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National Debate About Kansas

National Debate About Kansas > Issues and Ideas > Anti-slavery perspective
80 Topic Specific Items
Blank Certificate to acknowledge donations to the Free State Kansas Fund
Author: Free State Kansas Fund
Date: unknown

This blank certificate was to be used to acknowledge contributions to be used for the relief of "Free State Citizens" and for the "establishment of FREEDOM" in Kansas Territory. It had three lithographs and quotes from the constitution and the Missouri Compromise. It was printed in Albany, New York.

Keywords: Certificates; Free State Kansas Fund; Free state cause; Free state support; New York; Relief

Photograph, Samuel Lyle Adair family
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1849

Portrait of Samuel Lyle Adair, Charles Storrs Adair, Florella Brown Adair, and Emma Florilla Adair. The family settled near Osawatomie, Kansas Territory, where Adair was a minister and free state supporter. His wife was a half sister to John Brown and he occasionally stayed with the Adairs. The family was involved in various free state and relief activities.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Children; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Religion

Letter, T. H. Cunningham to [Edward Everett] Hale
Author: Cunningham, T. H.
Date: June 16, 1854

Cunningham, writing from Boston, Massachusetts, offered his opinion to Edward Everett Hale on the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company. Cunningham wrote of his doubts about the potential success of the company and expressed strong opposition to abolitionism.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Cunningham, T. H.; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company

Letter, Samuel C. Pomeroy to Sir [likely Edward Everett Hale]
Author: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: July 27, 1854

Pomeroy, writing from Southhampton, Massachusetts, indicated his desire to go to Kansas to explore business possibilities and to keep slavery from gaining a foothold in the territory. Pomeroy, who likely was writing to Edward Everett Hale, expressed interest in assisting with the work of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Business; Economic development; Massachusetts; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Mills and mill-work; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Water-power

Letter, [anonymous/unsigned] to General Samuel C. Pomeroy
Author: No authors specified.
Date: May 14, 1855

The author of this length epistle, chose not to sign his name but offered his observations about Kansas affairs "which may or may not be of service to you." In essence the correspondent offers a free staters perspective--not an abolitionist one--on the "modus operandi" of the pro-slave party for KT. Slavery, or the slave system, meant "despotism" to this individual, and he believed "pro slavery men will use every means" to control the territory, which would soon go to free state "if the contest were a fair and even one." It was critical that Americans elect a president in 1856 who would "do right, a man who loves the Union the whole Union as it is . . . ."

Keywords: Despotism; Election, Presidential, 1856; Free state; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Proslavery; Slave power

Letter, S. H. W. to Dear Bro Isaac [Goodnow]
Author: No authors specified.
Date: June 15, 1855

S. H. W. wrote from New England to Isaac Goodnow in Kansas Territory, reporting on the proceedings of the Philadelphia National Kansas Nebraska Convention, an organization that he described as "Pro Slavery to the Back Bone!". He implored that New Englanders of Kansas have "Back Bone", and fight against slavery. The author further narrated "the north is uniting. The plot thickens, and the struggle comes", and disparaged President Pierce's administration, hoping for an anti-slavery one in the future. The letter includes a short note from Mrs. S. H. W., which exclaimed at Ellen Goodnow's traveling to Kansas alone.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; National politics; Pierce administration; Proslavery supporters; Women

Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Mr. Jas B. Abbott
Author: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: August 20, 1855

Amos A. Lawrence wrote from Boston to James Abbott in Hartford, Connecticut, referring to a recent shipment of carbine rifles he had sent, which was "far from being enough." Lawrence advised Abbott to take good care of them, as they might be used as reimbursement to those investors who had subscribed money to the free state cause once "it is settled that Kanzas shall not be a province of Missouri."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state militia; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Missourians; Sharps rifles

Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Author: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: August 24, 1855

Amos A. Lawrence wrote from Boston to James Abbott in Hartford, Connecticut, wanting to confirm his receipt of a shipment of rifles. Lawrence advised Abbott that at least half of them should be redistributed to free state forces in Topeka.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Sharps rifles; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [T. W. Higginson]
Author: Robinson, Charles
Date: August 27, 1855

This letter, written by free state governor Charles Robinson, was sent to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist. Robinson discussed in rather general terms the troubles facing Kansas, stating that he believed this struggle did not only involve Kansas, "but I regard it as one in which the whole nation is involved." Robinson also expressed doubts that the North would support the free state settlers in the territory, writing that they can only "hope" for reinforcements, not take them for granted. He asked Higginson to stir up Northerners against the bogus legislature, and made mention of ex-Governor Reeder and opposition to the bogus legislature. In general, this letter eloquently demonstrates the passion of this free state leader and his dedication to the cause of liberty.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Bogus legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state legislature; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Shawnee Manual Labor School

Invitation, presentation by James Abbott
Author: No authors specified.
Date: September 5, 1855

This printed invitation announced the New York visit of Kansas Territory's James Abbott and his appointment to speak about "the Triumph of Freedom over Slavery in that vicinity" to interested citizens of New York.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Balrock, Paul; Conkling, F.A.; Free state cause; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; King, Charles; Nash, Alanson; Speeches, addresses, etc.; Williams, John E.

