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53 results for African Americans:
Slave bills of Sale, Cowherd family slave trade
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1852-1859
These three handwritten bills of sale outline the terms and conditions of the sale of three different slaves, in transactions taking place from 1852-1859.

Keywords: African Americans; Bills of sale; Cowherd family; Cowherd, David; Proslavery activities; Slave bills of sale; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves


Photograph, First house in Leavenworth
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1855
A photograph of the first dwelling house in Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, built in 1855. The date of the photograph is unknown. It was located between 4th and 5th Streets on Olive Street. A young African-American child was photographed standing next to the house.

Keywords: African Americans; Houses; Immigration and early settlement; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth buildings; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement


Letter, Salmon Brown to Dear Father [John Brown]
Authors: Brown, Salmon
Date: June 22, 1855
From Osawatomie, son Salmon Brown wrote his to John Brown who had stopped in Rockford, Illinois, on his journey to Kansas Territory, where he was expected "before fall." Along with references to the provisions and clothing that might be needed, and the crops of corn, beans, turnips, and squash they expected to harvest, Salmon wrote "There are slaves owned within three miles of us."

Keywords: African Americans; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Salmon; Crops; Free state settlers; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Rockford, Illinois; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


An Act to Punish Offences Against Slave Property
Authors: Kansas Territory, Legislature
Date: August 14, 1855
This act was passed by the Legislative Assembly of Kansas Territory on August 14, 1855. It was to take effect on September 15, 1855. The Speaker of the House was J. H. Stringfellow and the President of the Council was Thomas Johnson. The act included a death penalty for persons causing or aiding in any "rebellion or insurrection of slaves, free negroes, or mulattoes" in Kansas Territory. Other provisions dealt with "speaking, writing, or printing" that encouraged slaves to rebel or that argued that the right to hold slaves did not exist in Kansas Territory. Several sections of the act contained penalities for encouraging or assisting slaves to escape and one stated that anyone opposed to the holding of slaves cound not serve on a jury.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Antislavery; Antislavery movements; Johnson, Thomas; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Laws; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Slave insurrections; Slavery; Slaves; Stringfellow, John H.


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 30, 1855
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 30, 1855
During this session of the constitutional convention, delegates dealt briefly with the question of "an immediate organization of a State Government," a highly controversial issue, and considered a report on the militia. Lively debate on the latter issue seems to have followed, although not much detail is given here, with Charles Robinson offering an amendment "striking out the word white--" This presumably would have had the effect of making African Americans and Indians eligible for service, but the amendment failed seven to twenty-four.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Suffrage; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: October 31, 1855
During the afternoon session of Wednesday, October 31, 1855, Jim Lane presented a "Resolution which was ordered to be entered upon the Journal of the convention--said Resolution being the instructions given by the people of the 2nd Representative District" at a Lawrence meeting of October 7. The "instructions" and Lane's resolution provided that "the question of excluding Free Negroes from the Territory" be submitted to a vote of the people on the day they voted on the constitution itself.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Delahay, Mark W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


Journal, Topeka Constitutional Convention, Afternoon Session
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: November 9, 1855
During the course of the proceedings recorded for the afternoon of November 9, 1855, discussion turned to the effort by Jim Lane to first include a provision for the "removal" of all blacks and then all "slaves" from Kansas by July 4, 1860. Charles Robinson supported an amendment which changed the effective date to July 4, 1857. All other provisions were to take effect immediately upon the adoption of the constitution.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Exclusion, African Americans; Free State Party; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Smith, Samuel C.; Topeka Constitution; Topeka Constitutional Convention, October 1855; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Topeka, Kansas Territory


The Vote on the Constitution
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. December 15, 1855
This article, printed in the Kansas Freeman newspaper, gave a preliminary count of the votes cast in the election to ratify the Topeka Constitution. The other two issues on the ballot were whether or not slaves should be excluded from the territory, and whether or not the territory should have a general banking law. The returns from Lawrence, Topeka, and Tecumseh are all listed, but not all the returns had been tallied.

