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Immigration and Early Settlement

Immigration and Early Settlement > American Indians
46 Topic Specific Items
Letter, James [Griffing] to My Beloved [J. Augusta Goodrich]
Author: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: September 1854

James Griffing wrote from Indianapolis, Indiana to his fiancee J. Augusta Goodrich in Owego, New York. Griffing, a Methodist minister, discussed his plans to go to "Nebraska." He stated that there had been reports of Indian depredations in Kansas Territory, and commented that "encroachments" of whites upon Indian lands would lead either to greater violence or to the Indians disappearing "noiselessly before the consuming avarice of the white man."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Emigration and immigration; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Indian raids; Indianapolis, Indiana; Native Americans

Letter, H. Hill to Dear Brother
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: May 13, 1855

After arriving in Kansas City by steamboat, Hiram Hill wrote to his brother. En route, four men had died of cholera while others continued to drink and play cards nearby. Disease fatalities were common, Hill reported. He speculated that the river water, which passengers drank, was contaminated with disease from the rich prairie soil. Hill described life at the Winedot [sic] Indian Reservation (beginning at the bottom of page 2) where he met the "prinsable chiefe" and saw the governor's sister. Hill related news concerning Mr. Putnam, Mr. Tomas, Mr. Gague, Mr. Jay, Mr. Partridge, Mr. Whitman, Mr. Pomeroy, Mr. Fuller and others. He was skeptical that these men would permanently settle in Kansas Territory. Hill also described Kansas City, which he thought would improve under "yankee," rather than "slave holder," management. (Hill's final destination was Lawrence, where he acquired town lots through quit claims not included in this online project.)

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Burial; Diseases; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Kansas City, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company; Steamboats; Transportation; Travel; Weather; Wyandot Indians

Letter, unsigned [Daniel Vanderslice] to Col. A. Cumming
Author: Vanderslice, Daniel
Date: July 7, 1855

Daniel Vanderslice, Indian Agent and immigrant to K.T. from Kentucky, wrote from the Great Nemaha Indian Affairs Agency in Nebraska, to Alfred Cumming, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Central Territory. Vanderslice was concerned about his role as an Indian Agent, stating "if the Government intends to support the Indian Department, it should be clothed with ample power to carry out the stipulations of the treaties". He also mentioned incidents he knew in which white settlers were clearing timber from lands designated to Indian reserves. Vanderslice lamented his powerlessness to fight injustices against the Indian tribes whom he had been designated to serve.

Keywords: Indian agents; Indian lands; Indian treaties; Nebraska Territory; St. Joseph, Missouri; Timber; Vanderslice, Daniel

Public Notice, Copy of Instruction for Wyandotte Float
Author: No authors specified.
Date: September 1, 1855

It appeared that Dr. Johnston Lykins, an active Indian agent and land speculator, made this copy in longhand on September 1, 1855, of a notice issued the previous day by the surveyor general for Kansas and Nebraska territories, John Calhoun. These "instructions for Wyandot float" were said to provide protection of "the rights of the Wyandott Indians reserves," described here as "thirty-five in number . . . One Section of 640 acres each, 'out of any of the lands west of the Mississippi river, set apart for Indian use.'" The document provided the details for how this was to work in practice.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Calhoun, John; Indian floats; Land speculation; Lykins, Johnston; Native Americans; Wyandot Float; Wyandot Indians

Letter, Wilm. Donaldson to Mr. Thos. Stinson
Author: Donaldson, William
Date: April 4, 1856

William Donaldson, writing from the Shawnee Indian Reserve in Johnson County, Kansas Territory, informed Thomas N. Stinson that an Indian agent, William Gay, was taking a census of the Shawnee Indians in Kansas. He indicated that the census would be used to determine government payments made to Shawnees. Donaldson reported that a number of adopted Shawnee tribe members who had been receiving government payments had been struck from the payrolls. Stinson, whose wife was Shawnee, had been adopted by the tribe and apparently was receiving government payments. Donaldson reported that Stinson's name had not yet been removed from the payroll.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Census; Donaldson, William; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Shawnee Indians

Letter, Ke Kahn [Joseph N. Bourassa] to Ne Kahn [Thomas N. Stinson]
Author: Bourassa, Joseph N.
Date: September 6, 1856

Joseph N. Bourassa, a Pottawatomie Indian who signed this letter with his Indian name of Ke Kahn, wrote to Thomas N. Stinson, a Tecumseh resident and Indian trader who had been adopted by the Shawnee tribe and given the Indian name of Ne Kahn. Bourassa, an interpreter for the Pottawatomie Agency, described difficulties in finding laborers to cut the hay that he had promised to provide to Stinson.

