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71 results for Border disputes and warfare:
Walker Shotgun
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1854
Shotgun of Captain Samuel Walker, brought by him to Kansas in June, 1854, and used in the Battle of Fort Titus.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Guns; Objects; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns)


Abbott Sword
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
Major James B. Abbott acquired this Model 1840 Noncommissioned Officer's sword in 1855. He carried it through the territorial period.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Militia; Objects; Swords and daggers; Weapons (see also Guns)


Portrait, Andrew H. Reeder
Authors: Hall, Cyrenius
Date: 1855
Portrait of Andrew H. Reeder, first territorial governor. In 1855 Reeder was removed from office by President Pierce and was forced to leave Kansas when threatened by a pro-slavery grand jury. He escaped with the help of Thomas and Julia Stinson, who dressed him in women's clothing. Later, Reeder disguised himself as a woodcutter (as depicted in this painting) and escaped via a steamer on the Missouri River. Artist Cyrenius Hall painted this portrait in 1880.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Stinson, Julia; Stinson, Thomas N.; Violence


Photograph, Ruins of the Free State Hotel
Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: 1856
An illustration of the Free State Hotel ruins, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856, copied from Kansas: Its Interior and Exterior Life by Mrs. Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856


Photograph, Camp Saunders, Kansas Territory
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
View of Camp Saunders, a Pro-Slavery stronghold, located 12 miles southwest of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Camp Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Fort Saunders); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery


Excerpt from letter, I. T. G [Isaac Goodnow] to [unknown]
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: January/February 1856
In the wake of the Wakarusa War, Isaac Goodnow wrote to an unknown recipient regarding recent skirmishes and negotiations between proslavery and free state supporters. According to Goodnow, Governor Shannon had demanded that the free state men surrender their Sharp's rifles and obey the laws of the "bogus" legislature. Governor Robinson had responded, telling his men to "keep the rifles, but surrender their contents." Goodnow also commented on the "determined heroism" of the free state women, and recounted the incident of voter fraud which occurred in the Delegate to Congress election between former Governor Reeder and J. W. Whitfield.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Election fraud; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879; Women


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: May 15, 1856
Marcus Parrott wrote to his brother, Edwin Parrott, from Leavenworth, K.T. He told Edwin that the border ruffians had made their first move into Lawrence the night before, defeating the "Lawrence party". Marcus added that morale in the town was exceptionally low after the departure of both Reeder and Robinson, and believed that the two men, plus the editors of the "Herald of Freedom" and the "Kansas Free State" were imprisoned. He also believed that, this victory gone to the border ruffians, with the support of Governor Shannon, the free soilers would be cleansed from the area.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Buford expedition; Free soil; Miller, Josiah; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Platte County, Missouri; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912


Senate Executive Documents, Reports from Colonel E.V. Sumner
Authors: Sumner, Edwin Vose
Date: May 16, 1856 - August 31, 1856
Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner, leader of a Kansas Territory cavalry regiment, corresponded primarily with Territorial Governer Wilson Shannon and the Secretary of War's Adjutant General regarding military action taken in response to the Sack of Lawrence and the subsequent retaliatory skirmishes between free state and proslavery men. Sumner maintained that safety in the Territory could not be guaranteed "unless the posse of the U.S. Marshal was dismissed" in favor of local troops. Fearing civil war, Sumner and his correspondents discussed the convening of the Topeka Legislature, which they dubbed "bogus".

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dispersal of Topeka Legislature; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Skirmishing; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Topeka, Kansas Territory; United States marshals; Violence; Woodson, Daniel


Speech, David R. Atchison to Pro-Slavery "Soldiers"
Authors: Atchison, David R.; Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: May 21, 1856
According to a note on the top of page one made later by R. J. Hinton, "this report was made for me [Hinton] by or under the direction of Lt. Gov. (Dr.) Root [Joseph Pomeroy Root, subsequently elected the state's first lieutenant governor under the Wyandotte Constitution], who was a prisoner, heard & reported the speech" made by David Atchison to the assembled proslave "Soldiers" camped two miles west of Lawrence before they marched on and sacked the town on May 21, 1856. The transcript is labeled "Hon. David R. Atchison's Speech . . ." and begins, "This is the most glorious day of my life! This day I am a border-ruffian!" Amidst "Yells" and "Cheers," Atchison rallied the "true sons of the noble South," encouraging them to "tear down their Free State Hotel" and "thow into the Kanzas their printing presses," and to bravely follow their "worthy . . . Leader, Col. [John H.] Stringfellow!"

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Beecher Bibles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free State Hotel; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers - Free State; Pierce administration; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Southerners; Stringfellow, John H.


