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Immigration and Early Settlement

Immigration and Early Settlement > The Economy > Relief
54 Topic Specific Items
Circular, To the Women of the State of New York
Author: Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885
Date: c. 1856

This circular was composed of a letter written by Clarina Nichols to the women of New York. In this eloquent letter she attempted to persuade them to send support to the people of Kansas, appealing to their hearts and their experiences as mothers.

Keywords: Circulars; Food; Free state perspective; New York; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Relief; Women

Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to A. H. Shurtleff
Author: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1856

William Hutchinson, secretary of the Kansas Central Committee, wrote from Lawrence to A. Havington Shurtleff, agent for the New York State Kansas Committee. Hutchinson was responding to Shutleff's request for an assessment of the efforts to send emigrant parties and relief to Kansas Territory. Overall, Hutchinson offered a fairly negative view of the efforts of the eastern emigrant aid societies to send relief and emigrants to the territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Relief; Shurtleff, A. Havington

An appeal from the merchants of Lawrence, Kansas territory, to the Chamber of Commerce, St. Louis, Mo.
Author: Merchants of Lawrence
Date: 1856

Lawrence merchants appealed to the St. Louis business community to take steps to prevent Missourians from invading Kansas Territory. They based their request on the negative impact that the invasions would have on commerce between Missouri and Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Commerce; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Merchants; St. Louis, Missouri

Circular, To the Friends of Free Kansas
Author: Kansas Central Committee of Iowa
Date: July 4, 1856

This printed circular, written at Iowa City, Iowa, described an alternative migration route to Kansas that traveled through Iowa. This route would allow antislavery emigrants to avoid traveling through Missouri. The circular also appealed to emigrant aid committees in the East to provide funds to send Iowans to Kansas.

Keywords: Circulars; Clark, W. Penn; Downey, H. D.; Emigration and immigration; Hobart, C. W.; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Kansas Central Committee of Iowa; Transportation; Travel

Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to Wm. Barnes
Author: No authors specified.
Date: September 14, 1856

Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, wrote from Boston, Massachusetts to urge William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, to do everything in his power to provide aid to Kansas as quickly as possible.

Keywords: Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Election, Presidential, 1856; Free state support; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; New York State Kansas Committee

Letter, George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et al
Author: Hunt, George W.; Stearns, C.
Date: September 29, 1856

On behalf of a committee of Lawrence citizens, Hunt and Stearns wrote the State Central Committee of Kansas "to urge upon your attention several important points in reference to the present condition of Kansas." They were convinced that a "storm" from Missouri was about "to burst upon the devoted heads of the freemen of Kansas" and "perhaps to deluge Kansas with rivers of blood." The committee urged the state and national organization to help them prepare for the storm, while things were relatively calm, with an adequate supply of arms and ammunition and men. But, with a veiled reference, perhaps, to John Brown, they called only for "moral heroes" who would not follow the "principles of Border Ruffianism."

Keywords: Ammunition; Beecher Bibles; Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Guns; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; State Central Committee of Kansas; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill Esqr
Author: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: October 3, 1856

Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Hiram Hill, reporting that he had done no business since the Battle of Franklin, early the past June, until the last few days. Hill's homes were all paying rent, and Simpson was taking steps to get a road built through West Lawrence. Simpson had received money sent by Hill and passed it on to Osawatomie to help them recover from the battle of the previous August. He continued to hope for the election of Fremont, and described conditions in the military camps.

