Skip Redundent Navigation
Territorial Kansas Online 1854-1861 Explore Topics Territorial A-Z Map Lesson Plans  

Territorial A-Z

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | 0-9


55 results for Abolitionists:
John Brown Melodeon
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1846-1857
Abolitionist John Brown gave this melodeon to his daughter, Ruth Brown Thompson, as a wedding present. It was played at John Brown's funeral on Dec. 8, 1859. He originally purchased the melodeon from a musician in New York. Patent dates stamped on the instrument range from 1846 to 1857. It was manufactured by Carhart & Needham Organs and Melodeons of New York.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Carhart & Needham Organs and Melodeons; Entertainment; Funerals; Marriage; Music; New York; Objects; Thompson, Ruth (Brown); Violent deaths


Lyrics, The Freeman's Song and The Kansas Emigrant Song
Authors: Whittier, John Greenleaf
Date: c. 1854
These printed lyric sheets provided the words to "The Freeman's Song," which displayed an anti-slavery message, and to "The Kansas Emigrant Song" which spoke about the need for free state emigrants to populate the West.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Emigration and immigration; Lyrics; Music; Poetry; Slavery; Songs; Whittier, John Greenleaf


Letter, T. H. Cunningham to [Edward Everett] Hale
Authors: Cunningham, T. H.
Date: June 16, 1854
Cunningham, writing from Boston, Massachusetts, offered his opinion to Edward Everett Hale on the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company. Cunningham wrote of his doubts about the potential success of the company and expressed strong opposition to abolitionism.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Cunningham, T. H.; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company


Letter, Samuel C. Pomeroy to Sir [likely Edward Everett Hale]
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: July 27, 1854
Pomeroy, writing from Southhampton, Massachusetts, indicated his desire to go to Kansas to explore business possibilities and to keep slavery from gaining a foothold in the territory. Pomeroy, who likely was writing to Edward Everett Hale, expressed interest in assisting with the work of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Business; Economic development; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Mills and mill-work; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Water-power


Pro-slavery Banner
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1855
This flag was created by pro-slavery Missourians who captured Free State supporter Reverend Pardee Butler of Atchison in April 1855. The pro-slavery men sent Butler adrift on a raft down the turbulent Missouri River with this flag flying from it. The Missourians wanted others to know that the minister had helped slaves escape. Although he was expected to drown, Butler survived.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Butler, Rev. Pardee; Butler, Rev. Pardee; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Flags and banners; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Missourians; Objects; Proslavery; Proslavery activities; Slavery; Underground railroad; Violence


Letter, L. C. P. Freer to James B. Abbott
Authors: Freer, L.C.P.
Date: August 7, 1855
L. C. P. Freer of Chicago wrote a scathing commentary of the Kansas Territory free state movement and its supporters to James Abbott, who had solicited subscriptions from him to fund the cause. Freer suggested that the founders of the Emigrant Aid Societies were hypocritical and the free state men were nothing but "cattle" forming only a "little whiff of opposition to the introduction of Slavery into Kanzas." Freer did not appear to be a proslavery supporter, but rather a tough critic who responded cynically to the idealism of the free state cause.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abolitionists; Emigrant aid companies; Free Soil Party; Free state activities; Free state cause; Fugitive Slave Law; Pierce administration; Slavery


An Act to Punish Offences Against Slave Property
Authors: Kansas Territory, Legislature
Date: August 14, 1855
This act was passed by the Legislative Assembly of Kansas Territory on August 14, 1855. It was to take effect on September 15, 1855. The Speaker of the House was J. H. Stringfellow and the President of the Council was Thomas Johnson. The act included a death penalty for persons causing or aiding in any "rebellion or insurrection of slaves, free negroes, or mulattoes" in Kansas Territory. Other provisions dealt with "speaking, writing, or printing" that encouraged slaves to rebel or that argued that the right to hold slaves did not exist in Kansas Territory. Several sections of the act contained penalities for encouraging or assisting slaves to escape and one stated that anyone opposed to the holding of slaves cound not serve on a jury.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Antislavery; Antislavery movements; Johnson, Thomas; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Laws; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Slave insurrections; Slavery; Slaves; Stringfellow, John H.


