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54 results for Antislavery perspective:
Sheet Music, Ho! For Kansas
Authors: Griswold, J. C. M.; Manley, J. E.
Date: Undated
This sheet music was composed by R. C. M. Griswold with words by J. E. Manley.

Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Kansas Frontier; Manley, J. E.; Music; Songs


Letter, Sarah [presumably Sarah T. D. Lawrence] to My Dear Mrs. [William B.] Stowe
Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: January 9 1851
This letter, written by Sarah [presumably would be Sarah T.D. Lawrence, Charles Robinson's future wife] from Belchertown, MA, to Mrs. William B. Stowe, in West Brookfield, MA, contains excerpts of a letter written by Charles Robinson to Sarah. Robinson described his conditions of imprisonment in California (where he had traveled prior to settling in Kansas); he had been jailed for supporting squatter's rights and anti-slavery causes. He makes reference to a Dr. J.G. Holland, who had been a friend and colleague of his at home in Massachusetts.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; California; Massachusetts; National politics; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Squatter sovereignty


Lyrics, The Freeman's Song and The Kansas Emigrant Song
Authors: Whittier, John Greenleaf
Date: c. 1854
These printed lyric sheets provided the words to "The Freeman's Song," which displayed an anti-slavery message, and to "The Kansas Emigrant Song" which spoke about the need for free state emigrants to populate the West.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Emigration and immigration; Lyrics; Music; Poetry; Slavery; Songs; Whittier, John Greenleaf


Letter, J. Z. Goodrich to Dear Sir
Authors: Goodrich, J. Z.
Date: June 29, 1854
This printed letter, on letterhead from the House of Representatives in Washington, D. C., was written by John Zacheus Goodrich, a representative from Massachusetts. He informed the recipient that members of Congress and regular citizens of the city had formed the Union Emigration Society--these citizens opposed both the repeal of the Missouri Compromise and the opening of the territories to slavery. It included details about the Missouri Compromise, the designs of Slave Power, and stated that "our watchword is Constitutional Freedom everywhere within the jurisdiction of the United States."

Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Goodrich, J. Z.; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Missouri compromise; Nebraska Territory; Sectionalism (United States); Slave power; Slavery; United States. Congress. House


Lyrics, Lays of the Emigrants
Authors: Whittier, John Greenleaf
Date: August 29, 1854
This title page of a musical booklet was subtitled, "as sung by the second party for Kanzas, on their departure from Boston." It contains two songs. The first of the songs was written by J. G. Whittier and named "The Kanzas Emigrants." The other song is T. B. H.'s "Song of the Kanzas Emigrants."

Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Emigration and immigration; Lyrics; Music; Settlement; Songs; Whittier, John Greenleaf


Letter, I. T. Goodnow to Stephen French Jr, Esq.
Authors: Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894
Date: December 16, 1854
Isaac Goodnow wrote from East Greenwich, Massachusetts, to Stephen French Jr. Goodnow communicated his excitement of having decided to emigrate to Kansas Territory the coming March, inspired by a conversation with Eli Thayer two weeks before. His motivations were varied, as he expressed his desire to see that slavery was prohibited in the Territory. However, he also mentioned that emigration to the Territory was a good way to get rich, and hoped that the climate there would be more suitable for his ailing wife, Ellen.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Emigration and immigration; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Town settlement


Sheet Music, Ho! For The Kansas Plains
Authors: Clark, James G.
Date: 1855
Sheet music for a song about making Kansas a free state.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Clark, James G.; Music; Songs


Freedom's Struggle in Kansas
Authors: Snodgrass, J. E.
Date: February 26, 1855
This printed circuletter is addressed "to the Friends of Freedom." In it, J. E. Snodgrass expressed his antislavery sentiments and claimed he knew about slavery first hand as he had been born in the South. He also promoted the activities of the New York Kansas League which he described as a "philanthrophic association" to aid emigration to Kansas. The document also discussed the American Settlement Company which was a "joint stock association" that promoted the settlement of free state supporters at Council City, Kansas Territory (later Burlingame). He closed with antislavery statements and offered to give free lectures on the topic. He was located in New York City at the time the document was printed.

