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Immigration and Early Settlement

Immigration and Early Settlement > Community Life > Town development
68 Topic Specific Items
Meeting Minutes, Leavenworth Association
Author: Leavenworth Association
Date: June 22, 1854

The minutes described a meeting in Weston, Missouri at which Leavenworth Town Association members elected officers. George W. Gist was elected president, H. Miles Moore was elected secretary, and Joseph B. Evans was elected treasurer.

Keywords: Evans, Joseph B.; Gist, George W.; Land speculation; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Town Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Town companies; Weston, Missouri

Meeting Minutes, Leavenworth Association
Author: Leavenworth Association
Date: July 7, 1854

The Leavenworth Association met "on the tract of the Association's land" in Kansas Territory at the house of G. B. Pauton. The minutes included resolutions requesting the creation of a map showing the specific land claims of each association member and the selection of a town site.

Keywords: Land speculation; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Town Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Squatters; Town companies; Town sites

Meeting Minutes, Leavenworth Association
Author: Leavenworth Association
Date: July 26, 1854

The Leavenworth Association met "on the tract of the Association's land" in Kansas Territory at the house of G. B. Parton. The minutes included a report listing all the members of the association and described the progress made in clearing land for a town site.

Keywords: Land speculation; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Town Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Parton, G. B.; Town companies; Town development; Town sites

Minute Book
Author: Kickapoo City Association
Date: August 28, 1854 - October 1, 1858

This minute book documented the founding of the Kickapoo City Association in Leavenworth County and its transactions through October 1, 1858. It contained the association's by-laws. It was a fairly complete example of how a town association conducted business, including surveying the proposed site, acquiring title to the land involved, sale of shares, and efforts to make the town attractive to prospective settlers. Meetings were held on the town site or in Weston, Missouri.

Keywords: Kickapoo City Association; Kickapoo, Kansas Territory; Land titles; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Town companies; Town development; Town promotion; Town shares; Town site speculation

Certificate for distribution of Leavenworth town lots
Author: Leavenworth Association
Date: October 17, 1854

The certificate, issued to Henry Miles Moore, secretary of the Leavenworth Town Association, detailed the town lots distributed to Moore as a town association shareholder. Moore held four shares in the Leavenworth Association and was entitled to thirty-two town lots.

Keywords: Certificates; Land acquisition; Land speculation; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Town Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Town companies; Town lots

Writing Case
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1854

A writing case used to hold business papers, used by Charles E. Fox. Fox settled in Doniphan County in the 1850s.

Keywords: Business; Businessmen; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Fox, Charles E.; Objects

Photograph, Calhoun County Courthouse
Author: No authors specified.
Date: c. 1855

An exterior view of the Calhoun County Courthouse, built c.1855. Calhoun County included part of what is now northern Shawnee County and all of Jackson County.

Keywords: Calhoun County, Kansas Territory (see also Jackson County, Kansas Territory); Courthouses; Jackson County, Kansas Territory (see also Calhoun County, Kansas Territory); Photographs and Illustrations; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory

Articles of Agreement, Hiram Hill and Thaddeus L. Whitney
Author: Hill, Hiram ; Whitney, Thaddeus L.
Date: January 6, 1855

Thaddeus L. Whitney of Lawrence, Kansas Territory agreed to build a house in Lawrence for Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. Dimensions and materials were described in detail. Construction was to be completed "in good workmanlike manner." The time and amount of payment also were established. The articles of agreement were signed by Whitney, Hill, and S. N. Simpson as witness.

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Houses; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Whitney, Thaddeus L.

Letter, J. [John] W. Whitfield to My Dear Sir [J. A. Halderman]
Author: Whitfield, John W. (Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879
Date: February 25, 1855

John W. Whitfield was a proslave man from Tennessee who would subsequently move to Texas to fight for the Confederacy. He was a congressional delegate for Kansas Territory when he wrote this letter to J. A. Halderman from Washington, D.C., regarding pending legislation "regulating town sites." It had been difficult to build a consensus for this law, but Whitfield hoped it would pass the current session.

Keywords: Halderman, John Adams; Speculation; Town sites; United States. Congress; Washington, D.C.; Whitfield, John W. (John Wilkins), ca. 1826-1879

Town Share Certificate, Pawnee Association
Author: Pawnee Town Association
Date: May 2, 1855

This certificate (no. 244) is made out to F. L. Crane. On the back was a notation made by Crane, probably at a later date, indicating that he had paid $250 for the share and that A. H. Reeder had intended that Pawnee be the state capital.

Keywords: Crane, Franklin Loomis; Davis County, Kansas Territory; Geary County, Kansas; Hammond, William A.; Pawnee Town Association; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Speculation; Town companies; Town development; Town shares

Quit-Claim Deed and Bond for the Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence
Author: Trustees of the Town Site of Lawrence: Samuel S. Snyder, Joel Grover, et.al.
Date: July 7, 1855

This Quit-Claim Deed and Bond documented the investment of $1.00 made by Josiah Miller and Robert G. Elliot, publishers of the Kansas Free State newspaper, into Lawrence town shares.

Keywords: Allen, N.; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elliott, Robert G.; Hutchinson, George W.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lykins, William H. R.; Miller, Josiah; Real estate investment; Snyder, Samuel S.; Town shares; Wood, John P.