Letter, Robert Allyn to Bro. & Sis. Goodnow [Isaac and Ellen Goodnow]
Authors: Allyn, Robert
Date: October 11, 1855
Robert Allyn wrote from Providence, Rhode Island, to his friends Isaac and Ellen Goodnow in Kansas Territory. Allyn, like Goodnow an educator, updated the couple on the construction of a new local Academy. He also reacted to news he had heard of political conditions in K.T., having found that "the papers are full of dreadful things about you horrid abolitionists in Kanzas", and asking him, "How do you contrive to live under the Missouri laws?" Showing himself to be a staunch Abolitionist as well, Allyn provides his own strong opinions and insights regarding the Kansas troubles. Allyn also advised that "getting up a few. . .free schools" would prompt a great rush of emigration from the Northern States to the Territory

Keywords: Abolitionists; Allyn, Robert; Antislavery; Education; Free state supporters; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Missourians; National politics; Newspapers; Pierce administration


Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 7, 1855
Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts en route to Kansas City and ultimately to Lawrence, Kansas Territory, wrote from Richmond, Missouri to his brother. He relayed the murder of an unnamed free state man (likely Charles W. Dow), the gathering of 1,100 free state and 800 proslavery men at Lawrence, and other Wakarusa War events. Hill, a free state supporter, felt that the information he received from Missourians was inaccurate or exaggerated. He doubted reports that 60 proslavery men had been killed at Lawrence, or of abolitionists driving proslavery settlers from their homes. Hill reported the arrests of free state men including Judge Johnson and General Pomeroy, who he heard had escaped.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Cannons; Dow, Charles W.; Free state perspective; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery perspective; Sharps rifles; Violence; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, John Brown to Dear Wife [Mary Brown] & Children every one
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: December 16, 1855
Soon after his return from Lawrence, where he and other volunteers had successfully defended that place, John Brown wrote from Osawatomie to give his family "a brief account of the invasion," the so-called Wakarusa War. As it turned out, Brown provided some interesting details about their preparations and arrival in the besieged city and the negotiations that were ongoing when the Browns came on the scene. The Free State leaders, according to Brown, skillfully accomplished and signed an agreement with Governor Shannon that was "much to their own liking."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Barber, Thomas W.; Bogus legislature; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Coleman, Franklin M.; Dow, Charles W.; Free state cause; Free state militia; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery supporters; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, J. R. Giddings to My Dear Sir [John Brown]
Authors: Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed) , 1795-1864
Date: March 17, 1856
Congressman Joshua R. Giddings an abolitionist Republican from Ohio and good friend of the Brown family there, wrote from the U.S. "Hall of Reps" regarding his desire to provide support for Brown and his cause in Kansas and of his belief that the federal troops there would not be used "to shoot the Citizens of Kansas." Although he indicated a need for more "men and arms" in the territory to insure victory, Giddings was "confident there will be no war in Kansas."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Free state support; Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed), 1795-1864; Kansas Nebraska Act; Pierce administration; United States. Army; United States. Congress. House


Speech, David R. Atchison to Pro-Slavery "Soldiers"
Authors: Atchison, David R.; Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: May 21, 1856
According to a note on the top of page one made later by R. J. Hinton, "this report was made for me [Hinton] by or under the direction of Lt. Gov. (Dr.) Root [Joseph Pomeroy Root, subsequently elected the state's first lieutenant governor under the Wyandotte Constitution], who was a prisoner, heard & reported the speech" made by David Atchison to the assembled proslave "Soldiers" camped two miles west of Lawrence before they marched on and sacked the town on May 21, 1856. The transcript is labeled "Hon. David R. Atchison's Speech . . ." and begins, "This is the most glorious day of my life! This day I am a border-ruffian!" Amidst "Yells" and "Cheers," Atchison rallied the "true sons of the noble South," encouraging them to "tear down their Free State Hotel" and "thow into the Kanzas their printing presses," and to bravely follow their "worthy . . . Leader, Col. [John H.] Stringfellow!"

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Beecher Bibles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free State Hotel; Free state settlers; Free state supporters; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Newspapers - Free State; Pierce administration; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Southerners; Stringfellow, John H.


