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Immigration and Early Settlement

Immigration and Early Settlement > Daily Life
81 Topic Specific Items
Expense list, Hiram Hill to W&W E. Thayer
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: 1853-1856

Hill listed expenses from 1853-1856. Recorded items are primarily household items, and include itemized prices.

Keywords: Account books; Daily life; Domestics; Hill, Hiram; Prices

Letter, R. A. Tovey to My Dear Wife
Author: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: January 23, 1854

Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr., wrote to his wife, Eliza (Matthew) Tovey, at their home in Albany, New York. Tovey reported that, since the freezing of the Missouri River, mail was slow, and he had lost his job making stove fixings because of the inability to obtain materials from steamboat transport. Tovey also described his friend Swifts' problems maintaining ownership of his land claim, and the prospect that he himself may participate in a new town's development.

Keywords: Commerce; Labor; Land acquisition; Land claim disputes; Land claims; Missouri River; Religion; Squatters; Swift, J. Dedan; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Town development; Weather

Letter, Your Affectionate Husband [Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr.] to My Dear Wife [Eliza (Matthew) Tovey]
Author: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: March 22, 1854

Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr., wrote to his wife, Eliza (Matthew) Tovey at their home in Albany, New York. Tovey mentioned his current task of finding a suitable land claim. He discussed the situations of his nearest neighbors as recent homesteaders and businessmen. Tovey also remarked on the "great deal of excitement" surrounding the prospect of forming a territorial legislature and anticipated "a smart fight" between proslavery and free state men.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land claims; Merchants; Swift, J. Dedan; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Town development; Weather

Journey from Massachusetts to Kansas
Author: Allen, Chestina Bowker
Date: October 17, 1854 - April 22, 1858

Chestina Bowker Allen traveled to Kansas Territory from Roxbury, Massachusetts, with her husband Asahel Gilbert Allen and five children--William, Charles, Henrietta, John, and Abbie. Apparently, they were members of the third company sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Company and began the journey to Kansas Territory in October, 1854. While the title indicated it recorded the journey to the territory, it actually documented their first three years in Kansas Territory. Mrs. Allen described their journey west with stops in Kansas City and Lawrence. They eventually settled near Rock Creek in Pottawatomie County. She wrote about many of her daily activities including assisting neighbors when ill. She mentioned a cholera epidemic in the area in 1855. She wrote about various rumors and encounters with free state supporters (which the Allen family was) and proslavery groups. She provided a great deal of information about living conditions and the price and availability of various goods. She wrote about her husband and older sons going to various communities to work and also about people that visited their home and those who boarded with them. She provided fairly stereotypical descriptions of Native Americans.The document appeared to be recopied from an original diary and included some penciled in corrections and a few annotations from a later time.

Keywords: Allen, Asahel Gilbert; Allen, Charles Bowker; Allen, Chestina Bowker; Allen, William Francis; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Diaries; Diseases; Economic conditions; Ferries; Free state supporters; Louisville, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Pottawatomie County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Rock Creek, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Steamboats

Letter, Robert A. Tovey to My Dear Wife [Eliza (Matthew) Tovey]
Author: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: December 17, 1854

Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr, having arrived in "Kanzas" Territory, wrote to his wife, Eliza (Matthew) Tovey, at their home in Albany, New York. Tovey described his working and living conditions, calling his Native American boss "most pleasant" and his living arrangements "comfortable," though infested with rats. Tovey, also a preacher, mentioned that the Methodist Church, the single place of worship in town, was willing to share their space with other denominations.

Keywords: Churches; Daily life; Emigration and immigration; Immigrants; Labor; Native Americans; Religion; Tovey, Robert Atkins

Letter, T. [Thomas] C. Wells to Dear Mother, [Sarah Elizabeth Clarke Wells]
Author: Wells, Thomas Clarke
Date: April 1, 1855

Born and raised in Rhode Island, twenty-three-year-old Thomas C. Wells apparently was a reluctant Kansas immigrant; his initial ambivalence was reflected in his first letter from Providence, RI, March 12, 1855, where he wrote: "I may yet see it best to return [home from Boston] and not go [to Kansas] at all." This, Clarke's first letter from "the far famed Kanzas Territory," was written from Topeka, but describes the journey from the boarder via Lawrence and reported is intention to "start for Big Blue, where Mr. Goodnow is tomorrow." Part of the journey was made in the company of some well-armed Missourians "who were going to Lawrence to vote," presumably in the March 30 legislative election. All Clarke's extensive correspondence from KT (March 24, 1855 to October 19, 1860) was published in 1936 in the KHQ and is now available digitally at http://www.kshs.org/library/khq/1936/36_2_wells.htm.

Keywords: Big Blue, Kansas Territory; Border ruffians; Elections; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Page's Hotel; Shawnee Indians; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wells, Thomas Clarke; Westport, Missouri

Diary
Author: Reader, Samuel James
Date: May 23, 1855 through December 31, 1857

Diary entries by Samuel Reader beginning with the latter part of his travels to Kansas from La Harpe, Illinois, and his life in Kansas Territory. He described daily activities as well as events related to the territorial struggle. He settled in Shawnee County north of Topeka. He participated in a militia group at the battles of Indianola and Hickory Point. Reader was an amateur artist and some of the diary pages contain sketches and water color paintings.

Keywords: Battles; Diaries; Free state militia; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hickory Point, Kansas Territory; Indianola, Battle of; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory

Letter, Wm [Goodnow] to My Dear Wife [Harriet Goodnow]
Author: Goodnow, William E.
Date: June 17, 1855

William Goodnow wrote from Shannon, Wild Cat Creek, Kansas Territory, to his wife in New England. Goodnow commented on the weather and crops of the Territory, contrasting them with his experiences back East. Recovering from an illness, he had observed that there had been much traffic of soldiers, teams, and equipment passing by on their way to Fort Riley, "12 miles above here." Goodnow also mentioned that the Territorial Legislature was slated to convene at Pawnee, only 2 miles from his settlement, during the next week, though he supposed that "its doings will be illegal & void."

Keywords: Crops; Daily life; Denison, Joseph; Diseases; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Goodnow, William E.; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory; Weather

Letter, James [Griffing] to My Dear Augusta [J. Augusta Goodrich]
Author: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: August 29, 1855

James Griffing wrote from the steamboat New Lucy on the Missouri River to his fiancee J. Augusta Goodrich in Owego, New York. Griffing, a Methodist minister, was on his way back to New York to get married. He commented upon the concerns that Ms. Goodrich likely was experiencing as she prepared to leave her New York home to join him in Kansas Territory. Griffing tried to convince his fiancee that they would make a good home for themselves in Kansas. He also expressed the opinion that the "excitement upon the slavery question" in Kansas Territory was exaggerated and that serious violence over the issue was unlikely.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Courtship; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Marriage; Propaganda; Transportation; Travel

Narrative," A Twelve Months Practical Life in Kansas Territory, written by an actual settler"
Author: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date: ca. 1855

Robert Atkins Tovey wrote these pages so that "those who are going forth with their wives & children, their property, yea their all on earth should have the information covering the country to which they are making a Pilgrimage" from someone who has recently made the same journey. Broken up into chapters by subject, Tovey gave advice about the journey and settlement, provisions, land claims, soil, and weather, in addition to providing commentary about the current political situation and his disgust at the "Mob law" being imposed by the Missourians.