Letter, E. Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Author: Jones, Edmund
Date: July 26, 1855

Edmund Jones wrote to Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to report expenses, update Hill of construction progress, and request money. At this time, S. N. Simpson had returned east, and Jones oversaw the building of Hill's house in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Jones was in debt, unable to pay workers or buy supplies. Mr. Fuller, who seems to have rented another house owned by Hill (implied in S. N. Simpson's letter to Hill written September 4, 1855), refused to pay rent until the roof was repaired. Jones closed with concern for the security of lots in Lawrence.

Keywords: Construction; Cost and standard of living; Financial statements; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Town development; Town lots

Letter, Edmund Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Author: Jones, Edmund
Date: July 29, 1855

Well before Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts could have received Edmund Jones' previous letter from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Jones received a bank draft from Hill. In this letter, Jones thanked him for the draft. He shortly expected two renters, Mrs. Herd and Mrs. Hall, to move into Hill's house in Lawrence. These renters wanted to build a house for their own borders on the lot behind. A store and an office were going up on either side of Hill's new house. James mentioned controversy over city lots but did not identify the source of this "new movement." He encouraged Hill to visit Lawrence a second time in early fall.

Keywords: Construction; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Town development; Town lots

Letter, Edmund Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Author: Jones, Edmund
Date: August 21, 1855

Edmund Jones wrote briefly from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. He referred to the security of town lots and a previously sent newspaper. Mr. Fuller, a delinquent renter, was "selling liquor" in Hill's house. Jones suggested that Hill come soon.

Keywords: Construction; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Liquor (see Alcoholic beverages); Massachusetts

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Author: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: September 4, 1855

S. N. Simpson of Lawrence, Kansas Territory wrote to Hiram Hill of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts concerning the improvement of the town and Hill's property. He alluded to "outsiders" who had made "a little stir." Simpson had demanded rent payment from Mr. Fuller, who agreed to pay part. Hill's distance from the situation had encouraged Fuller's delinquency. Simpson planned to attend the free state convention on the 5th. On page 2, written after the convention, Simpson reported that Governor Reeder was living in Hill's new house. He also mentioned that one of Simpson's Sabbath schools had stopped meeting.

Keywords: Free State Convention; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development

Letter, E. [Edmund] Jones to Mr [Hiram] Hill
Author: Jones, Edmund
Date: September 4, 1855

Edmund Jones oversaw the building of a house in Lawrence, Kansas Territory for Hiram Hill, a resident of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. He wrote to update Hill on construction progress. Jones was frustrated with the plasterer, Mr. Johnson, who was sick and whose work was poor and rate too high. S. N. Simpson had returned to town. Jones mentioned the health of Mrs. Whitney and Mrs. Herd. Page 2 is primarily a list of expenses for materials and labor and a list of amounts received, including rent income.

Keywords: Construction; Cost and standard of living; Financial statements; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
Author: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: October 1, 1855

S. N. Simpson wrote concerning his attempts to collect rent from Mr. Fuller, who had not yet paid up, to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. The undefined "outside movement" was at rest. Lawrence property values were rising; Hill had bought several lots and a house for the price of a single lot on Massachusetts Street at the current rate.

Keywords: Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Rent; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Town lots

Letter, [Hiram Hill] to Edmund Jones Esq
Author: Jones, Edmund
Date: October 1, 1855

Hiram Hill wrote to Edmund Jones in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, where Jones was completing construction on Hill's new house. Hill was surprised by the amount of Jones' expenses, and he insisted that Jones negotiate payment of Mr. Johnson, the plasterer. Hill planned to visit Lawrence, but was delayed by his oldest brother's illness. Hill relayed the health of Hill family members and others. He had advised Mrs. Hill to go to Kansas to improve her health. The letter ends abruptly, without a signature, and it possibly lacks pages.

Keywords: Construction; Health; Hill, Hiram; Houses; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Town development

Expense Sheet, Edmund Jones to H. Hill Jr
Author: Hill, Hiram ; Jones, Edmund
Date: November 8, 1855

This expense sheet, signed by Edmund Jones, was apparently written by Hiram Hill. It includes amounts received by Jones during his oversight of the construction of Hill's house in Lawrence, the amount paid to Jones and Mr. Johnson (the plasterer), and the balance. The last column shows Hill's total expense for materials, labor, and land.

Keywords: Construction; Cost and standard of living; Finance; Financial statements; Hill, Hiram; Jones, Edmund; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Town development

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Mr Hiram Hill
Author: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: November 20, 1855

S. N. Simpson wrote from Kansas City, Missouri to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, where Edmund Jones had recently returned (see Hill's letter to Jones of October 11, 1855). Simpson described development and rising property values in Lawrence. He detailed his attempts to collect rent from Mrs. Hall, who had cleaned in exchange for a month's rent. In language reminiscent of documents from the American Revolution, the last paragraph declared that Kansas could but would not break ties with the United States, partly because Kansas needed financial assistance. As evidence, Simpson asked Hill for church-building funds.