"Southern Rights" flag
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 21, 1856
Pro-slavery forces carried this flag while attacking the anti-slavery stronghold of Lawrence. Sheriff Samuel Jones led the group in sacking the town on May 21, 1856. A group of South Carolinians known as the Palmetto Guards participated in the attack, and flew their "Southern Rights" flag over the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper offices and the Free State Hotel before destroying the buildings.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Flags and banners; Free State Hotel; Herald of Freedom; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Palmetto Guards; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; South Carolina; Violence


Senate Executive Documents, 34th Congress, 3rd session, Report of the Secretary of War
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 23, 1856 - November 12, 1856
Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, submitted a number of documents in his report to the President that was submitted to the "Two Houses of Congress" on December 2, 1856. There were three sections of documents. Part 1 consisted of letters from the Secretary of War (Davis) and the Adjutant General ( S. Cooper) (pp. 27--35) to Colonel E.V. Sumner, General P. F. Smith, the governors of Kentucky and Illinois, and Major Emery, in relation to a militia force to be employed to aid the legitimate Territorial Government in Kansas Territory. Part 2 (pp.35--61) contained various reports from Colonel E. V. Sumner, commaning officer of the 1st Cavalry at Fort Leavenworth about events in Kansas. The reports include correspondence from Wilson Shannon, territorial governor, and various officers of the 1st Cavalry from Lecompton, Tecumseh, and other locations in the territory. Part 3 (pp. 62-146) was headed "Reports for the Department of the West" and included correspondence from various military officers about the activities of United States troops at various locations in Kansas Territory. This section contained several letters from Daniel Woodson and John Geary, territorial officials. A few non-Kansas items relating to dealings with Native Americans were interspersed among the Kansas Territory correspondence.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Cooke, Philip St. George; Davis, Jefferson; Deas, George; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Military; Sackett, Delos B.; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Woodson, Daniel


Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: June 6, 1856
From an embattled Lawrence, Learnard again wrote of near daily "occurrences of exciting interest," including skirmishes between the two "antagonistic parties" and actions of federal troops to "quell disturbances." The problem was with Missourians who had crossed over the border, not "actual settlers." Learnard claimed to be ready to do battle with them over the issue of "slavery or liberty in this country," and predicted that if things continued in this same direction, the entire country would soon be "embroiled in civil war."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Civil war; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Federal troops; Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Skirmishing; Slavery; Vermont; Violence


Letter, C. A. W. [Charles A. Wright] to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Authors: Wright, Charles A.
Date: June 16, 1856
Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Wright spoke passionately about the free state cause after the Sack of Lawrence and the Pottawatomie Massacre, imploring "eastern friends" for help. In Wright's words, "talk will do no good that time is past what we now need is men money and rifles". He added that southerners were "using every effort" to drive free staters from the Territory. U.S. Troops were attempting to disband the ruffians, though according to Wright they only dispersed and reorganized elsewhere.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state cause; Hill, Hiram; Skirmishing; United States. Army; Wright, Charles A.


Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: June 17, 1856
Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported the recent shooting death of a free state man by a proslavery Tennessee man. Despite this and other eruptions of violence, Simpson declared that " Lawrence as a city is yet in existence and from the character of the people I think we shall long exist" and that "slavery will cut her own life". He displayed little faith that the Territory's present government could produce and uphold a proslavery constitution. Simpson also mentioned Hill's property holdings, all full and paying rent.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Violent deaths; Whitney, Thaddeus L.


Letter, William H. Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: July 15, 1856
William H. Leeman, a follower of John Brown in Kansas and eventually a casualty of the Harpers Ferry raid, wrote this letter to his mother while "traveling across the prairies of Iowa" in July 1856. Although he briefly mentions an encounter with "2,000 border ruffians," he assures his mother that he is safe, in good health, and well armed, and that he is much happier in this "adventure" than had he staid home and "worked in a shop."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cannons; Free state militia; Iowa; Leeman, William H.; Militia; Missouri; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, H. [Harris] Stratton to Mr. Brown [John Brown]
Authors: Stratton, Harris
Date: August 12, 1856
In this brief note from Topeka, Harris Stratton told John Brown that "Gen Joe Cook" (Jim Lane) wanted Brown to come to Lawrence as they were expecting "a fight on Washington Creek."

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stratton, Harris; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory


Titus Sword
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Three months after the sack of Lawrence, the Free State Milita attacked the pro-slavery stronghold of Fort Titus. Free State forces were lead by Colonel James A. Harvey. Named after Colonel Henry T. Titus, a local pro-slavery commander, Fort Titus actually was a cabin located in Lecompton. After the Free State victory on August 16th, 1856, Colonel Titus surrendered this sword to Colonel Harvey.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Harvey, James A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Objects; Swords and daggers; Titus, Henry Theodore; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "Dear Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: September 4, 1856
From Topeka, Kagi wrote his father about his (Kagi's) personal situation and more generally about the civil war in Kansas. Several thousand "armed Missourians" had been committing outrages against free state citizens with the support of proslave leaders--Wilson Shannon, Samuel Lecompte, and Daniel Woodson. Freestaters, according to Kagi, were just then mounting an effective defense of both Lawrence and Topeka, both primary targets of the proslavery forces--"the enemy are determined to 'wipe out', as they say, both these towns."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Militia; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Woodson, Daniel


Photograph, Battle of Hickory Point
Authors: Breyman, W.
Date: 1856
A copy of a lithograph showing the Battle of Hickory Point, Jefferson County, Kansas Territory, drawn by W. Breyman.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Breyman, W.; Engravings; Hickory Point, Battle of; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Painting, Battle of Hickory Point
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date: September 13, 1856
Painting by Samuel Reader depicting the Battle of Hickory Point. Reader, an early settler of Shawnee County, was a member of a volunteer Free State company. On September 13, 1856, General James Lane heard that proslavery men were committing outrages in the town of Grasshopper Falls (Valley Falls). Lane marched to Ozawkie and recruited Free State settlers. Shortly thereafter, he heard that the proslavery forces were at Hickory Point, north of Oskaloosa, and so redirected his men there. The proslavery forces, which included about 40 South Carolinians, were under the command of Captain H. A. Lowe. According to Reader's accounts, only one Free State man was injured, but between 5-6 proslavery men were killed when these forces collided.