Keywords: Agriculture; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Bourassa, Joseph N.; Ke Kahn; Labor; Native Americans; Ne Kahn; Pottawatomi Indians; Stinson, Thomas N.; Workers (see also Labor)

Brief for Applicant in the matter of the "Wyandott Robitaille Float."
Author: Weer, William
Date: Circa 1856

William Weer served as legal counsel for the Wyandotte Reserve and presented this brief on behalf of William Lykins and Robert Robitaille apparently to the Commissioner of the Land Office at Lecompton, Kansas Territory. Lykins and Robitaille were attempting to receive a patent for land that was also claimed by the Lawrence Association, Gaius Jenkins, Charles Robinson, S. J. Livingston, George G. Mathews, and William Savage. The brief contained a short history of the Wyandot tribes removal west and various treaties involving land. The claim involved parts of the city of Lawrence. The brief cited various cases and laws upon which Mr. Weer based his arguments.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Indian floats; Indian lands; Jenkins, Gaius; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Livingston, S. J.; Lykins, William H. R.; Mathews, George G.; Native Americans; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robitaille, Robert; Savage, William; United States. General Land Office; Weer, William; Wyandot Float; Wyandot Indians

Letter, Silas Armstrong to Dear Sister
Author: Armstrong, Silas
Date: March 1, 1857

Silas Armstrong wrote again to "Sister", this time from Washington, D.C., regarding her dissatisfaction with the purchase Silas had made for her in town shares. Armstrong reassured her that he had treated the investment as if it were his own. He told her that he had tried again to locate her float in the Shawnee lands, but that her uncertainty in all this business made him afraid to continue, for fear that she become angry with him. Armstrong added that he was helping the Seneca and Wyandot delegation with their business, but feared that they too would not accomplish anything.

Keywords: Armstrong, Lucy B.; Armstrong, Silas; Indian floats; Indian lands; Shawnee Indian Reserve

The Lykins or Robitaille Float
Author: Moore, Ely
Date: May 14, 1857

This printed form was sent to the agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Company to inform him of a land claim by Robert Robitaille, a Wyandot Indian, to a portion of the city of Lawrence. It was sent by the General Land Office in Lecompton, Kansas Territory, and was signed by Ely Moore, register and William Brindle, receiver. William Lykins and Achilles Ward are mentioned in the description of the property being disputed.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Brindle, William; Immigration and early settlement; Land claim disputes; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Lykins, William H. R.; Moore, Ely; Native Americans; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Robitaille, Robert; United States. General Land Office; Wade, Achilles B.; Wyandot Indians

Letter, Ellen Goodnow to My Dear Husband [Isaac Goodnow]
Author: Goodnow, Ellen
Date: August 8, 1857

Ellen Goodnow wrote from Shannon, Kansas Territory, to her husband Isaac, who was traveling on the East Coast. In this letter, which is largely personal, Ellen Goodnow describes a frightening conflict between white settlers in the area and members of the Cheyenne Indian tribe. A neighbor had awakened her in the middle of the night to enlist men to fight alongside members of the Delaware Indians, who had also been attacked by the Cheyennes. Isaac's brother, William, had lead her to safety in Mahattan.

Keywords: Cheyenne Indians; Delaware Indians; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, William E.; Native Americans; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory; Skirmishing; Violence; Violent deaths

Letter, [Lucy B. Armstrong] to Dear Sir [Thomas Hendricks]
Author: Armstrong, Lucy B.
Date: November 10, 1857

Lucy B. Armstrong, in this unsigned letter to Thomas Hendricks, Land Office Commissioner, requested that he take action on her behalf to secure her entitled plot of land, per treaties with the Wyandot tribe made on March 17, 1842 and Jan 31, 1855. Hendricks had previously told her that Wyandot lands were all claimed, and that she should apply for Shawnee lands, though at present her request had not gotten any attention. Her husband, John M. Armstrong, was the brother of Silas Armstrong, and deceased at the time of this letter, leaving her with 5 children. Both Silas and John were leaders of the Wyandot Nation.