Keywords: American Settlement Company; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Burlingame, Kansas Territory; Council City, Kansas Territory; Free state settlers; Free state support; Free state supporters; New York; New York League; Osage County, Kansas Territory; Snodgrass, J. E.; Town development


Letter, S. H. W. to Dear Bro Isaac [Goodnow]
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: June 15, 1855
S. H. W. wrote from New England to Isaac Goodnow in Kansas Territory, reporting on the proceedings of the Philadelphia National Kansas Nebraska Convention, an organization that he described as "Pro Slavery to the Back Bone!". He implored that New Englanders of Kansas have "Back Bone", and fight against slavery. The author further narrated "the north is uniting. The plot thickens, and the struggle comes", and disparaged President Pierce's administration, hoping for an anti-slavery one in the future. The letter includes a short note from Mrs. S. H. W., which exclaimed at Ellen Goodnow's traveling to Kansas alone.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; National politics; Pierce administration; Proslavery supporters; Women


Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [T. W. Higginson]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: August 27, 1855
This letter, written by free state governor Charles Robinson, was sent to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist. Robinson discussed in rather general terms the troubles facing Kansas, stating that he believed this struggle did not only involve Kansas, "but I regard it as one in which the whole nation is involved." Robinson also expressed doubts that the North would support the free state settlers in the territory, writing that they can only "hope" for reinforcements, not take them for granted. He asked Higginson to stir up Northerners against the bogus legislature, and made mention of ex-Governor Reeder and opposition to the bogus legislature. In general, this letter eloquently demonstrates the passion of this free state leader and his dedication to the cause of liberty.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Bogus legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee Manual Labor School


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin A. Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: November 25, 1855
Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth City, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin A. Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marc told his brother about his recent efforts in defending Cole McCrea, on trial before Judge Lecompte for murder. He also urged his brother to come to Kansas Territory by describing business and land purchase opportunities there. Marc also referred to an upcoming meeting of free state men, which would serve "as a counterblast to the proslavery one".

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Balls (parties); Business enterprises; Free state activities; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; McCrea, Cole; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; United States. General Land Office


Letters, J. C. Palmer to A. A. Lawrence, A. A. L. to Capt. J. B. Abbott
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams; Palmer, J.C.
Date: February 1856
Amos A. Lawrence "forwarded" a message he had received from J. C. Palmer of Sharps' Rifle Manufacturing Company to James Abbott in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Palmer's note to Lawrence assured the correct quantity and quality of merchandise would be sent to Kansas Territory. Lawrence displays an interesting criticism of Palmer and the Sharps' Company in the letter forwarded to Abbott: he added a tag to Palmer's own signature "J. C. Palmer Pres[ident]", which read, "of a corporation that has no soul." Lawrence went on to implore to Abbott that he work cooperatively with Colonel E. V. Sumner against all disturbances of the peace, not just those originating with proslavery men. He cautioned that "no circumstances can authorize opposition to the U. S. Gov't even to the meanest of its representations."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Free state cause; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Palmer, J.C.; Sharps rifles; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912


Letter, Platt Potter to C. P. Williams, H. H. Van Dyck, B. R. Wood, Deodalus Wright
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: March 12, 1856
Potter, writing from Schenectedy, New York, expressed his antislavery opinions to members of the New York State Kansas Committee. He was critical of the Franklin Pierce administration's handling of the Kansas issue. Potter believed that antislavery settlers in Kansas should defend themselves against proslavery violence in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; New York State Kansas Committee; Potter, Platt; Schenectedy, New York; Sharps rifles


Letter, Jonathan Finch to Mr. [William] Barnes
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: April 2, 1856
Finch, writing from Coveville, New York, to William Barnes, secretary of the New York Kansas Committee, expressed his desire to settle in Kansas to take part in the "struggle for Liberty." Finch indicated that participation in the antislavery cause was his primary reason for his interest in emigrating to Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Coveville, New York; Emigration and immigration; Finch, Jonathan; Migration, internal


Resolutions, State of Maine
Authors: Maine. House of Representatives; Maine. Senate
Date: April 23, 1856
The full title of this document was "State of Maine Resolves relating to the extension of slavery, the territory of Kansas, and secret political associations." The state legislature of Maine issued this statement listing their five resolutions about the state of affairs in Kansas Territory. The state legislature was against the expansion of slavery and they wanted the fate of Kansas Territory to be decided by the people living in the territory, without outside interference from hostile political organizations. The document was signed by Josiah S. Little of Maine's House of Representatives, Lot. M. Morrill of the Senate, and Samuel Wells of the Secretary's Office. Caleb Ayer certified that this copy of the original document was fully accurate.

Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Maine; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas)


Minutes, Kansas Relief Committee
Authors: National Kansas Committee
Date: June 9, 1856 - June 26, 1856
This document details the minutes of three meetings of the Kansas Relief Committee, otherwise known as the National Kansas Committee, held in 1856 on June 9th, June 21st, and June 26th. It also includes information about the membership of this emigrant aid company. The first of these meetings adopted resolutions to aid the plight of free-state settlers in Kansas Territory. Furthermore, the members of the committee decided to establish five thousand settlers in Kansas Territory and to give them a year's worth of provisions.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Relief Committee; Minutes; Missouri; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Relief funds


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Wm. Barnes
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: June 14, 1856
Thomas Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, wrote from Boston to encourage the New York State Kansas Committee to continue its efforts to support the free state cause in Kansas. Webb expressed his opinion that all Northerners and Westerners needed to join together to defeat proslavery supporters in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Boston, Massachusetts; Free state support; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New York State Kansas Committee; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Wm. Barnes
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: June 18, 1856
Thomas Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston to inform Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, that the New England company would send a delegation to a Kansas aid convention to be held in Cleveland. Webb also commented on the strong reaction of Boston residents to recent events in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Boston, Massachusetts; Free state support; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New York State Kansas Committee; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Circular, To the Clergy of Massachusetts
Authors: Lowell, Charles
Date: June 27, 1856
A circular written by several Boston church pastors urging other Massachusetts clergy to solicit request their congregation members to send aid to free state settlers in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Churches; Circulars; Lowell, Charles; Religion


Letter, Marian S. Hand to Dear Bro & Sister, [Samuel and Florella Adair] note added by T. W. Hand
Authors: Hand, Marian S.
Date: July 7, 1856
Marian Brown Hand, Rawsonville, Ohio, wrote her sister Florella Adair and brother-in-law Samuel Adair inquiring about events in Kansas and John Brown and his sons. She said the Kansas Aid Societies and Ladies Aid Societies were forming to help families that suffered in Kansas Territory. Her husband added to the end of the letter discussing politics. He felt that Fremont would be elected President and that would insure freedom in Kansas and the North.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Antislavery perspective; Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Hand, Marian S.; Hand, T. W.; Ohio; Rawsonville, Ohio; Relief; Women


Letter, Thad [Thaddeus Hyatt] to Dear Al [A. L. Winans]
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: July 17, 1856
Thaddeus Hyatt, writing from Burlington, Iowa, to A. L. Winans, lamented the current situation in Kansas and the federal government's hostile attitude toward the free-state settlers in the territory. He also expressed his hatred for Southerners and his conviction that the issue of slavery in Kansas will be "one of blood." Hyatt was concerned that liberty would suffer at the hands of pro-slavery supporters, and he was eager to continue working diligently for the anti-slavery cause.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; Sectionalism (United States); Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; Winans, A. L.


Letter, Samuel Whitcomb to Respected & Dear Sir [Honorable G. Smith]
Authors: Whitcomb, Samuel
Date: August 30, 1856
This letter, written in Springfield by Samuel Whitcomb, is addressed to the Honorable G. Smith of Peterborg, New York. It is a passionate piece of correspondence that discusses slavery and liberty, demonstrating the conviction of this free-soil advocate. Whitcomb also expressed his frustration that the federal government was not more supportive of the free state cause in Kansas Territory, as well as his fear that the war was destined to spread out from Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Free state cause; National politics; Pierce administration; Sectionalism (United States); United States Government; United States. Army; United States. Congress; Whitcomb, Samuel


Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Wm. Barnes
Authors: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: September 9, 1856
Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to William Barnes of Albany, New York. Webb lamented the difficulties experienced by free state supporters in Kansas and described efforts to convince the Massachusetts state government to provide aid to the free state settlers. He urged Barnes to launch a similar effort in New York.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Emigrant aid companies; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Pamphlet, "A Ride Through Kanzas"
Authors: Higginson, Thomas Wentworth
Date: 1856
These "letters", function as diary entries and were published collectively under the above title, written by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, an ardent Northern abolitionist and agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee. Higginson describes his travels through Kansas in the aftermath of the Battle of Hickory Point and includes accounts of the experience of free state prisoners held in Lecompton, as well as those of various citizens of the territory, free state and proslavery alike. He concludes his entries with an assessment of the future in Kanzas, stating that "the more thorough an Abolitionist any man is, the more correct are his prophecies as to American affairs".