Keywords: Art; Artist; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Free state; Hickory Point, Battle of; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lowe, H. A.; Objects; Reader, Samuel James; South Carolina; Violence


Buffum Tombstone
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Sept. 17, 1856
Tombstone of David C. Buffum, a free-stater from Massachusetts who was killed by the pro-slavery Kickapoo Rangers on Sept. 17, 1856. Buffum was plowing a field on his farm near Lawrence when the Rangers (including Henry Titus and Sheriff Samuel Jones) stole his horse and shot him. Before he died, Buffum was heard to express the sentiments chiseled on his tombstone: "I am willing to die for the cause of Freedom in Kansas."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buffum, David C.; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state perspective; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kickapoo Rangers (militia); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Proslavery activities; Titus, Henry Theodore; Tombstones; Violence; Violent deaths


Receipt and memorandum concerning weapons and ammunition
Authors: Miller, Joseph C.
Date: September 27, 1856
This receipt, which provides a detailed listing of revolvers, knives, cartridges, and other weapons and ammunition, declared that these weapons were "received of Chas. Robinson." The following page is a memorandum by Preston Plumb, who writes that he received the weapons and ammunition listed on the receipt in Iowa City, Iowa "on or about the 4th of September 1856." The weapons were to be delivered to J. M. Winchell in Kansas but were to be used for the "defense of Kanzas." Several hundred weapons were involved.

Keywords: Ammunition; Border disputes and warfare; Guns; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Receipts; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns); Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Letter, Dunn to Mr. T. W. Higginson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: October 23, 1856
In this letter to Thomas W. Higginson, an agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, Mr. Dunn wrote from Oskaloosa, Iowa, regarding the current troubles in Kansas Territory. He was attempting to gather together a company as a response to Gov. Gary's [sic] election and the U. S. Army's efforts to arrest many prominent free state men. According to the author, "the U. S. troops by the order of Gary are taking every free State man they can get hold of." He was eager to hear advice from Higginson about the best way to proceed, and he laid out his plan to amass about 60 men to fight against the border ruffians who had invaded the territory. He hoped that Higginson would support him in this matter by obtaining provisions. Dunn maintained that this plan came from his sense of duty; it did not arise from a warlike spirit.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; United States. Army


Letter, M. Stowell to My Dear Friend [Thomas Wentworth Higginson]
Authors: Stowell, Martin
Date: October 27, 1856
This letter, written by Martin Stowell from Nebraska City, was addressed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Stowell and other members of his company from Massachusetts had been driven out of Kansas. Fortunately, none of them had been placed under arrest. Stowell had just returned from Lexington, Kansas Territory and he had "left Brown there in as comfortable circumstances as I could." The identity of this man is unclear. The "Plymouth men" in Lexington had stolen their flour and tools which they had hidden in a neighbor's haystack. Stowell inquired about the news revolving around the upcoming Presidential election and other news from the East.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Election, Presidential, 1856; Emigration and immigration; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lexington Township, Kansas Territory; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Nebraska Territory; Stowell, Martin


Letter, William Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: November 9, 1856
Writing to his Mother from Nebraska Territory on November 4, 1856, Leeman, who "belong[ed] to Old Browns company," said he had just left Kansas Territory because, after driving the "Border Ruffians" out, the governor and "his troops were after us [and] we were obliged to leave the territory." Leeman hoped to go back to his 160 acre farm in Kansas soon and encouraged his Mother to come when the troubles were over.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state settlers; Jayhawking; Leeman, William H.; Militia; Nebraska Territory; Osawatomie, Battle of; Sharps rifles


Letter, John R. Everett to Kansas Central Committee
Authors: Everett, John R.
Date: November 5, 1856
This letter, written by John Everett from Osawatomie, described the wounds suffered by George Cutter the day before the battle of Osawatomie. Everett and his family had cared for Mr. Cutter for about ten weeks and desired some monetary compensation for their efforts. An annotation added in 1895 by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, demonstrated Hyatt's annoyance that this letter presented a $60 bill for services rendered. There is also another annotation from 1895 referring to Hyatt's travels in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Cutter, George; Everett, John R.; Free state militia; Herald of Freedom; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; Medicine; Money; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Sears, W. A.; Violence; Wattles, Augustus; Wounds and injuries


Letter, R. J. Hinton to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Authors: Hinton, R. J.
Date: November 6, 1856
This letter from R. J. Hinton was written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory and was addressed to Rev. Higginson, a radical abolitionist and agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee. The letter is filled with information about the struggle for Kansas. Hinton mentioned the trials of the free state prisoners at Lecompton and Governor Geary's order to arrest other free state figures. Colonel Titus was also threatening to help the U. S. troops arrest free state men. Apparently a Captain Homes [sic] from New York had become so frustrated that he had collected several followers and was determined to administer his own brand of justice. Hinton did not completely approve of such action, claiming that while it was understandable, it was "not generally beneficial to our cause." Hinton had experienced some personal troubles as well, when some thieves who claimed to be free state men carried off the belongings of his company, settled at Lexington. The letter concluded with updates about the various men in his company.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dunning, John; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Lexington Township, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Proslavery activities; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; White, Martin