Keywords: African Americans; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Election fraud; Free state perspective; Kansas Territory; Landscape; Missourians; Native Americans; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Settlement; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Slavery; Slaves; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Transportation; Travel; Weather

Letter, John Bayless to My Dear Daughter [Mrs. C. J. Minion?]
Author: Bayless, John
Date: January 14, 1856

John Bayless wrote from Kirkwood, Broome County, New York to his daughter, Mrs. C. J. Minion [?] , in Kansas Territory. Bayless encouraged her, assuring her that she would have no regrets about moving to the Territory, despite hardships she might find there. He affirmed that courage and perseverance would "overcome all obstacles", and hoped that she was being regular in her attendance to religious services at the Mission. Bayless also told her he planned to join her in the Territory the coming Spring.

Keywords: Bayless, John; Daily life; Domestics; Kansas Territory; Postal service; Religion

Letter, T. [Thomas] C. Wells to Mother [Sarah Elizabeth Clarke Wells]
Author: Wells, Thomas Clarke
Date: April 3, 1856

After spending part of much of the winter back East, Wells returned to KT in April 1856, beginning this letter home from aboard the steamer "James H. Lucas" and finishing it on April 13 at Juniata, near Fort Riley. He commented on the trip, by rail and boat, and on the fact that there were "Quite a number of people on board from South Carolina and Georgia going to Kansas." But they would not last long, and "The free state people must eventually conquer--the South cannot compete with the North in sending emigrants." Wells' plans upon his return were to sell his Juniata property and take one close to Manhattan, something he describes having done in a subsequent letter.

Keywords: Detroit, Michigan; Free state; Georgia; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Railroads; South Carolina; Southern emigrants; St. Louis, Missouri; Steamboats; Travel; Wells, Thomas Clarke

Letter, C. A. Wright to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Author: Wright, Charles A.
Date: April 14, 1856

Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Wright described his recent experiences buying and selling cattle obtained from Missouri counties. He also mentioned his purchase of town shares in Manhattan, Kansas Territory, and commented on the recent emigration rush, which was increasing demand for land, filling hotels, and causing rent to increase. Wright felt optimistic about the future of peace in Kansas, having heard a story about Governor Reeder's feeling for the same.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Livestock; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Town development; Town shares; Wright, Charles A.

Letter, Noah Cameron to Bradford R. Wood
Author: Cameron, Noah
Date: April 30, 1856

Noah Cameron, writing from Lawrence, expressed his views on the economic prospects for persons interested in migrating to Kansas. He advised Bradford Wood, a New York State Kansas Committee representative, to emphasize the economic opportunities in Kansas while also being realistic about the hardships that settlers would face in Kansas.

Keywords: Cameron, Noah; Economic conditions; Economic development; Emigration and immigration; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Wood, Bradford R.

Letter, Martin [Stowell] to My Dear E and others
Author: Stowell, Martin
Date: August 15, 1856

This letter was written by Martin Stowell from Lexington, Kansas Territory. He described his journey to Kansas and the movements of his emigrant train, of which he was elected military head. He also spoke of the local vegetation and his belief that he could make a fine home in this country. Stowell also gave his friend advice about the best route into Kansas and recommended that all mail be sent through Nebraska City, NE or Burlington, IA so correspondence would not pass through a slave state. Stowell also asked the recipient of the letter to forward this letter to T. W. Higginson.

Keywords: Brown County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Iowa; Land claims; Lexington Township, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Postal service; Stowell, Martin; Travel

Letter, E. D. G. [Ellen Goodnow] to My Dear Sister Harriet [Goodnow]
Author: Goodnow, Ellen
Date: May 18, 1856

Ellen Goodnow, wife of Isaac Goodnow, wrote to her sister-in-law, Harriet, in New England. In this mostly personal letter, Goodnow reports on the joys and limitations of life in Kansas Territory, stating "I can say truly that I enjoy life as well here as I ever did anywhere." She did not anticipate trouble from border ruffians in their area, as her family's settlement was "too far from Missouri, too near Fort Riley", telling Harriet she would be "enraptured. . .in this country"; Ellen looked forward to a visit from her.

Keywords: Crops; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Harriet; Military roads; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Kansas Territory

Letter, H. J. Williams to Florella Adair
Author: Williams, H. (Mrs. John) J.
Date: October 29, 1856

Mrs. Williams was a member of one of Rev. Adair's churches in Lafayette, Ohio She wrote about her concern for the Adair family during all of the troubles in Kansas. She and her husband also sent some cheese and cloth to the Adairs. The letter had references to various family members. The letter showed the support women settlers received from friends in the East.

Keywords: Free state supporters; Friendship; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Williams, H. J. (Mrs. John); Women

Photograph, R. L. Williams house
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1857

Stone house built by R. L. Williams in the summer of 1857, Franklin, Kansas Territory. The photograph was taken c. 1890.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Franklin buildings; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Houses; Photographs and Illustrations; Williams, R. L.

Letter, [Mrs] H. J. Williams to Sister [Florella] Adair
Author: Williams, H. (Mrs. John) J.
Date: January 27, 1857

Mrs. Williams expressed her sympathy for the conditions Mrs. Adair had to endure in Kansas. The letter eloquently described all of the suffering Mrs. Williams felt Mrs. Adair had experienced. The letter indicated that boxes of materials had been sent to Osawatomie but Mrs. Williams feared that they have not arrived. The letter gave news of the Williams family and others in Lafayette, Ohio.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Free state supporters; Friendship; Lafayette, Ohio; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Williams, H. J. (Mrs. John); Women

Letter, John Doy to Friend [Thomas W.] Higginson
Author: Doy, John
Date: February 24, 1857

John Doy wrote from Lawrence to Thomas W. Higginson, relating the struggles of his family and other matters of interest in the territory. He had to sell the last of his corn crop and his pig just to make ends meet during the winter. He also briefly mentioned the Central Committee, stating that he did not ask them for relief funds or provisions, because recently they had acted improperly towards some ladies. He also informed Higginson of an altercation at Lecompton, where Missourians shot a storekeeper named Mr. Shepard, and "Sherrard their Bully late of Virginia was shot and died in a day or two." In addition, Doy spoke of the "bogus officers" and their work in the territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Casualties; Doy, John; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas Central Committee; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Relief; Violence

Diary, G. W. Paddock
Author: Paddock, G. W.
Date: April 12, 1857 - July 28, 1860

G. W. Paddock was a minister and free state supporter who came to Kansas Territory in 1857. He describes his daily activities and his religious work, as well as his impressions of the city of Wyandotte while the constitutional convention was meeting there. His entries for this time period indicate he visited the convention, although he does not discuss the substance of the proceedings. The 1857 portion describes some of the free state controversies. He also mentions working with American Indians; however, his descriptions are often stereotypical and uncomplimentary. A number of entries from this diary were selected, but the entire diary is not included.