Keywords: Election, Presidential, 1856; Franklin, Battle of; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Hill, Hiram; Military; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Titus, Henry Theodore; Town development; Voting

Letter, R. J. Hinton to Gentlemen [National Kansas Committee]
Author: Hinton, R. J.
Date: October 10, 1856

R. J. Hinton wrote this letter from Lawrence to the members of the National Kansas Committee, offering his suggestions about how to sustain the struggling settlers of Kansas. He proposed the idea of bringing the manufacturing industry into the territory as a source of employment. He also mentioned that a flour mill would be greatly appreciated by Kansans.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Economic conditions; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Flour mills; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Guns; Hinton, Richard Josiah; House furnishings; Manufacturing; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Settlement; Sewing machines; Steam power; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, S. F. Lyman to H. Hill
Author: Lyman, Samuel F.
Date: October 13, 1856

Samuel Lyman wrote from Northampton, Massachusetts, to Hiram Hill, also in Massachusetts, regarding Hill's responsibility to raise money for aid to Kansas. Lyman reminded Hill of the suffering occurring in the Territory. He added in a postscript that although Samuel Pomeroy had recently delivered provisions to people in KT, they were only enough to last a few days.

Keywords: Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Lyman, Samuel F.; Massachusetts; Money; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891

Letter, ladies of Orange, N.J. to Dear Sir [Thaddeus Hyatt]
Author: Ladies of Orange, New Jersey
Date: October 20, 1856

This letter, written by the ladies of Orange, N.J., informed Thaddeus Hyatt of their donations for the free state inhabitants of Kansas, including foodstuffs, a variety of clothing and sewing material. This is an excellent example of how women in New England supported the free state cause.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Emigrant aid companies; Free state cause; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; Orange, New Jersey; Relief; Vegetables; Women

Letter, W.F.M. Arny to Wm. Barnes
Author: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881
Date: October 25, 1856

Arny, general agent of the National Kansas Committee, wrote from a steamboat traveling on the Missouri River to inform William Barnes, secretary of the New York State Kansas Committee, about conditions in Kansas. Arny reported on the state of the Kansas State Central Committee, the efforts by free state supporters in Kansas to prepare for possible proslavery attacks if Buchanan won the 1856 presidential election, and the relief needs of free state settlers in Kansas.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Barnes, William, 1824-1913; Border ruffians; Food; Free state support; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kansas State Central Committee; National Kansas Committee; New York State Kansas Committee; Relief

Receipt Book, October - November 1856
Author: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: October 30, 1856

This Kansas State Central Committee receipt book was one of several in which the committee recorded the various monies, provisions, clothing, etc., that were distributed throughout the territory. Many of the items of clothing were specifically listed for children (e.g., "1 girls calico dress" and "1 pair boys woolen pants"), and many items were received by individuals for distribution among the needy of their particular area.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Blood, James; Children; Clothing and dress; Free state settlers; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Kansas State Central Committee; Merchandise; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Relief; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Letter and Bill, S. [Samuel] L. Adair to William Hutchinson
Author: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: November 7, 1856

The first page of this four-page document lists five items for which Samuel L. Adair requested payment ($21.25) from the KSCC; these include provisions, medicine, the "balance yet unpaid of money advanced to pay lawyers fees for prisoners at Tecumsee in June last," and the "bill paid for lumber and nails for coffin of Frederick Brown & David Garrison," two of the men killed during the battle of Osawatomie, August 30, 1856. The accompanying letter justified the request.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Garrison, David R.; Medicine; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory

Receipt, Lawrence, KT
Author: Ketcham, Justus G.
Date: November 12, 1856

Itemized listing of clothing, food, and other provisions issued by the Kansas Central Committee to Dr. Samuel E. Martin for distribution "in Topeka and vicinity among the destitute."