Keywords: Domestics; Hill, Hiram; Jones, Edmund; Kansas City, Missouri; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Rent; Simpson, H.M; Town development; Town lots; Women

Bill of Plastering, Hiram Hill to B. Johnson
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 5, 1856

This handwritten bill charged Hiram Hill for plastering work (presumably in his new home in Lawrence, Kansas Territory) done by B. Johnson. Johnson initialed the document, and noted his receipt of Hill's payment in full.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Labor; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment

Ledger, Accounts Paid
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 1856

This informal ledger documents expenses paid and monies lent by Hiram Hill during a visit to Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Included on his provisions list are prices for buffalo skins and overshoes.

Keywords: Account books; Debt; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Money; Prices

Ledger, Cost of House Bill at Lawrence, Kansas
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: January 1856

This informal ledger provides a list of amounts Hiram Hill paid for home building materials and one year of insurance for his new home in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Hill immigrated to the Territory from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Construction; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence buildings; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prices; Real estate investment

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr.
Author: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: April 9, 1856

Samuel N. Simpson wrote to Hiram Hill from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, updating him on the status of Hill's rents and outlining the rental agreements he had arranged with the various tenants. Simpson mentioned he had raised the $5000 for the church, as promised, and that Hill's money could not be invested in Wyandotte lands until they were properly surveyed. He added that he had recently brought firearms to Kansas Territory, stating " I think our trouble in Kansas has only begun -- but let the war and even dissolution come -- the quicker the better."

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Author: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: April 30, 1856

Samuel Simpson wrote from Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill in Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, regarding recent land propositions and "excitement": U.S. Troops had been in and out of Lawrence daily, looking to arrest various citizens. Simpson also described his attempts to negotiate land ownership with others who were interested in developing West Lawrence, and sought the approval of Hill in the matter.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Land speculation; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Military; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; United States. Army

Letter, E. Hoogland to Thos. N. Stinson, Esq.
Author: Hoogland, Edward
Date: July 6, 1856

Edward Hoogland, a resident of Tecumseh, KT who was visiting his family in New York, described a meeting with Governor Wilson Shannon in St. Louis concerning territorial politics. Hoogland displayed a pro-slavery perspective in his comments on Kansas affairs. He described efforts to encourage settlement in Kansas Territory, especially Tecumseh, and to promote economic development in the territory. He mentioned an acquaintance who hoped to establish a sawmill and a gristmill in the territory.

Keywords: Economic development; Gristmills; Hoogland, Edward; Law and Order Party; Mills and mill-work; Sawmills; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Stinson, Thomas N.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town building (see Town development); Town development

Town share certificate, Iowa Point, Kansas Territory
Author: No authors specified.
Date: July 17, 1856

This town share certificate documented the $200 investment of William Patton into Iowa Point, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Forman, Harvey W.; Forman, John W.; Iowa Point, Kansas Territory; Patton, William; Town companies; Town shares

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
Author: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: July 24, 1856

Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill, reporting on the status of Hill's various real estate investments, "all doing well". Simpson was able to take possession of a town lot owned by tenant Fuller instead of a rent payment. The majority of the lots of West Lawrence were allotted to Simpson, who intended to build an avenue through it immediately. Simpson expressed for old times back in Massachusetts at the Hill's home, and predicted that the "dark times" in Kansas would pass by the next spring. Meanwhile, he said border ruffians still killed and robbed, only to seek the protection of U.S. Troops and escape punishment.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Skirmishing; Town development; Town lots

Letter, A. H. Reeder to Dear Sir [J. A. Halderman]
Author: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856

The former governor wrote this letter from Easton, Pennsylvania, to his former secretary and attorney, J. A. Halderman, in order to secure his services in an effort to retrieve some personal papers and settle some matters of business pertaining to town lots and shares. According to Reeder, "the Sheriff posse at the sacking of Lawrence broke open my trunk and stole the contents. The clothing is probably by this time worn out" and he was not concerned about other contents, with the exception of "some private papers" that someone had informed him could be retrieved. He asked Halderman to get the papers, which included "certificates of stock in Leavenworth, Tecumseh, Lecompton, Lawrence, Easton, Pawnee" etc., and then take care of business matters that were reflected therein--"some obligations for money, leases contracts Receipts & etc." Reeder also asked Halderman "to attend to my Leavenworth lots" and went into considerable detail about these matters.

Keywords: Businessmen; Certificates; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Easton, Kansas Territory; Halderman, John Adams; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leases; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Stock certificates; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town shares

Account balance sheet, Hiram Hill in asc. with S.N. Simpson
Author: No authors specified.
Date: October 15, 1856

This balance sheet lists amounts paid into and received from Hiram Hill's various real estate investments in Lawrence, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Account books; Construction; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Whitney, Thaddeus L.

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Author: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: October 30, 1856

Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported that he had purchased Wyandotte lands, along with other investors, in hopes of having a town ready in time to receive a wave of emigrants the following spring. He told Hill that he would send him a map of the site, and reiterated his support for presidential candidate John Fremont. However, Simpson proclaimed that the outcome of the elections didn't matter, that the free state men "are bound to have this matter our own way -- and it if don't come one way it must another".