Keywords: African Americans; Banks and banking; Constitutions; Elections; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Slaves; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Constitution; Topeka, Kansas


Narrative," A Twelve Months Practical Life in Kansas Territory, written by an actual settler"
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: ca. 1855
Robert Atkins Tovey wrote these pages so that "those who are going forth with their wives & children, their property, yea their all on earth should have the information covering the country to which they are making a Pilgrimage" from someone who has recently made the same journey. Broken up into chapters by subject, Tovey gave advice about the journey and settlement, provisions, land claims, soil, and weather, in addition to providing commentary about the current political situation and his disgust at the "Mob law" being imposed by the Missourians.

Keywords: African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Election fraud; Free state perspective; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Missourians; Native Americans; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Slavery; Slaves; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Transportation; Travel; Weather


Slave Bill of Sale, Thomas Johnson
Authors: Burge, David
Date: May 24, 1856
A bill of sale issued by David Burge to Thomas Johnson as a receipt for Johnson's purchase of an African American slave named Martha for $800. Thomas Johnson was a Methodist minister and the founder of the Shawnee Methodist Mission. Johnson County, Kansas Territory was named for Thomas Johnson.

Keywords: African Americans; Bills of sale; Burge, David; Johnson, Thomas; Slave bills of sale; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Westport, Missouri


Inaugural Address of R. J. Walker, Governor of Kansas Territory. Delivered in Lecompton, K. T., May 27, 1857
Authors: Walker, Robert J. (John), 1801-1869
Date: May 27, 1857
In this long and formal printed document directed to the citizens of Kansas, Robert Walker reviewed various issues facing Kansas Territory. He argued that all of the voters of Kansas Territory needed to vote on the Constitution and that he was pledged to seeing that the elections were fair. He explained that this was the procedure that had been set up by Congress. The address also discussed issues related to public lands in Kansas, particularly grants of lands for railroads and schools and to taxation. Walker addressed the issue of slavery in detail and explained that the "law of the thermometer, of latitude or altitude, regulating climate, labor and productions" would determine the extent of the spread of slavery based on profit and loss. Walker explained that this law rendered slavery unprofitable in cooler climates which were "unsuited to the tropical constitution of the negro race." He also argued that it was more important that the people of Kansas determined their government rather than not having one because of the issue of slavery.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutions; Kansas Territory. Governor; Railroad land grants; Schools; Slavery; Voting; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Article, "History, as Espounded by the Supreme Court"
Authors: Plumb, Preston B.
Date: June 6, 1857
This article was printed in the very first edition of the Kanzas News, edited by Preston Plumb and printed in Emporia, Kansas Territory. It included excerpts taken from the May edition of Putnam's Monthly. The article documented the reaction of free soilers to the Dred Scott decision, which was passed by the Supreme Court in March 1857. Since he had lived on free soil for several years, Dred Scott had sued his master in an attempt to gain his freedom. However, the court determined that Dred Scott, and other slaves, were not legal citizens of the United States and therefore could not sue the government. As a result, Scott would remain a slave until his master voluntarily freed him shortly thereafter. This decision also annulled the Missouri Compromise of 1820.

Keywords: African Americans; Antislavery perspective; Dred Scott decision; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Scott, Dred; Slavery; Slaves; Taney, Roger B.; United States Government; United States. Constitution; United States. Supreme Court


Letter, Thos. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns, Esq.
Authors: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 24, 1857
Agent Thomas Marsh, Mass. State Kansas Committee, wrote another of his frequent and detailed letters to George Stearns on July 24, 1857, describing the census and other preparations that were being made for the upcoming election (most importantly, the legislative election in October of that year). Of special interest were the activities of Jim Lane by the Free State Convention to organize militarily for "the protection of the Ballot Boxes."

