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Immigration and Early Settlement

Immigration and Early Settlement > Specific Settlements > Lawrence
46 Topic Specific Items
Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, c. 1856
Author: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1856

A photographic view of Massachusetts Street, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, c. 1856.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets

Deed of Caleb S. Pratt for Charles Robinson
Author: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: October 13, 1853

This handwritten deed entitled Charles Robinson to the ownership of a house and farm claim south of the town of Lawrence, which was previously owned by Caleb Pratt.

Keywords: Emery, James Stanley; Emigration and immigration; Land acquisition; Legal documents; Lykins, William H. R.; Pratt, Caleb S.; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Settlement

Photograph, William H. R. Lykins house, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Author: Leonard, 613 Kansas Ave., Topeka, KS.
Date: 1854

A view of the William H. R. Lykins house, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. This probably is the second house built by Lykins on the future site of Lawrence. He settled in the area on May 26, 1854, many weeks before the first Emigrant Aid Society party arrived. Lykins built one house northwest of the present-day Lawrence in May 1854. In August of that year, he built another house near the future site of the Emigrant Aid Company's sawmill on the south bank of the Kansas River. The photograph is from a cabinet card made by Leonard, 613 Kansas Ave., Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Houses; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leonard, J. H.; Lykins, William H. R.; Photographs and Illustrations

Photograph, Shalor Eldridge Family
Author: No authors specified.
Date: November, 1854

This portrait of Shalor Eldridge, his wife and their four daughters was taken in Westfield, Massachusetts in November 1854. Eldridge was involved with the New England Emigrant Aid Company and operated a company hotel in Lawrence, Kansas Territory which was a center for the free state movement.

Keywords: Businessmen; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographs and Illustrations

Illustration, Lawrence, Kansas, 1854-5
Author: Rice, J. E.
Date: 1854 - 1855

This sketch of Lawrence, Kansas, circa 1854-5 was made by J. E. Rice. It is a view of Massachusetts and Vermont Streets facing North towards the Kansas River; a ferry is landing on the pier on New Hampshire Street. The illustration includes several homes and establishments of Lawrence's noteworthy first settlers.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Brooks, Paul R.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Ferries; Fry, Samuel; Herald of Freedom; Hoyt, David Starr; Illustrations; Kansas Free State (newspaper); Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Kimball, S. & F.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lum, S. Y; Miller, Josiah; Pioneer House; Rice, J.E.; Sampson, Turner; Sands, J.G.; Settlement; Simpson, Samuel Newell; St. Nicholas House; Stearns, Charles

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Author: Rice, J. E.
Date: 1855

Photograph of a sketch showing part of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855 by J. E. Rice. The sketch was photographed by H. T. Martin, 237 Kansas Ave., Topeka, Kansas.

Keywords: Cabinet photographs; Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Martin, H. T.; Photographs and Illustrations; Sketches

Passengers' Contract Ticket
Author: Phipps, Shaw, and Lowther
Date: August 29, 1855

Robert L. Gilbert, a 21-year-old Englishman, purchased a ticket to travel from London, England, to New York, departing on Sept. 6, 1855. The ticket lists travel requirements such as luggage size, provisions provided, and an appointment time for a medical examination, which was required before departure. Gilbert would eventually dock in New York, renounce his allegiance to England, and travel to Kansas Territory to a farm nine miles north of Lawrence.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; England; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Phipps, Shaw & Lowther; Transportation; Travel

Certificate, Declaration of Intention
Author: Court of Monroe County, New York State
Date: October 23, 1855

Robert L. Gilbert, a 21-year-old Englishman, had just finished his journey to the United States when he renounced his allegiance to the Queen of England by signing this Declaration of Intention. Gilbert would continue west into Kansas Territory, where he eventually settled nine miles north of Lawrence in late 1855.

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; England; Farmers; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Monroe County, New York State; Settlement

Photograph, First House in Lawrence
Author: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1855

This was the first house in Lawrence, a log cabin, belonging to Clark Stearns (also known as Charles Stearns). It was located at 620 Massachusetts Street.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Stearns, Charles; Town development

Directory, City of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1855

This transcript of the 1855 City of Lawrence Directory not only lists landowners and landholdings by street address, but also includes an index of landholdings by last name of the landowner.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement

Directory, City Directory of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1855
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1855

Early directory lists landowners and landholdings by street address and includes names of prominent political figures of Kansas' Territorial period. The settlement previously known as "Wakarusa" had only been known as Lawrence for less than a year.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Land titles; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1856

View of Massachusetts Street from Fort to Ave, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, March, 1856.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets

Lawrence Land Agency
Author: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: 1856

Advertisement about the Lawrence Land Agency, which provided information about the services the agency offered to settlers.