Circular, Members of the Kansas Settlers Society
Authors: Walsh, Benjamin J.
Date: June 2, 1856
This circular was written by Benjamin J. Walsh to members of the Kansas Settler's Society concerning emigration to Kansas and efforts to raise needed funds to complete the trip to Kansas. A meeting of the emigrant aid society was organized in Chicago. The circular also discussed attempts to form similar groups in other states. Walsh went to Cleveland to try to organize an emigrant aid society in that location.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Chicago, Illinois; Circulars; Clark, W. Penn; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Iowa City, Iowa; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Money; Topeka Constitution; Walsh, Benjamin J.


Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Authors: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: August 10, 1856
Oscar Learnard wrote from Lawrence of his continued commitment to the "Sacked City," insisting that he would not be "bullied or frightened" by those committing outrages in Kansas Territory. He commented on the political composition of the territory and Lawrence, where he found many Douglas Democrats. Although there were some "fanatics" and "abolitionists," most residents of Lawrence were "western men" who had been driven to oppose the administration by the outrages. He insisted that the significance of the New England Emigrant Company had been exaggerated and that although more violent confrontations were likely, Kansas would eventually be free.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Douglas Democrats; Dragoons; Free State Party; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pierce administration; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.


Letter, draft of, written by Amos Lawrence for Sara Robinson
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: 1856
According to Frank W. Blackmar, who reprinted this document in the appendix of his book, The Life of Charles Robinson (1901), it was "a draft of a letter sent by Amos A. Lawrence to be re-written and signed by Mrs. Robinson and addressed to Mrs. Lawrence, [a "relative" of President Pierce and] the mother of Amos A. Lawrence. The letter," which concerns Charles Robinson's imprisonment (May 10-Sept. 10, 1856 ) in K.T., was sent by Mrs. Lawrence to Mrs. Pierce, wife of the President who gave it to the President to read."]

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Election fraud; Free state cause; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Popular sovereignty; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Treason


Quindaro Desk
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1856-1861
Walnut desk used by abolitionist Fielding Johnson in Quindaro, Kansas. The word "Quindaro" is painted on the back of the desk. The town of Quindaro was settled by anti-slavery activists. Johnson, a merchant and agent to the Delaware Indians, was known to aid fugitive slaves.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Daily life; Delaware Indians; Fugitive slaves; Furniture; House furnishings; Immigration (see Emigration and immigration); Johnson, Fielding; Merchants; Objects; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Underground railroad; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Resolution, Democratic Party
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1857
This resolution seems to be responding to the history of accusations of election fraud on the part of the proslavery voters, claiming that the recent Democratic election loss was due to the "importation of Abolitionists, many of who perjured themselves by falsely swearing that they were legal voters". Also resolved was that Governor Walker's collaboration with the Abolitionists and free soilers be rebuked, and that men from the Southern states have equal property rights with those of the North. The Democrats also documented their support for the Lecompton Constitution.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free soil; Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery support; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869


Letter, E. B. Whitman to George L. Stearns
Authors: Whitman, E. B.
Date: February 20, 1858
This rather lengthy report from Lawrence addressed many issues, especially those surrounding the Lecompton constitutional controversy. With "the Topeka Movement . . . abandoned," the question was what would take its place to resist the Lecompton Constitution if it were accepted by the Congress. The territorial legislature had formally "protested against the admission of Kansas into the Union under the Lecompton Constitution," and "the Mass of the people are determined" to resist its imposition. Whitman went on to make many other interesting observations about the political situation, regarding Democrats and Republicans and even abolitionists: "men who seek here and now, on this issue, to break the back bone of slavery forever." In addition to the political, Whitman described his "labor of distributing the clothing . . . for the relief of Kansas," and discussed in some detail the financial situation regarding the Committee, his personal debt, and Kansas relief and support to John Brown.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Buchanan administration; Constitutions; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; Lecompton Constitution; Minneola, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Fred. Douglass to My dear Friend [John Brown]
Authors: Douglass, Frederick , 1818-1895
Date: February 27, 1858
This brief letter from the prominent African American abolitionist Frederick Douglass simply sought to change a Philadelphia meeting date between Douglass and Brown from March 5 to March 10.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Douglass, Frederick, 1818-1895; Philadelpia, Pennsylvania