Names of prisoners in custody at Lecompton
Authors: Hoogland, Edward
Date: November 12, 1856
A list of free state prisoners in custody at Lecompton, Kansas Territory. Most of the prisoners had been captured at the Battle of Hickory Point on September 13, 1856. The list records each prisoner's name, previous state of residence, and reason for imprisonment. The last page of the document lists prisoners who had been released. The list was prepared by Edward Hoogland by order of Governor John Geary.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoogland, Edward; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners


Complaint about seizure of Briscoe Davis's house and family in Linn County
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: November 18, 1856
According to an explanation written by Edward Hoogland on the outside of the document, Briscoe Davis' sister (unnamed) wrote this complaint describing the October 24, 1856 looting of Mr. Davis' house in Linn County by free state supporters led by a Captain Holmes (likely James R. Holmes, a Free State Militia captain). The seizure of Davis' home took place shortly after Governor John Geary's October 1856 visit to southeastern Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Davis, Briscoe; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Holmes, James H.; Hoogland, Edward; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery perspective; Violence


Testimony of S. P. Hand
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 2, 1856
This testimony, a part of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, was apparently collected by the president of the National Kansas Committee, Thaddeus Hyatt. It relates the tale of S. P. Hand, a soldier in the free state militia who took part in the battle of Fort Titus and was captured at the battle of Hickory Point. His account provides a great deal of information regarding troop movements and the workings of the free state militia.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Central Relief Committee; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Hand, S. P.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Titus, Henry Theodore


Testimony of Thomas Bedoe
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 2, 1856
The testimony of Thomas Bedoe, a portion of the Journal of Investigations of Kansas, was apparently collected by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. It describes in detail the time Mr. Bedoe spent serving in the free state militia in the Osawatomie and Lawrence areas. He was a part of the Battle of Osawatomie and this account provides valuable information about the events preceding the battle.

Keywords: Battles; Bedoe, Thomas; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shombre, Henry J.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Stanton, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas


Testimonies of Nathaniel Parker, Horace L. Dunnell, Hinton S. Dunnell, Alexander MacArthur, James Hall, Jerome Hazen, and Charles Henry Caulkins
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 7, 1856
These testimonies, presumably taken down on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, include personal information about each settler, such as their age, occupation, etc., as well as their experiences in Kansas and their involvement in border warfare and skirmishes with pro-slavery settlers. Each account is descriptive and provides tremendous detail about their individual experiences. The testimonies of MacArthur, Hall, and Hazen are combined into one, with this group testimony split into two separate sections.

Keywords: Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Caulkins, Charles Henry; Cutter, Calvin M.; Dunnell, Hinton S.; Dunnell, Horace L.; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Guns; Hall, James; Harvey, James A.; Hazen, Jerome; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; MacArthur, Alexander; Missouri River; Parker, Nathaniel; Prisoners; Prisons; Proslavery activities; Skirmishing; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns); Weston, Missouri; Wounds and injuries


Testimony of Capt. Thomas Bickerton
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 12, 1856
This testimony, taken down by Thaddeus Hyatt as part of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, is divided into two parts. It begins with descriptions of his life before he came to Kansas Territory and his efforts to set up a claim outside of Lawrence, including his technique for building his sod house. Thomas Bickerton was a well traveled individual and an influential commander of a free state artillery company. He was involved in skirmishes with border ruffians and in the attack on Franklin. Also, General James Lane sent him to Kansas City to obtain a brass howitzer (later known as the Abbott howitzer) for use against the proslavery forces.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Barber, Thomas W.; Bickerton, Thomas; Border disputes and warfare; Buffum, David C.; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Franklin buildings; Free state militia; Houses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Roberts, William Young; Sawmills; Skirmishing; Topliff, Charles W.


Experiences of R. S. Griffithe, N. W. Spicer, and J. A. Harvey
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 6, 1856
These testimonies, collected by the National Kansas Committee, record the experiences of these three settlers during the turbulent times of Bleeding Kansas. These testimonies focus on each settler's involvement in free state activities and their interaction with border ruffians. Griffithe and Spicer both served in the free state militia, and Harvey, who had commanded an emigrant train from Chicago, was the commander of a free state company.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Griffithe, R. S.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Spicer, N.W.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Topeka, Kansas; Violence


Testimony of James H. Holmes
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 8, 1856
This testimony of James Holmes is a portion of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, a collection of personal stories recorded by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Mr. Holmes had studied agricultural chemistry before entering Kansas Territory, and his initial reason for emigrating was his desire to undertake agricultural experiments. He had also intended to join with Clubbs Vegetarian Settlement, which was located on the Neosho River near the north line of the Osage Reserve. He goes into detail about the Neosho valley and its vegetation, mineral deposits, etc. The rest of his account deals with his involvement in the free state militia and his role in defending Osawatomie.