Keywords: African Americans; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speculation; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866


Residents on Big Sugar Creek
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: c. 1857
This account contains the names and origins of both free state and pro slavery settlers that lived on Big Sugar Creek. The document begins with a brief description of the area and mentions particular cases of settlers who had noteworthy experiences. Of the 25 pro slavery residents, two owned slaves. It was presumably collected by Thaddeus Hyatt or some other member of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: African Americans; Big Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state settlers; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers; Slaves


Letter, John Brown to My Dear Wife [Mary Brown]
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: March 3, 1858
In this short, mostly personal letter from New York, John Brown wrote his wife that he was "having a constant series of both great encouragements & discouragements," even though he had found "a much more earnest feeling among the colored people than ever before; but that is by no means universal."

Keywords: African Americans; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; New York; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Smith, Gerritt


Circular Letter, Underground Rail Road Depot, To the Friends of the Fugitives from Slavery
Authors: Abbott, William E.; Allen, Joseph A.; Fuller, James ; Knight, Horace B.; Loguen, Jermain Wesley; May, Samuel J.; Ormsbee, Lucius J.
Date: March 4, 1858
This printed, circular dated Syracuse, March 4, 1858, announce the dissolution of the Syracuse Fugitive Aid Society and directed all "Fugitives" interested in such assistance in the future to contact Rev. J. W. Loguen of that place who would assume "the entire care of the Fugitives who may stop at Syracuse.

Keywords: Abbott, William E.; African Americans; Allen, Joseph A.; Douglass, Frederick, 1818-1895; Fugitive slaves; Fuller, James; Knight, Horace B.; Loguen, Jermain Wesley; May, Samuel J.; Ormsbee, Lucius J.; Syracuse, New York; Underground railroad


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 2, 1858
When the convention considered Article 7, Education, near the end of the afternoon session on Friday, April 2, James Davis of Leavenworth moved to insert "white" before "child," but Sam Wood's motion to table passed 44 to 36. The yeas and nays were recorded.

Keywords: Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), 1824-1899; African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Constitutions; Davis, James; Education; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Harvey, Henry; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)


Journal, Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 3, 1858
At the final session, Saturday afternoon, April 3, 1858, all the delegates signed the convention's proposed constitution, but several took the opportunity to make one last protest of the inclusion of "negro suffrage" because they believed their constituents opposed it and/or insisted that the instrument did "not extend the right of suffrage to negroes." This protest included Caleb May of Atchison County, the entire Linn County delegation (Addison Danford, Robert B. Mitchell, Thomas H. Butler, and Robert Ewing), and A. W. McCauslin of Jefferson County. The latter also expressed concern about the Education clause, "which appears to permit colored children to go to Common Schools with white children" and "the subject of negro immigration."

Keywords: African Americans; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Butler, Thomas H.; Constitutions; Danford, Addison; Education; Ewing, Robert; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; May, Caleb; McCauslin, A. W.; Mitchell, Robert Byington; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913


Leavenworth Constitution (manuscript version)
Authors: Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Date: April 3, 1858
The Leavenworth Constitution was the most radical of the four constitutions drafted for Kansas Territory. The Bill of Rights refers to "all men" and prohibited slavery from the state. The word "white" did not appear in the proposed document and therefore would not have excluded free blacks from the state. Article XVI, Section 3 directed the general assembly to provide some protection for the rights of women. The Leavenworth Constitution was ratified on May 18, 1858 but the U.S. Senate did not act to approve the document.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutional conventions; Constitutions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Womens rights


Leavenworth Constitution as published in D.W. Wilder's, The Annals of Kansas (1886)
Authors: Leavenworth Constitutional Convention
Date: April 3, 1858
The Leavenworth Constitution was the most radical of the four constitutions drafted for Kansas Territory. The Bill of Rights refers to "all men" and prohibited slavery from the state. The word "white" did not appear in the proposed document and therefore would not have excluded free blacks from the state. Article XVI, Section 3 (p. 227) directed the general assembly to provide some protection for the rights of women. The Leavenworth Constitution was ratified on May 18, 1858 but the U.S. Senate did not act to approve the document.