Letter, Seth Padleford to Jas. B. Abbott
Author: Padelford, Seth
Date: September 15, 1855

Seth Padelford wrote from Providence, Rhode Island, to James Abbot in Hartford, Conneticut. Padelford confirmed receipt of Abbott's telegraph the day before, and sent him a check for $100 in support of his cause.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Finance; Free state cause; Telegraph

Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Author: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: September 17, 1855

Frederick Law Olmstead, a free state fundraiser and landscape architect who would later design New York City's Central Park, wrote from New York to James Abbott, reporting of his recent fundraising efforts. Within a week, he hoped to raise enough money to purchase "100 _____", believing it wise not to mention in writing that the objects purchased would be weapons to equip free state militias.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Militia; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, Mark Howard to Jas. B. Abbott Esq
Author: Howard, Mark
Date: September 21, 1855

Mark Howard wrote from Hartford, Connecticut, to James Abbott. Howard enclosed with his letter a check and asked him"to expence this am't in such a manner as will procure the greatest quantity of arms and necessary munition." He and his local "Committee" were pleased to support Abbott, as a "determined friend of right and freedom."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Finance; Free state cause; Weapons (see also Guns)

Kansas A Free State. Squatter Sovereignty Vindicated! No White Slavery!
Author: No authors specified.
Date: September 24, 1855

Broadside advertising a series of mass meetings in support of the free state cause, with Charles Robinson as the speaker. The original is on display in the Kansas Museum of History, Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state cause; Goodin, Joel Kishler; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Speer, John, 1817-1906; Squatter sovereignty; Stewart, John E.

Letter, C. [Charles] Robinson to A. A. Lawrence
Author: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 28, 1855

Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Amos A. Lawrence, expressed his optimism about the prospects of Kansas entering the union as a free state within one year. Robinson also informed Lawrence that he had drawn upon him for $1000 to cover New England Emigrant Aid Company expenses.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Indian floats; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Author: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: October 4, 1855

Frederick Law Olmstead, a New York free state fundraiser and landscape architect, wrote to James Abbott, informing him of his recent trouble securing contributions enough to purchase substantial weapons. Olmstead repeated to Abbott advice he had received from a veteran military officer, who suggested that "M's" [muskets] would serve the militia forces well enough for general use, with "S's" [Sharp's rifles] reserved for "special service". Thus, Olmstead concluded he would either send Abbott "M's" or an "H" [howitzer, a type of cannon].

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state supporters; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, unsigned [F. L. Olmsted] to My Dear Sir [James Abbott]
Author: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: October 7, 1855

Frederick Law Olmstead, a New York free state fundraiser and landscape architect, wrote to James Abbott. Olmstead reported to him that he had ordered "the instrument" [howitzer cannon], which would be ready to ship in three days time along with its ammunition accessories, excepting powder. He would send instructions for its use separately, so that it may be used to "best effect", which he approximated as "equally effective with a simultaneous fire of 100 muskets" and "worth a dozen field pieces."

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, Robert Allyn to Bro. & Sis. Goodnow [Isaac and Ellen Goodnow]
Author: Allyn, Robert
Date: October 11, 1855

Robert Allyn wrote from Providence, Rhode Island, to his friends Isaac and Ellen Goodnow in Kansas Territory. Allyn, like Goodnow an educator, updated the couple on the construction of a new local Academy. He also reacted to news he had heard of political conditions in K.T., having found that "the papers are full of dreadful things about you horrid abolitionists in Kanzas", and asking him, "How do you contrive to live under the Missouri laws?" Showing himself to be a staunch Abolitionist as well, Allyn provides his own strong opinions and insights regarding the Kansas troubles. Allyn also advised that "getting up a few. . .free schools" would prompt a great rush of emigration from the Northern States to the Territory

Keywords: Abolitionists; Allyn, Robert; Antislavery; Education; Free state supporters; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Missourians; National politics; Newspapers; Pierce administration

Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to James Burnett Abbott, Esq.
Author: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: October 24, 1855

Frederick Law Olmstead wrote a short note from New York to James Abbott in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, confirming the shipment of the howitzer and its accessories. It was sent in five separate cases, so as to not arouse suspicion, and was directed to St. Louis the under the name B. Slater.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Free state cause; Free state militia; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, W. A. Gorman to Speaker of the House of Reps [Minnesota Territory]
Author: Phillips, Wendell
Date: February 18, 1856

In response to a January 22, 1856, appeal from free-state leaders in Kansas, the governor of Minnesota Territory, Willis A. Gorman (St. Paul, February 18, 1856), conveyed the appeal to his territory's House of Representatives and encouraged Minnesota officials to follow a policy of "Non intervention." Governor Gorman refused to recognize Lane and Robinson as "officers in the Territory of Kansas, under any authority of the laws of the United States or of that Territory."

Keywords: Border ruffians; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Gorman, Willis A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Minnesota; Missouri; Popular sovereignty; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)

Letters, J. C. Palmer to A. A. Lawrence, A. A. L. to Capt. J. B. Abbott
Author: Lawrence, Amos Adams; Palmer, J.C.
Date: February 1856

Amos A. Lawrence "forwarded" a message he had received from J. C. Palmer of Sharps' Rifle Manufacturing Company to James Abbott in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Palmer's note to Lawrence assured the correct quantity and quality of merchandise would be sent to Kansas Territory. Lawrence displays an interesting criticism of Palmer and the Sharps' Company in the letter forwarded to Abbott: he added a tag to Palmer's own signature "J. C. Palmer Pres[ident]", which read, "of a corporation that has no soul." Lawrence went on to implore to Abbott that he work cooperatively with Colonel E. V. Sumner against all disturbances of the peace, not just those originating with proslavery men. He cautioned that "no circumstances can authorize opposition to the U. S. Gov't even to the meanest of its representations."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Free state cause; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Palmer, J.C.; Sharps rifles; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912

Letter, Platt Potter to C. P. Williams, H. H. Van Dyck, B. R. Wood, Deodalus Wright
Author: No authors specified.
Date: March 12, 1856

Potter, writing from Schenectedy, New York, expressed his antislavery opinions to members of the New York State Kansas Committee. He was critical of the Franklin Pierce administration's handling of the Kansas issue. Potter believed that antislavery settlers in Kansas should defend themselves against proslavery violence in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; New York State Kansas Committee; Potter, Platt; Schenectedy, New York; Sharps rifles

Letter, J. R. Giddings to My Dear Sir [John Brown]
Author: Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed) , 1795-1864
Date: March 17, 1856