Keywords: Armstrong, John M.; Armstrong, Lucy B.; Indian lands; Indian treaties; Shawnee Indians; United States. General Land Office; United States. Surveyor General; Wyandot Indians

Map of Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory
Author: Quin, Richard ; United States., Surveyor General
Date: 1857

This map shows a Leavenworth County composed mainly of Kickapoo and Delaware Indian lands, but does feature Leavenworth City. Leavenworth County was founded in 1855 and was named for Colonel Henry H. Leavenworth of the U.S. Army, as was Fort Leavenworth which was established in 1827.

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Indian lands; Kickapoo Indians; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Quin, Richard; United States. Surveyor General

Contract, Lucy B. Armstrong et. al. and Munsee Indians
Author: Armstrong, Lucy B. ; Bartley, Mordecai ; McLaughlin, William ; Moonhouse, Jacob ; Williams, Gideon
Date: January 6, 1858

This contract, an agreement made between one party, Lucy Armstrong, William McLaughlin, and Mordecai Bartley, and another, Jacob Moonhouse and Gideon Williams, both Munsee Indians. The body of the document states that the party which includes Lucy Armstrong intends to recover from the United States government sums of money which are owed to the Munsee Indians, as promised to them in treaties of 1805,1839, 1848. In return for obtaining these sums, totaling more than $70,000 for the Munsee Indians, Armstrong and her party would receive 20%.

Keywords: Armstrong, Lucy B.; Bartley, Mordecai; Indian lands; Indian treaties; Legal documents; McLaughlin, William; Moonhouse, Jacob; Munsee Indians; Seth, Cornelius C.; Williams, Gideon; Wisconsin

Written Testimony, Cornelius C. Seth
Author: Seth, Cornelius C.
Date: January 7, 1858

This testimony of Cornelius Seth, attests to the nature of the Munsee Indians' current status. Seth, Chief of Stockbridges, stated that the Munsee Indians had come from Wisconsin to Kansas Territory in fall of 1839, and verified that they have always maintained a separate organization from all other Indian tribes and do not receive benefits through association with any other Indian nation. He maintained that the Munsees were owed traveling expenses from their 1839 journey from Wisconsin, which was very expensive, and that their numbers were dwindling rapidly "in consequence of want and exposure".

Keywords: Indian lands; Indian treaties; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Munsee Indians; Seth, Cornelius C.; Travel; Wisconsin; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory

Letter, LBA [Lucy B. Armstrong] to Dear Sir [Mordecai Bartley]
Author: Armstrong, Lucy B.
Date: January 11, 1858

Lucy Armstrong wrote from Wyandotte, Kansas Territory, to her attorney, Mordecai Bartley, regarding her lawsuit against the U.S. government on behalf of the Munsee Indians. Lucy described a situation in which the survival of the Munsee tribe was threatened by disease and invasion by Missourians. She enclosed with this letter copies of Cornelius Seth's testimony and other documents related to the lawsuit. Armstrong also described 5 agreements made since 1805 by which the Munsee Indians should have received benefits.

Keywords: Armstrong, John M.; Bartley, Mordecai; Indian lands; Indian treaties; Legal documents; McLaughlin, William; Munsee Indians; Seth, Cornelius C.

Letter, John T. Jones to Hon. J. W. Denver
Author: Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy)
Date: January 16, 1858

John T. Jones, an interpreter for the Ottawa Indians, wrote from Washington urging Governor James W. Denver to provide his support for ratification of a treaty between the U.S. government and the Ottawas. Jones reported that the Secretary of the Interior was not inclined to support ratification and he believed Denver, who had negotiated the treaty with the Ottawas during his tenure as Commissioner of Indian Affairs, could influence the decision.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Native Americans; Ottawa Indians; Treaties

Letter, Lucy B. Armstrong to Wm Brindell
Author: Armstrong, Lucy B.
Date: March 8, 1858

Lucy Armstrong wrote from Wyandotte, Kansas Territory, to Gen. William Brindle at the Land Office in Lecompton, regarding her request for land entitled to her as the widow of John M. Armstrong. Armstrong listed the number of documents she had sent to the Land Office in order to prove herself an heir of John M. of the Wyandot nation, which would show her entitlement to a "float". She had not seen any action on the matter, and wanted to secure a land claim in the Shawnee lands before they were all spoken by white settlers. Armstrong expressed great distress over this matter, having fought to claim her land entitlement for over a year.