Letter, Henry Thompson and Ruth [Brown] Thompson to Dear Father [John Brown]
Authors: Thompson, Ruth (Brown); Thompson, Henry
Date: April 21, 1858
From their home at North Elba, New York, April 21, 1858, Henry and Ruth (Brown) Thompson wrote separate letters to "Father," John Brown. Henry Thompson assured his father-in-law that he would leave home immediately and reengage in the "enterprise" but for his obligations to his wife and three children. Ruth simply asked her father not to blame her for Henry's decision not to go with Brown: "I should like to have him go with you if I could feel that he would live to come back."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Owen, 1771-1856; Free state cause; Thompson, Henry; Thompson, Ruth (Brown)


Letter, J. W. Loguen to My Dear Friend & Bro. [John Brown?]
Authors: Loguen, Jermain Wesley
Date: May 8, 1858
Rev. J. W. Loguen, the Syracuse abolitionist and U.G.R.R. superintendant, wrote to John Brown in Canada regarding his plan to "go to the Mountains," and asked whether or not Harriet Tubman, among others, was with him.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Canada; Loguen, Jermain Wesley; Slave insurrections; Tubman, Harriett


Letter, J. [John] Kagi to Friend Adda
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: May 15, 1858
John H. Kagi, one of John Brown's most trusted lieutenants, wrote from St. Catherine, Canada, to inform his friend, albeit in "figurative" language, about the change in their plans--"all depends upon caution."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Ashtabula County, Ohio; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Canada; Kagi, John Henry


Letter, Richard Realf to Gentlemen [Geo. L. Stearns, Franklin B. Sanborn, et al.]
Authors: Realf, Richard , 1834-1878
Date: May 29, 1858
Richard Realf, a native of England and John Brown lieutenant, wrote to Stearns, et al, after the "temporary postponement of a certain enterprise," to solicit their financial backing of a fund raising trip to England that Realf proposed to undertake during the months before operations resume. He was confident that $2,000 could be raised without revealing any details of future plans.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Canada; England; Finance; Free state supporters; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Newspapers - Free State; Nute, Ephraim; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Realf, Richard , 1834-1878; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Wattles, Augustus; Whitman, E. B.


Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister, and Father"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date: September 23, 1858
From Lawrence, Kagi wrote that he had spent several weeks at Osawatomie caring for "Old B." [John Brown], who had "now quite recovered." Things were hard right then, but Kagi was confident that "better times [were] dawning" and that his reward would certainly come "in the end," since "the success of [their] great cause" was "drawing very near." "Few of my age have toiled harder or suffered more in this cause than I, and yet I regret nothing that I have done; nor am I in any discouraged at the future."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Health; Kagi, John Henry; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness); Trading Post, Kansas Territory; Wattles, Augustus


Letter, John N. Gardner to Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: Gardner, John N.
Date: January 9, 1859
This letter, written from Buffalo by John N. Gardner, is addressed to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Mr. Gardner related the tale of Mrs. H.G. Hyzen of Waitsfield, Vermont, an ardent supporter of John Brown who claimed to have a clairvoyant vision of him in his prison cell. The entire letter is a passionate piece of correspondence, speaking frequently of liberty and the "Total Annihilation of that Scourge of Humanity, Human Slavery." The letter also mentioned other abolitionists--Henry C. Wright and Mrs. Child--who wrote letters to John Brown.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Gardner, John N.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Prisoners; Prisons; Slavery; Vermont; Waitsfield, Vermont


Letter, John Vansickle to Dear Sir
Authors: Vansickle, John H.
Date: February 4, 1859
John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County responding to his recipient's previous letter. Vansickle seemed hopeful, as he saw there was a "prospect of peace" in his part of the country, and his business and crops were successful. He also commented on James Montgomery and John Brown, criticizing that they "free more horses than negros," calling them scoundrels and warning his recipient to "never vindicate thare [their] cause." Vansickle added that he would assist the recipient in coming to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Crops; Land claims; Merchants; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Vansickle, John H.; Xenia, Kansas Territory