Congressman Joshua R. Giddings an abolitionist Republican from Ohio and good friend of the Brown family there, wrote from the U.S. "Hall of Reps" regarding his desire to provide support for Brown and his cause in Kansas and of his belief that the federal troops there would not be used "to shoot the Citizens of Kansas." Although he indicated a need for more "men and arms" in the territory to insure victory, Giddings was "confident there will be no war in Kansas."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Free state support; Giddings, Joshua R. (Joshua Reed), 1795-1864; Kansas Nebraska Act; Pierce administration; United States. Army; United States. Congress. House

Letter, Jonathan Finch to Mr. [William] Barnes
Author: No authors specified.
Date: April 2, 1856

Finch, writing from Coveville, New York, to William Barnes, secretary of the New York Kansas Committee, expressed his desire to settle in Kansas to take part in the "struggle for Liberty." Finch indicated that participation in the antislavery cause was his primary reason for his interest in emigrating to Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Coveville, New York; Emigration and immigration; Finch, Jonathan; Migration, internal

Resolutions, State of Maine
Author: Maine. House of Representatives; Maine. Senate
Date: April 23, 1856

The full title of this document was "State of Maine Resolves relating to the extension of slavery, the territory of Kansas, and secret political associations." The state legislature of Maine issued this statement listing their five resolutions about the state of affairs in Kansas Territory. The state legislature was against the expansion of slavery and they wanted the fate of Kansas Territory to be decided by the people living in the territory, without outside interference from hostile political organizations. The document was signed by Josiah S. Little of Maine's House of Representatives, Lot. M. Morrill of the Senate, and Samuel Wells of the Secretary's Office. Caleb Ayer certified that this copy of the original document was fully accurate.

Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Maine; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas)

Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Wm. Barnes
Author: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: June 14, 1856

Thomas Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, wrote from Boston to encourage the New York State Kansas Committee to continue its efforts to support the free state cause in Kansas. Webb expressed his opinion that all Northerners and Westerners needed to join together to defeat proslavery supporters in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Boston, Massachusetts; Free state support; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New York State Kansas Committee; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to S. N. Simpson
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: June 17, 1856

Hiram Hill wrote from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts to Samuel Simpson in Kansas Territory, responding to the news of recent violence there. Hill reported that the public was excited over the Kansas troubles and the Kansas question in Congress. Hill demonstrated his resolve in supporting the free state cause, stating that "Slavery has got us so close in her embrase [sic] that it will take a mighty struggle to throw her off if we cannot change our government in no other way than by Revolution I don't care how soon it comes". He also responded to Simpson's reports regarding the construction of his home in KT, trouble with delinquent tenants, and the market for land sales.

Keywords: Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National politics; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town lots; Whitney, Thaddeus L.

Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Wm. Barnes
Author: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: June 18, 1856

Thomas Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote from Boston to inform Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, that the New England company would send a delegation to a Kansas aid convention to be held in Cleveland. Webb also commented on the strong reaction of Boston residents to recent events in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Boston, Massachusetts; Free state support; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New York State Kansas Committee; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to Charles Wright
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: June 18, 1856

Hiram Hill wrote from Williamsburg, Massachusetts, to Charles Wright in Kansas Territory. Hill expressed disbelief at the reports of violence and destruction that crossed his ears, but accepted them to be true based on his experiences in Missouri the previous winter. To Hill, it appeared that they would have to "take the field to Regain our Liberties that have been struck down". He also referred to actions of the National Republican Convention in Philadelphia (which named John Fremont as their presidential candidate) and dubbed the nomination "their only hope -- short of a Bloody Revolution".

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Frederick; Dow, Charles W.; Hill, Hiram; Kansas Territory; Law and Order Party; Skirmishing; Violent deaths; Wright, Charles A.

Letter, Marian S. Hand to Dear Bro & Sister, [Samuel and Florella Adair] note added by T. W. Hand
Author: Hand, Marian S.
Date: July 7, 1856

Marian Brown Hand, Rawsonville, Ohio, wrote her sister Florella Adair and brother-in-law Samuel Adair inquiring about events in Kansas and John Brown and his sons. She said the Kansas Aid Societies and Ladies Aid Societies were forming to help families that suffered in Kansas Territory. Her husband added to the end of the letter discussing politics. He felt that Fremont would be elected President and that would insure freedom in Kansas and the North.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Antislavery perspective; Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Hand, Marian S.; Hand, T. W.; Ohio; Rawsonville, Ohio; Relief; Women

Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to S. N. Simpson
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: July 12, 1856

Hiram Hill wrote from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to Samuel Simpson in Kansas Territory, suggesting to him at length that he write more slowly and clearly as Hill was having trouble deciphering his news regarding West Lawrence. Hill told Simpson that the people of his area were aroused enough by the continuing accounts of border ruffian violence that they called a meeting and raised $300 for Kansas. He believed that the future of the situation rested with the upcoming presidential election, "free Kansas free speech & free press & Fremont", to keep Congress from passing a "Compromises" bill with slavery.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Free state supporters; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Hill, Hiram; Kansas Territory; National politics; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Skirmishing

Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to S. G. How
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: July 26, 1856

Hiram Hill wrote from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to S. G. How, of the "Kansas Committee for Receiving and Dispersing" funds. Hill inquired how and in what manner any money sent to Kansas would be applied: "I have some money in my hand and we can rais [sic] more if we can have any prospect of its getting to Kansas and doing any good".

Keywords: Free state supporters; Hill, Hiram; Kansas Territory; Money; National politics

Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Dear Sir [Hiram Hill]
Author: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: July 31, 1856

Thomas Webb, Secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, wrote from Boston to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. Webb advised him on the best way to send monetary aid to Kansas, which would take the form of a Letter of Credit and would keep the enemy from obtaining the money even if the Letter were captured. In another alternative, Webb also offered to purchase with Hill's money actual supplies to be shipped out to Kansas.