Keywords: Kansas Central Committee; Ketcham, Justus G.; Martin, Samuel E. (Dr.); Receipts; Relief; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Letter, O. [Owen] C. Brown to My Dear Sir
Author: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904
Date: November 12, 1856

Brown wrote Samuel Adair in Osawatomie, Kansas Territory from Utica, New York. He reported that he had spoken to ten different groups about needs in Kansas. He reported that Mr. Arny of the National Kansas Committee planned to visit Osawatomie and promised that the people there would get their fair share of aid. He asked Adair a number of questions about the situation there including questions about pro-slavery settlers. He discussed elections and the Know Nothing party.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904; Elections; Free state support; Know Nothing Party; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); National Kansas Committee; National politics; New York; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Utica, New York

List of relief materials received from the Central Committee for distirbution in and around Osawatomie
Author: No authors specified.
Date: November 13, 1856

The list provided the number and kind of items received to be distributed to families in need of relief. It included clothing, bedding, and food. The list was signed by Andrew Updegraff for S. L. Adair.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Updegraff, Andrew

Letter, James Garrison to S. L. Adair
Author: Garrison, James
Date: December 15, 1856

James Garrison wrote from Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio to his cousin Samuel Adair. The letter concerned relief efforts on behalf of the free state settlers and concerns about fraud on the part of agents collecting money and goods. Garrison wrote that the Cincinnati Gazette had published a long list of names of Kansas citizens who had been refused clothing by the relief society. He felt an explanation to the public was needed if the relief efforts were to be continued. The letterhead included an engraving of Antioch College. The sheet of paper also contained a letter from Gamaliel Garrison.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Antioch College; Cincinnati Gazette; Garrison, Gamaliel; Garrison, James; Ohio; Relief; Relief fraud; Yellow Springs, Ohio

Letter, S. L. Adair to Miss Mary P. Green
Author: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: December 17, 1856

In this letter, Samuel Adair thanked Miss Green for $35 sent by the ladies of La Salle County, Illinois. He indicated that he would try to distribute the money to "no unworthy person," but that it would help relieve the suffering in the territory. He indicated that things were comparatively quiet. He referred to a lack of cash if settlers were required to pay for their land soon, as he felt most would need to take out mortgages. He reported that those suffering the most were families who were sick or where the men were in prison. He expressed gratitude for the support received from the East.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Green, Mary P.; Illinois; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Women

Letter, Emily Kimball to Dear Sir [Thomas W. Higginson]
Author: Kimball, Emily P.
Date: December 18 - December 19, 1856

This letter was written to Thomas W. Higginson by Emily Kimball, a representative of the ladies of Oakham, Massachusetts. The letter included three dollars for freight on a shipment of supplies to Kansas. On the back of the letter was a note from N. Ayres, asking Higginson to inform the ladies of Oakham about why their contribution was not acknowledged in the circular.

Keywords: Freight and freightage; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Massachusetts; Relief

Letter, S. L. Adair to W. F. M. Arny
Author: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: December 18, 1856

Arny was a representative of the National Kansas Committee and Adair was inquiring about various boxes and money that had been sent to the committee in Chicago for forwarding to people in Osawatomie. Adair also seemed to be responding to a request for information from Arny about settlers from Wisconsin in the Osawatomie area and also members of the Eldridge-Pomeroy party. Adair provided information on James Fuller, Thomas Roberts, Joseph Lawes and William and Wakeman (?) Partridge. He listed the names of four men who came with Eldridge and Pomeroy but provided no additional information. He also noted that he loaned Mr. Hyatt $50 and had an "order" for Arny to reimburse him.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Free state settlers; Fuller, James; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawes, Joseph; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Partridge, William; Relief; Roberts, Thomas; Wisconsin

Letter, A. Curtis to William Hutchinson
Author: Curtis, A.
Date: December 21, 1856

Curtis reported on the conflict between the Kansas Central Committee and W. F. M. Arny, general agent for the National Kansas Committee, over the distribution of supplies. Curtis claimed that Arny issued supplies to individuals who were engaged in speculative ventures and who were not in need of relief. Curtis attached to the letter an itemized list of the supplies that he believed were inappropriately issued by Arny.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Curtis, A; Economic conditions; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas Central Committee; National Kansas Committee

Letter, James Garrison to Dear Cousin [Samuel Adair]
Author: Garrison, James
Date: December 29, 1856