Photograph, John Doy rescue party
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1859
On January 25, 1859, Dr. John Doy and his son Charles left Lawrence, Kansas Territory, for Nebraska with 13 slaves. They were captured when only twelve miles out of Lawrence and were taken to Weston, Missouri. The two Doys had an examination at Weston and were committed to jail at Platte City, Missouri for the crime of abducting slaves. They remained in jail until March 20, 1859. They were then taken to St. Joseph, Missouri, where Dr. Doy was tried. After this trial, his son Charles was set free. However, the first jury could not agree on a verdict for Dr. Doy, and he was tried a second time. At the second trial, he was convicted and sentenced to five years in the penitentiary. While being held in the St. Joseph jail he was freed by friends from Kansas on September 23, 1859. Two different ambrotypes showing the John Doy rescue party were digitized for the project. When you compared the images, you will find the men are standing in different positions.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abolitionists; Ambrotypes; Antislavery movements; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Firearms; Free state activities; Free state cause; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Hay, George R.; Photographs and Illustrations; Pike, Joshua A.; Senix, Jacob; Simmons, Thomas; Soule, Silas Stillman


Photograph, John Doy rescue party
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1859
On January 25, 1859, Dr. John Doy and his son Charles left Lawrence, Kansas Territory, for Nebraska with 13 slaves. They were captured when only twelve miles out of Lawrence and were taken to Weston, Missouri. The two Doys had an examination at Weston and were committed to jail at Platte City, Missouri for the crime of abducting slaves. They remained in jail until March 20, 1859. They were then moved to St. Joseph, Missouri, where Dr. Doy was tried. After this trial Charles Doy was set free. However, the first jury could not agree on a verdict for Dr. Doy, and he was tried a second time. At the second trial, he was convicted and sentenced to five years in the penitentiary. While being held in the St. Joseph jail he was freed by friends from Kansas on September 23, 1859. Two different ambrotypes showing the John Doy rescue party were digitized for the project. When you compared the images, you will find the men are standing in different positions.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abolitionists; Ambrotypes; Antislavery movements; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Doy, Charles; Doy, John; Firearms; Free state activities; Free state cause; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Hay, George R.; Photographs and Illustrations; Pike, Joshua A.; Senix, Jacob; Simmons, Thomas; Soule, Silas Stillman


Letter, William Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Authors: Leeman, William H.
Date: October 2, 1859
From "Harpers Ferry" about two weeks before the raid that took his life, William H. Leeman wrote his mother that, although he didn't want to worry her, he was "waring with Slavery the greatest Curse that ever infested America," and he fully expected the entire South to be "free" by the time they finished. He had "been Engaged [for the past three years] in a Secret Asosiation [sic] of as gallaint fellows as ever puled a trigger with the sole purpose of the Extermination of Slavery," and they were now ready and "determined to strike for Freedom Incite the Slaves to Rebelion and Establish a free government."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Leeman, William H.; Slaveholders; Slavery


Letter, "C. Whipple [A.D. Stevens] to "Jenny" [Dunbar]
Authors: Stevens, Aaron D.
Date: October 7, 1859
The last of three "love letters" written by Aaron D. Stevens, alias Charles Whipple, to a girl he apparently had only recently met but with whom he desperately desired a closer relationship was dated October 7, 1859, "near Harper's Ferry." (He had been writing for at least a month and had not received a letter from her.) Stevens rode with John Brown in Kansas, participated in the Harpers Ferry raid on October 18, 1859, and died on the Charlestown gallows in the spring of 1860.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Jayhawkers


Letter, John Brown to Hon. Thos. Russell
Authors: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: October 21, 1859
From his jail cell in Charles Town, Virginia, just days before he was to go on trial for treason, John Brown wrote seeking legal counsel for himself and fellow prisoners. Brown mentioned his wounds, but said they were "doing well," expresses special concern for "the young men prisoners," and closed "Do not send an ultra Abolitionist."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Lawyers; Russell, Thomas; Slavery


Letter, H. O. Wagoner to Wendell Phillips, Esqr.
Authors: Wagoner, Henry O.
Date: November 6, 1859
H.O. Wagoner of Chicago, who had entertained John Brown one afternoon in the fall of 1858, wrote to one of the nation's leading abolitionist supporters of Brown, Wendell Phillips of Boston, Mass., regarding the latter's "oration, delivered in Brooklyn, on the character--facts of history, and circumstances with reference to 'Capt John Brown,' that noblest of God's heroes, who struck the great blow at Harper's Ferry."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Osawatomie, Battle of; Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884; Wagoner, Henry O.