Keywords: Daily life; Free state supporters; Paddock, G. W.; Religion; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory

Letter, James Wooten to Geo. W. Collamoor Esq.
Author: Wooten, James
Date: June 15, 1857

James Wooten wrote from Boston to George Collamore in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, regarding the recent and unexpected death of his brother, Robert. Wooten said that Charles Robinson, who had been appointed Executor of Robert's estate, had written him. Wooten had provided a list of his brother's properties to Robinson, which included land in Quindaro.

Keywords: Collamore, George W.; Delaware Indian lands, Kansas Territory; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Wooten, James

Letter, A. Tuttle, Buffalo, New York, to Friend Gray [Alfred]
Author: Tuttle, A.
Date: June 25, 1857

Tuttle wrote from Buffalo, New York, about his plans to come to Kansas by the fall. Alfred Gray apparently was from Buffalo also and had settled in Quindaro, Kansas Territory. Tuttle wrote about bank failures and the poor economy in the east. He also wanted Gray to send printed information about Kansas as he thought it would attract some of those out of work. He inquired if any of the literature was in German as there were a number of out-of-work German immigrants in the area.

Keywords: Germans; Gray, Alfred; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Tuttle, A.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Diary
Author: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: June 1857 - July 1858

Joseph Trego first came to Kansas Territory in June 1857. He chose to settle near Mound City (originally Sugar Mound), Miami County, Kansas Territory. He returned to his home near Rock Island, Illinois to prepare to move to Kansas. He then came back to Kansas Territory in the fall of 1857, though he did not bring his wife and three girls at that time. In March of 1858, he again returned to Illinois to bring his family to their new home. These diary entries started with his second trip to the territory in September 1857 and described the various trips to and from Kansas Territory and his various activities here. The diary entries from March 17, 1858 to May 25, 1858 (15 pages) are not included. Trego, along with Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell in the diary entries) and his brother Edwin Smith, constructed and operated a sawmill on Little Sugar Creek. Trego was involved in town company activities, and the sawmill furnished lumber and shingles for many of the buildings in Mound City. The diary entries provided information on the efforts of settlement including the furnishing of a cabin and construction of the sawmill. They documented the operation of the sawmill and other activities in the area, including some of the border disputes. Trego was a free state supporter and this was reflected in some of the entries.

Keywords: Diaries; Emigration and immigration; Free state cause; Free state settlers; House furnishings; Household activities; Houses; Illinois; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sawmills; Settlement; Smith, Edwin; Smith, Thomas Ellwood; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, S. [Samuel] L. Adair to Mr. J. B. [John Brown]
Author: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: October 2, 1857

Samuel Adair wrote his brother-in-law John Brown from Osawatomie on October 2, 1857, to explain why he could not come see Brown in Iowa. Much of letter describes the general poor state of health in his locale, but he also comments on the political and especially the prospects for free state success in the upcoming election--Adair was not optimistic.

Keywords: Adair, Florella Brown; Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state prospects; Free state support; Health; Land claims; Lecompton Land Office; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Preemption law United States; Proslavery supporters; Sickness (see Illness); Slave power; Tabor, Iowa; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Letter, Ellen [Goodnow] to My Dear Husband [Isaac Goodnow]
Author: Goodnow, Ellen
Date: October 3, 1857

Ellen Goodnow wrote from Shannon, Kansas Territory, to her husband, Isaac, who was traveling in Boston. Ellen asked that he purchase winter supplies for the family and neighbors while he was on the East Coast, and listed their necessities. The letter includes a short note from Joseph Denison, informing Isaac that more money was needed than expected to support the college through the winter.

Keywords: Bluemont Central College; Denison, Joseph; Domestics; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Riley County, Kansas Territory

Letter, J. [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Author: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: October 25, 1857

Joseph Trego wrote from his log cabin near Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego described the beauty of the fall foliage and his plans to build a new home for his family, whom he greatly missed. He worried that he had heard from Alice only once in seven weeks, while he had written every week. Trego showed that he was well connected to current events in the Territory and the county, as he and his friends took several newspapers, including two from Lawrence.

Keywords: Free state perspective; Houses; Hunting; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Weather

Quilt from Kentucky
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1857

Whitework quilt brought to Kansas from Kentucky in 1857. The bedcover dates from 1840 to 1850, and is made of plain white cotton fabric. The designs are the result of quilting and extra stuffing which gives a relief effect. Jeremiah King brought the quilt to Kansas, settling in Wyandotte County.

Keywords: Daily life; House furnishings; Immigration and early settlement; Kentucky; King, Jeremiah; Objects; Settlement; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Letter, Your affect. Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Author: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: January 2, 1858

Joseph Trego wrote from his cabin near Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Rock Island, Illinois. Trego briefly updated her on the status of the mill enterprise before expressing more personal sentiments. He felt it had been a mistake not to bring her to the Territory, as he could not devote all of his energy to the tasks at hand for missing her. Trego also discussed the length of time it took her letters to reach him via the postal service.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Postal service; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Women

Letter, Sara [Robinson] to My Dear Sister
Author: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: January 5, 1858

Sara Robinson wrote to her sister from Lawrence, describing her home and lifestyle. Robinson named many friends and guests who had visited and/or boarded at her home. She made reference to the election occurring the day before, which would determine whether or not the Lecompton Constitution was ratified, and reiterated her support for the Free State cause.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Election, Lecompton Constitution ratification, January 1858; Free state perspective; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Weather

Letter, Moses C. Sessions to "Dear Sir"
Author: Sessions, Moses C.
Date: January 10, 1858

Sessions settled in Centerville, Linn County on October 17, 1857. In this letter, he describes the country around Centerville, including the [perary], and the lack of timber and water except in [cricks] and [revenes]. He lists the kinds of trees found and describes how those that raise hogs let them roam. He also describes the wild life in the area. He spells phonetically so portions of the letter are hard to understand.