Keywords: Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Money; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Address of the Central County Kansas Committee to the People of the county of Onondaga
Author: Hebbard, Russell
Date: August 7, 1856

The inflamatory rhetoric of this printed circular provided an antislavery perspective of events in Kansas. It urged the residents of central New York to provide aid to Kansas settlers. It also described plans to encourage a "a large emigration into the territory" to aid free state supporters living there but to also increase the number of "legal voters" for the fall elections. The chairman of the Central County Kansas Committee was Russell Hebbard. The document listed the names of other officers and committee members.

Keywords: Antislavery; Border ruffians; Election fraud; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hebbard, Russell; Missouri compromise; New York; New York State Kansas Committee; Syracuse, New York

Letter, Samuel Whitcomb to Respected & Dear Sir [Honorable G. Smith]
Author: Whitcomb, Samuel
Date: August 30, 1856

This letter, written in Springfield by Samuel Whitcomb, is addressed to the Honorable G. Smith of Peterborg, New York. It is a passionate piece of correspondence that discusses slavery and liberty, demonstrating the conviction of this free-soil advocate. Whitcomb also expressed his frustration that the federal government was not more supportive of the free state cause in Kansas Territory, as well as his fear that the war was destined to spread out from Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Congress (See United States. Congress); Free state cause; National politics; Pierce administration; Sectionalism (United States); United States Government; United States. Army; United States. Congress; Whitcomb, Samuel

Letter, [unknown] to Hiram Hill
Author: No authors specified.
Date: September 8, 1856

An unknown author, referring to himself as one in a group of "missionaries. . .of constitutional heathens", wrote to Hiram Hill regarding his experiences "on the march" after the Battle of Franklin at the beginning of June. He described the movements and dispersal of the enemy forces. The author also told Hill that he and his men "would do the fighting you must do the fueling we can get all the provisions we want if we can have money", and said that Massachusetts was doing more to help them than all the other free states combined. The author purposefully did not sign his name to this letter.

Keywords: Battles; Franklin, Battle of; Free state activities; Free state cause; Hill, Hiram; Massachusetts; Money

Letter, Thomas H. Webb to Wm. Barnes
Author: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: September 9, 1856

Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to William Barnes of Albany, New York. Webb lamented the difficulties experienced by free state supporters in Kansas and described efforts to convince the Massachusetts state government to provide aid to the free state settlers. He urged Barnes to launch a similar effort in New York.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Emigrant aid companies; Massachusetts; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Letter, Saml. F. Lyman to Dear Sir [Hiram Hill]
Author: Lyman, Samuel F.
Date: September 11, 1856

Samuel F. Lyman wrote from Northampton, Massachusetts, to Hiram Hill, also in Massachusetts. Lyman requested Hill's presence at a fundraising meeting at the Fremont Headquarters. Lyman wished "to raise a large sum in the shortest possible time" in order to purchase and transport supplies to free state supporters in Kansas Territory before roads and transportation might be restricted on account of the fighting.

Keywords: Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Lyman, Samuel F.; Massachusetts; Money

Letter, Thomas M. Webb to Friend [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Author: Webb, Thomas H. (Hopkins), 1801-1866
Date: September 24, 1856

In this letter, written in Boston, Massachusetts by Thomas Webb, the author stated his concerns about the outcome of the situation in Kansas. He did applaud the efforts of free state settlers to ensure the existence of liberty; however, he felt that not enough New Englanders were serious about keeping slavery out of Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Emigrant aid companies; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; New York; Relief; Sectionalism (United States)

Letter, R. P. Bourn to Dear Sir [Franklin Crane]
Author: Bourn, R. P.
Date: October 18, 1856

R. P. Bourn, writing from Nicholasville, Kentucky, addressed this letter to Franklin Crane of Topeka. Bourn discussed politics both in Kansas and at the national level, including the Presidential election of 1860. He made his anti slavery beliefs clear.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Slavery

Letter, J. [Jeremiah] R. Brown to Brother and Sister Adair [Samuel and Florella]
Author: Brown, Jeremiah Root
Date: November 1, 1856

Jeremiah Brown wrote from Hudson, Ohio, to the Adairs in Osawatomie. He had been raising funds to send to Kansas and mentioned other efforts to aid people in Kansas Territory. He wrote about helping various Brown family members. He also wrote about his concerns about the "aggression of the slave power."

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, Jason; Brown, Jeremiah; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Hudson, Ohio; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Ohio; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief funds; Slave power

Letter, H. B. Hurd to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Author: Hurd, H. B.
Date: November 14, 1856

H. B. Hurd was secretary of the National Kansas Committee, and he wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson from the committee's office in Chicago. The main focus of the letter revolves around Higginson's plan of operation to garner support from free state governors. Hurd offered advice about which governors to approach first, also stating his opinion on various related matters. Included in the letter was another sheet, outlining Higginson's "Points to be suggested to the Executives of the States." The back of this sheet has some other notes and doodling.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Conway, Martin Franklin; Free state cause; Free state supporters; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hurd, H. B.; National Kansas Committee; National politics; United States Government

Letter, C. K. Holliday to My Dear Dr. [Franklin Crane]
Author: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: November 14, 1856

The letter, written by Cyrus Holliday from Meadville, Pennsylvania, discusses the results of the 1856 Presidential election and its anticipated impact on the Kansas issue. Holliday describes to Franklin Crane, a prominent Topeka doctor, a meeting in Boston where he was encouraged to make Kansas a free state. Many of those present at the meeting were influential figures in emigrant aid companies. The letter also discusses efforts to make Nicaragua a slave state in order to achieve a compromise with the South. In addition, Holliday mentions making speeches on behalf of John C. Fremont and Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Election, Presidential, 1856; Emigrant aid companies; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Slavery