Garrison wrote to his cousin Samuel Adair that he had collected $104.75 to be used for relief in Kansas. He was concerned about how to get the money to Adair and suggested that if he had been able to collect on the sale of Rachel Garrison's goods, that he should use that money instead. He also wanted Adair to write a letter of acknowledgement to the Free Presbyterian published in Yellow Springs, Ohio.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Garrison, James; Garrison, Rachel A.; Ohio; Relief; Yellow Springs, Ohio

List of Clothing Articles
Author: Bourne, S.
Date: c. 1856 or 1857

This is a detailed list of the articles of clothing sent to Kansas by the First Congregational Church in Flushing, New York. It includes dresses, frocks, coats, skirts, pants, drawers, shirts, socks, vests, boots and gloves as well as other items. The pastor of the church, S. Bourne, emphasized the quality and durability of the clothing.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; National Kansas Committee; New York; Relief

Bills Received and Paid, Kansas Central Committee to J. Willits
Author: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: January 7, 1857

The Kansas State Central Committee apparently paid this itemized bill for $12.64 on January 7, 1857, to Jacob Willits of Shawnee County. It included everything from apples to molasses to quinine.

Keywords: Blood, James; Food; Kansas Central Committee; Kansas State Central Committee; Merchandise; Relief; Willits, Jacob

Letter, Thaddeus Hyatt to Dear Sir [Amos Lawrence]
Author: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: February 11, 1857

This letter was written from New York by the president of the National Kansas Committee, Thaddeus Hyatt. He was writing to Amos Lawrence about the committee's efforts to relieve the suffering of free state settlers in Kansas Territory. Apparently, a shipment of clothing to Kansas contained a number of articles that were well worn and of little use. Hyatt also spoke of the need for agricultural implements, cattle, and seeds to end the suffering of the settlers.

Keywords: Agricultural implements; Cabot, Samuel; Clothing and dress; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Loans; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Relief funds; Seeds

Letter, S. L. Adair to Rev. Joseph Gordon (copy)
Author: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: February 19, 1857

Writing from Osawatomie, Adair thanked Rev. Gordon for $104 raised in Yellow Springs, Ohio, that was sent to James Garrison for "the benefit of sufferers in the cause of freedom in the Osawatomie vicinity." He mentioned the difficulties of distributing aid to everyone's satisfaction and mentioned the Kansas Central Committee. He also wrote of his concerns about how slavery and its demise will impact the nation using phrases such as "conflict of arms" and "fearful doom."

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Free state perspective; Garrison, James; Gordon, James; Kansas Central Committee; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Ohio; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Relief; Yellow Springs, Ohio

Letter, C. G. Dick to Brother Samuel Adair
Author: Dick, Campbell Graham
Date: April 21, 1857

Dick was Adair's brother-in-law and wrote from his home in Marshall, Highland County, Ohio. He wrote that he supported the American Missionary Association as it promoted Christianity but he was pessimistic about the chances for Kansas entering the Union as a free state. He wrote that the Democratic party was controlled by the south. He asked Adair to inform him if free state men intended to vote in the elections called by the Bogus Legislature.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; American Missionary Association; Bogus legislature; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state supporters; Marshall, Ohio; Ohio

Letter, E. B. Whitman to S. L. Adair
Author: Whitman, E. B.
Date: May 15, 1857

Whitman, located in Lawrence, was the general agent for the National Kansas Committee that was distributing relief supplies in Kansas Territory. He wrote that he was sending Adair potatoes and corn to be distributed for planting. Evidently Adair had written him previously about some boxes of supplies he expected and Whitman speculated they were either in Wyandotte or St. Louis on the Steamer Light Foot on the Kansas River.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Agriculture; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lightfoot (steamboat); National Kansas Committee; Relief; Steamboats; Whitman, E. B.

Receipt, Received of J. Blood for Boarding . . . Mary Jones
Author: Jones, Mary
Date: June 15, 1857

The Kansas State Central Committee/Blood receipt was to Mary Jones of Lawrence for "boarding and taking care of Mr. Leggs [Charles Legge?] destitute children." The total paid was $19.85.

