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Border Disputes and Warfare

Border Disputes and Warfare > Military Organizations > Militias
55 Topic Specific Items
Stubbs Militia Company Constitution, By-laws, and Charter
Author: No authors specified.
Date: April 16, 1855

The Stubbs militia company was organized on April 16, 1855, to protect Lawrence and the people of Kansas Territory. The constitution limited membership to 64 "rank and file" members and listed the duties of the various officers. The by-laws called for weekly drills, public parades once each three months, and indicated that prospective members had to be voted upon as well as paying ten dollars. Other expectations for members were detailed in the by-laws. The charter was the draft of a bill to be passed by the territorial legislature and listed the following as the incorporators of the Stubbs, a volunteer military company: Joseph Cracklin, A. Cutler, George F. Earle, John G. Crocker, Caleb S. Pratt, A. Gunther, and A. D. Searl. Although the document included the date of April 16, 1855, a date of 1858 was penciled above the title Constitution.

Keywords: Cracklin, Joseph; Crocker, John G.; Cutler, A.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Earle, Geroge F.; Free state activities; Gunther, A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Pratt, Caleb S.; Searl, Albert D.; Stubbs militia company

Letter, Henry Saunders, certifying James Abbott as a militia member
Author: Saunders, Henry F.
Date: July 25, 1855

Henry Saunders, Captain of the Wakarusa Liberty Guards, a free state militia group, wrote this letter certifying James Abbott as 2nd Lieutenant of that unit. Saunders added that Abbott was also officially employed in the task of procuring arms for the free state cause.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Saunders, Henry F.; Weapons (see also Guns)

Militia Commission, issue by James H. Lane to Joel Grover
Author: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: November 27, 1855

This printed document, headed with the name "James H. Lane," announced the election and certification of Joel Grover as colonel of the 6th Regiment, First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers, raised "to defend the City of Lawrence from threatened destruction by foreign invaders." It is dated November 27, 1855, and signed "J. H. Lane," general commanding.

Keywords: Border ruffians; First Brigade of Kansas Volunteers; Free state militia; Grover, Joel; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855

Head Quarters of the Second Brigade of Northern Division of Kansas Militia, Leavenworth City
Author: Eastin, Lucian J.
Date: November 28, 1855

This document is a printed notice to the Militia of the Second Brigade requesting them to meet at Leavenworth on Dec. 1, 1855.

Keywords: Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Militia

List of Companies
Author: No authors specified.
Date: November-December, 1855

This document listed general information about militia recruited by free state leaders during the Wakarusa War, November-December, 1855. These troops gathered to defend Lawrence against an estimated 2000 Missourians. Details on the number of commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers and rank and file are provided for Companies A through I, Horse Company No. 1, and the headquarters company. The documents also listed the weapons available ("Sharpe's Rifles," "Other Arms," and "Cartridges"). All of the officers were listed. A total of 349 men with 156 Sharpe's Rifles and 169 other weapons and 6807 cartridges were recruited. James H. Lane served as the brigadier general and William Y. Roberts was the adjutant general. Colonels were Lyman Allen, M. A. Hunt, and C, K. Holliday. Majors were Jno. A. Wakefield, David Dodge, J. M Mitchell, Geo. W. Smith, Sr., Milton C. Dickey and men with the last names of Thomas, Tuton, Sampson, and Yates.. George W. Smith, Jr. was the Sergeant Major, A. H. Malory, Quartermaster; Jno. G. Crocker, Quartermaster Sergeant; Mr. Hunt, Commisary; and Dr. S. B. Prentiss and Dr. Foles, surgeons.

Keywords: Allen, Lyman; Crocker, John G.; Dickey, Milton C.; Dodge, David; Free state activities; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Hunt, Morris; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Mallory, Anson H.; Militia; Mitchell, J. M.; Prentiss, S.B.; Roberts, William Young; Smith, George W.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Wakefield, John A.

Letter, C. Robinson to Capt. G. P. Lowrey
Author: Robinson, Charles
Date: December 8, 1855

Charles Robinson, Commander-in-Chief of the free state military forces, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Grosvenor P. Lowry, captain of a free state militia regiment, instructing him to attach his command to the newly organized regiment under the command of James Lane, Robinson's second-in-command.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lowrey, G.P. (Grosvenor P.); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Receipt, Commissary 1st Brigade Kansas Volunteers
Author: No authors specified.
Date: December 10, 1855

Receipt from the Commissary 1st Brigade Kansas Volunteers listing arms and equipment, along with their prices, allotted to James Abbott.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state activities; Free state militia; Hunt, George W.; Kansas Volunteers; Mallory, Anson H.; Weapons (see also Guns)

Certificate of Service, Franklin L. Crane, Jr.
Author: Headquarters, Kansas Volunteers
Date: December 11, 1855

Franklin L. Crane, Jr., son of a prominent citizen in Topeka, served as a private from November 27 to Dec. 11, 1855 in defense of Lawrence. This certificate of service was signed by several people active in the free state cause, including James H. Lane and Charles Robinson.