Keywords: Animals; Centerville, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Livestock; Sessions, Moses C.; Timber

Letter, Your loving Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Author: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: January 18, 1858

Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego, tired of "keeping bach" (living a bachelor's lifestyle), he occupied himself with the milling business, which was sawing 4000 ft of lumber each day. A member of the town company in Mound City, he had also recently traveled to gain support for the construction of some new roads in the area; he was also interested in developing a school. At the end of the letter, Trego wrote personal notes to each of his three daughters.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Roads; School buildings; Schools; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Teachers; Timber; Town development; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, Nathan Starks to Hiram Hill Esq
Author: Starks, Nathan
Date: March 8, 1858

Nathan Starks wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, asking for Hill's assistance in securing his old homestead in Massachusetts. Starks described his situation: he had moved to K.T. seeking better health and business, but had been disappointed in both of those, the social scene, and the lawlessness of the land. He hoped to return to his old homestead in Massachusetts after a year of life in Kansas Territory, provided that it had not been sold.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Health; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Mills and mill-work; Real estate investment; Starks, Nathan

Letter, J. [John] S. [Stillman] Brown to Dear Willie
Author: Brown, John S.
Date: June 13, 1858

This letter, written from Lawrence by John Stillman Brown, was addressed to his son William, who was studying at Phillips Exeter Academy. The letter included information about their local church meetings and the talk surrounding the murder of Gaius Jenkins. Brown also mentioned a sermon he preached, which outlined the beliefs of the Unitarians. He admonished his son to immerse himself in the Scriptures, and to stop drinking tea and other stimulants. The letter concluded with a discussion of politics, particularly the Lecompton and Leavenworth Constitutions.

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Churches; Community life; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth Constitution; Lecompton Constitution; Nute, Ephraim; Religion; Unitarian churches; Weather

Letter, John Vansickle to Dear Father and Mother
Author: Vansickle, John H.
Date: July 11, 1858

John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County to his Father and Mother outside Kansas Territory. Vansickle spoke of a recent trip to Iowa, though it was short because he was anxious to return home. He added that grain crops in the area were doing the best he had ever seen. Vansickle also told his parents of his marriage three days earlier to Martha Stevenson, and invited them both for a visit, as the current climate of "perfect peas" [sic, peace] made the journey a safer one.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Crops; Daily life; Farmers; Marriage; Vansickle, John H.

Letter, Ellen D. Goodnow to My Dear Husband [Isaac Goodnow]
Author: Goodnow, Ellen
Date: July 25, 1858

Ellen Goodnow wrote from Manhattan, Kansas Territory, to her husband, Isaac, while he was traveling. She included news of recent heavy rains, which had washed out bridges and roads, slowing travel and mail delivery. However, the crops were prospering as a result. Goodnow also described much illness and fever in the area, herself included. She closed the letter with a recipe for shaving soap.

Keywords: Crops; Daily life; Domestics; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Illness; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Recipes; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Weather

Diary
Author: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: July 25, 1858 - December 9, 1859

Joseph Trego first came to Kansas in June 1857. He lived near Mound City (originally Sugar Mound), Linn County, Kansas Territory. These diary entries started on July 25, 1858 and are a continuation of an earlier diary (portions of which were also digitized as part of this project). He described various daily activities including the operation a sawmill in partnership with Thomas Ellwood Smith (Ell in the diary entries) and his brother Edwin Smith. The diary entries provided information on the efforts of making a living and settling on a frontier. They documented some of the border disputes and related activities. Trego was a free state supporter and this was reflected in some of the entries.

Keywords: Diaries; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Sugar Creek, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Sawmills; Smith, Edwin; Smith, Thomas Ellwood; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Diary, Anna Margaret (Watson) Randolph
Author: Randolph, Anna Margaret (Watson)
Date: August 17, 1858 - August 22, 1858

This diary, kept by Anna Margaret (Watson) Randolph, begins with her move to Kansas in an entry dated August 17, 1858. These six entries at the beginning of her diary provide details about her family's journey from Ohio to Kansas Territory, included a number of interesting accounts of their journey on a riverboat. Their boat ran aground several times and, interspersed among her descriptions of these difficulties, Anna wrote about her sister Mary Jane, the weather, and her personal observances of other passengers. She also filled her diary with her frustrations and concerns during their arduous journey west.

Keywords: Cincinnati, Ohio; Diaries; Emigration and immigration; Ohio; Randolph, Anna Margaret (Watson); Transportation; Travel; Water transportation

Letter, John Vansickle to Dear Sir
Author: Vansickle, John H.
Date: September 1, 1858

John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County to the recipient (most likely a family member) regarding his business selling goods. Money was scarce for him, though the crops were faring well. Vansickle included the current prices for various commodities and told of his plans to travel East the following spring. He expressed concern that he had not heard from many of his friends since moving to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Business enterprises; Crops; Daily life; Economic conditions; Merchants; Prices; Vansickle, John H.; Xenia, Kansas Territory

Letter, S.T. Learnard to Dear Son [Oscar Learnard]
Author: Learnard, S. T.
Date: September 14, 1858

S.T. Learnard wrote from Bakersfield, Vermont, to his son, Oscar Learnard of Kansas Territory, in this transcribed version of his letter. S.T. mentioned his recent election to the Vermont State Legislature, in which the Republicans "swept the kitchen clean" of the Democratic candidates. He also asked about land operations in Kansas Territory, but added that he was opening a store of his own in Vermont. He discussed the possibility of obtaining buffalo and otter skins from Kansas to add to his store inventory.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Democratic Party (U.S.); Elections; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Merchandise; Merchants; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Vermont

Letter, John Vansickle to Dear Sir
Author: Vansickle, John H.
Date: December 11, 1858

John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County regarding his business selling goods, which was "on the gaining hand" since he was the only merchant from the "river clear to the state line." There had been three inches of snow, he said, but the temperature had not yet reached zero. Vansickle again invited the recipient of this letter to visit him in the spring.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Business enterprises; Merchandise; Merchants; Prices; Vansickle, John H.; Weather; Xenia, Kansas Territory

Diary, Anna Margaret (Watson) Randolph
Author: Randolph, Anna Margaret (Watson)
Date: December 12, 1858 - December 19, 1858

These excerpts from Anna (Watson) Randolph's diary begin after her family had settled in Emporia in 1858. Living in Emporia provided many opportunities for her and her family to become involved in the community, including church services and "singing school." She includes juicy details about her neighbors, including Mr. Plumb who was a fan of the drink. Her entries also point to her mental state and her personal reflections on self improvement. In short, these entries provide a previously unseen glimpse into the Emporia community during the 1850s and into the lives of the Watson family.

Keywords: Churches; Community life; Daily life; Diaries; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; Freemasons; Holidays; Randolph, Anna Margaret (Watson); Schools

Photograph, Bellemont, Kansas Territory
Author: Bierstadt Bros., Photographers, N. Bedford, Mass.
Date: 1859

A view of Bellemont, Kansas Territory, photographed by Bierstadt Bros., Photographers, N. Bedford, Mass.