Keywords: Armstrong, John M.; Armstrong, Lucy B.; Brindle, William; Indian lands; Indian treaties; Shawnee Indian Reserve; United States. General Land Office; Wyandot Indians

Jacob Collamer, Washington, D. C. to William Hutchinson
Author: Collamer, Jacob
Date: March 23, 1858

Collamer, a U. S. senator from Vermont, responded to a request from Hutchinson for assistance in a plan to speculate in land on the Delaware Indian reservation in Kansas Territory. Collamer informed Hutchinson that it did not appear that the anticipated treaty with the Delaware would be negotiated during the current session of Congress.

Keywords: Collamer, Jacob; Delaware Indians; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Land speculation; Lecompton Constitution

Legal document, Request for Law Directive from Margarite Skicket
Author: Bartley, Mordecai ; McLaughlin, William ; Skicket, Margarite
Date: March 26, 1858

This document, directed to the Senate and House of Representatives of the U.S. Congress, described the experience of Margarite Skecket, herself part Osage Indian, who was granted land under a treaty of June 1825. Because she had married, she left that land for that of her husband, a Delaware Indian. Upon his death, she returned to her own land but found that her half-sister had sold it back to the government, having given none of the monetary returns to the land's rightful owner, Skecket herself. This document requested that a law directive be created, which would require Skecket's half-sister to turn over the $1280 to her.

Keywords: Bartley, Mordecai; Indian lands; Indian treaties; Legal documents; McLaughlin, William; Osage Indians; Skicket, Margarite

Letter, Lucy B. Armstrong to C. E. Mix
Author: Armstrong, Lucy B.
Date: July 23, 1858

Lucy Armstrong, widow of John M. Armstrong, a Wyandot Nation leader, wrote to Charles E. Mix, Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Armstrong wrote that Commissioner Lawrence, in the service of Indian Affairs, had threatened that, because she was such a bother in the matter of obtaining her land entitlement, he would revenge himself to her. She countered to Mix that she had not been a bother, but was upset because the land finally granted her was in three separate pieces, one below the high water mark, and alluded to Mix that she thought Commissioner Lawrence was assigning these poor claims to the Indians in order to leave the better ones for themselves.

Keywords: Armstrong, Lucy B.; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Indian lands; Indian treaties; Mix, Charles E.; Munsee Indians; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs

Document by Jacob Hooper authorizing Alfred Gray as his true and lawful attornery.
Author: Hooper, Jacob
Date: October 30, 1858

Hooper was a member of the Wyandot tribe and authorized Alfred Gray to accept his annuity money from the United States government. He also gave Gray authority to do whatever was needed on his behalf. Hooper made his signature with an X and the document was executed in the presence of Abelard Guthrie.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Gray, Alfred; Guthrie, Abelard; Hooper, Jacob; Native Americans; Wyandot Indians

Letter, Samuel C. [Smith] to "Dear Dr." [C. Robinson]
Author: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: December 7, 1858

In this letter, also from Lawrence, Smith went into some detail about developments with respect to the Delaware lands, apparently connected to a railroad promotion scheme. The Indians "know that [Robert S.] Stevens is connected with the R. R. enterprise and this action of his . . . Has excited their mistrust and caused obstacles to rise in the way of such a treaty as you [Robinson] desire."

Keywords: Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Delaware Indians; English Bill; Indian treaties; Miller, Josiah; Pratt, J. G. (John Gill), 1814-1900; Railroad promotion; Railroads finance; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, Samuel C.; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Stevens, Robert S.

Address to the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Kansas
Author: Armstrong, Lucy B.
Date: ca. 1859

This request, directed to the Kansas Territorial Legislature, asked that the act which incorporated the city of Wyandotte be amended. The solicitors of this request, widows with children, all of Indian decent, stated that the act had not been approved by the majority, and that it had passed the Legislature without their knowledge. The amendment they proposed would exclude their lands from the city of Wyandotte.

Keywords: Armstrong, Lucy B.; Indian lands; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Town companies; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory

Photograph, Indian Pony
Author: Bierstadt Bros., Photographers, N. Bedford, Mass.
Date: 1859

An "Indian Poney, Kansas," 1859, photographed by Bierstadt Bros., Photographers, N. Bedford, Mass.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Bierstadt Bros., Photographers; Bierstadt, Albert; Horses; Native Americans; Photographs and Illustrations; Stereographs

Photograph, Shoshone Warrior
Author: Bierstadt Bros., Photographers, N. Bedford, Mass.
Date: 1859

A "Shoshone Warrior Na," 1859, photographed by Bierstadt Bros., Photographers, N. Bedford, Mass.