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutional conventions; Constitutions; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state activities; Leavenworth Constitution; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Womens rights


Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Dear Friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 7, 1858
Samuel F. Tappan of Lawrence wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson, informing him that the last letter he received from Higginson was lost in the Kansas River while Tappan was crossing it on horseback. Tappan also told Higginson that he had been elected secretary of the Leavenworth constitutional convention meeting that month. He discussed in detail the turn out of the votes concerning negro suffrage and women's suffrage, and mentioned the joyful reaction to the defeat of a Senate bill. According to Tappan, the border warfare had ceased and "it is almost impossible to excite a war spirit in Kanzas," further stating that "we rely wholly upon numbers now, and not upon Sharp's rifles." He expressed interest in having more women emigrate to Kansas, writing that "the fact is, women are scarce in Kansas and unmarried men numerous."

Keywords: African Americans; Constitutional conventions; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Slaves; Suffrage; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Women Suffrage


Letter, S.C.S [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [C. Robinson]
Authors: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: December 29, 1858
In this letter from Lawrence, December 29, 1858, Smith mentions a few business matters (e.g., the railroad convention) but concentrates on the border conflict, with specific criticism leveled at John Brown and James Montgomery. "Captains Brown & Montgomery continue their 'reign of terror' in Linn and Bourbon counties. . . ."

Keywords: African Americans; Bleeding Kansas; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Newspapers; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad conventions; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves; Smith, Samuel C.


Letter, John Brown to Gents [Old Brown's Parallels]
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: January 3, 1859
Designated "Old Brown's Parallels" and dated January 3, 1859, from Trading Post, Kansas, this is one of the better-known John Brown documents from Kansas. Written for publication in the newspapers just before his final departure from the territory, Brown began by stating "two parallels"--one being the failure of government to do anything about the murder of free-state men (Marias des Cygnes Massacre) May 1858; the other being his recent raid into Missouri to free eleven slaves and take "some property." In the latter incident, only one white man, a slave owner, was killed, but "all 'Hell is stirred from beneath,'" as the governor of Missouri was demanding the capture of those "concerned in the last named 'dreadful outrage.'"

Keywords: African Americans; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border disputes and warfare - Proslavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan administration; Civil rights; Free State Party; Fugitive slaves; Hamilton, Charles A.; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Press and propaganda; Slaveholders; Slaves; Trading Post, Kansas Territory


Letter, J. J. I. [John James Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Authors: Ingalls, John James
Date: January 26, 1859
From Lawrence, January 26, 1859, Ingalls began this letter with a description of the territory's pleasant weather, but focused on the activities of the legislature and the status of slavery in Kansas. He was serving as clerk of the "Senate," while looking after Sumner affairs.

Keywords: African Americans; Boundaries - Kansas Territory; Civil rights; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lawrence; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Territorial government; Weather


Letter, [E. Nute] to [Unidentified recipient]
Authors: Nute, Ephraim
Date: February 14, 1859
Ephraim Nute wrote from Lawrence on February 14, 1859, regarding "the disaster that befel the last expedition from this place with fugitives." The party, led by Dr. John Doy, was in route to Oskaloosa when captured and taken to Missouri, where "the colored people, both free and slaves, have been shipped for the New Orleans market." Doy and his son had been jailed at Platte City, Missouri, and were to be tried for "stealing a slave from Weston." Nute was quite sure this operation had been betrayed from within, as "Great rewards were offered, spies sent out & men hired in this place to watch & aid in recovering the run away property."

Keywords: African Americans; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Holton, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Nute, Ephraim; Oskaloosa, Kansas Territory; Spurs, Battle of the; Underground railroad; United States marshals; United States. Army


Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Dear Friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 17, 1859
In this letter, Samuel Tappan continued to keep Thomas Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts apprised of the current situation in Kansas Territory. He mentioned such topics as the Pike's Peak gold rush and the affairs of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, stating his belief that Robinson and Pomeroy were innocent of any charges of speculation. He praised John Brown's work to free slaves and the work of the Doy family in that same endeavor. However, he did not agree with Charles Robinson, who too readily looked to the interests of the Republican Party instead of supporting John Brown's work in the territory. Tappan appreciated the Atlantic Monthly magazine and Higginson's contributions to it.