Letter, B. Darrach to Rev. S. L. Adair
Author: Darrach, Barstow
Date: November 27, 1856

Dr. Darrach had returned to New York Hospital after being in Kansas. He wrote that he felt the prospects for Kansas are not very favorable. He was concerned that some do not want a "revolution" to result or that Buchanan will not support "freedom," He felt it would take a large emigration of settlers to Kansas to make it a free state. He was sending clothing, cloth and blankets.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Darrach, Barstow; Free state perspective; New York; Relief

Letter, G. S. Lewis to Bro. [Samuel] Adair
Author: Lewis, G. S.
Date: December 12, 1856

Mr. Lewis was a friend of Samuel Adair and wrote to him from Albany, Athens Co., Ohio. Mr. Lewis was concerned about the safety of the Adair family and commented on the trials they must be suffering. He commented on the bravery of Charley, the Adair's son who helped warn Osawatomie of the coming of proslavery forces prior to the Battle of Osawatomie. Mr. Lewis commented on John Brown, Gov. Geary, John Freemont, and the political situation in Kansas and nationally. He also reported on rumors of slave insurrections in Kentucky and Tennessee.

Keywords: Adair, Charles; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Albany, Ohio; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lewis, G. S.; Ohio; Osawatomie, Battle of; Proslavery activities; Slave insurrections

Speech, The Progress of Tyranny
Author: Martin, John A., 1839-1889
Date: December 10, 1856

This "essay," presumably by John Alexander Martin, was "Read before the 'Franklin Literary Institute,' of Brownsville [Pennsylvania], Dec. 10th 1856," about a year before Martin moved to Kansas Territory. It was an interesting statement of the young journalist's emerging philosophy on many of the troubling questions of the day, including a discussion of their historical context. According to the "essayist," America's early opponents of "tyrany," both Northern and Southern, "looked forward to the day when it [slavery] would be abolished," and he pointed to the Constitutions and the Ordinance of 1787 as proof "that the founders of the Republic, in all their acts, strove to circumscribe the limits of slavery, and extend the area of Freedom." Subsequent generations of Americans placed greater emphasis on the economic value of slave production and the current generation was aggressively advocating its expansion and taking whatever action was necessary to insure the institution's survival and continue "the march of tyrany."

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Crime Against Kansas; Election, Presidential, 1856; Fugitive Slave Law; Kansas Nebraska Act; Martin, John A., 1839-1889; Missouri compromise; Ordinance of 1787 (see United States. Ordinance of 1787); Slave power; Slavery; Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; United States. Ordinance of 1787

Letter, B. Darrach to Rev. S. L. Adair
Author: Darrach, Barstow
Date: December 17, 1856

Doctor B. Darrach wrote from the New York Hospital and commented on published reports that imply that prospects for Kansas becoming a free state are improving. Darrach shared his thoughts on Republicans and Democrats at the national level and also on reactions of southerners. Darrach also described his personal plans that will prevent him from returning to Kansas.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Darrach, Barstow; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state perspective; New York; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Southerners

Pamphlet, Defence of Kansas
Author: Beecher, Henry Ward
Date: 1856

This pamphlet, written by an impassioned Henry Ward Beecher, spoke vehemently against permitting slavery in Kansas Territory. Beecher excerpted the "Act to punish offenses against slave property", written by the first session of the Territorial Legislature, to the free state supporter the "Bogus Legislature", citing the Act as among " the laws of armed scoundrels".

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Beecher, Henry Ward; Bogus legislature; Free state support; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Popular sovereignty; Violence

Letter, B. Darrach to Rev. S. L. Adair
Author: Darrach, Barstow
Date: January 8, 1857

Darrach at New York Hospital commented on events at the national level and the prospect of little support for the free state cause from Congress or the President. He reported that John Brown was in New York speaking about Kansas and trying to raise some funds and other support.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Darrach, Barstow; Free state perspective; National politics; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869

Letter, Fred. Law Olmsted to [Edward Everett] Hale
Author: Olmsted, Frederick Law
Date: January 10, 1857

Frederick Law Olmsted, travel writer and landscape architect, wrote from New York City to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Olmsted commented that he had heard rumors that the more zealous antislavery supporters in Kansas were targeting west Texas as the focus of future free soil activity. Olmsted, in an expression of free soil and free labor ideology, expressed his support for such a plan. He declared that surrounding the slave states with free territory would lead to the ultimate decline of slavery.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Free labor; Free soil; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903; Texas

Letter, Wm. Russell to Bro and Sister Adair [Samuel and Florella]
Author: Russell, William
Date: January 23, 1857

Russell was from Memphis, Michigan. He was a classmate of Adair's at Oberlin College and wrote to the Adair family to try to keep in touch with them. Rev. Russell provided information about his family and other Oberlin classmates. He expressed his opinions about the situation in Kansas and said that at times he thought of moving there to support free state efforts.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Free state cause; Michigan; Oberlin College; Russell, William

Letter, C. K. Holliday to Dear Dr. [Franklin Crane]
Author: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 1, 1857

Cyrus Holliday wrote from Meadville, Pennsylvania to Franklin Crane, a prominent doctor in Topeka. Holliday was anxious to get back to Kansas, but family illness had prevented his departure for the territory. He reported on several people who had been involved in Kansas including such pro-slavery supporters Colonel Titus and Preston Brooks, who had died recently. He also commended Gov. Roberts (?) for his efforts on behalf of Kansas.