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cline, Captain; Emigration and immigration; Free state militia; Harvey, James A.; Holmes, James H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Violence


Kansas Experiences of A.R. Scolen, William Reap, Ephraim Coy, and Capt. Samuel Anderson
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: December 21, 1856 - December 23, 1856
These testimonies were collected from a number of free state settlers along Pottawatomie Creek, presumably by an associate of the National Kansas Committee. Each account includes personal information about the settler (their origins, family, crops, etc.) and also testimonies of their involvement in the free state militia.

Keywords: Agriculture; Anderson, Samuel; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Casualties; Cline, Captain; Clothing and dress; Coy, Ephraim; Crops; Food; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Illness; Livestock; Militia; Missourians; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Reap, William; Scolen, A.R.; Shore, Samuel T.; Sickness (see Illness); Skirmishing; Travel; Wounds and injuries


John Brown Sword
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
The sword is believed to have been brought to Kansas Territory from Ohio by John Brown in 1856. That year, pro-slavery forces destroyed the homes of John Brown's sons in Franklin County. While leaving the state, the Brown family camped at the home of Otis Potter, near Lawrence. In gratitude, the Browns presented this sword to Potter.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects; Ohio; Potter, Otis; Swords and daggers; Weapons (see also Guns)


Report of the Special Committee Appointed to Investigate the Troubles in Kansas; With the Views of the Minority of Said Committee. Report No. 200, 34th Congress, 1st Session, 1856.
Authors: United States. Congress
Date: 1856
An extensive report, giving majority and minority views of activities in Kansas during 1855 and 1856. The digitized version of the report is available at the University of Michigan Library's Making of America web site.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Congressional Report 200 (see also Howard Committee); Howard Committee (see also Congressional Report 200); United States. Congress


Pro-slavery man's musket
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Flintlock musket carried by J. H. Meyer in 1856, while a member of the pro-slavery Kansas Terriorial Militia.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Firearms; Guns; Meyer, J. H.; Militia; Objects; Proslavery activities; Proslavery perspective; Weapons (see also Guns)


James Lane Telescope
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855-1857
Spyglass used by James Lane and other free-state leaders of Lawrence in observing the movements of Missourians.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects


Abbott Howitzer
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856
Major James Burnett Abbott traveled east to raise funds and purchase arms for the free-state cause. In New York Abbott met Frederick Law Olmsted, who assisted in raising funds for the howitzer from the Ames Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts. The howitzer was taken to Lawrence, where it was captured by proslavery forces on May 21, 1856. It was recaptured at Fort Titus on August 16, 1856. Afterwards the howitzer was used in Linn County and by James H. Lane's brigade during the Civil War.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Ames Manufacturing Company; Border disputes and warfare; Cannons; Civil war; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state cause; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Kansas Experience of George Cutter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: January 1, 1857
This reminiscence is presumably from the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, which was compiled by the National Kansas Committee under the leadership of Thaddeus Hyatt. George Cutter was with Frederick Brown shortly before the Battle of Osawatomie, and like Brown, he was wounded during an altercation with border ruffians. While he was not directly involved in this battle, this reminiscence is still a rather fascinating account.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Casualties; Cutter, George; Darrach, Barstow; Everett, John R.; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Gillpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reid, John W.; Sears, W. A.; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Topeka, Kansas; Violence; Violent deaths; Weapons (see also Guns); White, Martin; Wounds and injuries


Letter, John Doy to Friend [Thomas W.] Higginson
Authors: Doy, John
Date: February 24, 1857
John Doy wrote from Lawrence to Thomas W. Higginson, relating the struggles of his family and other matters of interest in the territory. He had to sell the last of his corn crop and his pig just to make ends meet during the winter. He also briefly mentioned the Central Committee, stating that he did not ask them for relief funds or provisions, because recently they had acted improperly towards some ladies. He also informed Higginson of an altercation at Lecompton, where Missourians shot a storekeeper named Mr. Shepard, and "Sherrard their Bully late of Virginia was shot and died in a day or two." In addition, Doy spoke of the "bogus officers" and their work in the territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Casualties; Doy, John; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas Central Committee; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Relief; Violence


Letter, E. Nute to Mr. [Amos Adams] Lawrence
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: March 4, 1857
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. In a letter marked "private", Ephraim Nute wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Nute responded to Lawrence's suggestion that the college sit on the "broad table land on Mt. Oread or Capitol hill"; he supported the idea but feared that issues surrounding the land title would compromise the plan. Nute agreed with Lawrence about the importance of establishing schools, but he also concerned that the current political situation was not conducive to it, as the Territorial government was in the hands of "usurpers". He felt that "only one life now stands between us and the reopening of the civil war."

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Land claims; Land titles; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Mount Oread; Nute, Ephraim; Proslavery supporters


Speech, John Brown
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: ca. March 1857
During the spring of 1857, John Brown traveled to several Northeastern cities (specifically, in Brown's home state of Connecticut) to solicit financial support for the Kansas crusade. In the speech delivered from these handwritten notes, Brown outlined some of the many sacrifices he and others had made to give his audience a sense of what was needed and discussed the unfolding situation in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Buford expedition; Cato, Sterling G.; Crops; Finance; Free state cause; Hartford, Connecticut; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Proslavery activities; Speeches, addresses, etc.