Keywords: Bellemont, Kansas Territory; Bierstadt Bros., Photographers; Bierstadt, Albert; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Stereographs; Wagons

Diary
Author: Hubbell, Willard Orvis
Date: February 1, 1859 - April 30, 1859

This three month excerpt from a personal diary probably was written by Willard O. Hubbell. The diary described Hubbell's routine daily activities as a twenty-five year old bachelor working as a tinner in Lawrence. Hubbell was active in fraternal organizations and frequently attended dances and other social gatherings.

Keywords: Clubs; Community life; Dance parties; Diaries; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fraternal Organizations; Freemasons; Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Letter, Frank Walker to his family, presumably.
Author: Walker, Frank
Date: March 24, 1859

Walker wrote from Mound City, Linn County, Kansas Territory. He indicated that he was working for $25 per month. He intended to preempt a claim the next fall but was going to plant corn on 18 acres. Part of the letter referred to some type of imprisonment but the details were not clear.

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Land claims; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Walker, Frank

Letter, Frank Walker to Dear Sister [Augusta Walker]
Author: Walker, Frank
Date: April 10, 1859

This letter from Frank Walker was written in Mound City, Linn County, Kansas Territory. He continued to describe his plans to acquire land and his hopes that it would increase in value. He recounted an incident in which someone named Byron was shot by "Missourians." He provided some detail of the encounter between Byron and 6 other free staters against 46 men.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state perspective; Land claims; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Walker, Frank

Letter, James [Griffing] to My dear Cuttie [J. Augusta Goodrich Griffing]
Author: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: July 27, 1859

James Griffing wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife J. Augusta (Goodrich) Griffing. Ms. Griffing was visiting her family in New York for the first time since her arrival in Kansas in 1855. Mr. Griffing described daily activities including planting buckwheat and growing cucumbers.

Keywords: Agriculture; Food; Grain; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich)

Letter, James [Griffing] to [J. Augusta Goodrich Griffing]
Author: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: July 28, 1859

James Griffing wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife J. Augusta (Goodrich) Griffing. Mrs. Griffing was visiting her family in New York for the first time since her arrival in Kansas in 1855. James Griffing described his efforts to perform household chores in his wife's absence including cooking, milking the cow, churning butter, laundry, butchering chickens, and gardening.

Keywords: Agriculture; Daily life; Food; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Household activities; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Letter, Ellen [Goodnow] to My Dear Husband [Isaac Goodnow]
Author: Goodnow, Ellen
Date: July 1859

Ellen Goodnow wrote to her husband, Isaac Goodnow, from Manhattan, Kansas Territory, briefly relating the news of a friend's sudden death. She attached a list of items she wished Isaac to purchase while he was in the East, which mostly consisted of clothing items, but also included a clock and a microscope.

Keywords: Daily life; Domestics; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Riley County, Kansas Territory

Letter, James [Griffing] to Dear Cuttie [J. Augusta Goodrich Griffing]
Author: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: August 7, 1859

James Griffing wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife J. Augusta (Goodrich) Griffing. Mrs. Griffing was visiting her family in New York for the first time since her arrival in Kansas in 1855. James Griffing described his daily activities including his efforts to protect his chickens from "polecats," to gather wild grapes, and to prepare his own meals.

Keywords: Animals; Daily life; Food; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Letter, Augusta [J. Augusta Goodrich Griffing] to Dearest James [Griffing]
Author: Griffing, Jemima August (Goodrich)
Date: August 7, 1859

J. Augusta (Goodrich) Griffing wrote from Owego, New York to her husband James in Topeka, Kansas Territory. Ms. Griffing was visiting her family in New York for the first time since her arrival in Kansas in 1855. She described visiting friends and extended family in the Owego area, attending church, and purchasing items that she planned to take back to Kansas. She also gave Mr. Griffing instructions on how to make pickles from cucumbers that he harvested from their kitchen garden in Kansas.

Keywords: Agriculture; Daily life; Food; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); New York; Owego, New York; Travel; Women

Letter, James [Griffing] to My Dear [J. Augusta Goodrich Griffing]
Author: Griffing, James Sayre
Date: August 9, 1859

James Griffing wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife J. Augusta (Goodrich) Griffing. Mrs. Griffing was visiting her family in New York for the first time since her arrival in Kansas in 1855. Mr. Griffing gave his wife instructions on fruit seeds (plum, cherry, and peach) and cuttings (gooseberry and blackberry) to collect and transport back to Kansas. He also described his plan to purchase pine flooring in Leavenworth.

Keywords: Food; Fruit; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Lumber; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Letter, Ellen D. G. [Goodnow] to My Dear Husband [Isaac Goodnow]
Author: Goodnow, Ellen
Date: August 16, 1859

Ellen Goodnow wrote from Manhattan, Kansas Territory, to her husband, Isaac, who was traveling on the East coast. Ellen updated him on the progress of Bluemont College's construction, and suggested that they move into the school building temporarily to keep watch over loose supplies ("anything moveable is in danger"), especially doors and windows. She recounted an incident in which a housemate's accident left him with a deep headwound and included details of the treatment. Goodnow also listed more supplies that she needed from the East, gave Isaac clothing suggestions to keep healthy, and expressed her fatigue at running the household without him.

Keywords: Bluemont Central College; Construction; Denison, Joseph; Domestics; Goodnow, Ellen; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Health; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Marlott, Washington; Medicine; Riley County, Kansas Territory; School buildings; Wounds and injuries

Letter, Augusta [J. Augusta Goodrich Griffing] to My Dear Husband [James Griffing]
Author: Griffing, Jemima August (Goodrich)
Date: September 17, 1859

J. Augusta (Goodrich) Griffing wrote from Hartford, Connecticut to her husband James in Topeka, Kansas Territory. Mrs. Griffing was visiting family and friends in the East for the first time since her arrival in Kansas in 1855. She reported on her trip from Owego, New York to Hartford and her decision to leave her young son, Johnny, in the care of Mr. Griffing's family in Owego. She described Johnny's behavior in some detail. She informed Mr. Griffing that she planned to start her trip back to Kansas Territory in October 1859.

Keywords: Children; Connecticut; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Hartford, Connecticut; Travel; Women

Invitation, Agricultural Fair Ball
Author: No authors specified.
Date: September 30, 1859

Invitation to the Agricultural Ball at the Planter's House in Forest City, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Balls (parties); Forest City, Kansas Territory

Letter, L. [Leigh] R. Webber to Miss Brown [daughter of John Stillman Brown]
Author: Webber, L. R.
Date: October 22, 1859

This letter, written by Leigh R. Webber from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, was addressed to Miss Brown, a daughter of John Stillman Brown. Webber wrote about sickness in the Brown family and about other personal matters, such as her father's work as a minister. He also kept her apprised of politics, both in Kansas and on the national scene, and spoke briefly of John Brown's "insane undertaking."

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fires; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Religion; Sickness (see Illness); Slave power; Webber, Leigh R.