Keywords: Brooks, Preston Smith; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Free state prospects; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Meadville, Pennsylvania; Proslavery supporters

Letter, D. R. Barker to Brother [Samuel] Adair
Author: Barker, D. R.
Date: February 16, 1857

Writing from Mercer, Pennsylvania, Barker, a classmate of Adair's at Oberlin College, commented on the political situation in regard to Kansas and pro-slavery forces including pro-slavery churches.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Barker, D. R.; Free state prospects; Oberlin College; Pennsylvania; Proslavery activities; Religion; Slavery

Letter, James Garrison to Dear Cousin [Samuel Adair]
Author: Garrison, James
Date: February 27, 1857

Garrison wrote to Samuel Adair about the prospects for Kansas and being harassed by ruffians. He believed only a large migration to Kansas in the spring will prevent it from becoming a slave state. He discussed pro-slavery plans to prevent emigration to Kansas.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Garrison, James; Migration, internal; Ohio; Proslavery activities

Letter, Eli Thayer to Capt. [John] Brown
Author: Thayer, Eli , 1819-1899
Date: March 30, 1857

Thayer, the president of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, wrote Brown from his home in Worcester, Mass., that he (Thayer) and his associates had "not the remotest idea of relinquishing Kansas" and that he would send Brown $50. Thayer also asked when Brown planned to visit Worcester.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Kansas question; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899

Letter, S .F. Burdick to Dear Brother [Oscar E. Learnard]
Author: Burdick, S.F.
Date: April 12, 1857

S. F. Burdick, in this transcribed version of his letter to Oscar Learnard, wrote from Winooski, Vermont. Burdick communicated his feelings regarding recent political events in Kansas Territory, condemning President Buchanan's replacement of Governor Geary with the "Southern appointment" Robert Walker. He also advised Learnard to either "submit to slavery or fight", and saw no other alternative solution to the problem, though later he cautioned to only fight if first attacked. Burdick added that he wished to come to Kansas Territory, in spite of the troubles, but was held back by his wife's wishes.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Burdick, S.F.; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; National politics; Vermont; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Letter, B. Darrach to Rev. S. L. Adair
Author: Darrach, Barstow
Date: April 20, 1857

B. Darrach, a doctor at New York Hospital, wrote Adair that he was encouraged by the results of the Leavenworth election. He has authorized a Mr. Tator to settle his affairs in Osawatomie. He also discussed the slave oligarchy and indications that St. Louis was opposed to slavery. He cited several events that he felt indicated the free state cause was progressing.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Darrach, Barstow; Free state prospects; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); New York; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Slavery

Letter, A. A. Lawrence to My Dear Sir [Gov. Charles Robinson]
Author: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: August 14, 1857

A. A. Lawrence, from Boston, wrote to Charles Robinson, giving his impressions of recent political and business events. Lawrence gave his support for the upcoming Missouri election, which he believed would break up the pro-slavery party. He praised Robinson's handling of Lawrence's trust funds and properties, stating "Old Brown ought to report to you. It is bad policy to have a ranger like him with money and arms at his disposal, and only accountable to people here."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Finance; Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar E. Learnard]
Author: Learnard, S. T.
Date: September 22, 1857

S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. Learnard told Oscar of his desire to move the rest of the family to Kansas Territory, if only at least to see his "much praised and extolled land." He also commented on the recent slowing of the economy, and gave Oscar business advice. Throughout S.T. Learnard's letter, his strong opposition to slavery in Kansas is made clear.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Crops; Economic conditions; Herald of Freedom; Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; National politics; Vermont

Letter, S. G. Hubbard to John Brown Esq.
Author: Hubbard, S. G.
Date: October 6, 1857

S. G. Hubbard, a New Haven, Connecticut, supporter, wrote regarding one of Brown's political tracts, the impossibility of fund raising for the cause during this time of financial crisis, the prospects for a Free State victory in the previous day's election, and the president's recent action that "committed the [Democratic] party to the extremist doctrines of Slavery extension & Slavery Nationalization."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Buchanan administration; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free state support; Hubbard, S. G.; Kansas question; New Haven, Connecticut; Panic of 1857; Slave power

Letter, T. [Thomas] J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Author: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: December 18, 1857

Upon his return to the East (Boston), Marsh wrote to Stearns on December 18, 1857, to provide a relatively brief outline of his experience and accomplishments since leaving for Kansas Territory on committee business the previous June. He said others could be the judge of the success of the "mission," but "a Free State Legislature was secured by the election" and Governor Charles Robinson had been "quite complimentary" of Marsh in a letter to Amos A. Lawrence.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Cato, Sterling G.; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state legislature; Grasshopper Falls Convention; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Steamboats; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Territorial politics and government; Thacher, Timothy D., 1831-1894; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Travel; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Whitman, E. B.

Circular, To the Friends of Freedom
Author: Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: ca. 1857

"To The Friends of Freedom" is a published circular signed by John Brown, with testimonial statements by Charles Robinson and Gerrit Smith. Brown here appealed for "contributions of pecuniary aid" to help sustain the free-state cause in Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state support; Osawatomie, Battle of; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Gerritt

Letter, [S. F.] Burdick to Dear Brother, Oscar [Learnard]
Author: Burdick, S.F.
Date: January 6, 1858

S. F. Burdick, referring to his friend, Oscar Learnard, as "brother", wrote to him from Learnard's home state of Vermont. Burdick asked Learnard if there was anything he might do "to advance the cause of liberty and justice", and told him that he had heard of troubles at Fort Scott, referring to an incident taking place on December 17, 1857, when free state men, who had been displaced from their claims in 1856, returned to take possession of them again. Firing was done on both sides, though no one was killed or arrested.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border ruffians; Burdick, S.F.; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Kansas Nebraska Act; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Lecompton Constitutional Convention, September 1857; Missourians; National politics; Popular sovereignty

Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Author: Learnard, S. T.
Date: January 14, 1858

S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, VT, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. The author mentioned various friends and relatives, several of whom had traveled to and settled in Kansas Territory. He reiterated his desire to move his family to Kansas Territory as well. S.T. also communicated his disgust with the Democrats, who "are chained to the car of slavery and are ready to do any dirty work the slave power wish them to do."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Daily life; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Emigration and immigration; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; National politics; Vermont; Weather

Letter, S. T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar E. Learnard]
Author: Learnard, S. T.
Date: January 14, 1858

Writing from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son Oscar Learnard, S. T. Learnard claimed he was still planning to travel to Kansas Territory, and he asked about his son's affairs in Burlington. Learnard also focused on political attitudes in the East and mentioned Stephen Douglas' "speech on Kansas affairs" (Lecompton Constitution), which had caused "our Bogus democrats" to draw in "their horns." Many Democrats, he insisted, were still "ready to do any dirty work the slave power wish them to do."

