to Kansas Territory as a reporter for the New York Tribune, but he soon became a participant in the free state cause. He was involved with John Brown and wrote a biography on him that was published in 1860. He reported on the free state movement in Topeka.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Card photographs; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Journalists; Photographs and Illustrations; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)


Photograph, Augustus Wattles
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Augustus Wattles was an abolitionist who came to Kansas from Ohio in 1855. For a time he helped George Washington Brown publish the Herald of Freedom in Lawrence. In 1857, he was one of the founders of Moneka, Linn County, Kansas Territory. He was a supporter of John Brown and Brown stayed at his home several times after the Marais des Cygnes massacre. Wattles served in the territorial legislature in 1855.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Wattles, Augustus


Photograph, Gerrit Smith
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Gerrit Smith was an ardent abolitionist from New York state. He supported the anti-slavery cause in Kansas and was a supporter of John Brown, helping to fund the raid on Harper's Ferry in 1859.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cartes de visite; New York; Photographs and Illustrations; Smith, Gerritt


Photograph, Joshua A. Pike
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Joshua A. Pike was a member of the Doy rescue party and was part of a plot to rescue John Brown after the raid on Harper's Ferry.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Free state supporters; Photographs and Illustrations; Pike, Joshua A.


Narrative, Account of the Life of Fredrick Brown
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: c. 1857
In this undated document, Samuel Adair related significant events in the life of Frederick Brown, one of John Brown's five sons. Frederick, alongside his father, participated in the Pottawatomie Massacre and other raids against proslavery supporters in Kansas Territory until his roadside murder by Martin White in August of 1856. This document also contains part of a letter to the Rev. S. S. Jocelyn recounting the winter's hardships.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state constitutions; Illness; Jocelyn, S. S.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Violence; Violent deaths; Weather; White, Martin


Photograph, James Hanway
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
James Hanway was active in free state activities. He was a friend of John Brown and served in John Brown, Jr.'s militia company. He was a delegate to the Wyandotte Constitutional convention.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Hanway, James; Photographs and Illustrations; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859


Photograph, John Brown
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Brown was an abolitionist who was willing to use violence to end slavery. He followed his sons to Kansas and soon became involved in some of the violence that marked the territorial period. He was involved in the May 24, 1856, Pottawatomie Massacre in which Brown and several of his followers brutally killed five proslavery settlers near Pottawatomie Creek in Miami County. He also led free state forces at the Battle of Black Jack on June 2, 1856, and at the Battle of Osawatomie on August 30, 1856. In October 1859, Brown led an attack on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in an effort to incite a slave rebellion. Although his plan failed and he was hanged for his actions, his radical abolitionist activity added to the growing tensions between North and South.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Photographs and Illustrations


Bill of sale for horse wagon, Billings & Bryant to John Brown
Authors: Billings & Bryant
Date: Undated
The state of Iowa frequently served as a relatively safe haven for John Brown and his followers during the late 1850s, and Iowa City was on the famous Lane Trail which carried many free-state activists and settlers to and from Kansas. This document, from "Billings & Bryant," indicates that the partners had receive $100 from John Brown as payment "in full for a heavy Horse Waggon" that they agreed "to ship immediately to J B Iowa City, Iowa; care of Dr. Jesse Bowen." Bowen was a member of the Kansas Central Committee of Iowa who later lived in Leavenworth.

Keywords: Bowen, Dr. Jesse; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state activities; Iowa City, Iowa; Kansas Central Committee of Iowa; Lane Trail; Wagons


Photograph, Jason Brown
Authors: Leonard & Martin, artists
Date: 
Jason Brown was one of John Brown's sons. He came to Kansas in February 1855 along with his brothers John Jr, Owen, Salmon, and Frederick and settled near Osawatomie. He was involved in numerous free state activities. This image is from later in his life.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cabinet photographs; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Jeremiah Root Brown
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Jeremiah Root Brown was the brother of Florella Brown Adair and the half brother of John Brown. He did not settle in Kansas but tried to support his relatives who lived here during the territorial era.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Brown, Jeremiah; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daguerreotypes; Ohio; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Owen Brown
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Owen Brown was one of John Brown's sons. He, along with his brothers John Jr., Jason, Frederick, and Salmon settled on Pottawatomie Creek near Osawatomie in Miami County, Kansas Territory, in February, 1855.

Keywords: Antislavery movements; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Owen; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Photographs and Illustrations


Portrait, Marian Brown Hand
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Marian Brown Hand was a sister of Florella Brown Adair and a half sister to John Brown. Her parents were Owen and Sally Root Brown. From her home in Ohio, she corresponded with Florella and her family after they moved to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Hand, Marian S.; Ohio; Photographs and Illustrations


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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