Keywords: Emigration and immigration; Free state support; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Hill, Hiram; Indian lands; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Wyandot Indians

Letter, S. [Silas] Armstrong to Dear Sister
Author: Armstrong, Silas
Date: December 27, 1856

Silas Armstrong wrote to his "sister", probably his sister-in-law, from Wyandotte, Kansas Territory. Armstrong told her that he was trying to locate a spot for her land grant, or "float", before the "whites" settled on it. He discussed with her investment of part of her land grant into the Wyandotte Town Company, of which Armstrong was President. Armstrong stated that he was also part of a Wyandot Nation delegation, which would be traveling to Washington, D.C.

Keywords: Armstrong, Lucy B.; Armstrong, Silas; Shawnee Indian Reserve; Wyandot Float; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory

Letter, [Hiram Hill] to S. N. Simpson
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: December 6, 1856

Hiram Hill wrote from Williamsburgh, Massachusetts, to Samuel Simpson in Kansas Territory, complaining to him that he had not received the map and information on the newly purchased Wyandotte lands Simpson was to send him. Hill expressed a desire to purchase two or three town shares if they were not too expensive, bringing the value of his investments in Kansas to almost half of his total worth. His aim, as he expressed it, was "first to make money, secondly help the Caus [sic] of freedom". Hill also communicated his dislike for President Pierce's recent statements, and that the free state supporters lobbying in Washington were having "pretty warm work."

Keywords: Armstrong, Silas; Hill, Hiram; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Real estate investment; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town companies

Map of Quindaro, Kanzas [Territory]
Author: Bassett, Owen A.
Date: 1856

This map of Quindaro, Kansas Territory also features inset maps of planned railroad routes from New England to K.T. and the "Kanzas Valley". Quindaro was originally a part of Leavenworth County until Wyandotte County was founded in 1859. The town has since been absorbed into present day Kansas City, Kansas.

Keywords: Bassett, O. A. (Owen Abbot); Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Maps; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroads

Letter, C. A. Wright to Mr Hill
Author: Wright, Charles A.
Date: January 4, 1857

Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, having recently recovered from an extended illness. Wright told him that "peace and quietness seam [sic] to reign throughout the Territory" and anticipated that Kansas would become a free state without too much more trouble from the border ruffians. He added that two new hotels were being built in town, one by Thaddeus Whitney, in order to accommodate the spring emigration rush. Wright directed Hill to write him in New York, as he would be traveling East for the next two months.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Whitney, Thaddeus L.; Wright, Charles A.

Letter, H. M. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Author: Simpson, H.M
Date: January 18, 1857

H. M. Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported that, since two new hotels were being built in addition to the Emigrant Aid Hotel, Hill's fellow investors in the Cincinnati House (hotel), may want to discontinue its use as a hotel. He suggested that the building might better serve as a store or shop.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Hotels; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Retail businesses; Simpson, H.M; Simpson, Samuel Newell

Letter, Edw. [Edward] Hoogland to Thos. N. Stinson
Author: Hoogland, Edward
Date: January 21, 1857

Edward Hoogland, writing from Dundee, Yates County, New York, expressed his views on how to turn Tecumseh, Kansas Territory into a "flourishing" town. He suggested to Thomas N. Stinson, a Tecumseh resident that the town, if properly advertised, would be attractive to settlers not comfortable residing in free state towns like Topeka or Lawrence.

Keywords: Hoogland, Edward; Proslavery; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Stinson, Thomas N.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Town development; Town promotion

Letter, C. A. Wright to Mr. H. Hill
Author: Wright, Charles A.
Date: February 1, 1857

Charles Wright wrote from Bald Mountain, New York, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, describing his travel route from Kansas Territory to the East. Wright reported that Samuel Simpson was still in Quindaro and was doing well, but mentioned that another new town in Wyandotte was being developed; Wright believed that this new one was in a better location. He also discussed buying, selling, and the prices of town lots in Lawrence and West Lawrence, and said that construction had begun on the Free State Hotel. Wright added that a "Miss Hall" in Lawrence had begun writing a history of Kansas.

Keywords: Diseases; Free State Hotel; Hill, Hiram; New York; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; Town lots; Travel; Wright, Charles A.

Certificate, Buffalo City, Kansas Territory, One Town Share
Author: Buffalo City Town Association
Date: February 21, 1857

This printed form was made out to Charles Blakely, illustrated and completed by hand. Several towns were named Buffalo or Buffalo City during and after the territorial period. This particular Buffalo City was planned in Doniphan County near Eagle Springs. On February 11, 1857, John W. Geary, Kansas territorial governor, approved an act incorporating the "Buffalo Town Association of Kansas Territory" into Davis County. Neither town has survived.

Keywords: Blakely, Charles; Buffalo City Town Association; Buffalo City, Kansas Territory; Chadduck, G.B.; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Frazer, B.B.; Land acquisition; Town development; Town settlement; Town shares

Letter, Henry Parker to Mr. Hiram Hill
Author: Parker, Henry F.
Date: March 16, 1857

Henry Parker wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, soliciting his approval for the sale of a town lot in West Lawrence to Mr. Nathan Starks. Parker added that Lykins, the previous owner of the lot, had also sold his mill, and wished to settle his business immediately. He also asked Hill if he would be willing to invest in the construction of a court house for Douglas County.