Keywords: Bonds; Land acquisition; Land sales; Land surveys; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Loans; Pratt, Caleb S.; Real estate

Photograph, Pioneers near Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1856

Unidentified pioneers near Lawrence, Kansas Territory, 1856.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Pioneers

Photograph, Free State Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Author: Gibbons, Robert O.
Date: 1856

A painting of the Free State Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas Territory by Robert O. Gibbons. In May 1856, the proslavery sheriff of Douglas County, Samuel Jones, led a posse into Lawrence, the major Free-State stronghold. The chief damage was the burning of the Free-state Hotel shown in this painting.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free State Hotel; Gibbons, Robert O.; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations

Daybook
Author: Emery, James Stanley
Date: July 4, 1856 through June 19, 1857

Account book entries recorded Emery's loss of personal property as a result of July 1856 violence between free state and proslavery advocates. Emery also recorded his expenses for making repairs to his damaged law office.

Keywords: Account books; Arson; Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Fires; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lawyers; Violence

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Friend [Hiram] Hill
Author: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: October 11, 1856

Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, reporting that free staters were "still live" in Lawrence, and that most border ruffians had retreated for the time being. Simpson updated Hill on the status of his properties and new construction in the town. Thaddeus Whitney, he said, was "absent from town", however, and Missourians had stolen some valuable building materials. Simpson added that he had helped many destitute families with the monetary aid Hill had sent.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development

Deed for Nathaniel S. Higgins
Author: Emery, James Stanley
Date: November 5, 1856

Nathaniel S. Higgins of Fair Haven, Massachusetts purchased half of an undivided lot (Number 30) and the stone or concrete building currently occupied by Emery on Massachusetts Street, Lawrence, from James S. Emery for $500. If Emery was able to acquire title to share number 97 of the town of Lawrence from the government, the sale of the half lot and the building would not take effect.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Higgins, Nathaniel S.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate transactions; Town shares

Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to H. M. Simpson, Esq.
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 31, 1857

Hiram Hill drafted a letter from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to H. M. Simpson, brother of Samuel N. Simpson, in Kansas Territory. Hill responded to H. M.'s favorable impressions of property investments in K.T., and hoped that his anticipations would come to pass. Hill planned to travel to the Territory as soon as his affairs were in order, and inquired about further investment prospects and the going wage for construction tradesmen. He spoke favorably of Governor Gerry (sic, Geary), but feared that the "bogus legislature" would impede his ability to govern.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment; Simpson, H.M; Town development

Report of Accounts Received, S.N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Author: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: April 27, 1857

Samuel Simpson prepared this list of rents and monies from business transactions he had collected in the name of Hiram Hill since the previous summer.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development

Letter [transcript], Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Author: Miller, Josiah
Date: June 15, 1857

Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother in Chester, South Carolina, before their departure for Kansas Territory. Miller informed them of banking practices and his new business enterprise-- raising stock. He also discussed the value of prairie land versus timbered land. Miller referred to the "bogus" election of the day before, which elected delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Lecompton. Free state men did not vote, and only 2,071 votes were polled. This clearly showing that, had the election been conducted fairly, the free state men would have won the majority.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Business enterprises; Democratic Party (U.S.); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state perspective; Illinois; Land sales; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- )

Letter, Ladd [Erastus] & Prentiss to H. Hill Esq.
Author: Ladd, Erastus D
Date: June 27 & 29, 1857

Erastus Ladd wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, who had returned from the Territory to Massachusetts. Ladd explained that the delay in Hill's receiving a map of West Lawrence was on account of the sinking of the steamboat on which the maps were shipped. He also asked Hill for his confirmation of the maintenance agreement several of Hill's renters claimed were in place. Ladd told Hill that new businesses had rented space in his Cincinnati House (previously a boarding house).

Keywords: District Court (see United States. District Court (Kansas Territory)); Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Maps; Prentiss, S.B.; Real estate investment; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Proclamation, To the people of Lawrence
Author: Walker, Robert J. (John), 1801-1869
Date: July 15, 1857

This open letter from Gov. Walker concerned the differences between the city charter of Lawrence approved by legislature, and the charter approved by citizens of Lawrence.

Keywords: Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Town development; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Proclamation, No. 2, To my rebellious subjects at Lawrence
Author: Walkerus, Robertus J.
Date: July 17, 1857

Satirical proclamation against Walker's opposition to the Lawrence city charter.

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

To the people of Lawrence, A Proclamation
Author: No authors specified.
Date: July 17, 1857

Quotes from the governor's proclamation against the independent city charter and includes rebuttals to his arguments.

Keywords: Herald of Freedom; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Illustration, St. Nicholas Hotel, Lawrence, KS
Author: Watson, B.I.
Date: November 15, 1857

An unknown artist drew this pencil sketch of St. Nicholas House, a wagon stop built in 1854 in Lawrence, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hotels; Illustrations; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; St. Nicholas House; Town development

Charter of the City of Lawrence
Author: Hutchinson, George W.
Date: c. 1857

This reports that a meeting was held to approve the charter of the city of Lawrence, Kansas Territory. The text of the charter was included. In addition, this report included a message from five citizens regarding reasons for establishing city government.