Keywords: Bierstadt Bros., Photographers; Bierstadt, Albert; Horses; Photographs and Illustrations; Shoshoni Indians; Stereographs

Letter, John G. Pratt to Dr. C. Robinson
Author: Pratt, J. G. J. G. (John Gill), 1814-1900
Date: January 9, 1859

John G. Pratt, a Baptist missionary to the Delaware Indians, wrote to Charles Robinson from Delaware, Kansas Territory, describing the politics of the negotiations taking place with the Delaware Indian land purchase. "Old Sar-koxy," a Delaware leader, had indicated that Robinson was attending to his business, which angered younger Delaware delegates Isaac and Charles Johnnycake. Pratt indicated his confidence that the sale would take place regardless of who led the negotiations for the Delaware.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Indian treaties; Native Americans; Pratt, J. G. (John Gill), 1814-1900; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Letter, unsigned [Lucy Armstrong] to Dear Gov. Roberts
Author: Armstrong, Lucy B.
Date: April 20, 1859

Lucy Armstrong wrote to a Governor Roberts from "Linden", continuing a conversation that she had had with him in person two weeks before. Armstrong told him that the article of agreement brought to her by her brother-in-law, Silas Armstrong, led her to believe that the lands granted to her would not be whole, but separate from one another. She told him that she had not agreed to the separateness of hers, but that she would give a portion of it to the Wyandotte Town Company, of which Silas was President. However, it was later discovered that individual town shares could not be divided.

Keywords: Armstrong, Lucy B.; Armstrong, Silas; Indian lands; Indian treaties; Town companies; Town shares; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory

Letter, Cornelius Seth, et al. to Commissioner of Indian Affairs
Author: Denny, Lewis ; Gray, Michael ; Seth, Cornelius C.
Date: July 26, 1859

Cornelius Seth, Lewis Denny, and Michael Gray, all leaders of Indian groups referred to as "New York Indians", wrote to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The three acted as representatives of their tribes in order to obtain the land entitled to them by the a treaty signed January 1, 1838 at Buffalo Creek, New York. They contended that the longer the delay in granting them their land, the more problems both sides would have. The Indian leaders were especially concerned about tribe mates with homes in other states, who had never intended to settle in Kansas Territory and had sold their entitlements back to the government, to the disadvantage of those Indians who had remained in the Territory.

Keywords: Denny, Lewis; Gray, Alfred; Gray, Michael; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Indian lands; Indian treaties; New York Indian Reserve; New York Indians; Seth, Cornelius C.; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs

Letter, Richard M. Young, attorney, to A. [Asahel?] Beach, Esq.
Author: Young, Richard M
Date: July 29, 1859

Written on Young & Niles, Law and Land Agency at Washington City, D. C., letterhead, this letter to A. [Asahel?] Beach of "Beach Valley," Rice County, K.T., discussed the inquiry the law firm made "as to the proper mode of proceeding to recover damages for Indian Depredations . . . ." The attorney explained the statute of June 30, 1834, that covered this and its provisions. Since Young referred Beach to the agents of the Kaws and the Kiowas (or "Indians of the upper Arkansas"), one might assume that his damage claim was connected to one of the raids by the latter tribe against the former.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Beach Valley, Kansas Territory; Beach, A. J.; Damage claims; Indian raids; Kansa Indians; Kiowa Indians; Lawyers; Native Americans; Plains Indians; Rice County, Kansas Territory; Young, Richard M.

Document granting land to Pascal Fish on behalf of other Fish family members
Author: No authors specified.
Date: September 27, 1859

This document, with President Buchanan's signature signed by a secretary, granted land to Pascal Fish and his family who were members of the "united tribe of Shawnee Indians." The land was granted under provisions of a treaty between the Shawnee Indians and the U. S. government signed May 10, 1854. Specific acreage in Johnson County was designated.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Fish, Paschal; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Land grants; Native Americans; Shawnee Indians

Letter, James [R. Mead] to My Dear Sister
Author: Mead, James R.
Date: December 25, 1859

James R. Mead wrote this letter from his home "somewhere in the West." He had a trading post about twenty miles north of the Saline River, west of Fort Riley, Kansas Territory. He described in detail the abundance of wildlife, calling western Kansas the "Land of Plenty." Mead and his business partners traded with the Kaw Indians, mostly for furs. His first impression of this tribe was unfavorable, but in his later years he came to respect the Kaw and believed that they were an honest people. He also mentioned the Copperhead Indians, who were more fierce and warlike than the Kaw; Mead and his companions were building a blockhouse in case there was trouble.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Bison; Hunting; Indian raids; Indian traders; Kansa Indians; Kansas Frontier; Mead, James R.; Native Americans; Natural resources; Ottawa County, Kansas Territory; Saline River, Kansas Territory; Trading posts

Signatures of Indian Widows requesting exclusion from Wyandotte
Author: Armstrong, Lucy B.
Date: ca. 1859

This document, which carries the signature of Lucy Armstrong and other widowed Indians, supplements their request to the Kansas Territorial Legislature to amend the Act of Incorporation of Wyandotte city. The women wished to have their private lands excluded from the city, maintaining that they were not consulted about being included, their lands were remote, and the city taxes too high for them to pay.