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Bakersfield, Vermont; Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 1813-1861; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Northern Democratic Party; Slave power

Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Author: Learnard, S. T.
Date: January 19, 1858

S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. S.T. commented on a proposition made to him by Oscar concerning his taking over Oscar's business in Kansas while Oscar himself would go West for gold mining. Oscar's father advised against this, and made other suggestions as to how his own accounts, as well as his son's, could be managed profitably. S. T. also asked about the state of the Territorial Legislature, dubbed the Border Ruffians "imps of darkness," and encouraged Oscar to continue the fight for liberty.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Business enterprises; Gold mines and mining; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; National politics; Real estate investment

Speech of Hon. Reuben E. Fenton of New York, "The Designs of the Slave Power"
Author: Fenton, Reuben E.
Date: February 24, 1858

Representative Reuben Fenton, of New York, delivered this speech on the floor of the House of Representatives, in reaction to the Congressional debate over the validity of the Lecompton Constitution. Believing that the repeal of the Missouri Compromise was a mistake, meant to allow the extension of slavery into the new territories, Fenton emphasized that their forefathers recognized that slavery and anti-slavery men could not coexist. Thus, under the authority outlined in the Constitution, slavery in all Territories should be abolished, in line with the Federal Government's duty to "install a government [in the Territories] conducive to the greatest degree of happiness and welfare" of its residents. Fenton did not believe that the Lecompton Constitution represented the will of Kansas' citizens, insisting that the majority, as free state supporters, were proposing no challenge to the Government constructed by the founding fathers.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Dred Scott decision; Fenton, Reuben E.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lecompton Constitution; Missouri compromise; New York; Popular sovereignty; Slavery; Speeches, addresses, etc.

Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Author: Learnard, S. T.
Date: November 6, 1858

S.T. Learnard wrote from Montpelier, Vermont, to his son Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. The author commended Oscar for his honorable conduct in supporting right and justice, while expressing his dissatisfaction with his fellow Vermont State Legislators who "appear to be ignorant of the nature and effect of Laws and pay but little attention to their passage." He also asked his son to dispose of his land interests in Lawrence and requested that Oscar update him on his business and future prospects.

Keywords: Business; Business enterprises; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Real estate investment; Vermont

Letter, E. C. Andreas to Friend [William] Goodnow
Author: Andreas, E.C.
Date: January 25, 1859

E. C. Andreas wrote from New England to his friend William Goodnow in Kansas Territory. Andreas reacted to news he had heard regarding "commotion" in the Territory caused by "modern Democrats" and border ruffians, calling them "far worse than fever & ague." He communicated the opinion that there was little hope for Kansas to be admitted to the Union under the current Congress and Administration. Andreas also mentioned Goodnow's management of his land titles.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buchanan administration; Crops; Democratic Party (U.S.); Goodnow, William E.; National politics; Statehood (see also Admission, Kansas)

Letter, H. Learnard to Friend Oscar [Learnard]
Author: Learnard, H.
Date: February 9, 1859

H. Learnard wrote from Granville, Vermont, to Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. The author updated Oscar regarding his family and mutual friends, and he inquired about work, land, and money value in Kansas Territory. He also indicated that he would like to travel there, though Oscar's father advised him against it.

Keywords: Daily life; Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Land acquisition; Learnard, H.; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Real estate investment; Vermont

Anti-Slavery Mass Meeting
Author: No authors specified.
Date: November 26, 1859

Advertisement of an anti-slavery meeting which was to be held on December 2, 1859, in Lawrence on the day that John Brown was executed.. This advertisement is on display in the Kansas Museum of History, Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear Sir [Hon. Edward Everett]
Author: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: December 21, 1859

In the wake of John Brown's execution, Ewing wrote to congratulate the renowned Whig congressman, governor, and U.S. senator from Massachusetts, Edward Everett, for the sentiments expressed by Everett and others at "the great meeting at Fanueil Hall to give expression to the opinion of the conservative people of Boston respecting the foray of old John Brown." Nevertheless, Ewing had to point out "an erroneous statement" in Everett's speech "to the effect that the migration of free negroes into the Territory of Kansas is prohibited by law." This of course was not the case and Ewing believed to say so did disservice to the people of Kansas, "who, after achieving their own liberties . . . Have not disgraced themselves by denying the freedom of the Territory to any human being."

Keywords: Boston, Massachusetts; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Constitutions; Everett, Edward, 1794-1865; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Exclusion, African Americans; Slavery

Letter, John Ritchey to My Dear Friend [A. D.] Stevens
Author: Ritchie, John , 1817-1887
Date: March 6, 1860

From Franklin, Indiana, on March 6, 1860, John Ritchey wrote to Aaron Steven, one of the Harpers Ferry raiders still awaiting execution in Virginia, that it "it is gratafying to me, to find you, so willing to meet your sentence."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery perspective; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Slavery; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Stowe, Harriet Beecher; Uncle Tom's Cabin

Report, New England Emigrant Aid Company Texan Committee
Author: Cabot, Samuel ; New England Emigrant Aid Company Texan Committee
Date: March 8, 1860

S[amuel] Cabot submitted a report of the Texan Committee to the New England Emigrant Aid Company Executive Committee. The committee recommended that the Company take action to settle portions of Texas northwest of San Antonio with antislavery advocates as part of the effort to halt the westward advance of slavery. Cabot expressed the committee's view that the only peaceful solution to the slavery issue required demonstrating to slaveholders the superiority of free labor over slave labor; the committee believed West Texas a logical place for this demonstration to occur.