Keywords: African Americans; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy, John; Free state perspective; Fugitive slaves; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas City, Kansas Territory; Land speculation; Pikes Peak gold rush; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913


Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Authors: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: June 27, 1859
The main focus of this letter, written from Lawrence by Samuel F. Tappan, is the case of Dr. John Doy, who had just been convicted of abducting slaves from Missouri. Doy had been sentenced to five years imprisonment, but his lawyers got a two month suspension so they could file an appeal with the state Supreme Court. Tappan outlined the evidence against Doy, which he said rested on the testimony of one proslavery man. He also reiterated the story behind the Doy kidnapping in case the recipient, Thomas Higginson, was not aware of all the details. The letter ended by mentioning the strength of the Democratic Party in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: African Americans; Courts; Democratic Party (U.S.); Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawyers; Missouri; Slaves; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913


Correspondence, Reinzi to Sir [J. M. Winchell]
Authors: Rienzi
Date: July 22, 1859
In the midst of the convention, a "Rienzi" of Wyandotte wrote to convention president James M. Winchell concerning a potential threat to Winchell's life. The ill-will toward Winchell had been sparked by the convention's "silly and ill advised move . . . To deprive Indians, (who by treaty stipulation have acquired the rights of citizenship) of the right of suffrage with negroes."

Keywords: African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Constitutions; Native Americans; Suffrage; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877; Wyandotte Constitution; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory


Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Hugh [Ewing]
Authors: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: July 27, 1859
In this letter to Hugh Ewing in Washington, D.C., Ewing, Jr. sought his brother's consent to donate "a lot" to Leavenworth's German Catholic to help with the construction of a "new building" (the pastor wanted to hold a raffle for the property to raise money). Perhaps more importantly, Ewing, Jr. wrote of political developments in which their business associate Hamp Denman was a likely Democratic nominee for governor, and he (T.E., Jr.) felt "strongly inclined to take the place on our [the Republican] ticket of Chief Justice of Supreme Court (a nomination he received in October; Ewing subsequently won election to that office in the December general election). Ewing also observed that the Republican Party was weaker in Leavenworth County than he anticipated and predicted that "the new Constitution [Wyandotte] will be unpopular in this County & and lose us many votes--not so much for its failure to exclude negroes as for its unjust & dishonest apportionment . . ."

Keywords: African Americans; Apportionment; Catholic Church; Churches; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denman, Hamp B.; Ewing, Hugh; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Halderman, John Adams; Johnston, Sanders W.; Kansas Territory. Supreme Court; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Miege, John Baptist; Mitchell, Robert Byington; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wyandotte Constitution


Letter, Wm. Keller to Sir Mr. [Thomas H. ?] Webb
Authors: Keller, William
Date: December 20, 1859
From Cottonwood Falls, Kansas Territory, on December 20, 1859, William Keller wrote to Thomas H. Webb (Boston, New England Emigrant Aid Co.) regarding the events leading up to (Missouri raid in late December) and including the so-called Battle of the Spurs, January 31, 1859, involving "old John Brown," some of his men, and eleven fugitive slaves.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Battles; Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cottonwood Falls, Kansas Territory; Fugitive slaves; Keller, William; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Slaves; Spurs, Battle of the; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka Academy; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Whipple, Charles (see also Stevens, Aaron)


Letter, John E. Stewart to My Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: December 20, 1859
John E. Stewart wrote from Wakarusa, Kansas to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, describing his work on the underground railroad. This letter detailed the inclement weather and difficulties he encountered as he helped slaves to escape from Missouri, as well as his procedure for locating the slaves and hiding them in his wagon. Stewart sought to gain assistance from Hyatt, mainly in the form of provisions and horses. He also needed advice about what to do with the escaped slaves to ensure that they were not captured and sold again into slavery.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Fugitive slaves; Guns; Horses; Iowa; Missouri; Nebraska Territory; Relief; Slaves; Stewart, John E.; Underground railroad; Weapons (see also Guns)


Report of H. J. Strickler, Commissioner to Audit Claims of Citizens of the Territory of Kansas
Authors: Strickler, Hiram Jackson
Date: 1859
James Campbell submitted this claim (#80) for damages suffered on August 15, 1857 from 200 men under the command of Captain Walker. Mr. Campbell lived in Douglas County and claimed the loss of various household and agricultural items. Mr. Campbell must have either been a slave owner or had a free black employee because he claimed bedding and wearing apparel for a negro. Each claimant had to submit an itemized list and have two witnesses attest to the losses claimed. Even though many of these claims were approved for payment, no funds were ever appropriated or distributed.