Keywords: Armstrong, Lucy B.; Barnett, James; Barnett, Matthew; Beaver, John; Indian lands; Johnson, Sarah; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Punch, Margaret; Solomon, Mary; Town companies; Walker, Lydia; Williams, Charlotte

Legal document, trading license for John W. Forman
Author: Vanderslice, Daniel
Date: ca. 1859

This document, an unsigned copy drafted by Daniel Vanderslice, outlines the conditions of a $5000 loan taken from the U.S. government by Harvey W. and John W. Forman and John Pemberton. These men had already purchased land in what had become northern Doniphan County, founded the city of Iowa Point in 1854 on lands previously owned by Iowa Indians. The document also describes the conditions of a one-year trading license issued to John W. Forman, which stipulated that Forman must limit his trading to only certain areas and specific Indian tribes.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Forman, Harvey W.; Forman, John W.; Indian agents; Indian traders; Iowa Indians; Native Americans; Pemberton, John; Sac and Fox Indians; Vanderslice, Daniel

Letter, R. Brackenridge, Jr. to Tom [Thomas N. Stinson]
Author: Brackenridge, R.
Date: February 16, 1860

R. Brackenridge, writing from Washington D.C. to Thomas N. Stinson, a resident of Tecumseh, Kansas Territory, commented on the possibility of a treaty with the Pottawatomie Indians who were living in Kansas. Brackenridge expressed negative views about the activities of Anthony Navarre, a Native American who had a following among the Pottawatomie and who opposed a treaty with the U.S. government. The U.S. signed a treaty with the Pottawatomie Indians in November 1861.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Brackenridge, R.; Indian treaties; Native Americans; Navarre, Anthony; Pottawatomi Indians; Stinson, Thomas N.; Treaties

List of names of certain New York Indians entitled to 320 acres within the New York Reservation in Kansas Territory
Author: Greenwood, A. B.
Date: June 9, 1860

This list documented the distribution of the New York Indian lands in Kansas Territory according to provisions of a treaty dated January 15, 1838. The list was submitted to the Secretary of the Interior on June 9, 1860, and approved on June 16, 1860.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Greenwood, A. B.; Indian lands; Land acquisition; Native Americans; New York Indians

Letter, Alfred Gray, Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Geo. W. Patterson
Author: Gray, Alfred
Date: June 18, 1860

Gray wrote this draft of a letter to George W. Patterson concerning a treaty between the U. S. government and the Delaware Indians at the request of Rev. Pratt, a missionary to the tribe. Gray was concerned that the treaty was unfair to many of the Delaware and that the U.S. government was negotiating with four older chiefs, not some of the younger members of the tribe. He wrote that many of the Delaware were too intimidated to complain.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Delaware Indians; Gray, Alfred; Indian lands; Indian treaties; Native Americans; Patterson, George W.; Pratt, J. G. (John Gill), 1814-1900; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Letter, R. S. Stevens to S. N. Wood
Author: Stevens, Robert S.
Date: August 6, 1860

Writing from Lecompton, R. S. Stevens addressed an issue of grave concern to the people of Council Grove--"the Kaw Treaty," which had been taken up "the last day of the Extra or called Executive session & then ratified with certain amendments." He then explained the provisions and discussed the land survey to come.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Droughts; Huffaker, T. S.; Kansa Indians treaty; Land surveys; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Stevens, Robert S.; United States. Congress; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Letter, J. B. Hodgin to S. N. Wood
Author: Hodgin, J. B.
Date: August 25, 1860

From Cottonwood Falls, Hodgin wrote Wood concerning the Kaws and whiskey that reportedly "supplied" to them at the Falls on August 23 and "As is generally the result, a big fight occurred" among the Indians and several were killed. Hodgin was calling for an investigation into the incident.