Keywords: Courthouses; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Parker, Henry F.; Starks, Nathan; Town lots

Letter, Caleb S. Pratt to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Author: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: April 7, 1857

Caleb Pratt wrote from Delaware, Kansas Territory to Rev. T. W. Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist. He informed Higginson that a company of free state men had bought out a large portion of the predominantly pro-slavery town of Delaware. They sought to make it a suitable place for the entry of free state emigrants.

Keywords: Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Pratt, Caleb S.; Town development

Letter, Nathan Starks to Messrs. [Owners of the West Lawrence Town Site]
Author: Starks, Nathan
Date: April 21, 1857

Nathan Starks wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to the "Owners of that portion of the Town Site known as West Lawrence", regarding his previous requests to make town lot purchases from the Town Company. Starks found it difficult to conduct this business transaction since the various owners of the town site, including Hiram Hill were not based locally. Ultimately, Starks hoped to acquire enough land to build housing for his machinery, with housing for his employees adjacent to his business.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Starks, Nathan; Town development; Town lots; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother [O. G. Hill]
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: May 7, 1857

Hiram Hill wrote from his visit in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his brother, O. G. Hill, in Boston. Hill told his brother that he hoped to be back home in Massachusetts by June, but that he was unsure how long his business would take in Quindaro. He reported that the Territory was quiet, the border ruffians were "as tame as a pack of spaniels", and were more interested in having free state men invest in their towns than in large-scale fighting.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Hill, Hiram; Hill, O.G.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Wyandotte, Kansas Territory

Letter, R. G. Elliot to Dear Sister
Author: Elliott, Robert G.
Date: May 8, 1857

Robert Elliott, former publisher of the Kansas Free State newspaper in Lawrence along with Josiah Miller, wrote to his sister from Delaware, Kansas Territory. Elliott told her that last season the area had been the site of "ruffian outrages," but since this time it had evolved into a thriving area with a large population of free state men, whose presence raised property values. The town was not without its share of "bloated ruffians" or stray dogs, however. Elliott also mentioned that a couple of proslavery men had even subscribed to his newspaper, though he did not intend to change the "character" of the paper, which continued to favor the free state cause.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Economic conditions; Elliott, Robert G.; Free state supporters; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Real estate investment; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856

Town Organization of Hyatt, Kansas
Author: No authors specified.
Date: May, 1857

This printed item documented the organization of the town of Hyatt in Anderson Couty, Kansas Territory. Issac Hull and C. J. Farley served as the officers at a May 2, 1857, meeting that unanimously adopted a "declaration of rights" and "articles of fraternization" suggested by W. F. M. Arny. Arny was elected mayor of Hyatt for a year. The document also included information about the organization of Anderson County. D. N. Buffum presided at the county organization meeting held May 4, 1857, and Albert Blauvelt served as secretary. After the resolutions organizing the county were approved, W. F. M. Arny was named judge and associate judges were J. Y. Campbell, Col. Harvey, Solomon Kaufman, and B. Tyler. Election judges--S. P. Hand, John S. Robinson, and Darius Frankinberger-were also selected.

Keywords: Anderson County, Kansas Territory; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blauvelt, Albert; Buffum, D. N.; Campbell, J. Y.; Courts; Farley, C. J.; Frankinberger, Darius; Hand, S. P.; Hull, Issac; Hyatt, Kansas Territory; Judges; Kaufman, Solomon; Robinson, John S.; Town development; Tyler, B.

Letter, Charles Mayo to G.W. Collamore, Esq.
Author: Mayo, Charles
Date: June 11 1857

Charles Mayo, writing from Olathe, Kansas Territory, described to George Collamore the budding township and his experiences there. Mayo had invested shares in the town and hoped it would become the county seat. He encouraged Collamore to influence free state men to go to Olathe and settle there, in order to out populate the proslavery majority already established.

Keywords: Free state perspective; Johnson County, Kansas Territory; Mayo, Charles; Olathe, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Santa Fe road; Shawnee Indians; Town companies; Town development

Letter draft, unsigned [Hiram Hill] to Mesrs Ladd [E. D.] & Prentiss [S. B.]
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: July 13, 1857

Hiram Hill wrote to E. D. Ladd and S. B. Prentiss in Kansas Territory, requesting that they send information about the drawing for West Lawrence town shares when available, and asking about the prospect of selling town lots there. Hill also inquired about a share of Emporia stock that he had given to Mr. Whitney to pass on to them. He answered their questions regarding maintenance of his rental properties, and confirmed that only "necessary repairs" were to be completed at his expense.

Keywords: Emporia, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prentiss, S.B.; Real estate investment; Steamboats; Town shares; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Letter, E.D. Ladd to Hiram Hill Esq.
Author: Ladd, Erastus D
Date: July 14, 1857

Erastus Ladd wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill, in Massachusetts. Ladd enclosed with this note a map of Lawrence along with a list of Hill's properties in West Lawrence. He also alluded to a "town site question", which may refer to questionable business practices on the part of Samuel N. Simpson, during the development of Quindaro, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Maps; Real estate investment; Town development; Town lots; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Contract, D.S. Chapson commissioned by John Bayless
Author: Bayless, John ; Chapson, D.S.
Date: July 23, 1857

This document outlined the terms of agreement between John Bayless, President of the Highland Town Company, and D.S. Chapson, whom Bayless commissioned the construction of a brick hotel. The contract described the specifications of the building, including its size and materials used, and designated the following March as the hotel's completion date.