Keywords: Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Town development

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Author: Lamon, W. H.
Date: c. 1858

A view of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, looking southeast from Mt. Oread, late 1850s or early 1860s. The photograph was taken by W. H. Lamon.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lamon, W. H.; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Stereographs

Letter, H.J. Parker to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Author: Parker, Henry F.
Date: May 2, 1858

Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker included a list of accounts paid and received on the first page. He looked forward to Hill's visit to K.T. in the fall, but was afraid he would be disappointed as "everybody has the blues"; the scarcity of money was taking its toll on the community. However, Parker said many new houses were being built, though the builders themselves were paid in town lots or lumber instead of money.

Keywords: Account books; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Prices; Real estate investment; Rent

Letter, H. F. Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Author: Parker, Henry F.
Date: August 25, 1858

Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker described the situation in K.T. as "dull. . .every man you se [sic] here Looks blue and no Business and allmost [sic] Every Family are Sick". He told Hill that the Cincinnati House was the only property of his that was occupied, all other of Hill's homes and buildings were vacant; many people were selling their property. Parker closed his letter with a mention of the recent election to ratify the Lecompton Constitution under the English bill.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; English Bill; Finance; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.

Letter, H. F. Parker to Hiram Hill Esq
Author: Parker, Henry F.
Date: November 15, 1858

Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Parker reported that currently he was only able to collect $33.33 in rent from Hill's tenants, a small fraction of what was owed. He added that many settlers were leaving for California and hopes for gold mining in the West; many homes and businesses were vacated. Parker closed by stating "I am sick of Kansas if Business is to go as it has the Last year".

Keywords: California; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Gold mines and mining; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate business

Leslie's Illustrated, Panoramic view of Lawrence.
Author: No authors specified.
Date: December 25, 1858

Illustration from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 25, 1858, showing a panoramic view of Lawrence. The scene includes businesses, homes, and cattle and sheep grazing on a hill overlooking Lawrence. The illustration is captioned, "City of Lawrence, Kansas Territory."

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Periodical illustrations; Photographs and Illustrations; Town settlement

To the voters of Lawrence
Author: Many Tax Payers
Date: Feb. 25, 1859

This document urged the voters of Lawrence to vote against a new charter. It gave seven reasons why Lawrence citizens should vote against the new charter.

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Voting

Illustration, Lawrence, Kansas in 1859
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1859

A drawing of Lawrence, Kansas Territory as it appeared in 1859, looking northeast from Mount Oread. It specifically includes Eldridge House, Lawrence University, and various churches.

Keywords: Churches; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Illustrations; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Mount Oread; Universities and colleges

Photograph, Edward Payson Fitch
Author: Clark's Daguerreotype Rooms, No. 59 Court Street, Boston.
Date: c. 1860

Portrait of Edward Payson Fitch, a native of Massachusetts, who arrived in Kansas Territory in 1854. He was member of the third group of settlers sponsored by the New England Emigrant Aid Company. On August 21, 1863, he was killed in his house by one of Quantrill's raiders. The daguerreotype was made by Clark's Daguerreotype Rooms, No. 59 Court Street, Boston, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Daguerreotypes; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fassett's Gallery; Fitch, Edward Payson; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory
Author: Lamon, W. H.
Date: c. 1860

A view of Massachusetts Street looking north from Henry Street, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, early 1860s. The photograph was taken by W. H. Lamon.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Covered wagons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Horses; Lamon, W. H.; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Stereographs; Streets; Wagons

Advertisement calendar produced of O. Wilmath Books and Stationery
Author: Wilmarth, O.
Date: 1860

O. Wilmarth's business was located in the Eldridge House, Lawrence, Kansas Territory. This advertisement calendar for 1860 indicated that Wilmarth was a wholesale and retail dealer in books and stationery. He also sold newspapers, magazines, and periodicals as well as wall paper and window shades.

Keywords: Advertisements; Books; Business; Business enterprises; Commerce; Community life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Retail businesses

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas
Author: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1863

A view of Massachusetts Street looking north , Lawrence, Kansas, 1863-1864. This carte-de-visite shows buildings constructed during the Kansas territorial period.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets

Photo, Business Street with Covered Wagons
Author: No authors specified.
Date: Summer 1863

View West on 7th Street, Lawrence, KS.