Keywords: Alcoholic beverages; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Cottonwood Falls, Kansas Territory; Hodgin, J. B.; Kansa Indians; Native Americans; Violence; Whiskey; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Statement of William Walker, member of Wyandot Nation
Author: Walker, William
Date: January 16, 1861

William Walker, a member of the Wyandot Nation, described the political history of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Kansas Territory. Walker stated that a missionary had accompanied the tribe on their migration from Ohio to Kansas Territory, but that in a political dispute within the church organization, in which the ME Church split into North and South organizations, that missionary had returned to Ohio in loyalty to the North faction. The South organization had prevailed in K.T., though those supporters of the North built a separate church. Mysteriously, the ME Church buildings of both North and South organizations had been burnt down.

Keywords: Churches; Gurley, Rev. James; Indian agents; Indian treaties; Methodist Church; Ohio; Walker, William; Wheeler, Rev. James; Wyandot Indians

Letter, Tho. Ewing Jr to Dear [Joseph J.] Coombs
Author: Ewing, Jr., Thomas , 1829-1896
Date: January 22, 1861

In January 1861 Ewing wrote several letters to members of Congress and others of influence in Washington on behalf of Charles Robinson's appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. This one, marked "Private," to J. J. Coombs is one example. Not only was Robinson well qualified for this important position, according to Ewing, but Robinson's appointment to this influential post would increase Ewing's chance to capture a Senate seat--"If he can get the appt before the State Legislature sits it will so greatly strengthen his influence that my election will be certain."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Coombs, Joseph J.; Ewing, Thomas, 1829-1896; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Presidential appointments; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs; United States. Congress. Senate; Washington, D.C.

Photograph, Abelard Guthrie
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

Abelard Guthrie was a member of the Wyandot tribe through his marriage to his wife Quindaro Nancy. He was elected as the Wyandot delegate to Congress in 1852. He was involved in the development of the town of Quindaro and had business dealing with numerous early territorial settlers.

Keywords: Guthrie, Abelard; Photographs and Illustrations; Quindaro Town Company; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Wyandot Indians; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Photograph, John Tecumseh Jones
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

John Tecumseh Jones was part Ottawa Indians and served as an interpreter for the Ottawa Indians. He was known as Tauy Jones or Ottawa Jones. He was also supportive of the free state cause and his home was the target of proslavery forces.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Free state supporters; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Native Americans; Ottawa Indians; Photographs and Illustrations

Photograph, Johnston Lykins
Author: Williams and Thomson
Date:

Dr. Johnston Lykins was involved with the emigration of American Indians to the area that became Kansas Territory. He was involved with Baptist schools for the Pottawatomie and the Shawnee. During the territorial period, he was involved with the land claims of various Native Americans and specifically the

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Cartes de visite; Lykins, Johnston; Native Americans; Photographs and Illustrations; Wyandot Float

Page from Ballou's Pictorial Drawing Room Companion
Author: No authors specified.
Date: undated

This page from Ballou's Pictorial Drawing Room Companion features a large engraving illustration of Kaw (Kansa) Indians at the office of the Commissioner for Indian Affairs. The caption describes a situation in which various candidates for chieftainship had traveled to Washington, D.C., to obtain the Commissioner's endorsement of one of them over the others. The Indians are identified only as "Great Elk", "Little Dog", "Buffalo", and "Fleet Deer"; the Commissioner is not identified by name, and the page is not dated.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Illustrations; Indian Affairs, Commissioner of; Kansa Indians; United States. Commissioner of Indian Affairs

Photograph, John Gill Pratt and his wife Olivia Evans Pratt
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

This photograph of John Gill Pratt and his wife Olivia was taken in a room in a building in Wyandotte County which had been part of the Delaware Mission School. John Gill Pratt was a Baptist missionary to the Delaware Indians and served as superintendent of the Delaware Baptist Mission. He had some training as a doctor and worked as a printer at the Shawnee Manual Labor School. He was involved in some of the treaty negotiations during the territorial period.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Baptists; Card photographs; Delaware Indians; Missionaries; Native Americans; Photographs and Illustrations; Pratt, J. G. (John Gill), 1814-1900; Pratt, Olivia Evans; Treaties; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Photograph, John Gill Pratt
Author: Henry, E. E.
Date:

John Gill Pratt was a Baptist missionary to the Delaware Indians and served as superintendent of the Delaware Baptist Mission. He had some training as a doctor and worked as a printer at the Shawnee Manual Labor School. He was involved in some of the treaty negotiations during the territorial period.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Baptists; Cabinet photographs; Delaware Indians; Henry, E. E.; Missionaries; Native Americans; Photographs and Illustrations; Pratt, J. G. (John Gill), 1814-1900; Shawnee Manual Labor School; Treaties