Letter, James [R. Mead] to Dear Father and Folks at home
Author: Mead, James R.
Date: November 7, 1859

In this letter, James R. Mead wrote his family and friends about his first buffalo hunt. He had just recently returned from this adventure and apparently he was extremely successful, having killed 30 buffalo. He wrote a rather detailed description of a buffalo's appearance so his friends and family would have a mental picture of this magnificent animal. Mead also mentioned other wild animals, such as prairie dogs and rabbits, commenting on their plumpness.

Keywords: Bison; Firearms; Hunting; Kansas Frontier; Mead, James R.; Natural resources

Letter, E. S. Whitney to Uncle Hiram
Author: Whitney, E.S.
Date: November 24, 1859

E. S. Whitney, niece of Hiram Hill, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to her uncle in Massachusetts. Whitney reported that money was scarce; the family was living in a hotel in town and they had begun renting their house. Her husband, Thaddeus Whitney, was unable to collect debts owed to him in order to travel to Pikes Peak. They all had recently suffered from an illness, but Thaddeus had begun building a new home on New Hampshire street.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Hill, Hiram; Illness; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pikes Peak gold rush; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Whitney, E.S.; Whitney, Thaddeus L.; Women

Account ledger, William Patton in Acct. with Leach & Bro.
Author: No authors specified.
Date: December 1859

This document listed names and prices of items purchased by William Patton, presumably from the Leach & Bro. Store in Iowa Point, Kansas Territory. Patton himself was a slave owner.

Keywords: Account books; Domestics; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Iowa Point, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Patton, William; Prices; Settlement

Book, Gunn's Map and Handbook of Kansas and the Gold Mines
Author: Gunn, O.B. (Otis Berthoude, 1828-1901)
Date: 1859

This book by O.B. Gunn, a civil engineer in Wyandotte, provides basic information about Kansas Territory and the living conditions there. The first half outlines statistics about the population, climate, crops, telegraph access, etc. for the use of potential settlers. The second half describes routes to gold mines in Western Kansas Territory and advises the best travel seasons and provisions necessary to make the journey. Includes more than 20 pages of business and trade advertisements, including Gunn's own advertisement on p. 57.

Keywords: Crops; Daily life; Gold mines and mining; Gunn, O.B. (Otis Berthoude, 1828-1901); Kansas Territory; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land claims; Mining; Native Americans; Pikes Peak gold rush; Railroads; Settlement; Telegraph; Weather; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory

Photograph, Paola, Kansas, 1860s
Author: Brown's Photographic Gallery, Paola, Miami Co., Kansas
Date: c. 1860

A street scene in Paola, Kansas, 1860s. The photograph was taken by Brown's Photographic Gallery, Paola, Miami Co., Kansas.

Keywords: Brown's Photographic Gallery; Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Commerce; Covered wagons; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Paola, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets; Transportation

Letter, R. G. Elliott to Dear Sister
Author: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: January 24, 1860

Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper, wrote to his sister from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Elliott told her that the Territorial legislature had just began its session, and he explained how it came to be held in Lawrence. He updated his sister on his current occupation as a Deputy at the Treasurer's office and cleared up a rumor that he had received $40,000 compensation for damages during the sack of Lawrence. He had only received $4,000, and he had immediately invested it in Territorial land warrants.

Keywords: Admission, Kansas (see also Statehood); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Elliott, Robert G.; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Pikes Peak gold rush; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Telegraph

Letter, John Vansickle to Sir
Author: Vansickle, John H.
Date: February 20, 1860

John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County about building his new home, the development of new roads in his area, and preparations for the recipient's coming visit. Vansickle also related a story in which a former Jayhawker was caught stealing a horse and "cabeled to a Post Oak Lim between heven and Erth. . .in token. . .of our Love for John Brown the People think of making Several Such Sacrifices."

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Daily life; Economic conditions; Jayhawkers; Prices; Proslavery support; Roads; Sawmills; Settlement; Vansickle, John H.; Xenia, Kansas Territory

Letter, Theodore Hyatt to S. C. Pomeroy
Author: Hyatt, Theodore
Date: March 5, 1860

In this letter, Theodore Hyatt wrote from New York to S. C. Pomeroy regarding land transactions and railroads. Theodore also mentioned his brother, Thaddeus Hyatt, who was going to appear in Washington to make an argument before the Senate. This most likely referred to the repercussions facing Thaddeus due to his support of John Brown.

Keywords: Hyatt, Thaddeus; Hyatt, Theodore; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Railroads

Letter, Theodore Hyatt to My good friend [W. F. M.] Arny
Author: Hyatt, Theodore
Date: March 21, 1860

Theodore Hyatt of New York wrote this letter to W. F. M. Arny, an agent of the National Kansas Committee and friend of his brother, Thaddeus Hyatt. The main focus of the letter revolved around his brother Thaddeus, who was currently involved in a struggle with the government over whether or not he would testify in court regarding his support of John Brown. Theodore wrote, "I much fear my good brother has an exaggerated conception of the importance of his position." Apparently, he felt that his brother was attempting to make himself a martyr. The letter also included a brief mention of problems with freightage to Atchison and the competition between Atchison and Leavenworth.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Freight and freightage; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Hyatt, Theodore; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Prisons; Railroads; Russell, Majors, and Waddell

Letter, Theodore [Hyatt] to Dear Brother [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Author: Hyatt, Theodore
Date: March 27, 1860

This letter, written by Theodore Hyatt of New York, was sent to his brother Thaddeus, president of the National Kansas Committee. The main purpose of the letter was to keep Thaddeus informed about business dealings in Atchison, Kansas Territory. S.C. Pomeroy and Benjamin Stringfellow were attempting to attract the freighting business to Atchison through "inducements" in the form of town lots. However, the letter also discussed the current situation, since Thaddeus had been imprisoned in Washington D.C. for aiding John Brown and collecting funds to support the Brown family after John's death in 1859. Theodore briefly mentioned that he was "laying low" on that issue until he could collect all the funds obtained and pay it to Thaddeus.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Hyatt, Theodore; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Prisons; Russell, Majors, and Waddell; Town lots

Letter, Theodore Hyatt to Mrs. S. C. [Lucy] Pomeroy
Author: Hyatt, Theodore
Date: April 12, 1860

Theodore Hyatt of New York wrote this letter to Lucy Pomeroy, the wife of S. C. Pomeroy, concerning business affairs and life in Atchison, Kansas Territory. He expressed his hope that the railroad troubles had been resolved, and thanked Mrs. Pomeroy for inviting Theodore Hyatt, Jr. to come visit the Pomeroy family in Kansas. The letter concluded with a brief mention of his brother, Thaddeus Hyatt, who was still imprisoned in Washington Jail. According to Theodore, Thaddeus "appears to enjoy his condition exceedingly" and is feeling better every day.