Keywords: Business; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Landscape; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement; Town development; Wagons

Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas
Author: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1865

A view of Massachusetts Street looking south, Lawrence, Kansas, 1865-1866. This carte-de-visite shows buildings constructed during the territorial period of Kansas history.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cartes de visite; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Horses; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets; Wagons

Photograph, John Speer
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

John Speer was a free state supporter and early resident of Lawrence. He was a journalist and editor. He was also involved in numerous free state activities.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Engravings; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Journalists; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Speer, John, 1817-1906

Photograph, James S. Emery
Author: Bowman, photographer
Date:

James Stanley Emery had a law practice in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He was associated with the New England Emigrant Aid Company, but he also worked as a journalist for the New York Daily Times. He was involved in numerous free state activities both in Kansas and in the East.

Keywords: Bowman, photographer; Cabinet photographs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Free state supporters; Journalists; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lawyers; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Photographs and Illustrations

Photograph, Carmi William Babcock
Author: Fassett's Gallery
Date:

Carmi Babcock was an active free state supporter and early resident of Lawrence. He was a lawyer and a banker, as well as being the first postmaster of Lawrence and the second mayor of the city. He was involved in Lawrence civic and social activities.

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Cartes de visite; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fassett's Gallery; Free state supporters; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Postal service

Stereograph, Eldridge Hotel, Lawrence, Kansas
Author: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1860s

Photo images featuring the Eldridge Hotel, located "323 miles West of St. Louis, Missouri". The Eldridge House (or Hotel) was built in Lawrence, Kansas Territory by the New England Emigrant Aid Society. It was something of a headquarters for the free state movement and as such it was targeted for destruction by Sheriff Jones' proslavery posse, which sacked Lawrence on May 21, 1856.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Eldridge House; Hotels; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stereographs

Photograph, Albert Dwight Searl
Author: Storm, F. D.
Date:

Albert Dwight Searl was a surveyor and map maker in Kansas Territory. He was a resident of Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas Territory. This image was taken a number of years after the territorial era.

Keywords: Card photographs; Cartographers; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Searl, Albert D.; Storm, F. D.; Surveyors

Narrative, Autobiography of Robert S. Gilbert
Author: Gilbert, Robert L.
Date: undated

Robert Gilbert, an Englishman who had immigrated to the United States and settled in Douglas County in 1855, recounted some events of his early life. This autobiography includes notes on his birthplace, education, profession, and journey to America, "the land of the free." After arriving in Douglas County, Gilbert would defend Lawrence with other free state men in the Wakarusa War.

Keywords: Daily life; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Education; Emigration and immigration; England; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Kansas Territory; New York; Transportation; Travel

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Photograph, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, c. 1856
Authors: No authors specified.
Date:  c. 1856
A photographic view of Massachusetts Street, Lawrence, Kansas Territory, c. 1856.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Cities and towns; Commerce; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Streets


Circular, Lawrence University
Authors: Lawrence University
Date:  c. 1859
This circular was written by the Board of Trustees of Lawrence University to inform the people of Kansas of the establishment of a university in Lawrence. Included in the letter are courses of study for various departments, tuition costs, board and lodging costs, scholarship information, faculty, and description of the school. The Board of Trustees also emphasized the fact that Lawrence was a thriving city, and it was "already distinguished in the Territory for its superior educational advantages." For further information about the college, the circular referred readers to William Bishop, corresponding secretary, or to Dr. C. E. Miner, president of the Board of Trustees.

Keywords: Bishop, William; Blood, James; Circulars; Education; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence University; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; School buildings; Universities and colleges


Eldridge Hotel, Floor plans (2 sheets)
Authors: No authors specified.
Date:  
These hand drawn floor plans for the Eldridge Hotel show the room layout and approximate size of the rooms on the first and second floors. The Eldridge Hotel was the site of numerous free state meetings and the target of attacks by proslavery forces.

Keywords: Eldridge House; Free state supporters; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory


Surveying Equipment
Authors: No authors specified.
Date:  1845-1855
Albert D. Searl used this equipment to survey Kansas Territory town sites in 1854. Lawrence was surveyed on Sept. 25th and Topeka on Dec. 20th. Searl's efforts to set town limits for free-staters in Lawrence were met with violence from pro-slavery forces nearby. Searl would later survey Manhattan, Osawatomie, Burlington, & El Dorado.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Burlington, Kansas Territory; Coffey County, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Objects; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Searl, Albert D.; Skirmishing; Surveyors; Topeka, Kansas; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence


Letter, Robert Gilbert to My dear Parents
Authors: Gilbert, Robert L.
Date:  December 5, 1849
Robert Gilbert, a young Englishman studying at Yoxford Academy in England anticipating the Christmas holiday, wrote to his parents summarizing his studies of the past half-year. He was born in Sibton, Suffolk County, England. After graduating from Yoxford, he became a gardener in the Crystal Palace Gardens in London. Gilbert emigrated to the U.S. in 1855 and began farming nine miles north of Lawrence the same year.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; England; Farmers; Gilbert, Robert L.; Immigrants; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Settlement


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