Keywords: Certificates; Crane, Franklin L., Jr.; Crane, Franklin Loomis; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Military; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Muster Roll of Captain Samuel Walker, Company D, Second Regiment, 1st Brigade, Kansas Volunteeers
Author: No authors specified.
Date: December 12, 1855

This muster roll listed men who served in the Wakarusa War from November 27 to December 12, 1855. The second regiment was commanded by Col. C. K. Holliday. This company was recruited from the area around Bloomington, Kansas Territory. The information provided included name, title if an officer, and age. This muster roll also included annotations about the value of property such as saddles, clothes, horses, etc. taken or destroyed by the "enemy." Officers, in addition to Captain Samuel Walker, were A. Curliss, George Umbarger, (?) Miller, T. W. Wolverton, D. C. Buffum, A. I. Smith, A. Jones, R. Dunn, R. Hasseltine, R. Miller, and J. C. Dunn. Ages of the company ranged from 17 to 50 years old.

Keywords: Bloomington, Kansas Territory; Buffum, David C.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Free state militia; Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900; Kansas Volunteers; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Walker, Samuel Douglas

Muster Roll of Captain John Brown's company, Fifth Regiment, 1st Brigade, Kansas Volunteers
Author: No authors specified.
Date: December 12, 1855

This muster roll listed men who served in the Wakarusa War from November 27 to December 12, 1855. The fifth regiment was commanded by Col. George W. Smith. This company was recruited from the area around Osawatomie, Kansas Territory. The information provided included name, title if an officer, and age. Officers, in addition to Captain John Brown, were William Updegraff, Henry H. Williams, James J. Holbrook, Ephraim Reynolds, R. W. Wood, Frederick Brown, John Yelton, Henry Alderman, H. Harrison Updegraff, Daniel W. Collis, and William Partridge. William Partridge furnished one keg of powder and 8 pounds of lead that were used by the company. Ages of the company ranged from 19 to 55 years old. This was a small company and the other members were Amos D. Alderman, Francis Brennon, William W. Caine, Benjamin L. Cochran, Jeremiah Harrison and John Brown's sons John, Jr., Owen, and Sallmon

Keywords: Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Owen; Brown, Salmon; Free state activities; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Militia; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Partridge, William; Smith, George W.; Updegraff, W. W.; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Williams, Henry H.

Abbott Sword
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1855

Major James B. Abbott acquired this Model 1840 Noncommissioned Officer's sword in 1855. He carried it through the territorial period.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Militia; Objects; Swords and daggers; Weapons (see also Guns)

Muster Roll of the Sewannoe Company
Author: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1855

This "Muster Roll" lists a group of men "mustered into the service" of the protection of the people of Kansas Territory. This group would probably act as a unit of the free state militia. The roster includes the name, age, and height of each man, as well as notes about their personal ownership of a horse, riding equipment, and arms.

Keywords: Free state militia; Horses; Weapons (see also Guns)

Senate Executive Documents, 34th Congress, 3rd session, Report of the Secretary of War
Author: No authors specified.
Date: May 23, 1856 - November 12, 1856

Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, submitted a number of documents in his report to the President that was submitted to the "Two Houses of Congress" on December 2, 1856. There were three sections of documents. Part 1 consisted of letters from the Secretary of War (Davis) and the Adjutant General ( S. Cooper) (pp. 27--35) to Colonel E.V. Sumner, General P. F. Smith, the governors of Kentucky and Illinois, and Major Emery, in relation to a militia force to be employed to aid the legitimate Territorial Government in Kansas Territory. Part 2 (pp.35--61) contained various reports from Colonel E. V. Sumner, commaning officer of the 1st Cavalry at Fort Leavenworth about events in Kansas. The reports include correspondence from Wilson Shannon, territorial governor, and various officers of the 1st Cavalry from Lecompton, Tecumseh, and other locations in the territory. Part 3 (pp. 62-146) was headed "Reports for the Department of the West" and included correspondence from various military officers about the activities of United States troops at various locations in Kansas Territory. This section contained several letters from Daniel Woodson and John Geary, territorial officials. A few non-Kansas items relating to dealings with Native Americans were interspersed among the Kansas Territory correspondence.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Cooke, Philip St. George; Davis, Jefferson; Deas, George; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Free state activities; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Military; Sackett, Delos B.; Sedgwick, John; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; Woodson, Daniel

Certificate of Commission, Kansas Militia
Author: Topliff, Charles
Date: June 14, 1856

This is a printed certificate filled in by hand by Charles W. Topliff, Maj. General of the Kansas Militia, commissioning Samuel Wemple to 2nd Lieutenant of 7th Company G. As such, Wemple must "defend the rights and liberties" of the people of Kansas "from threatened destruction by foreign invaders, and internal foes."