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Polling Book, delegate election, Wyandott nation, Nebraska Territory
Authors: Andrews, Benjamin ; Walker, William
Date:  October 12, 1852
This three-page document represented the "return of votes polled at the election held in the Wyandott nation, Nebraska Territory, October 12th 1852, for a delegate to represent the aforesaid Territory in the thirty-second Congress of the United States. Abelard Guthrie, who is also on the voter roll, received all 35 votes cast. Guthrie, who married into the Wyandot tribe, was later involved in the development of Quindaro. With one or two exception--e.g.., Thomas Coon Hawk--the names on the roll appear to be Anglo-American in origin.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Congressional delegate; Election, Nebraska Territory, October 1852; Elections; Guthrie, Abelard; Native Americans; Nebraska Territory; United States. Congress; Walker, William; Wyandot Indians; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory


Map showing the location of the Indian Tribes within the United States. Compiled and Drawn by Captn. S. Eastman U. S. A. 1852.
Authors: Eastman, Seth ; Williams, W.
Date:  1852
Early map showing Native American inhabitants in Oregon. Hand colored. Includes topographic features. Indicates locations of forts. Shows Santa Fe Trail. Indicates Native American inhabitation. Removed from unknown source. Upper right margin: Plate 21. Link to scanned image at Wichita State University Libraries - Special Collections.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Eastman, Seth; Maps; Native Americans; Williams, W.


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Mr. [Amos Adams] Lawrence
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date:  September 22, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Samuel Pomeroy wrote from a settlement, which would come to be called Lawrence, in Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Lawrence was an investor who sponsored the emigrant group who would settle the town of Lawrence. Pomeroy reported that Charles Robinson had been elected President of the Lawrence Association, the first governing body of the town. He was enthusiastic about the abundance of timber resources in the area, which, once secured from the Indians, would make for a good business enterprise. Emigrants were arriving in droves, filling the hotels and increasing demand for land claims. Though he remained positive, Pomeroy warned "Don't make yourselves believe that the slave holders have given up Kansas!" and anticipated a political battle during the upcoming Territorial Legislature election.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Branscomb, Charles H.; Business enterprises; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Hotels; Illness; Indian lands; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Timber; Town development


Letter, James [Griffing] to My Beloved [J. Augusta Goodrich]
Authors: Griffing, James Sayre
Date:  September 1854
James Griffing wrote from Indianapolis, Indiana to his fiancee J. Augusta Goodrich in Owego, New York. Griffing, a Methodist minister, discussed his plans to go to "Nebraska." He stated that there had been reports of Indian depredations in Kansas Territory, and commented that "encroachments" of whites upon Indian lands would lead either to greater violence or to the Indians disappearing "noiselessly before the consuming avarice of the white man."

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Emigration and immigration; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Indian raids; Indianapolis, Indiana; Native Americans


Journey from Massachusetts to Kansas
Authors: Allen, Chestina Bowker
Date:  October 17, 1854 - April 22, 1858
Chestina Bowker Allen traveled to Kansas Territory from Roxbury, Massachusetts, with her husband Asahel Gilbert Allen and five children--William, Charles, Henrietta, John, and Abbie. Apparently, they were members of the third company sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Company and began the journey to Kansas Territory in October, 1854. While the title indicated it recorded the journey to the territory, it actually documented their first three years in Kansas Territory. Mrs. Allen described their journey west with stops in Kansas City and Lawrence. They eventually settled near Rock Creek in Pottawatomie County. She wrote about many of her daily activities including assisting neighbors when ill. She mentioned a cholera epidemic in the area in 1855. She wrote about various rumors and encounters with free state supporters (which the Allen family was) and proslavery groups. She provided a great deal of information about living conditions and the price and availability of various goods. She wrote about her husband and older sons going to various communities to work and also about people that visited their home and those who boarded with them. She provided fairly stereotypical descriptions of Native Americans.The document appeared to be recopied from an original diary and included some penciled in corrections and a few annotations from a later time.

Keywords: Allen, Asahel Gilbert; Allen, Charles Bowker; Allen, Chestina Bowker; Allen, William Francis; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Diaries; Diseases; Economic conditions; Ferries; Free state supporters; Louisville, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Pottawatomie County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Rock Creek, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Steamboats


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