Letter, James [H. Holmes] to Dear friend [John] Brown
Authors: Holmes, James H.
Date: April 30, 1857
On April 30 after he had received correspondence from Brown (still in Springfield, Mass.), Holmes wrote again in reply and to further explain the state of affairs in Kansas. He is critical of Charles Robinson's willingness to compromise with the proslavery leaders and is confident that "the free-state men wont do it." A friend, Archibal Kandell, had been recently "kidnapped" (or "abducted into Missouri") from his claim near Osawatomie.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Holmes, James H.; Missouri; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, James H. Holmes to My dear friend [John] Brown
Authors: Holmes, James H.
Date: April 30, 1857
From Lawrence, on April 30, 1857, Holmes wrote to urge Brown to contact him directly regarding the ominous state of affairs in the territory at that time. Acting governor Frederick Stanton had announced that the "Bogus" laws would be enforced and "The people shout--Never!" Stanton promised "war to the knife and the knife to the hilt."

Keywords: Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Holmes, James H.; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Taxation; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, S. [Samuel] Cabot Jr. to J. [James] B. Abbott Esq
Authors: Cabot, Samuel
Date: August 25, 1857
Samuel Cabot, a member of the New England Aid Society Executive Committee, wrote to James Abbott about his upcoming trip to St. Louis, in which Abbott would claim some stolen rifles on the behalf of Cabot. Cabot included another letter to St. Louis attorneys Knox and Kellogg, which named Abbott as his official agent in the matter. Cabot recounted that "Highwaymen" of Lexington, Missouri, had stolen the rifles the previous spring.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Border disputes and warfare; Cabot, Samuel; Guns; St. Louis, Missouri


Letter, Owen Brown to Dear Mother [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown, Owen
Date: August 27, [1856]
On August 27, 1856, from Tabor, Iowa, Owen Brown wrote to tell his mother that according to all accounts "Father is the most daring courageous man in Kansas" and to relate other happenings in K.T. involving Jim Lane and Governor Shannon. Another invasion from Missouri was rumored, but free state recruits were assembling and "the Missourians are trembling in their Boots."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Brown, Owen; Crops; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Weapons (see also Guns); Woodson, Daniel


Letter, J. H. Lane to Genl. A. W. Philips
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: December 17, 1857
James Lane, Major General of the free state militia forces, wrote to General A. W. Philips, ordering him to Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to help "our friends who are there. . .defending themselves against an invading force."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Philips, A.W.; Skirmishing; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory


Letter, Your affectionate Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: December 21, 1857
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego, in addition to elaborating on hunting and mill work, described at length the skirmishing between local free state and proslavery men, which had been continuous throughout the summer and fall. He reported the manner in which Missourians had seized and occupied lands in the absence of their owners, who were free state men. "Bogus courts" had brought the free state men who defended their lands to court, which resulted in so many fees owed that the men had to sell their land to pay them; the new owners were usually Missourians. Trego accused proslavery supporters of fabricating stories about destruction caused by warring Abolitionists in order to draw the support of the U.S. troops. Controversy over the Lecompton Constitution flourished in free state circles; the Free State Legislature in Topeka had repealed the "bogus laws" of the Territorial Legislature and appointed James Lane the head of a free state militia.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Business enterprises; Free state legislature; Free state militia; Hunting; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Military; Mills and mill-work; Missourians; Proslavery supporters; Sharps rifles; Skirmishing; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to [John Brown?]
Authors: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: ca. 1857
On the bottom of an incomplete listing of weapons distributed (e.g., Navy Revolvers), William Hutchinson wrote regarding his "earnes effort for you [John Brown?] in this place.

Keywords: Bassett, O. A. (Owen Abbot); Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Guns; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kagi, John Henry; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.


Pamphlet, Address to the American People on the Affairs of Kansas
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
This address recounted the history and purpose of the formation of the Kansas State Government of Topeka, in peaceful opposition to that of the Territory. The free state message accused the systems of the Territorial Government of encouraging influence from abroad in their election process, and indicated that they had nothing inherently against Missouri's citizens as a whole, but implored that they not attempt to violate the rights of Kansas settlers. The address stated that the Territory was "organized for defence" by a pledge from Governor Walker, and appealed that outsiders remain in their homes for the benefit of all.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Big Springs Convention; Border disputes and warfare; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Election fraud; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state activities; Free state legislature; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Missourians; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Schuyler, Philip Church; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Kansas Experience of William Beh
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: c. 1857
This testimony, presumably from the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, was most likely recorded on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. This particular testimony is a very brief account of William Beh's experiences during the turbulent times of 1856 and 1857. It includes information about his claim on the south fork of Pottawatomie Creek and his involvement in the militia as a member of Capt. Samuel Anderson's company. He also requests aid, because he has been sick for three or four months.

Keywords: Anderson County, Kansas Territory; Anderson, Samuel; Beh, William; Border disputes and warfare; Free state militia; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Marais des Cygnes Massacre
Authors: Chapin, John R.
Date: 1858
An illustration of the Marais des Cygnes Massacre in Linn County, Kansas Territory, copied from Beyond the Mississippi by Albert. D. Richardson, 1867. In May 1858, Missourians crossed the border and murdered five Free-State men. This massacre was generally viewed as the last major violent occurrence during the territorial period. The site of the massacre is now one of the Kansas State Historical Society's historic properties.