Keywords: African Americans; Campbell, James; Damage claims; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; House furnishings; Militia; Strickler, Hiram Jackson


Citizens of Lawrence! L. Arms in area for negro hunting
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1860
This document warned the citizens of Lawrence that a U.S Marshal named L[eonard] Arms was searching Lawrence for slaves and that they had the right to keep him out of their homes.

Keywords: African Americans; Arms, Leonard; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Slaves; United States marshals


Miscellaneous accounts of conditions resulting from drought
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1860
These accounts discussed the price of land (both in the past and currently), the number of settlers (often diminished from past numbers), and the nature of crops and available produce. This report included accounts from Mosley (a buffalo hunter) from Greenwood County; an African-American named Buckner from Otoe County; Thomas A. Hill, Greenwood County; Rev. Henry Moys, Madison County; John L. Pratt, Butler County; H. I. Hunter, B. F. Vanhorn, Judge Graham, and Myrock Huntley, Madison County; Peter Welsh, Osage County; William Thurman; Osage Indians; John Jones, Ottawa Creek; S. N. Howe, Coffey County; E. Condit, Woodson County; and J. C. Lambdin, Butler County. One of the letters copied in this report was addressed to W. F. M. Arny, and was written by J.C. Lambdin.

Keywords: African Americans; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Buckner; Butler County, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Condit, E.; Crops; Droughts; Famines; Graham, Judge; Grain; Greenwood County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Thomas A.; Howe, S. N.; Hunter, H. I.; Huntley, Myrock; Jones, John; Lambdin, J. C.; Madison County, Kansas Territory; Mosley; Moys, Rev. Henry; Osage County, Kansas Territory; Otoe County, Kansas Territory; Pratt, John L.; Thurman, William; Vanhorn, B. F.; Welsh, Peter


Political Anti-Slavery Convention
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 29, 1860
This announcement called for a political anti-slavery convention to be held in Boston on May 29, 1860. The men who called the convention, who were listed at the end of the announcement, believed that neither of the current political parties truly represented their anti-slavery sentiments. They stated their goal in terms of liberty for all people, both black and white.

Keywords: African Americans; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Political conventions; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Slave power; Slavery; Slaves; United States Government; United States. Constitution


$200 Reward!
Authors: Williams, G. D.
Date: June 7, 1860
Wanted poster of two slaves from Saline County, Missouri. Includes the names and descriptions of the two slaves. Poster is on display in the Kansas Museum of History, Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: African Americans; Broadsides; Fugitive slaves; Missouri; Money; Slavery; Slaves


Letter, Joseph Gardner to George L. Stearns
Authors: Gardner, Joseph
Date: June 9, 1860
From Lawrence, Kansas, Joseph Gardner described one of the last battles of the border war. The attack Gardner had feared came "last night between 12 & 1." With the arms Stearns had made available, the attackers were repulsed, but "one of my [Gardner's] colored men, who had fought most nobly," took "a tremendous charge of buck shot" and died. His last words were "fight, fight hard!!"

Keywords: African Americans; Battles; Border ruffians; Clinton, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Firearms; Fugitive slaves; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory


Tintype of African American woman
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1860
Tintype of unidentified African American woman, circa 1860. This photo was passed down through generations of the Platt family. Jireh Platt was an active abolitionist in Mendon, Illinois. His sons Enoch and Luther, members of the Beecher Bible and Rifle Colony, settled in Wabaunsee County where they operated a station on the Underground Railroad. The Platts may have helped this woman escape to freedom. The fact that she is wearing a wedding ring is significant, as slaves weren't legally allowed to marry.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Beecher Bible and Rifle Colony; Fugitive slaves; New Haven, Connecticut; Objects; Photographs and Illustrations; Platt, Enoch; Platt, Jireh; Platt, Luther H.; Underground railroad; Wabaunsee County, Kansas Territory


Photograph, Colored Battery, Ft. Leavenworth, KS, c. 1864.
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1864
Carte de visite depicting a Colored Battery positioned in front of the guard house, Ft. Leavenworth, KS, c. 1864.