Keywords: Atchison, Kansas Territory; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Hyatt, Theodore; Pomeroy, Lucy Gaylord; Pony express; Railroads; Russell, Majors, and Waddell; St. Joseph, Missouri

Letter, Spencer [Brown] to Kit [Kitty Cordelia Gould] Brown
Author: Brown, Spencer Kellogg
Date: April 15, 1860

This letter, written from Osawatomie by Spencer Brown, was addressed to his older sister Kitty (Cordelia Gould) Brown. He playfully berated her for sending a "microscopic" letter, and he offered her his personal opinion about her current suitor, describing this young man as a "milk-and-water infant." In general, the letter gave an intimate glimpse into this sister/brother relationship and demonstrated that even during hard times, life continued.

Keywords: Brothers and sisters; Brown, Cordelia Gould; Brown, Spencer; Courtship; Daily life; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory

Letter, Elias Clark to S. N. Wood
Author: Clark, Elias
Date: May 4, 1860

Perhaps in response to a question about an advertisement for agents, Elias Clark of St. Louis explained that a prospective agent could buy a machine for $35 retail and test it out before trying to represent the product to others. But he was confident in the "Raymond Double Threaded Family Sewing Machine" and it had been getting good reports from agents in Illinois. Clark's letter to Wood was written on the back of printed "rules for agents" and additional information about the sewing machine business.

Keywords: Clark, Elias; Commercial agents; Sewing machines; St. Louis, Missouri; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Letter, John S. [Stillman] Brown to Dear Son William
Author: Brown, John S.
Date: June 21, 1857

This letter, written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, is a tender, heartfelt piece of correspondence, speaking of the joys and triumphs of living in a new land. Brown enjoyed his time in Kansas, preaching at a local church and working on his claim. He outlined for his son, who was away at boarding school, his typical day to day activities, which included cooking, gardening, and housekeeping. He also spoke of the currently peaceful state of affairs in Kansas.

Keywords: Brown, John S.; Churches; Domestics; Household activities; Houses; Vegetables

Letter, James [R. Mead] to My dear Father
Author: Mead, James R.
Date: August 26, 1860

In this letter, written from Burlingame, Kansas Territory, James R. Mead informed his father that he had come back to eastern Kansas to work for Mr. Titus, presumably the pro-slavery Colonel Titus. Mead still maintained a ranch and trading post on the Saline River. Mead also wrote to his father about a home that he was building in Salina, Kansas Territory. He called his buffalo hunting "a wholesale butchering establishment," and he was going to cure the meat. Apparently he had developed quite a reputation in the area, and he had been made sheriff of Saline County.

Keywords: Bison; Burlingame, Kansas Territory; Houses; Hunting; Indian traders; Mead, James R.; Osage County, Kansas Territory; Ranching; Salina, Kansas Territory; Saline County, Kansas Territory; Town lots

Letter, John Kimball to Br. [Isaac] Goodnow
Author: Kimball, John
Date: September 22, 1860

John Kimball wrote from Manhattan, Kansas Territory, to Isaac Goodnow, who was traveling away from his home in K.T. Kimball reported on the occupations of a religious camp in the town, within which "the Good Lord is converting sinners." Kimball also discussed the severe drought they were experiencing, and reported great damage to crops in the area. He added news of the Manhattan Express newspaper's expansion to Junction City and an acquaintance's journey to Pikes Peak.

Keywords: Bluemont Central College; Crops; Droughts; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Kimball, John; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Pikes Peak, Kansas Territory; Religious communities; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Travel; de Vivaldi, Charles F.

Letter, James [Mead] to My Dear Father
Author: Mead, James R.
Date: November 22, 1860

James Mead wrote from Salina, Kansas Territory to his father who lived in Davenport, Iowa. Apparently, Mead had heard news of Lincoln's election, but he did not know any specifics. The main focus of the letter was Mead's experiences buffalo hunting--he intended to send his father some of the meat. Between September 1 and the date of this letter he had shot 355 buffalo and killed 250 wolves. He had saved 250 buffalo hides and planned to sell them in St. Louis.

Keywords: Bison; Business enterprises; Hunting; Kansas Frontier; Mead, James R.; Prices; Salina, Kansas Territory; Saline County, Kansas Territory

Letter, J. H. Vansickle to Dear Sir
Author: Vansickle, John H.
Date: November 27, 1860

John Vansickle wrote from Bourbon County regarding the current economic conditions in Kansas Territory. Vansickle stated that the weather had remained dry for almost 12 months, and that corn and other crops had become valuable commodities. He added that the ruffians and the lawless part of the community would not help themselves by working when they had the chance. Vansickle concluded by saying he had plenty of food, and he discussed land claim opportunities with the recipient.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Droughts; Economic conditions; Land acquisition; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Prices; Vansickle, John H.

Letter, James [Mead] to My dear Father
Author: Mead, James R.
Date: December 1, 1860

James Mead, a rancher and trader from Saline County, Kansas Territory, wrote this letter to his father, who lived in Davenport, Iowa. Mead and his companions were going to "the river" to send a load of buffalo meat and buffalo robes to the folks back home. He also spoke of a trading excursion he had taken recently to a Kaw Indian camp about twenty miles from his trading post, listing the goods that were traded. Although other settlers were suffering during the drought of 1860, Mead and those in the vicinity were faring quite well. He once again mentioned Lincoln's election and inquired about whether or not "the Union is dissolved."

Keywords: Bison; Business enterprises; Droughts; Election, Presidential, 1860; Food; Indian traders; Kansa Indians; Mead, James R.; Prices; Saline County, Kansas Territory; Saline River, Kansas Territory

Letter, James R. Mead to My dear Mother
Author: Mead, James R.
Date: December 25, 1860

In this letter addressed to his mother, James Mead wrote about his life out on the frontier near the Saline River, Kansas Territory. He assured her that he had plenty of groceries, including sugar, meal, flour, beans and apples, as well as coffee and tea. He also informed her that he had sent the family a load of buffalo meat and robes, and he discussed the local fur trade, listing different animals in the area. Mead spoke briefly of his long term plans, stating that he would ultimately like to go into stock raising. Throughout the letter, he emphasized the flourishing trade going on in Kansas, in one instance writing that "everybody trades."

Keywords: Bison; Food; Holidays; Hunting; Kansas Frontier; Mead, James R.; Prices; Salina, Kansas Territory; Saline County, Kansas Territory

Letter, James [Mead] to My dear Father
Author: Mead, James R.
Date: January 11, 1861

In this letter, James R. Mead wrote to his father concerning his buffalo hunting and trading. He had just returned from a trading trip, but he did not know what to do with all of the robes, so he planned to send them to his father. He included some advice about the best way to care for and sell these robes. He was hoping to come home to Davenport, Iowa for a visit in the spring, but only if the fur prices were on the rise; in a few days he was heading north to get more furs.