Keywords: American Anti-Slavery Society; Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hickory Point, Battle of; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Law and Order Party; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Prisoners; Travel


Letter, R. P. Bourn to Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Bourn, R. P.
Date: October 18, 1856
R. P. Bourn, writing from Nicholasville, Kentucky, addressed this letter to Franklin Crane of Topeka. Bourn discussed politics both in Kansas and at the national level, including the Presidential election of 1860. He made his anti slavery beliefs clear.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Slavery


Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Dr. [Franklin Crane]
Authors: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: November 14, 1856
The letter, written by Cyrus Holliday from Meadville, Pennsylvania, discusses the results of the 1856 Presidential election and its anticipated impact on the Kansas issue. Holliday describes to Franklin Crane, a prominent Topeka doctor, a meeting in Boston where he was encouraged to make Kansas a free state. Many of those present at the meeting were influential figures in emigrant aid companies. The letter also discusses efforts to make Nicaragua a slave state in order to achieve a compromise with the South. In addition, Holliday mentions making speeches on behalf of John C. Fremont and Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Election, Presidential, 1856; Emigrant aid companies; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Slavery


Pamphlet, Defence of Kansas
Authors: Beecher, Henry Ward
Date: 1856
This pamphlet, written by an impassioned Henry Ward Beecher, spoke vehemently against permitting slavery in Kansas Territory. Beecher excerpted the "Act to punish offenses against slave property", written by the first session of the Territorial Legislature, to the free state supporter the "Bogus Legislature", citing the Act as among " the laws of armed scoundrels".

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Beecher, Henry Ward; Bogus legislature; Free state support; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Popular sovereignty; Violence


Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: January 10, 1857
Frederick Law Olmsted, travel writer and landscape architect, wrote from New York City to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Olmsted commented that he had heard rumors that the more zealous antislavery supporters in Kansas were targeting west Texas as the focus of future free soil activity. Olmsted, in an expression of free soil and free labor ideology, expressed his support for such a plan. He declared that surrounding the slave states with free territory would lead to the ultimate decline of slavery.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Free labor; Free soil; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Texas


Letter, E. Brigham to Mr. [John] Brown
Authors: Brigham, E.
Date: March 9, 1857
In this letter of support from Boston, March 9, 1857, Brigham told Brown how he had been moved by the "touching appeal" in the New York Tribune of March 4 and assured Brown he had done as much as he could, considering his present economic condition, for Kansas. But he goes on to comment on the importance of the free state cause to New Englanders, who really weren't doing all they could or should do to help.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Brigham, E.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause


Letter, Eli Thayer to Capt. [John] Brown
Authors: Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899
Date: March 30, 1857
Thayer, the president of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote Brown from his home in Worcester, Mass., that he (Thayer) and his associates had "not the remotest idea of relinquishing Kansas" and that he would send Brown $50. Thayer also asked when Brown planned to visit Worcester.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Kansas question; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899


Letter, S .F. Burdick to Dear Brother [Oscar E. Learnard]
Authors: Burdick, S.F.
Date: April 12, 1857
S. F. Burdick, in this transcribed version of his letter to Oscar Learnard, wrote from Winooski, Vermont. Burdick communicated his feelings regarding recent political events in Kansas Territory, condemning President Buchanan's replacement of Governor Geary with the "Southern appointment" Robert Walker. He also advised Learnard to either "submit to slavery or fight", and saw no other alternative solution to the problem, though later he cautioned to only fight if first attacked. Burdick added that he wished to come to Kansas Territory, in spite of the troubles, but was held back by his wife's wishes.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Burdick, S.F.; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; National politics; Vermont; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Article, "History, as Espounded by the Supreme Court"
Authors: Plumb, Preston B.
Date: June 6, 1857
This article was printed in the very first edition of the Kanzas News, edited by Preston Plumb and printed in Emporia, Kansas Territory. It included excerpts taken from the May edition of Putnam's Monthly. The article documented the reaction of free soilers to the Dred Scott decision, which was passed by the Supreme Court in March 1857. Since he had lived on free soil for several years, Dred Scott had sued his master in an attempt to gain his freedom. However, the court determined that Dred Scott, and other slaves, were not legal citizens of the United States and therefore could not sue the government. As a result, Scott would remain a slave until his master voluntarily freed him shortly thereafter. This decision also annulled the Missouri Compromise of 1820.