Keywords: Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Cabot, Samuel; Emigrant aid companies; New England Emigrant Aid Company; New England Emigrant Aid Company Texan Committee; Settlement; Texas

Letter, Richard J. Hinton to My Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Author: Hinton, R. J.
Date: May 25, 1860

This letter was written by R. J. Hinton to Thaddeus Hyatt while Hyatt was imprisoned in Washington D.C. In the letter, Hinton applauded Hyatt's commitment to the cause of freedom and assured him that his efforts would not be forgotten. It was written on the back of an announcement for a political anti-slavery convention to be held in Boston.

Keywords: Antislavery movements; Boston, Massachusetts; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Prisons; United States Government

Political Anti-Slavery Convention
Author: No authors specified.
Date: May 29, 1860

This announcement called for a political anti-slavery convention to be held in Boston on May 29, 1860. The men who called the convention, who were listed at the end of the announcement, believed that neither of the current political parties truly represented their anti-slavery sentiments. They stated their goal in terms of liberty for all people, both black and white.

Keywords: African Americans; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Political conventions; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Slave power; Slavery; Slaves; United States Government; United States. Constitution

Letter, S. T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Author: Learnard, S. T.
Date: November 6, 1860

S. T. Learnard, a farmer and occasional state legislator from Bakersfield, Vermont, wrote his "Kansas" son frequently and complained that replies from Kansas were far too scarce. In this letter, S.T. Learnard commented on suffering in the territory, presumably from drought, and his hope that the national election would eliminate "her troubles from one source." He complimented the "brave men and women" of Kansas for their "suffering and endurance in the Cause of Liberty," and expressed confidence that Abraham Lincoln, who did well in Bakersfield, would win New York.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Bakersfield, Vermont; Droughts; Election, Presidential, 1860; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865

Photograph, John Ritchie
Author: No authors specified.
Date: Between 1870 and 1887

Portrait of John Ritchie, Topeka, Kansas Territory, active in the anti-slavery movement. He helped runaway slaves as they passed through Topeka. Ritchie was a delegate to the Leavenworth and Wyandotte Constitutional Conventions.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Photographs and Illustrations; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Underground railroad

Photograph, Gerrit Smith
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

Gerrit Smith was an ardent abolitionist from New York state. He supported the anti-slavery cause in Kansas and was a supporter of John Brown, helping to fund the raid on Harper's Ferry in 1859.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cartes de visite; New York; Photographs and Illustrations; Smith, Gerritt

Photograph, Salmon P. Chase
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

Salmon P. Chase was the Governor of Ohio from 1855 to 1860. As an attorney, he defended fugitive slaves and was active in the antislavery and free soil movements. He later served as Secretary of the Treasury under Abraham Lincoln. This image was taken later in his life.

Keywords: Antislavery movements; Cabinet photographs; Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873; Free Soil Party; Ohio; Photographs and Illustrations

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Sheet Music, Ho! For Kansas
Authors: Griswold, J. C. M.; Manley, J. E.
Date:  Undated
This sheet music was composed by R. C. M. Griswold with words by J. E. Manley.

Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Kansas Frontier; Manley, J. E.; Music; Songs


Letter, Sarah [presumably Sarah T. D. Lawrence] to My Dear Mrs. [William B.] Stowe
Authors: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date:  January 9 1851
This letter, written by Sarah [presumably would be Sarah T.D. Lawrence, Charles Robinson's future wife] from Belchertown, MA, to Mrs. William B. Stowe, in West Brookfield, MA, contains excerpts of a letter written by Charles Robinson to Sarah. Robinson described his conditions of imprisonment in California (where he had traveled prior to settling in Kansas); he had been jailed for supporting squatter's rights and anti-slavery causes. He makes reference to a Dr. J.G. Holland, who had been a friend and colleague of his at home in Massachusetts.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; California; Massachusetts; National politics; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Squatter sovereignty


Lyrics, The Freeman's Song and The Kansas Emigrant Song
Authors: Whittier, John Greenleaf
Date:  c. 1854
These printed lyric sheets provided the words to "The Freeman's Song," which displayed an anti-slavery message, and to "The Kansas Emigrant Song" which spoke about the need for free state emigrants to populate the West.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Emigration and immigration; Lyrics; Music; Poetry; Slavery; Songs; Whittier, John Greenleaf


Letter, J. Z. Goodrich to Dear Sir
Authors: Goodrich, J. Z.
Date:  June 29, 1854
This printed letter, on letterhead from the House of Representatives in Washington, D. C., was written by John Zacheus Goodrich, a representative from Massachusetts. He informed the recipient that members of Congress and regular citizens of the city had formed the Union Emigration Society--these citizens opposed both the repeal of the Missouri Compromise and the opening of the territories to slavery. It included details about the Missouri Compromise, the designs of Slave Power, and stated that "our watchword is Constitutional Freedom everywhere within the jurisdiction of the United States."

Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery movements; Antislavery perspective; Goodrich, J. Z.; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas question; Missouri compromise; Nebraska Territory; Sectionalism (United States); Slave power; Slavery; United States. Congress. House


Lyrics, Lays of the Emigrants
Authors: Whittier, John Greenleaf
Date:  August 29, 1854
This title page of a musical booklet was subtitled, "as sung by the second party for Kanzas, on their departure from Boston." It contains two songs. The first of the songs was written by J. G. Whittier and named "The Kanzas Emigrants." The other song is T. B. H.'s "Song of the Kanzas Emigrants."

Keywords: Antislavery; Antislavery perspective; Boston, Massachusetts; Emigration and immigration; Lyrics; Music; Settlement; Songs; Whittier, John Greenleaf


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