Keywords: Bayless, John; Chapson, D.S.; Construction; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Highland, Kansas Territory; Hotels; Legal documents; Real estate investment; Town development

Letter, E. D. Ladd to Mr. H. [Hiram] Hill
Author: Ladd, Erastus D
Date: September 3, 1857

Erastus Ladd wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Ladd asked for Hill's suggestion as to what to do about a delinquent renter. He updated Hill regarding the status of various land investments, and included a note about Samuel Simpson's sale of half of his investment in West Lawrence. Ladd anticipated a free state election, and the development of a railroad line between Lawrence and the Delaware lands.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emporia, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Ladd, Erastus D.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Railroads; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Town development; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Letter, Your devoted Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Author: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: December 11, 1857

Joseph Trego wrote from his cabin near Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory to his wife, Alice, at home in Illinois with their three daugthers. His friend Ell's trip to St. Louis had been aborted due to the freezing conditions of the Missouri River. The town company of Sugar Mound was meeting that day, in which the formal site of the town would be selected; Trego hoped to build their new home on a lot near his mill, which was in an especially picturesque area. His comments about the current "political storm" reveal the variation of perspectives among free state supporters, as he found free state supporters in his area were for a "free state government from politic[al] motives & not humane." He also reported that a group of armed free state men had passed by two days before, looking for a "nest" of pro-slavery men in Bourbon County. Trego added descriptions of their daily life and their struggle to keep their living expenses down.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Domestics; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Missouri River; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Town development; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Water transportation

Circular, Delaware City, Kansas Territory
Author: Prentiss, S.B., et al.
Date: c. 1857

This circular, authored by the Delaware City Town Company, advertised the Company's purchase of Delaware and their intention to develop it. This circular stated that freight would be shipped more cheaply from Delaware City to Lawrence than from any other point on the Missouri River.

Keywords: Circulars; Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Emery, James Stanley; Freight and freightage; Harington, S.C.; Hutchinson, J.; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Prentiss, S.B.; Town companies

Letter, R.C. Brant to Hiram Hill
Author: Brant, R.C.
Date: January 5, 1858

R.C. Brant, a Baptist missionary who had settled in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, wrote to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, regarding the use of Hill's land. Brant owned a town lot next to Hill's, and wished to make improvements to his land, which would require that he use Hill's lot. Brant explained that he had many visitors coming and going who would see the beauty of the area and might be inclined to settle in the area if he be allowed to improve his own lot. A note at the end of the letter supports Brant's credibility as a permanent citizen of Lawrence who had already made improvements to the town.

Keywords: Baptists; Brant, R.C.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missionaries; Real estate investment; Town development

Letter, Albert C. Morton to Hiram Hill
Author: Morton, Albert C.
Date: February 27, 1858

Albert Morton wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton predicted a good property market for the coming spring, despite the "hard money matters" which had been the situation during the winter. He reported that the Shawnee lands would open soon, to have them paid for by the end of the summer, and that Hill's land investments in Manhattan were "in good standing". Morton added that Samuel Simpson has been busy lately, traveling back and forth from Quindaro to Lawrence.

Keywords: Economic conditions; Hill, Hiram; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Morton, Albert C.; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Letter, John P. Wheeler to Geo. W. Collamor, Esq.
Author: Wheeler, John P.
Date: April 13, 1858

John Wheeler, Secretary of the Sumner Company, wrote to George Collamore, future mayor of Lawrence, from Sumner, Kansas Territory, inviting Collamore to purchase an interest in the developing town, named for the Massachusetts Republican, Charles Sumner.

Keywords: Collamore, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sumner Town Company; Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Wheeler, John P.

Letter, unknown [H. F. Parker?] to Mr. H. Hill
Author: No authors specified.
Date: April 27, 1858

The author of this letter, most likely Henry F. Parker, wrote to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts, communicating to Hill roughly the amount of property taxes he owed and seeking confirmation of the specific lot numbers Hill owned.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Parker, Henry F.; Real estate investment; Taxation; West Lawrence, Kansas Territory

Letter, John McCannon to Col. Jas. B. Abbott
Author: McCannon, John
Date: July 24, 1858

John McCannon, who had once served as Quartermaster for the Kansas free state militia, wrote from Little Osage, Kansas Territory, to James Abbott in Lawrence. McCannon reported that peace reigned in the area in the wake of the Marais des Cygnes Massacre of the past May. Referring to the current Constitutional controversy, he proclaimed, "Lecompton can not live on the Osage", as there were not enough proslavery supporters in the area to approve it were it put to a popular vote. McCannon did not seem to be concerned that U.S. Troops had recently arrived at Fort Scott, for reasons unknown to him, as local towns thrived and crops flourished.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Coal; Crops; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Gristmills; Lebanon, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; McCannon, John; Military; Sawmills; Timber; Town development

Letter, J. J. I. [John J. Ingalls] to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Author: Ingalls, John James
Date: October 5, 1858

On his first full day in Sumner, Ingalls penned a second letter to his father to convey his first impressions of "that Promised Land." The reality Ingalls found and described was quite different than what was depicted in "the lithographic fiction" he had been shown back East. Other than the hotel, the "city" was composed of a "few log huts and miserable cabins . . . None of the premises are fenced," wrote Ingalls, "the whole place being open to the incursions of dogs and pigs which exist in large numbers and seem in fact to constitute the greater amount of the population." Virtually everything about the place distressed Ingalls, who was "quite unable to convey to you any definite idea of the disappointment, not unmingled with anger and mortification with which I contemplate the State of affairs here."