Keywords: Book illustrations; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Firearms; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Massacres; Photographs and Illustrations; Proslavery activities; Violence; Violent deaths


Letter, Your loving husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Authors: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: February 11, 1858
Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego responded emotionally to his wife's proposition that she would travel East in the spring to visit friends and come to the Territory in the fall, instead of the coming spring as previously planned; he conveyed great disappointment, but insisted that she go if she really wanted to. According to Trego, the structure that would shelter his mill would be raised the next day, and Fort Scott had been seized peacefully be free state men "as the villains fled to save their bacon." He doubted that the treaty drawn there would change the antagonistic conduct of the opposing sides.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington


Report of General H.J. Strickler, Commissioner for Auditing Claims for Kansas Territory
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: March 7, 1858
Hiram Strickler, Commissioner for Auditing Claims for Kansas Territory, penned this report from Lecompton, Kansas Territory, directing it to the current members of Congress. Strickler had served as the territorial Claims Auditor for nearly a year, considering and investigating Kansas citizens' claims of property and monetary loss due to "difficulties" in the Territory. Finding that the Territorial Government had no money appropriated to pay these claims, Strickler turned to the Federal Government, whose policies and legislation he blamed for instigating political conflict in the Territory. He attached a table listing the name of each claimant, the amount claimed, the amount proven lost, and the type of loss they reported.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Damage claims; Finance; Kansas Nebraska Act; Lawsuits; Missouri compromise; Popular sovereignty; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Photograph, Shooting of Gaius Jenkins
Authors: Unknown
Date: July 24, 1858
A page from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 24, 1858, showing the shooting of Gaius Jenkins by James H. Lane, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, June 3, 1858. The page also contains portraits of James H. Lane and Gaius Jenkins.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations


Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister, father and others"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: August 13, 1858
By June 28, 1858, J. H. Kagi was back in K.T. at Lawrence, and on August 13 he was writing the family from Moneka, Linn County, where he had "been very busily engaged in fortifying along the State line to prevent further inroads from Missouri." [See J.B. letter of August 3 to Wm. Hutchinson in which he speaks of building the fort on the site of the Marie des Cygnes Massacre.] In an unusually open and frank few lines, Kagi wrote: "C. W. Moffet and two of the other boys (whom you have not seen) are in Ashtabula Co., Ohio. Some have gone to Harpers Ferry. We are all ready and in good spirits. Things are working rightly, here, and brightening elsewhere for our final work. Those who once thought us the most foolish, now think most cheerfully of the whole plan." He closed by asking that they write him at the "Whitney House" in Lawrence.

Keywords: Ashtabula County, Ohio; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Moffett, Charles; Moneka, Kansas Territory


Letter, E. C. Andreas to Friend [William] Goodnow
Authors: Andreas, E.C.
Date: January 25, 1859
E. C. Andreas wrote from New England to his friend William Goodnow in Kansas Territory. Andreas reacted to news he had heard regarding "commotion" in the Territory caused by "modern Democrats" and border ruffians, calling them "far worse than fever & ague." He communicated the opinion that there was little hope for Kansas to be admitted to the Union under the current Congress and Administration. Andreas also mentioned Goodnow's management of his land titles.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buchanan administration; Crops; Democratic Party (U.S.); Goodnow, William E.; National politics; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas)


Letter, [E. Nute] to [Unidentified recipient]
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: February 14, 1859
Ephraim Nute wrote from Lawrence on February 14, 1859, regarding "the disaster that befel the last expedition from this place with fugitives." The party, led by Dr. John Doy, was in route to Oskaloosa when captured and taken to Missouri, where "the colored people, both free and slaves, have been shipped for the New Orleans market." Doy and his son had been jailed at Platte City, Missouri, and were to be tried for "stealing a slave from Weston." Nute was quite sure this operation had been betrayed from within, as "Great rewards were offered, spies sent out & men hired in this place to watch & aid in recovering the run away property."

Keywords: African Americans; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Holton, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Nute, Ephraim; Oskaloosa, Kansas Territory; Spurs, Battle of the; Underground railroad; United States marshals; United States. Army


Letter, Frank Walker to his family, presumably.
Authors: Walker, Frank
Date: March 24, 1859
Walker wrote from Mound City, Linn County, Kansas Territory. He indicated that he was working for $25 per month. He intended to preempt a claim the next fall but was going to plant corn on 18 acres. Part of the letter referred to some type of imprisonment but the details were not clear.