Keywords: African Americans; Antislavery perspective; Dred Scott decision; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Scott, Dred; Slavery; Slaves; Taney, Roger B.; United States Government; United States. Constitution; United States. Supreme Court


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar E. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: September 22, 1857
S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. Learnard told Oscar of his desire to move the rest of the family to Kansas Territory, if only at least to see his "much praised and extolled land." He also commented on the recent slowing of the economy, and gave Oscar business advice. Throughout S.T. Learnard's letter, his strong opposition to slavery in Kansas is made clear.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Crops; Economic conditions; Herald of Freedom; Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; National politics; Vermont


Letter, S. G. Hubbard to John Brown Esq.
Authors: Hubbard, S. G.
Date: October 6, 1857
S. G. Hubbard, a New Haven, Connecticut, supporter, wrote regarding one of Brown's political tracts, the impossibility of fund raising for the cause during this time of financial crisis, the prospects for a Free State victory in the previous day's election, and the president's recent action that "committed the [Democratic] party to the extremist doctrines of Slavery extension & Slavery Nationalization."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan administration; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Hubbard, S. G.; Kansas question; New Haven, Connecticut; Panic of 1857; Slave power


Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: December 18, 1857
Upon his return to the East (Boston), Marsh wrote to Stearns on December 18, 1857, to provide a relatively brief outline of his experience and accomplishments since leaving for Kansas Territory on committee business the previous June. He said others could be the judge of the success of the "mission," but "a Free State Legislature was secured by the election" and Governor Charles Robinson had been "quite complimentary" of Marsh in a letter to Amos A. Lawrence.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Cato, Sterling G.; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Steamboats; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Territorial politics and government; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Whitman, E. B.


Circular, To the Friends of Freedom
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: ca. 1857
"To The Friends of Freedom" is a published circular signed by John Brown, with testimonial statements by Charles Robinson and Gerrit Smith. Brown here appealed for "contributions of pecuniary aid" to help sustain the free-state cause in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state support; Osawatomie, Battle of; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Gerritt


Letter, [S. F.] Burdick to Dear Brother, Oscar [Learnard]
Authors: Burdick, S.F.
Date: January 6, 1858
S. F. Burdick, referring to his friend, Oscar Learnard, as "brother", wrote to him from Learnard's home state of Vermont. Burdick asked Learnard if there was anything he might do "to advance the cause of liberty and justice", and told him that he had heard of troubles at Fort Scott, referring to an incident taking place on December 17, 1857, when free state men, who had been displaced from their claims in 1856, returned to take possession of them again. Firing was done on both sides, though no one was killed or arrested.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Burdick, S.F.; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Kansas Nebraska Act; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Missourians; National politics; Popular sovereignty


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: January 14, 1858
S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, VT, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. The author mentioned various friends and relatives, several of whom had traveled to and settled in Kansas Territory. He reiterated his desire to move his family to Kansas Territory as well. S.T. also communicated his disgust with the Democrats, who "are chained to the car of slavery and are ready to do any dirty work the slave power wish them to do."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Daily life; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Emigration and immigration; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; National politics; Vermont; Weather


Letter, S. T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar E. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: January 14, 1858
Writing from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son Oscar Learnard, S. T. Learnard claimed he was still planning to travel to Kansas Territory, and he asked about his son's affairs in Burlington. Learnard also focused on political attitudes in the East and mentioned Stephen Douglas' "speech on Kansas affairs" (Lecompton Constitution), which had caused "our Bogus democrats" to draw in "their horns." Many Democrats, he insisted, were still "ready to do any dirty work the slave power wish them to do."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Bakersfield, Vermont; Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Northern Democratic Party; Slave power


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: January 19, 1858
S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. S.T. commented on a proposition made to him by Oscar concerning his taking over Oscar's business in Kansas while Oscar himself would go West for gold mining. Oscar's father advised against this, and made other suggestions as to how his own accounts, as well as his son's, could be managed profitably. S. T. also asked about the state of the Territorial Legislature, dubbed the Border Ruffians "imps of darkness," and encouraged Oscar to continue the fight for liberty.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Business enterprises; Gold mines and mining; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; National politics; Real estate investment