Keywords: Blood, James; Children; Free state support; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Relief

Letter, E. B. Whitman to Dear Sir [Samuel Adair, presumably]
Author: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 5, 1857

Whitman wrote from Lawrence, presumably, to Samuel Adair to ask for his assistance in distributing remaining clothing before winter. He included instructions for notifying the public of the availability of relief goods and indicated that the first priority for receiving materials is for who Adair "knows to be in absolute want." Whitman felt the task of distribution should not take more than one week. He also wanted Adair to estimate the number of poor families in his community.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Whitman, E. B.

Letter, S. L. Adair to E. B. Whitman
Author: Adair, Samuel Lyle
Date: January 25, 1858

Writing from Osawatomie, Adair gave an account of clothing he still had on hand, cash received, and expenses incurred. The clothing listed ranges from coats to socks.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); National Kansas Committee; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Whitman, E. B.

Receipts, John Brown to M. F. Conway
Author: Brown, John , 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin
Date: October 18, 1858

This document consists of a four-page itemized listing (individuals' name and amount due) of the "notes" received by Martin F. Conway from "Captain John Brown." Conway endorsed the document at Lawrence, K.T., on October 18, 1858, and wrote, in part, "the said Notes to be safely kept or collected by me, as may, in my discretion, seem best."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Finance; Free state settlers; Free state support; Relief funds

Appeal for the Kansas sufferers!
Author: Foster, Daniel
Date: 1860

This letter was written by Daniel Foster to describe the conditions in Kansas during a nine month drought. Many settlers left Kansas Territory, and those remaining needed relief. This letter called on people to provide aid to those in Kansas. Furthermore, it listed names of a committee that met in Boston to discuss relief efforts in Kansas.

Keywords: Droughts; Food; Foster, Daniel; Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876; Kansas Frontier; Kansas Relief Committee; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Poor; Relief; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Circular, To the friends of humanity
Author: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blake, F. N.
Date: 1860-1861

This circular, written by F. N. Blake and W. F. M. Arny, was an appeal for aid to Kansas with suggestions for specific items and shipping routes for sending food, clothing and other provisions to the settlers starving after the drought of 1860.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Chicago, Illinois; Circulars; Clothing and dress; Food; Money; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Mr. Thaddeus Hyatt
Author: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: November 4, 1860

This letter, written from Atchison by Samuel Pomeroy, was addressed to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Pomeroy informed Hyatt of the desperate need for aid, and he related the tale of a young woman who came to him seeking help for their starving families. He also spoke of a man from Eureka who rode 160 miles to obtain bread for himself and his neighbors. Pomeroy promised Hyatt that he would continue to send reports and updates.

Keywords: Clothing and dress; Famines; Grain; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Poverty; Relief

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to Thaddeus Hyatt
Author: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: November 5, 1860

This letter, written by S. C. Pomeroy from Atchison, Kansas Territory, sought to inform Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, of the destitution in Kansas. Pomeroy was keeping Hyatt apprised of the dire situation, and he spoke of relief committees being formed in Leavenworth and Lawrence. Pomeroy also related the tales of specific individuals, such as John Roberts from Chelsea and Mrs. Johnson, a widow with five children.

Keywords: Famines; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Poor; Poverty; Relief

Letter, Joseph Denison to Br. [Isaac] Goodnow
Author: Denison, Joseph
Date: November 9, 1860

Joseph Denison wrote from Cincinatti, Ohio, to Isaac Goodnow, who was also traveling in the East. Denison had been traveling in the Midwest as part of an effort to raise a relief fund for citizens of Kansas Territory, who had suffered as a result of a severe drought. His fellow churchmen and abolitionists were eager to help, as they believed that "the recent Republican victories are due in great part to the settlers and suffers in Kansas" who "must be helped or they will be starved out of the Territory."