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Land claims; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Walker, Frank


Letter, Frank Walker to Dear Sister [Augusta Walker]
Authors: Walker, Frank
Date: April 10, 1859
This letter from Frank Walker was written in Mound City, Linn County, Kansas Territory. He continued to describe his plans to acquire land and his hopes that it would increase in value. He recounted an incident in which someone named Byron was shot by "Missourians." He provided some detail of the encounter between Byron and 6 other free staters against 46 men.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state perspective; Land claims; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Walker, Frank


Report of Edward Hoogland, H.J. Adams and S.A. Kingman, Commissioners of Claims
Authors: Adams, Henry J.; Hoogland, Edward ; Kingman, Samuel A.
Date: July 11, 1859
Hoogland, Adams, and Kingman, Commissioners of Claims appointed by resolution of Governor Medary, continued investigating property and monetary losses suffered by the citizens of Kansas Territory after H.J. Strickler vacated the post. The new Claims Commissioners also believed that the responsibility for paying these loss claims rested with the General (Federal) Government. They reassessed the claims reported by Strickler, obtaining more information about the claimants and their losses, which included each claimant's political affiliation (free state or proslavery), their specific damages (house, horses, crops, etc), and who caused the damage (on behalf of either the free state or proslavery cause); this information is summed up in a supplemental table. The Claims Commissioners believed that the total value of losses occurring between November 1, 1855, and December 1, 1856, approximated at least $2,000,000; they also concluded that during skirmishes free state men had caused $94,500 in property damage, while proslavery men were believed to have caused nearly $319,000.

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Border disputes and warfare; Damage claims; Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hoogland, Edward; Kingman, Samuel A.; McKay, William; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Newspapers; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Skirmishing; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Letter, Harrison Anderson to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Anderson, Harrison
Date: January 27, 1860
The elder brother of Harpers Ferry raider Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote Hinton to provide information on his brothers activities in Kansas Territory, beginning in "June or July 1857," when he settle in norther Bourbon County. J.G. Anderson was actively engaged in free-state activities in southern Kansas, including efforts to defy the bogus authority through the establishment of what was called a "Squaters court." (According to a January 29, 1860, letter--also in this folder--from another brother, John Q. Anderson of Eddyville, Iowa, brother Harrison was still living in at Little Osage, KT, and he had "frequently entertained" John Brown.)

Keywords: Abolitionists; Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Proslavery activities; Squatters


Letter, Augustus Wattles to Dear [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Authors: Wattles, Augustus
Date: December 3, 1860
This letter, written from New York by Augustus Wattles, was addressed to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. The main focus of the letter was on two proslavery men--Captain Doake and General Clark--who persisted in mistreating free state settlers along the Missouri-Kansas border. The letter also referred to Charles Jennison and to James Montgomery, whose band of free state militiamen was still active even into 1860. Wattles vehemently maintained that free state forces were only organizing for their own protection, not for a great insurrection as the Missourians believed.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Border disputes and warfare; Clarke, George W.; Doak, William H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Land sales; Missourians; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Wattles, Augustus


Photograph, Charles Ransford Jennison
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Probably 1861
Charles Jennison was born in New York state in 1834 and settled in Osawatomie, Kansas Territory in 1857. He was active in the free state cause and was active in free state militia company. He was credited with several raids into Bates County, Missouri, and was part of a group that captured and hanged a proslavey supporter named Russell Hinds. He was an associate of James Montgomery. During the Civil War, he was a Colonel in the 7th Kansas Cavalry.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state militia; Hinds, Russell; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Violence


Bowie Knife
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1861
Knife made in a blacksmith shop operated by James Howell near Clay, Arkansas, for the purpose of fighting Kansans. Manufactured in 1861, it was used in the Civil War battles of Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove in Arkansas, and Wilson's Creek and Price's Raid in Missouri. Abolitionists and freestaters stereotyped pro-slavery defenders as always carrying Bowie knives. Indeed, Benjamin Stringfellow advised fellow slavery supporters in 1855 to "enter every election district in Kansas . . . and vote at the point of the bowie knife and the revolver.

Keywords: Arkansas; Border disputes and warfare; Bowie knife; Civil war; Howell, James; Missouri; Objects; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Swords and daggers; Violence


J.W.H. Golden Rifle
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1862
Rifle made by J.W.H. Golden while superintendent of the Fort Leavenworth Arsenal, 1862. Golden settled in Leavenworth in October, 1854 and was shot by border ruffians near Tonganoxie on September 6, 1856. The bullet remained in his throat until his death in 1894.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Firearms; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Golden, J.W.H.; Guns; Objects; Weapons (see also Guns)


Doy Rifle
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1859
Dr. John Doy used this Sharps rifle fighting border disputes in Franklin County and at Ft. Titus. In Jan. 1859, Doy was captured near Lawrence by pro-slavery Missouri forces and charged with aiding in the abduction of fugitive slaves. For six months Doy was held in a St. Joseph, MO, jail. Doy was rescued by ten of his free-state friends, lead by Major James Abbott. Engraved in the rifle's stock is the phase, "Successful Agent of the Irrepressible Conflict."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Antislavery; Border disputes and warfare; Doy, John; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Objects; Sharps rifles; St. Joseph, Missouri; Violence; Weapons (see also Guns)


Experience of John E. Stewart
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856?
This undated document, presumably written by John E. Stewart, relates the author's experiences in Kansas Territory. The reminiscence begins with a description of how he entered the territory and the manner in which he constructed a house. Then, intermixed with accounts of his agricultural efforts and other day-to-day activities, there are brief mentions of the political situation in the territory. The main focus of the document then turns to when Stewart was a member of the Wakarusa Liberty Guard, including a description of the murder of Charles Dow, the murder of Hoyt, the Branson rescue, and other encounters with border ruffians.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Construction; Dow, Charles W.; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state militia; House furnishings; Houses; Hoyt, David Starr; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Skirmishing; Stewart, John E.; Titus, Henry Theodore


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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