Keywords: Bison; Business enterprises; Clothing and dress; Indian traders; Kansas Frontier; Mead, James R.; Prices; Salina, Kansas Territory

Letter, James [Mead] to My dear Father
Author: Mead, James R.
Date: February 14, 1861

James R. Mead wrote this letter from his ranch and trading post near the Saline River to his father in Davenport, Iowa. He vehemently declared that the stories about suffering settlers in Kansas Territory were "bare-faced lies." He wished that those in the East would stop sending relief supplies because "it all goes into the hands of favorites" and Kansas would be better off without it. He also provided his father with advice, telling him to appreciate his home in Iowa and to stay out of the way of any enemies.

Keywords: Famines; Iowa; Mead, James R.; Ottawa County, Kansas Territory; Poverty; Relief

Extract of Letter, by Mrs. Holmes
Author: Holmes, Mrs.
Date: March 4, 1861

This moving letter, presumably written by Mrs. Holmes, related the daily experiences of her family during 1861. They were struggling to make ends met, and her father did not want to seek help from back East. They had lived in Lawrence for five years, and she briefly mentioned their sickness and suffering during 1856. She applauded the work of Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, and his willingness to obtain provisions and assistance for the impoverished settlers in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Daily life; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Poor; Poverty; Relief

Pamphlet," A Colony for an Indian Reserve in Kansas"
Author: Hutchinson, Clinton Carter
Date: 1863

This pamphlet, written by Clinton Carter Hutchinson, U.S. Indian Agent of Ottawa Creek, Franklin County, Kansas, contains a brief history of the Ottawa Indian tribe (after contact with white settlers) and describes the land allotted to them in a treaty of June 24, 1862, which opened a portion of their land reserve to public sales. The remainder of the pamphlet serves as a type of almanac, advising potential settlers of the Kansas frontier lifestyle, what provisions are available or recommended, and what types of people and professions are desirable.

Keywords: Daily life; Franklin County, Kansas Territory; Indian agents; Land acquisition; Land grants; Native Americans; Natural resources; Ottawa Indians; Timber; Treaties; Weather

Photo album presented by Ladies of Lawrence
Author: Ladies of Lawrence
Date: c. 1862

This photo album was presented to Edmund Gibson Ross, Commandant at Lawrence, by the Ladies of Lawrence for his action of closing the liquor shops in the town. Contains portraits of George Addison Crawford, Governor Samuel Johnson, John K. Rankin, Brinton Webb Woodward, among many other lesser known and unidentified subjects.

Keywords: Crawford, George Addison; Crawford, Samuel Johnson; DaLee, A.G.; Ladies of Lawrence; Rankin, John K.; Ross, Edmund G. (Edmund Gibson), 1826-1907; Temperance movement; Women; Woodward, Brinton Webb

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Expense list, Hiram Hill to W&W E. Thayer
Authors: Hill, Hiram
Date:  1853-1856
Hill listed expenses from 1853-1856. Recorded items are primarily household items, and include itemized prices.

Keywords: Account books; Daily life; Domestics; Hill, Hiram; Prices


Letter, [James Griffing] to [J. Augusta Goodrich]
Authors: Griffing, James Sayre
Date:  October 15, 1854 - October 25, 1854
James Griffing wrote from the bank of the Illinois River in Illinois and Milton, Missouri to his fiancee J. Augusta Goodrich in Owego, New York. Griffing, a Methodist minister, described the daily routine of his overland journey from Indianapolis, Indiana to Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Daily life; Emigration and immigration; Food; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Illinois; Missouri; Transportation; Travel; Wagons


Journey from Massachusetts to Kansas
Authors: Allen, Chestina Bowker
Date:  October 17, 1854 - April 22, 1858
Chestina Bowker Allen traveled to Kansas Territory from Roxbury, Massachusetts, with her husband Asahel Gilbert Allen and five children--William, Charles, Henrietta, John, and Abbie. Apparently, they were members of the third company sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Company and began the journey to Kansas Territory in October, 1854. While the title indicated it recorded the journey to the territory, it actually documented their first three years in Kansas Territory. Mrs. Allen described their journey west with stops in Kansas City and Lawrence. They eventually settled near Rock Creek in Pottawatomie County. She wrote about many of her daily activities including assisting neighbors when ill. She mentioned a cholera epidemic in the area in 1855. She wrote about various rumors and encounters with free state supporters (which the Allen family was) and proslavery groups. She provided a great deal of information about living conditions and the price and availability of various goods. She wrote about her husband and older sons going to various communities to work and also about people that visited their home and those who boarded with them. She provided fairly stereotypical descriptions of Native Americans.The document appeared to be recopied from an original diary and included some penciled in corrections and a few annotations from a later time.

Keywords: Allen, Asahel Gilbert; Allen, Charles Bowker; Allen, Chestina Bowker; Allen, William Francis; American Indians (see also Native Americans); Daily life; Diaries; Diseases; Economic conditions; Ferries; Free state supporters; Louisville, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Native Americans; Pottawatomie County, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Rock Creek, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Steamboats


Diary
Authors: Lovejoy, Julia Louisa
Date:  December 10, 1854 - January 5, 1860
Julia Louisa Hardy Lovejoy and her husband Charles came to Kansas Territory in March 1855. Julia described the trip and their first months in Kansas Territory. However, Julia's diary entries were fairly sporadic so there were significant gaps in her account of life in Kansas Territory. Her writing was very emotional when describing the illness and death of their daughter Edith, when referring to the conflict in the territory, and when writing about her religious beliefs. The diary also contained some detail about daily life. The Lovejoys had two older children (Charles J. and Juliette) and a five year old daughter Edith when they came to Kansas Territory. Their son Charles may have come to Kansas before the rest of the family. Edith died in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, on May 3, 1855. Julia was pregnant at the time and a son Irving was born September 17, 1855. Juliette married Dr. Samuel Whitehorn from Hudson, Michigan, on March 9, 1856, in Manhattan, Kansas Territory. Juliette died November 20, 1860, at Manhattan, Kansas, at the age of 21. See the biographical sketch in the "Personalities" section for more detail on the Lovejoys.

Keywords: Baldwin, Kansas Territory; Daily life; Diaries; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lovejoy, Julia Hardy, 1812-1882; Lovejoy, Julia Louisa (see Lovejoy, Julia Hardy); Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Methodists; Religion; Riley County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Robert A. Tovey to My Dear Wife [Eliza (Matthew) Tovey]
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date:  December 17, 1854
Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr, having arrived in "Kanzas" Territory, wrote to his wife, Eliza (Matthew) Tovey, at their home in Albany, New York. Tovey described his working and living conditions, calling his Native American boss "most pleasant" and his living arrangements "comfortable," though infested with rats. Tovey, also a preacher, mentioned that the Methodist Church, the single place of worship in town, was willing to share their space with other denominations.

Keywords: Churches; Daily life; Emigration and immigration; Immigrants; Labor; Native Americans; Religion; Tovey, Robert Atkins


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