Keywords: Denison, Joseph; Economic conditions; Goodnow, Isaac T., 1814-1894; Railroads; Relief; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); de Vivaldi, Charles F.

Letter, C. Robinson to Dear Sir [Amos A. Lawrence]
Author: Robinson, Charles
Date: November 15, 1860

Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Charles Robinson wrote from a town of Medford, presumably in New England, to Amos A. Lawrence in Boston regarding relief efforts for Kansas. Robinson discussed the formation of a committee at Lawrence, which would "ascertain the objects of charity & minister to their necessities." He also described other relief efforts being carried out at the local level, which Robinson believed to be more effective than using nonresident disbursing agents or traveling solicitors.

Keywords: Cordley, Richard; Deitzler, George W.; Kansas Relief Committee; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Relief; Reynolds, Charles; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Letter, John W. Robinson to Hon. J. M. S. Williams
Author: Robinson, John W.
Date: November 15, 1860

John W. Robinson wrote from Manhattan, Kansas Territory to John M. S. Williams. Robinson thanked Williams for his $25 donation to the relief fund for Kansans suffering from the effects of drought.

Keywords: Droughts; Election, Presidential, 1860; Manhattan, Kansas Territory; Relief; Riley County, Kansas Territory; Robinson, John W.; Williams, John M. S.

Minutes, meetings "on the behalf of sufferers in Kansas"
Author: Denison, Joseph
Date: December 3, 1860

Joseph Denison recorded minutes of preliminary meetings that organized efforts to raise money and donations on behalf of the citizens of Kansas Territory, who had suffered as a result of severe drought. He also composed an announcement entitled "The Kansas Famine", which predicted that at least 30,000 in the Territory would "inevitably perish during the coming winter" were help not secured.

Keywords: Beecher, Henry Ward; Denison, Joseph; Droughts; Economic conditions; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Minutes; Poverty; Relief

Letter, S. C. Pomeroy to My dear good friend [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Author: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: December 3, 1860

This letter was written by S. C. Pomeroy of the Kansas Relief Committee, one of several aid committees that had been formed to ease the suffering of settlers in Kansas. This particular committee specifically sought to send relief funds and provisions into Kansas during the drought of 1860. The letter is addressed to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, keeping him informed about the efforts to distribute food and clothing. Pomeroy appreciated the help he had received from Hyatt, but he was disappointed in Dr. Webb. The last page of the letter has been crossed out and edited.

Keywords: Droughts; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Circular, Kansas Relief
Author: Arny, W F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blake, F. N.
Date: c. December 11, 1860

This circular, composed by the Kansas Territorial Relief Committee (also known as the Kansas Relief Committee) gives specific instructions for the proper way to donate provisions. It also provides information about where to send these provisions and encourages citizens of the United States to have compassion on Kansas citizens who are suffering during the drought of 1860. Agents and members of committees are also requested to furnish reports of their work.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Blake, Freeman N.; Chicago, Illinois; Circulars; Droughts; Famines; Relief

Circular, An appeal from Kansas!
Author: Byrd, J. H.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Reynolds, Charles ; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877
Date: December 14, 1860

This circular detailed the beginnings of the Territorial Executive Committee, which was in charge of collecting relief to aid the struggling settlers of Kansas during the drought of 1860. This committee met in Lawrence, Kansas Territory on November 14, 1860 and passed several resolutions. From 24 Kansas counties 101 delegates were present, and out of this number four men were elected officers, including Samuel Pomeroy. The circular concluded with "Suggestions and Directions to those who purpose Aiding us in our Distress."