Letter, A. D. Stevens to "My Dear Friend" [Jennie Dunbar]
Authors: Stevens, Aaron D.
Date: December 3, 1859
From his jail cell at Charlestown, Virginia, Stevens wrote his love interest, Jennie (recepient information is on a handwritten copy, also in folder 10), regarding his actions and prospects ("Slavery demands that we should hang for its protection") and the fact that he regretted nothing except that he would not live to "see this Country free."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Slave power; Slavery


Letter, James Hanway to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Hanway, James
Date: December 5, 1859
In response to the Redpath/Hinton notice in the Lawrence Republican, Hanway wrote from his home in Shermansville, Franklin County, to share his story about "our friend John Brown," and he hoped their efforts would convey to all Brown's "the character" and "motives" and "place him in his true light before the world." Hanway highlights the attempted "rescue of Lawrence" in May 1856; the subsequent "'Tragedy'" on Pottawatomie Creek, about which Brown personal told Hanaway, "it was a just act, to take the lives of those 5 pro-slave ruffians"; how John Brown was a surveyor who used his profession to gather intellegence among proslavery settlers; the fact, according to Hanway, that the Doyles and others were actively engaged in efforts to run free state settlers out of the area; and specifically denies the story that Frederick Brown was "insane."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hanway, James; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Proslavery settlers; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shermansville, Kansas Territory; Slave power; Surveyors


Letter, William F. Creitz to "Col. James Redpath"
Authors: Creitz, William F.
Date: December 17, 1859
William F. Creitz of Holton, who had served under Aaron Stevens as captain of a Kansas militia company, wrote Redpath regarding "the particulars of 'Old John Brown's' final departure from this territory." Brown and company, which included "eleven fugitives," reached Holton on January 27, 1859, and Creitz described the events that followed, to which he was an "eyewitness" and participant, including the Battle of the Spurs. Creitz's "article" was prepared "to assist you [Redpath] in your praiseworthy undertaking that of publishing the lives of those heroic men." Redpath published "Echoes of Harper's Ferry" in 1860, and Richard J. Hinton used this material in his "John Brown and His Men (1894).

Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Battles; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Fugitive Slave Law; Fugitive slaves; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Holton, Kansas Territory; Jackson County, Kansas Territory (see also Calhoun County, Kansas Territory); Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Militia; Nebraska Territory; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Slave power; Spurs, Battle of the; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka, Kansas Territory; Underground railroad; United States marshals


Letter, John E. Stewart to My Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Authors: Stewart, John E.
Date: December 20, 1859
John E. Stewart wrote from Wakarusa, Kansas to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, describing his work on the underground railroad. This letter detailed the inclement weather and difficulties he encountered as he helped slaves to escape from Missouri, as well as his procedure for locating the slaves and hiding them in his wagon. Stewart sought to gain assistance from Hyatt, mainly in the form of provisions and horses. He also needed advice about what to do with the escaped slaves to ensure that they were not captured and sold again into slavery.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Fugitive slaves; Guns; Horses; Iowa; Missouri; Nebraska Territory; Relief; Slaves; Stewart, John E.; Underground railroad; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, Wm. Keller to Sir Mr. [Thomas H. ?] Webb
Authors: Keller, William
Date: December 20, 1859
From Cottonwood Falls, Kansas Territory, on December 20, 1859, William Keller wrote to Thomas H. Webb (Boston, New England Emigrant Aid Co.) regarding the events leading up to (Missouri raid in late December) and including the so-called Battle of the Spurs, January 31, 1859, involving "old John Brown," some of his men, and eleven fugitive slaves.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Battles; Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cottonwood Falls, Kansas Territory; Fugitive slaves; Keller, William; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Slaves; Spurs, Battle of the; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka Academy; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866; Whipple, Charles (see also Stevens, Aaron)


Letter, C. G. Allen to Redpath and Hinton
Authors: Allen, C. G.
Date: December 1859
Allen, a "minister of the Gospel" at Cottonwood Falls, K.T., wrote in response to the Redpath/Hinton call for "anecdotes & reminiscences" concerning "the brave & philanthropic [John] Brown," who the preacher first met in Lawrence in 1856. Allen left Lawrence when a call came for volunteers to aid in the defense of Osawatomie in August of that year and while there engaged saw his first "Border Ruffians," who he described as "miserable specimens of humanity. They were ragged & dirty. Their cloths & faces were to a considerable extent covered with tobacco spit." Allen and the men he was with actually missed the Battle of Osawatomie by moving south before the attack in an effort to find the attackers before they reached the town.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Stanton, Kansas Territory