Keywords: African Americans; Military; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Frederick Douglass
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Between 1878 and 1880
Portrait of Frederick Douglass, an African-American leader in the abolitionist movement, speaker, and author.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Cartes de visite; Douglass, Frederick, 1818-1895; Photographs and Illustrations


Harper's Weekly, Exoduster Illustrations
Authors: Worrall, Henry
Date: July 5, 1879
Illustrations from Harper's Weekly magazine depicting Exodusters. As life in the South worsened for Blacks after the Civil War, many left for more promising lands. Thousands came to Kansas in a great exodus (hence the name "Exodusters") during the 1870s, attracted by the state's free-state reputation established during the territorial era. These three illustrations are captioned, "The Colored Exodus - - Scenes at Topeka, Kansas - - From Sketches by H. Worrall." Worrall was an early Kansas artist.

Keywords: African Americans; Exodusters; Immigration and early settlement; Objects; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Settlement; Topeka, Kansas; Worrall, Henry


Letter, Wm. Leamer to F. G. Adams, Sec., State Hist. So.
Authors: Leamer, William
Date: July 13, 1895
Writing from Lecompton, William Leamer described several families who had slaves when he arrived in Kansas Territory in 1856. The information is very brief. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), 1824-1899; African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Leamer, William; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


John Speer's Reminiscences of Jas. Skaggs, formerly a slave owner near Lecompton
Authors: Speer, John
Date: July 13, 1895
Mr. Speer described his knowledge of the slaves owned by James Skaggs. Mr. Skaggs lived on Kaw half-breed lands about a mile from Lecompton. Speer also described an encounter he had in 1870 or 1871 with a former slave of Mr. Skaggs who owned property near Parker in Montgomery County. The former slave apparently rented a house and some farm land to his former owner Mr. Skaggs. Speer also described slaves owned by Judge Rush Elmore. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Skaggs, James; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Speer, John, 1817-1906


Letter, Isaac Maris to F. G. Adams
Authors: Maris, Isaac
Date: July 22, 1895
Isaac Maris was responding to a request for information about slaves in Kansas Territory. He provides the names of several families who had slave and describes the escape of one female slave and her child with indirect references to the underground railroad. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), 1824-1899; African Americans; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Maris, Isaac; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad


Reminiscences of Mrs. J. B. Abbott, De Soto, Sept. 1, 1895
Authors: Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett
Date: September 1, 1895
This reminiscence, apparently, was based on an interview by Miss Zu Adams with Mrs. J. B. Abbott in 1895 and typed from notes she had taken during the visit. Mrs. Abbott states that their home was one of the Underground Railway stations. She described the escape of a young male slave who came to the house while her husband was absent. Miss Adams was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett; African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad; Women


Letter, Thos. R. Bayne to Miss Zoe Adams
Authors: Bayne, Thomas R.
Date: September 11, 1895
Mr. Bayne wrote from Williamstown, Kansas describing slaves that he had owned. He also listed a number of other families who owned slaves in Kansas during the territorial period in southern Jefferson and northern Douglas counties. He offered a southerners perspective on owning slaves. This item is from information collected by F. G. Adams and Miss Zu Adams in 1895. They contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society.