Keywords: Business enterprises; Commerce; Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company; Houses; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Livestock; Pikes Peak gold rush; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Town development; Town promotion

Letter, John James Ingalls to Dear Father [Elias T. Ingalls]
Author: Ingalls, John James
Date: December 10, 1858

On the letter head of the "Sumner Company," Ingalls wrote of the activities of the town company, including its "large distribution of lots," the "drafting" of a city charter, and efforts to make Sumner the starting point for "the Salt Lake Mails and Govt. Trains."

Keywords: Freight and freightage; Ingalls, John James, 1833-1900; Town companies; Town development; Town lots; Town site speculation; Weather

Leslie's Illustrated, Stories of Kansas Cities
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1858

Article from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 25, 1858. Entitled "The Cities of Kansas," it includes accounts of Lawrence, Leavenworth, Lecompton, and Topeka.

Keywords: Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Objects; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Letter, O. H. Browne to J. A. Halderman
Author: Browne, O. H.
Date: February 25, 1859

This letter, written by O. H. Browne from Ridgeway, Shawnee County, was a call to action. Browne was convinced that he and Halderman and others were being "swindled" out of their shares in the Lecompton Town Company, and that "little Bob [Robert] Stevens, law partner of Gov. Shannon, is the mischief making monkey that has caused all this difficulty." Although Halderman was apparently inclined to let this matter go, Browne wanted to file a law suit, and if that didn't work he was "ready to join any company that may be organized and deal out justice to the Lecompton Town Company according to the rules of equity as recognized and administered by Judge Lynch."

Keywords: Browne, O. H.; Fraud; Halderman, John Adams; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Lecompton Town Company; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Lynch, Judge; Ridgeway, Kansas Territory; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Stevens, Robert S.; Tax-sales; Town shares

Corporation tax bill and letter, C. E. Blood to Hiram Hill
Author: Blood, C.E.
Date: March 20, 1859

C. E. Blood wrote from Manhattan, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Evidently, Hill had responded to Blood's previous letter with a list of his Manhattan properties. Blood had obtained the current values and tax rates for each lot while inquiring about the comparative value of the two men's town lots. A house had inadvertently been constructed on Hill's lot, instead of on the lot adjacent to his, as was intended, and Blood wanted to trade lots with Hill.

Keywords: Blood, C.E.; Hill, Hiram; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Real estate investment; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Taxation; Town lots

Receipt, sale of Hotel share
Author: Johnson, John P.
Date: July 1, 1859

This receipt documented the decision of the Secretary of the Highland Town Company, John P. Johnson, to sell his interest in the Highland Hotel, and other hotel lots in Highland, Kansas Territory, to Samuel M. Irvin. The owner of the Hotel, John Bayless, was instructed to deed Johnson's shares to Irvin.

Keywords: Bayless, John; Doniphan County, Kansas Territory; Highland, Kansas Territory; Hotels; Irvin, Samuel M.; Johnson, John P.; Real estate investment; Receipts

Letter, James R. Mead to My dear Father
Author: Mead, James R.
Date: August 13, 1859

In this letter, James Mead wrote from Tecumseh, Kansas Territory, to his father about his efforts to secure a claim. He included information about the people of the territory, and the beautiful vegetation and flourishing towns. Mead also spoke of the immense amount of traffic along the Santa Fe Trail, and of the roads to Lecompton and Topeka which he declared were "the best roads I ever saw anywhere." He also described the buildings of Burlingame, Kansas Territory and the make up of the community. At the end of the letter, he mentioned the new constitution, which "is all Free State."

Keywords: Burlingame, Kansas Territory; Land acquisition; Land claims; Mead, James R.; Osage County, Kansas Territory; Prices; Roads; Santa Fe road; Transportation; Travel; Wagon trains

Letter, Simpson Brothers to Hiram Hill Esq.
Author: Simpson, W.A.
Date: October 7, 1859

W.A. Simpson wrote for the Simpson Brothers from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Simpson reported that the Lawrence City Council had passed a sidewalk ordinance, and had received a reasonable estimate for the work and materials to place them on Hill's properties.

Keywords: Cities and towns; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hill, Hiram; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, W.A.; Town development

Memoranda, Records of Reeder's Stock in Towns
Author: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: [1855]

This document was an undated "Mem. Of Stock in Towns," which appeared to have been written in longhand by Reeder himself and included the number of shares he had purchased (and how they were acquired) in fifteen different towns: Leavenworth, Pawnee, Tecumseh, Marysville, Lecompton, Montgomery (Dickinson Co.), Reeder (Dickinson Co.), Richmond, Whitfield (Shawnee Co.), Topeka, Douglas, Omaha City, Chetolah (Davis/Geary Co.), Grasshopper Falls, and Easton. Interestingly, he held thirty-four shares in Pawnee, his most famous (or infamous) investment venture, but he had thirty-six shares in Montgomery, twenty in Douglas and there appears to be a good number in Omaha City.