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: February 15, 1858
S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. S.T. asked his son for his opinion on the effect of property and emigration if the Lecompton Constitution would be passed by Congress. He also advised him on business matters and updated him on the news of family and friends back home. S.T. communicated his hope that Oscar would maintain honor and principal during his course in business, unlike the "contemptable" President Buchanan's course in politics.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Business; Business enterprises; Daily life; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Lecompton Constitution; Vermont


Speech of Hon. Reuben E. Fenton of New York, "The Designs of the Slave Power"
Authors: Fenton, Reuben E.
Date: February 24, 1858
Representative Reuben Fenton, of New York, delivered this speech on the floor of the House of Representatives, in reaction to the Congressional debate over the validity of the Lecompton Constitution. Believing that the repeal of the Missouri Compromise was a mistake, meant to allow the extension of slavery into the new territories, Fenton emphasized that their forefathers recognized that slavery and anti-slavery men could not coexist. Thus, under the authority outlined in the Constitution, slavery in all Territories should be abolished, in line with the Federal Government's duty to "install a government [in the Territories] conducive to the greatest degree of happiness and welfare" of its residents. Fenton did not believe that the Lecompton Constitution represented the will of Kansas' citizens, insisting that the majority, as free state supporters, were proposing no challenge to the Government constructed by the founding fathers.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Dred Scott decision; Fenton, Reuben E.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton Constitution; Missouri compromise; New York; Popular sovereignty; Slavery; Speeches, addresses, etc.


Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: June 9, 1858
S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. S.T. mentioned his recent trip to Illinois and his efforts to obtain land warrants. He also requested that Oscar send him word on the status of his crops and mill, as his own friends were urging him to stay in business in Vermont. The author also referred to the upcoming August vote in which the English Bill, which essentially re-submitted the once-rejected proslavey Lecompton Constitution to a vote in Kansas Territory, would be approved or rejected by popular sovereignty.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Business enterprises; Daily life; English Bill; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Lecompton Constitution; National politics; Vermont


Letter, John N. Gardner to Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: Gardner, John N.
Date: January 9, 1859
This letter, written from Buffalo by John N. Gardner, is addressed to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Mr. Gardner related the tale of Mrs. H.G. Hyzen of Waitsfield, Vermont, an ardent supporter of John Brown who claimed to have a clairvoyant vision of him in his prison cell. The entire letter is a passionate piece of correspondence, speaking frequently of liberty and the "Total Annihilation of that Scourge of Humanity, Human Slavery." The letter also mentioned other abolitionists--Henry C. Wright and Mrs. Child--who wrote letters to John Brown.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Gardner, John N.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Prisoners; Prisons; Slavery; Vermont; Waitsfield, Vermont


Letter, E. C. Andreas to Friend [William] Goodnow
Authors: Andreas, E.C.
Date: January 25, 1859
E. C. Andreas wrote from New England to his friend William Goodnow in Kansas Territory. Andreas reacted to news he had heard regarding "commotion" in the Territory caused by "modern Democrats" and border ruffians, calling them "far worse than fever & ague." He communicated the opinion that there was little hope for Kansas to be admitted to the Union under the current Congress and Administration. Andreas also mentioned Goodnow's management of his land titles.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buchanan administration; Crops; Democratic Party (U.S.); Goodnow, William E.; National politics; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas)


Reception of [John] Brown & party at Grinnell, Iowa
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: February 26, 1859
John Brown wrote these notes on the generous "Reception of Brown & Party at Grinnell, Iowa," where they were "kept for two days free of cost," re-supplied, and provided with significant cash for their journey north. Brown also mentioned friends at Tabor and "our reception among the Quaker Friends" at Sprindale, Iowa, on February 26.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Free state supporters; Grinnell, Iowa; Quakers (see Society of Friends); Tabor, Iowa


Letter, C. Robinson to Geo. R. Morton Esq
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: March 9, 1859
In this typed "transcript" of a letter from Lawrence dated March 9, 1859, Charles Robinson confirmed Morton apparent conclusion that Robinson preferred Governor Salmon P. Chase for president in 1860. Robinson considered Chase "the purest & best Statesman in the country," and thought he was "more available than any other man of whatever shade of political faith," including William Seward. Robinson also comments on the Kansas scene which was "badly cursed with the most unscrupulous demagogues that ever afflicted any people, & there is at present but little union of effort or harmony of action among the free State men."