Keywords: Bodwell, Lewis; Byrd, J. H.; Circulars; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fairchild, George H.; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lines, C. B.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Reynolds, Charles; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Honl. Amos A. Lawrence
Author: Simpson, Samuel Newell
Date: December 22, 1860

Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Samuel N. Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts regarding the poverty in which Gaius Jenkins' family found themselves. James Lane had killed Jenkins in 1858 over a land claim, and it appeared that he was now taking measures to "keep her [Mrs. Jenkins] poor as long as possible." Simpson reminded Lawrence of his request to pay Jenkins fifty dollars as compensation for his imprisonment by federal troops at Camp Sackett, near Lecompton, in 1856. Jenkins had declined the payment at the time, but Simpson now solicited it on behalf of his widow and family.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, Jr.; Camp Sackett, Kansas Territory; Deitzler, George W.; Economic conditions; Jenkins, Gaius; Land claim disputes; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Relief; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Smith, George W.

Starving Kansas
Author: Stockmyer, G.
Date: December, 1860

This broadside was prepared by G. Stockmyer, agent for Kansas Relief. It included descriptions of the conditions in most parts of Kansas Territory from individuals such as Thaddeus Hyatt, Allen Hodgson, and W. F. M. Arny and excerpts from various newspapers. Relief efforts were being coordinated by Samuel C. Pomeroy from Atchison, Kansas Territory. Freight and railroad companies provided free shipping for relief goods sent to K. T.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Ballard, J. F.; Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Chase County, Kansas Territory; Droughts; Grimes, W. H.; Hodgson, Allen; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Relief Committee; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Reynolds, Charles; Stockmyer, G; Wabaunsee County, Kansas Territory; Winchell, J. M.

Circular, Aid to Kansas
Author: Ladies' Kansas Aid Society of Richmond
Date: c. 1860

This circular, issued by the Ladies' Kansas Aid Society of Richmond, announces the placement of a contribution box in town, with proceeds supporting the "suffering friends of Freedom in Kansas" in their fight against the "outrages of the Border Ruffians." The Aid Society is most likely based in a New England town named Richmond, though the exact location is unknown.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Circulars; Eddy, Jennie; Emigrant aid companies - Free state; Free state support; Free state supporters; Howells, Mary A.; Ladies' Kansas Aid Society of Richmond; National politics; Relief; Vanderburg, Lydia A.

Abstract of Report Showing the Operations of the Kansas Territorial Relief Committee to January 1, 1861
Author: Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891
Date: January 1, 1861



Keywords: Droughts; Kansas Relief Committee; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Relief funds

Letter, Phoebe Atkins to Dear friends
Author: Atkins, Phoebe
Date: January 6, 1861

Phoebe Atkins wrote to her friends regarding her living conditions in Oskaloosa. She described how settlers had to travel as far as Atchison to obtain provisions and prevent starvation. She also spoke of the necessity of finding work and her recent illness.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Atchison, Kansas Territory; Atkins, Phoebe; Daily life; Economic conditions; Illness; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Labor; Oskaloosa, Kansas Territory

Letter, Mrs. D. F. Robison to Hon. Horace Greeley
Author: Robison, Mrs. D. F.
Date: January 7, 1861

This brief letter, written by Mrs. D. F. Robison of Green Castle, Pennsylvania, was addressed to Horace Greeley, informing him of her small but unselfish contribution to Kansas relief. It is an excellent example of how even Northerners who were struggling financially took it upon themselves to aid the impoverished settlers of Kansas.

Keywords: Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Pennsylvania; Relief; Robison, Mrs. D. F.

Letter, An old lady to Mr. [Horace] Greeley
Author: No authors specified.
Date: January 9, 1861

This letter, written from Montrose, Pennsylvania, was addressed to Horace Greeley. It included a contribution of two dollars, which the author asked to be passed along to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee.

Keywords: Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Pennsylvania; Relief

Article, Kansas Relief Committee
Author: Smith, I. N.
Date: March 16, 1861

This article, published in the Haverhill, Massachusetts Tri-Weekly Publisher, lists the contributions collected by their local Kansas Relief Committee. A number of different churches in the area donated cash, and the committee also sent varied articles of clothing (listed in the article) to General S.C. Pomeroy of Atchison.