Keywords: Clark, Eduard; Military; Militia; Topliff, Charles W.; Wemple, Samuel

Certificate of election, James Abbott to position of Captain in Kansas Militia
Author: Topliff, Charles
Date: June 28, 1856

Charles W. Topliff, Major General Commanding the Kansas Militia, issued this certificate, which recognized James Abbott's commission to serve as Captain of the 2nd Company B of the Kansas Militia from the present date until January 1, 1857

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Clark, Eduard; Free state cause; Free state militia; Topliff, Charles W.

Letter, G. W. Smith, Jr., to Gentlemen of the Kansas Central Committee
Author: Smith, Jr., George W.
Date: July 17, 1857

George W. Smith, Jr., Lawrence, signed this letter, requesting a supply of "arms . . . for distribution among the Free State men who have formed themselves into Companies," Captain, "Munger Battalion, Free State Forces." Smith wrote that he led "a force of 32 mounted" men, most of whom were veterans of the "wars of Kansas," and requested the loan of "32 sabres [sic] and any revolvers that you may have to give them."

Keywords: Bleeding Kansas; Blood, James; Free state militia; Guns; Kansas Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)

Bill, Gaius Jenkins to Kansas State Central Committee
Author: Jenkins, Gaius
Date: June 24, 1856

Most of the items on this itemized bill, presented to the Kansas State Central Committee by Gaius Jenkins of Lawrence (a free-state man who was subsequently shot and killed by Jim Lane), are related to armaments (powder, lead, etc.) or other necessities for supplying a militia force.

Keywords: Ammunition; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Kansas State Central Committee; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Merchandise; Weapons (see also Guns)

Receipt, D. A. Clayton, Jr. to G. W. Hutchinson and William Hutchinson
Author: Clayton, D. A., Jr.
Date: July 25, 1856

D. A. Clayton, Jr., of Topeka had received and promised to deliver to G. W. and William Hutchinson of Lawrence $134.95 worth of articles: sugar, candles, pepper, mustard, cinnamon, and flour. Under Clayton's signature is a note indicating that the provisions were supplied to "Company B.," which was under the command of H. A. Burgess.

Keywords: Free state cause; Free state militia; Hutchinson, George W.; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Receipts; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Letter, Joseph Pomeroy Root to William Hutchinson
Author: Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: July 26, 1856

Root, writing from Topeka, KT, requested $100 from the Kansas Central Committee to fund information gathering activities in northeastern Kansas Territory. Root also speculated on the potential for military action in the territory in the late summer of 1856.

Keywords: Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Kansas State Central Committee; Military; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885

Letter, [I. Sabin] to Chad Kellogg
Author: Sabin, I.
Date: August 8, 1856

I. Sabin wrote to Chad Kellogg regarding real-estate transactions and troubles along the Missouri-Kansas border. Sabin, the commander of a 40-man company against pro-slavery forces, described the amount of firearms needed by each fighting man and his lack of money with which to purchase them. The letter is written on a printed circular "Appeal of Kansas to the Voters of the Free States," which enumerates various offenses done to free state men, focusing particularly on the contested election of 1856.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Frederick; Buford, Jefferson; Free state perspective; Guns; Kellogg, Chad; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Popular sovereignty; Sabin, I.; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, [J.H. Lane] to His Excellancy C. [Charles] Robinson, et al
Author: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: August 10, 1856

In a brief letter from Topeka that is very difficult to decipher, Jim Lane informs Robinson, Gen. George W. Deitzler, George W. Brown, John Brown, "& others" of his arrival with "a sufficient force" to do battle for the free state cause. He seems to counsel quick and decisive action.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Deitzler, George W.; Free state cause; Free state government; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
Author: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: September 9, 1856

From Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Oscar Learnard wrote briefly to some Vermont friends of his recent "military" experience as "Lieutenant Colonel of the 4th regiment (cavalry) of Kansas Volunteers." At the time, Learnard said "the whole Territory presents a scene of wide spread desolation," but he also claimed Kansas was a beautiful place full of opportunity for agriculturalists and real estate investors. At present, however, one should only come if well armed and via "the new road" [Lane Trail].