Keywords: Adams, Henry J.; Antislavery perspective; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Conway, Martin Franklin; Herald of Freedom; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Morton, George R.; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872; Vaughan, Champion; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Letter, H. O. Wagoner to Wendell Phillips, Esqr.
Authors: Wagoner, Henry O.
Date: November 6, 1859
H.O. Wagoner of Chicago, who had entertained John Brown one afternoon in the fall of 1858, wrote to one of the nation's leading abolitionist supporters of Brown, Wendell Phillips of Boston, Mass., regarding the latter's "oration, delivered in Brooklyn, on the character--facts of history, and circumstances with reference to 'Capt John Brown,' that noblest of God's heroes, who struck the great blow at Harper's Ferry."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Osawatomie, Battle of; Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884; Wagoner, Henry O.


Letter, Mary A. Brown to Dear children one & all
Authors: Brown, Mary Ann Day , 1816-1884
Date: November 28, 1859
Writing from somewhere "near" Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where she was staying with Lucretia Mott while her husband awaited execution for the Harpers Ferry raid, Mary Brown informed her children that their father wrote "very comforting letters" and of course was secure in his faith. Mrs. Brown wrote of the sympathy that was directed her way and of the belief that their sacrifice would yet do much "for the poor slave." Mrs. Brown expresses her own very articulate anitslavery views (slavery, "the greatest sin that ever rested on our nation") and had been uplifted by the opportunity to hear several "antislavery sermons."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Mott, Lucretia; Parker, Theodore


Letter, John Ritchey to My Dear Friend [A. D.] Stevens
Authors: Ritchie, John , 1817-1887
Date: March 6, 1860
From Franklin, Indiana, on March 6, 1860, John Ritchey wrote to Aaron Steven, one of the Harpers Ferry raiders still awaiting execution in Virginia, that it "it is gratafying to me, to find you, so willing to meet your sentence."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery perspective; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Slavery; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Stowe, Harriet Beecher; Uncle Tom's Cabin


Report, New England Emigrant Aid Company Texan Committee
Authors: Cabot, Samuel ; New England Emigrant Aid Company Texan Committee
Date: March 8, 1860
S[amuel] Cabot submitted a report of the Texan Committee to the New England Emigrant Aid Company Executive Committee. The committee recommended that the Company take action to settle portions of Texas northwest of San Antonio with antislavery advocates as part of the effort to halt the westward advance of slavery. Cabot expressed the committee's view that the only peaceful solution to the slavery issue required demonstrating to slaveholders the superiority of free labor over slave labor; the committee believed West Texas a logical place for this demonstration to occur.

Keywords: Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Cabot, Samuel; Emigrant aid companies; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company Texan Committee; Settlement; Texas


Political Anti-Slavery Convention
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 29, 1860
This announcement called for a political anti-slavery convention to be held in Boston on May 29, 1860. The men who called the convention, who were listed at the end of the announcement, believed that neither of the current political parties truly represented their anti-slavery sentiments. They stated their goal in terms of liberty for all people, both black and white.

Keywords: African Americans; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Political conventions; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Slave power; Slavery; Slaves; United States Government; United States. Constitution


Letter, S. T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, S. T.
Date: November 6, 1860
S. T. Learnard, a farmer and occasional state legislator from Bakersfield, Vermont, wrote his "Kansas" son frequently and complained that replies from Kansas were far too scarce. In this letter, S.T. Learnard commented on suffering in the territory, presumably from drought, and his hope that the national election would eliminate "her troubles from one source." He complimented the "brave men and women" of Kansas for their "suffering and endurance in the Cause of Liberty," and expressed confidence that Abraham Lincoln, who did well in Bakersfield, would win New York.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Bakersfield, Vermont; Droughts; Election, Presidential, 1860; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865


Letter, L. Maria Child to Dear Mrs. [Mary] Brown
Authors: Child, Lydia Maria Francis , 1802-1880
Date: December 2, 1860
One year after the execution of John Brown, on December 2, 1860, Mrs. Child wrote the Brown's widow, Mary Brown, regarding the impact her husband's actions and commitment to the cause had had on the country and efforts for "emancipation." She also sent along "a trifle" to help support the Brown family financially.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Slavery


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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