Letter, Salmon Brown to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Brown, Salmon
Date: January 10, 1860
From North Elba, New York, Salmon Brown wrote R. J. Hinton briefly regarding his father role in the Pottawatomie Creek killings of May 24, 1856. Reportedly, Gov. Charles Robinson had told James Redpath that John Brown had confessed to him that "he helped kill the Doyles" but "if Gov. R said so he lies." Brown would not have confided in Robinson, since he had not "put any confidence in Robinson after that Lawrence treaty" (ending Wakarusa War in December 1855). Salmon doesn't answer the question, but portrays the killing of "those spies" as the heoric "first blow with the sword against Slavery in this county" and insists that "they were life preservers and they saved Kansas."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Salmon; Free state cause; Hinton, Richard Josiah; North Elba, New York; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855


Letter, Harrison Anderson to R. J. Hinton
Authors: Anderson, Harrison
Date: January 27, 1860
The elder brother of Harpers Ferry raider Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote Hinton to provide information on his brothers activities in Kansas Territory, beginning in "June or July 1857," when he settle in norther Bourbon County. J.G. Anderson was actively engaged in free-state activities in southern Kansas, including efforts to defy the bogus authority through the establishment of what was called a "Squaters court." (According to a January 29, 1860, letter--also in this folder--from another brother, John Q. Anderson of Eddyville, Iowa, brother Harrison was still living in at Little Osage, KT, and he had "frequently entertained" John Brown.)

Keywords: Abolitionists; Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Proslavery activities; Squatters


Letter, John Ritchey to My Dear Friend [A. D.] Stevens
Authors: Ritchie, John , 1817-1887
Date: March 6, 1860
From Franklin, Indiana, on March 6, 1860, John Ritchey wrote to Aaron Steven, one of the Harpers Ferry raiders still awaiting execution in Virginia, that it "it is gratafying to me, to find you, so willing to meet your sentence."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery perspective; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Slavery; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Stowe, Harriet Beecher; Uncle Tom's Cabin


Letter, C. Robinson to "Dear Madam" [Emma Willard]
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date: March 30, 1860
In response to Willard's letter of March 22, Robinson wrote from Quindaro that he was "gratified" to learn of her interest in Kansas history and that she was "disposed to examine for yourself the random thrusts of the press." Robinson went on to make some interesting observations regarding his interpretation of Kansas events and the importance of the various factions, free state and proslavery.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Free state cause; Kansas question; Law and Order Party; Lecompton Constitution; Millard, Emma; Proslavery; Proslavery supporters; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894


Letter, L. Maria Child to Dear Mrs. [Mary] Brown
Authors: Child, Lydia Maria Francis , 1802-1880
Date: December 2, 1860
One year after the execution of John Brown, on December 2, 1860, Mrs. Child wrote the Brown's widow, Mary Brown, regarding the impact her husband's actions and commitment to the cause had had on the country and efforts for "emancipation." She also sent along "a trifle" to help support the Brown family financially.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Slavery


Tintype of African American woman
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 1860
Tintype of unidentified African American woman, circa 1860. This photo was passed down through generations of the Platt family. Jireh Platt was an active abolitionist in Mendon, Illinois. His sons Enoch and Luther, members of the Beecher Bible and Rifle Colony, settled in Wabaunsee County where they operated a station on the Underground Railroad. The Platts may have helped this woman escape to freedom. The fact that she is wearing a wedding ring is significant, as slaves weren't legally allowed to marry.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Beecher Bible and Rifle Colony; Fugitive slaves; New Haven, Connecticut; Objects; Photographs and Illustrations; Platt, Enoch; Platt, Jireh; Platt, Luther H.; Underground railroad; Wabaunsee County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin Parrott]
Authors: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: January 26, 1861
Marcus Parrott wrote from Washington, D.C. to his brother, Edwin Parrott, in Ohio. Marcus began his letter berating his brother for his inconsistent correspondence; he himself, though very busy, managed to write Edwin regularly. Marcus also voiced his frustration with Congress, declaring this to be his last week as a Delegate, and predicted that both Republicans' and Democrats' stubbornness would cause the country to permanently divide. Kansas would become a state on January 29, only three days later.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Blair, Frank; Brown, Thomas; Democratic Party (U.S.); National politics; Ohio; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Secession; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.