Keywords: African Americans; Bayne, Thomas R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery perspective; Skaggs, James; Skaggs, Thomas; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Wallis, John


Letter, S. L. Adair to Miss [Zu] Adams
Authors: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: September 16, 1895
Samuel Adair, Osawatomie, Kansas, described the two slaves that he had encountered. One was an eight to ten year old boy that had been hired by a merchant from Kansas City. The other slave of which he was aware was a woman owned by an Indian interpreter named Baptiste. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Adams, Zu; African Americans; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Letter, Fannie E. Cole to Miss [Zu] Adams
Authors: Cole, Fannie E.
Date: October 20, 1895
Fannie Cole wrote about slaves in Kansas Territory that she remembered from her childhood. Her family came to the territory in the spring of 1855 and settled in Shawnee County. The families with slaves that she mentioned were George L. Young and his mother, John Young, Louis Harris, and Perry Fleshman. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: African Americans; Cole, Fannie E.; Fleshman, Perry; Harris, Louis; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Women; Young, George L.; Young, John


Reminiscence of Marcus Lindsay Freeman, a former slave
Authors: Freeman, Marcus Lindsay
Date: 1895
Mr. Freeman came to Kansas Territory as the slave of Thomas Bayne. Mr. Freeman described his childhood memories with his owner, who was about three months older and to whom he had been "given" as a baby. He provided information about his life and that of other family members and slaves during the Territorial era. This account was prepared by either F. G. or Zu Adams after an interview with Mr. Freeman. The penciled corrections were apparently made by Thomas Bayne. They contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society.

Keywords: African Americans; Bayne, Thomas R.; Edwards, Fielding; Freeman, Marcus Lindsay; Skaggs, Charity; Skaggs, Robert; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Reminiscence of John Sedgwick Freeland
Authors: Freeland, John Sedgwick
Date: 1895
Mr. Freeland gave a detailed account of the slaves owned by Judge Rush Elmore and his wife. The reminiscence contained some stereotypical views and phrases concerning African Americans. This account was prepared by either F. G. or Zu Adams after an interview with Mr. Freeland. They contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society.

Keywords: African Americans; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elmore, Rush; Freeland, John Sedgwick; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Shawnee Mission; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Reminiscences of Slave Days in Kansas
Authors: Armstrong, John
Date: circa 1895
John Armstrong assisted a slave named Ann Clarke, owned by G. W. Clarke, to escape into Iowa. He described the event in detail, including how she escaped, was captured, and escaped again. He also described slaves owned by a Mr. Bowen who lived on Washington Creek in Douglas. Armstrong lived on Washington Creek and later in Topeka. This item is from information collected by Miss Zu Adams in 1895. She was researching the topic of slaves in Kansas and contacted a number of early Kansas settlers requesting information about slaves brought to Kansas Territory. While all of the information she collected was based on reminiscences, it still provides useful information that is difficult, if not impossible, to find elsewhere. Miss Adams and her father F. G. Adams were employees of the Kansas State Historical Society and the information received was donated to that institution.

Keywords: African Americans; Armstrong, John; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory; Underground railroad


Letter, W. H. Mackey to George
Authors: Mackey, W. H.
Date: March 26, 1902
The letter describes two incidents involving female slaves. One involved a trade of a female slave owned by Fox Booth to someone named Reynolds for a white horse in 1855. Mr. Mackey, writing from Junction City, Kansas, described an incident were two slave women were accused of poisoning an ordinance Sergeant from Fort Riley and how they ultimately were released from punishment. Several other slave owners were mentioned. This information seems to be a follow up to the Historical Society's effort to collect information about slaves in 1895.

Keywords: African Americans; Booth, Fox; Davis County, Kansas Territory; Geary County, Kansas; Mackey, W. H.; Slaveholders; Slavery; Slaves; Slaves in Kansas Territory


Sculpture of Slave Auction Block
Authors: Douglas, Frederick I.
Date: 1920-1927
Carved figure inside a glass bottle, depicting a slave auction. Figure was carved by Frederick I. Douglas to represent a story passed down by his father, Thomas O. Douglas, who had been sold in a similar manner in Tennessee. Thomas Douglas was an Exoduster who settled in Wabaunsee County in 1879. His son Frederick's carvings won ribbons when exhibited at a Topeka fair in 1927.

Keywords: African Americans; Art; Artist; Douglas, Frederick I.; Douglas, Thomas Oliver; Exodusters; Objects; Slave auctions; Slavery; Slaves; Tennessee


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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