Keywords: Churches; Clothing and dress; Haverhill, Massachusetts; Kansas Relief Committee; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Relief; Smith, I. N.

Invoice of Central Committee goods
Author: No authors specified.
Date: No date

Itemized inventory of goods maintained by the Kansas Central Committee for distribution to Free State citizens in need of relief. The goods on the inventory consisted primarily of clothing and fabric.

Keywords: Free state; Kansas State Central Committee; Relief

Photograph, Rev. John H. Byrd
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

Rev. John H. Byrd was active in efforts to secure aid for residents of Kansas Territory who were suffering from the drought in 1860. He lived in Lawrence, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Byrd, J. H.; Card photographs; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations

Photograph, Austin G. Carpenter
Author: Wertz, G., proprietor of Kansas City Photograph Rooms
Date:

Austin G. Carpenter was an early resident of Allen County, Kansas Territory. He was part of a committee that reported on conditions related to the drought in 1860. He later served as a First Lieutenant, Company D, 9th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry,

Keywords: Allen County, Kansas Territory; Carpenter, A. G.; Cartes de visite; Photographs and Illustrations; Wertz, G., Kansas City Photograph Rooms

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Circular, To the Women of the State of New York
Authors: Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885
Date:  c. 1856
This circular was composed of a letter written by Clarina Nichols to the women of New York. In this eloquent letter she attempted to persuade them to send support to the people of Kansas, appealing to their hearts and their experiences as mothers.

Keywords: Circulars; Food; Free state perspective; New York; Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard, 1810-1885; Relief; Women


Blank Certificate to acknowledge donations to the Free State Kansas Fund
Authors: Free State Kansas Fund
Date:  unknown
This blank certificate was to be used to acknowledge contributions to be used for the relief of "Free State Citizens" and for the "establishment of FREEDOM" in Kansas Territory. It had three lithographs and quotes from the constitution and the Missouri Compromise. It was printed in Albany, New York.

Keywords: Certificates; Free State Kansas Fund; Free state cause; Free state support; New York; Relief


Letters, by Thaddeus Hyatt (No. 3 and No. 4, incomplete)
Authors: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date:  1856
These two excerpts of letters written by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, described the early workings of this committee and its work for the free state cause. Copy No. 3 discussed the "Tabernacle Committee" and the appropriation of side arms and Sharps rifles. Copy No. 4 referred to J.M. Winchell, authorizing him to make a withdrawal from the New York Kansas Fund. [The first page of the letters which is included in the text version was not scanned.]

Keywords: Firearms; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; Relief; Sharps rifles; Winchell, James M., 1823-1877


Letter, Wm. Hutchinson to A. H. Shurtleff
Authors: No authors specified.
Date:  ca. 1856
William Hutchinson, secretary of the Kansas Central Committee, wrote from Lawrence to A. Havington Shurtleff, agent for the New York State Kansas Committee. Hutchinson was responding to Shutleff's request for an assessment of the efforts to send emigrant parties and relief to Kansas Territory. Overall, Hutchinson offered a fairly negative view of the efforts of the eastern emigrant aid societies to send relief and emigrants to the territory.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigrant aid companies; Emigration and immigration; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Migration, internal; New York State Kansas Committee; Relief; Shurtleff, A. Havington


Statement on the Central Committee
Authors: Undersigned Citizens of Kansas Territory, John Stroup (first signature)
Date:  January 8, 1856
This document, signed by Kansas citizens from the Lawrence area, deplores the condition of the Central Committee's room and office. These citizens claim that they were mistreated and that the relief effort should be placed in more benevolent hands. They ask that the National Kansas Committee "remove the present incumbents and apoint persons Who have Some feeling for poor Suffering humanity." It concludes with a list of signatures.

Keywords: Central Relief Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; National Kansas Committee; Relief


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