Photograph, Frederick Douglass
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: Between 1878 and 1880
Portrait of Frederick Douglass, an African-American leader in the abolitionist movement, speaker, and author.

Keywords: Abolitionists; African Americans; Cartes de visite; Douglass, Frederick, 1818-1895; Photographs and Illustrations


Letter, Wendell Phillips to Dear Friend [Mary Brown]
Authors: Phillips, Wendell
Date: February 25. Year not identified.
It would appear that abolitionist Wendell Phillips wrote this letter to the widow of John Brown shortly after Brown's December 1859 execution to convey to her some financial support--specifically, a $200 bank draft. Phillips mentioned Annie, one of the Brown daughters, and closed with, "What ripe fruit your noble husband's devotion is producing."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884; Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884


Photograph, Thaddeus Hyatt
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Thaddeus Hyatt was an abolitionist and served as head of the National Kansas Committee in 1856. He was also involved in efforts to provide relief to settlers in 1860.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Free state supporters; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; Photographs and Illustrations; Relief


Photograph, Thomas Wentworth Higginson
Authors: Notman Photo Co.
Date: 
Thomas Wentworth Higginson was an ardent Northern abolitionist. He also served as an agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, procuring rifles, powder, cartridges and other materials for free state settlers in Kansas. He was from Worcester, Massachusetts, but he made a trip to Kansas in 1856.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Free state supporters; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Massachusetts; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, Gerrit Smith
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Gerrit Smith was an ardent abolitionist from New York state. He supported the anti-slavery cause in Kansas and was a supporter of John Brown, helping to fund the raid on Harper's Ferry in 1859.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cartes de visite; New York; Photographs and Illustrations; Smith, Gerritt


Photograph, Augustus Wattles
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Augustus Wattles was an abolitionist who came to Kansas from Ohio in 1855. For a time he helped George Washington Brown publish the Herald of Freedom in Lawrence. In 1857, he was one of the founders of Moneka, Linn County, Kansas Territory. He was a supporter of John Brown and Brown stayed at his home several times after the Marais des Cygnes massacre. Wattles served in the territorial legislature in 1855.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Wattles, Augustus


Photograph, Charles Sumner
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
Charles Sumner served in the United State Senate from Massachusetts during the Kansas territorial era. He was an outspoken abolitionist and helped the Free-Soil party in 1848. He was opposed to the Fugitive Slave Law and the Kansas Nebraska Act. After making his well known speech "The Crime Against Kansas" on May 20, 1856, he was assaulted (caned) by Preston Brooks, a Representative from South Carolina. He was unable to return to his Senate duties until December, 1859.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Cartes de visite; Massachusetts; Photographs and Illustrations; Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; United States. Senate


Photograph, Jason Brown
Authors: Leonard & Martin, artists
Date: 
Jason Brown was one of John Brown's sons. He came to Kansas in February 1855 along with his brothers John Jr, Owen, Salmon, and Frederick and settled near Osawatomie. He was involved in numerous free state activities. This image is from later in his life.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cabinet photographs; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations


Photograph, John Brown, Jr.
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Brown, Jr. was one of John Brown's sons. He came to Kansas in February 1855 along with his brothers Jason, Owen, Salmon, and Frederick and settled near Osawatomie. He was involved in numerous free state activities and, for a time, was one of the free state prisoners held near Lecompton. He also served as the commander of a free state militia company.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state supporters; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Tintypes


Photograph, John Otis Wattles
Authors: No authors specified.
Date: 
John Otis Wattles was one of the founders of Moneka, Linn County, Kansas Territory in 1857. He was a promoter of the town and was a member of the Moneka Woman's Rights Association. He was also an abolitionist. He was involved in promoting a railroad that would run from Jefferson City, Missouri, to Emporia, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Moneka Womans Rights Association; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Town promotion; Wattles, J. O.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

The current URL is http://www.territorialkansasonline.org/~imlskto/cgi-bin/index.php?SCREEN=keyword&selected_keyword=Abolition
ists&sort_by=true&submit=Go&allresults=1.
This file was last modified September 12 2013 04:09:26 PM.