Keywords: Chetolah, Kansas Territory; Douglas, Kansas Territory; Easton, Kansas Territory; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Marysville, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, Kansas Territory; Omaha City, Kansas Territory; Pawnee, Kansas Territory; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Reeder, Kansas Territory; Richmond, Kansas Territory; Speculation; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Town shares; Town site speculation; Whitfield, Kansas Territory

Lithograph, Sumner, Kansas Territory
Author: No authors specified.
Date: c.1855

Lithograph, published by Middleton, Strobridge & Co., Cincinnati, OH, showing Sumner, Kansas Territory, c.1855. At the bottom of the lithograph, there is a small map of northeast Kansas.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Lithographs; Maps; Middleton, Strobridge & Co.; Steamboats; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Town development

Investment Share Certificate, Iowa Point Hotel Company Share
Author: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1855

This certificate documented the investment of William Patten into the Iowa Point Hotel Company of Kansas Territory. It was signed by William Word, President of the Company, and Thomas J. Vanderslice, Secretary. When Kansas Territory was opened, in 1854, the Iowa Indians were the possessors of the greater part of northern Doniphan County. After the passage of the Kansas- Nebraska bill a treaty was made between the Government and the Indians, by which the latter sold a large share of their lands and accepted the diminished reserve which they still occupy. The land thus released to the Government was known as the "Iowa Trust lands," and was, with the exception of 480 acres, sold to the highest bidder. Iowa Point was founded on these lands.

Keywords: Indian lands; Iowa Indians; Iowa Point Hotel Company, Kansas Territory; Town companies; Town shares; Vanderslice, Thomas J.

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Letter, R. A. Tovey to My Dear Wife
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date:  January 23, 1854
Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr., wrote to his wife, Eliza (Matthew) Tovey, at their home in Albany, New York. Tovey reported that, since the freezing of the Missouri River, mail was slow, and he had lost his job making stove fixings because of the inability to obtain materials from steamboat transport. Tovey also described his friend Swifts' problems maintaining ownership of his land claim, and the prospect that he himself may participate in a new town's development.

Keywords: Commerce; Labor; Land acquisition; Land claim disputes; Land claims; Missouri River; Religion; Squatters; Swift, J. Dedan; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Town development; Weather


Letter, Your Affectionate Husband [Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr.] to My Dear Wife [Eliza (Matthew) Tovey]
Authors: Tovey, Robert Atkins
Date:  March 22, 1854
Robert Atkins Tovey, Sr., wrote to his wife, Eliza (Matthew) Tovey at their home in Albany, New York. Tovey mentioned his current task of finding a suitable land claim. He discussed the situations of his nearest neighbors as recent homesteaders and businessmen. Tovey also remarked on the "great deal of excitement" surrounding the prospect of forming a territorial legislature and anticipated "a smart fight" between proslavery and free state men.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Land claims; Merchants; Swift, J. Dedan; Tovey, Robert Atkins; Town development; Weather


Meeting Minutes, Leavenworth Association
Authors: Leavenworth Association
Date:  July 26, 1854
The Leavenworth Association met "on the tract of the Association's land" in Kansas Territory at the house of G. B. Parton. The minutes included a report listing all the members of the association and described the progress made in clearing land for a town site.

Keywords: Land speculation; Leavenworth Association; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth Town Company; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Parton, G. B.; Town companies; Town development; Town sites


Minute Book
Authors: Kickapoo City Association
Date:  August 28, 1854 - October 1, 1858
This minute book documented the founding of the Kickapoo City Association in Leavenworth County and its transactions through October 1, 1858. It contained the association's by-laws. It was a fairly complete example of how a town association conducted business, including surveying the proposed site, acquiring title to the land involved, sale of shares, and efforts to make the town attractive to prospective settlers. Meetings were held on the town site or in Weston, Missouri.

Keywords: Kickapoo City Association; Kickapoo, Kansas Territory; Land titles; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Minutes; Town companies; Town development; Town promotion; Town shares; Town site speculation


Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Mr. [Amos Adams] Lawrence
Authors: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date:  September 22, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Samuel Pomeroy wrote from a settlement, which would come to be called Lawrence, in Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Lawrence was an investor who sponsored the emigrant group who would settle the town of Lawrence. Pomeroy reported that Charles Robinson had been elected President of the Lawrence Association, the first governing body of the town. He was enthusiastic about the abundance of timber resources in the area, which, once secured from the Indians, would make for a good business enterprise. Emigrants were arriving in droves, filling the hotels and increasing demand for land claims. Though he remained positive, Pomeroy warned "Don't make yourselves believe that the slave holders have given up Kansas!" and anticipated a political battle during the upcoming Territorial Legislature election.

Keywords: American Indians (see also Native Americans); Branscomb, Charles H.; Business enterprises; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Hotels; Illness; Indian lands; Land acquisition; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Proslavery supporters; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Timber; Town development


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