Keywords: Agriculture; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state regiment; Lane Trail; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Militia; Real estate investment; Vermont

Letter, C [Charles Robinson] to My Dear S [Sara Robinson]
Author: Robinson, Charles
Date: September 20, 1856

From Lawrence Charles Robinson writes to update his wife on developments in and around Lawrence since her departure. Governor John W. Geary had arrived and promised to see that the Missouri militia then threatening Lawrence "were disbanded." Robinson goes on to describe a very tense few days in September, beginning on Friday the 12th, involving militia of both sides and the governor. After a brief skirmish on the prairie east of Lawrence, Geary and some U.S. troops arrived and "the Missourians agreed to go home. It was all a farce. . . ."

Keywords: Buffum, David C.; Franklin, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Proslavery activities; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Stubbs militia company; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; Westport, Missouri

Receipt and memorandum concerning weapons and ammunition
Author: Miller, Joseph C.
Date: September 27, 1856

This receipt, which provides a detailed listing of revolvers, knives, cartridges, and other weapons and ammunition, declared that these weapons were "received of Chas. Robinson." The following page is a memorandum by Preston Plumb, who writes that he received the weapons and ammunition listed on the receipt in Iowa City, Iowa "on or about the 4th of September 1856." The weapons were to be delivered to J. M. Winchell in Kansas but were to be used for the "defense of Kanzas." Several hundred weapons were involved.

Keywords: Ammunition; Border disputes and warfare; Guns; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Receipts; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns); Winchell, James M., 1823-1877

Letter, William Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Author: Leeman, William H.
Date: November 9, 1856

Writing to his Mother from Nebraska Territory on November 4, 1856, Leeman, who "belong[ed] to Old Browns company," said he had just left Kansas Territory because, after driving the "Border Ruffians" out, the governor and "his troops were after us [and] we were obliged to leave the territory." Leeman hoped to go back to his 160 acre farm in Kansas soon and encouraged his Mother to come when the troubles were over.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state settlers; Jayhawking; Leeman, William H.; Militia; Nebraska Territory; Osawatomie, Battle of; Sharps rifles

Experiences of R. S. Griffithe, N. W. Spicer, and J. A. Harvey
Author: No authors specified.
Date: December 6, 1856

These testimonies, collected by the National Kansas Committee, record the experiences of these three settlers during the turbulent times of Bleeding Kansas. These testimonies focus on each settler's involvement in free state activities and their interaction with border ruffians. Griffithe and Spicer both served in the free state militia, and Harvey, who had commanded an emigrant train from Chicago, was the commander of a free state company.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Free state activities; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Griffithe, R. S.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Spicer, N.W.; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Topeka, Kansas; Violence

Receipt, James M. Arthur to Kansas State Central Committee
Author: Arthur, James M.
Date: December 27, 1856

This receipt, dated Lawrence, December 27, 1856, read as follows: "Received . . . Of Kansas Central Committee six U S. Breach loading Rifles and two U S Muskets one Box U S Caps and six Bullet molds for Rifles Said arms to be returned on the order of said Kansas Central Committee."

Keywords: Ammunition; Blood, James; Free state militia; Guns; Kansas Central Committee; Kansas State Central Committee; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Receipts; Weapons (see also Guns)

Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Wyandotte County
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1857

The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This muster roll for Captain A. H. Macauley's company listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, Kansas residence, and a place for "remarks." The latter was used to record the type of weapon the individual was issued or brought with him: e.g., Sharps, Western rifle, Carbine. All the men appeared to be residents of Quindaro, Wyandotte County in their twenties or early thirties.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Macauley, A. H.; Militia; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Sharps rifles; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns); Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Memorandum, Articles wanted for an outfit of fifty volunteers
Author: No authors specified.
Date: ca. January 1857

Among the articles itemized in this "Memorandum of articles wanted as an outfit for fifty volunteers to serve under my [John Brown?] direction during the Kansas war" are wagons, horses, blankets, frying pans, etc., at an estimated cost of $1,774.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Horses; Militia; Wagons

Stock Certificate, one share of Delaware City town lots
Author: No authors specified.
Date: July 8, 1857

The Delaware Town Company of Lawrence issued this certificate which documented Samuel F. Tappan's ownership of one share of town stock valued at $500. Investors in Delaware City promoted the town as the point on the Missouri River from which freight could be shipped to Lawrence most cheaply.

Keywords: Business enterprises; Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Delaware Town Company of Lawrence; Emery, James Stanley; Prentiss, S.B.; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Town shares

Certificate, James Abbott as Brigadier General
Author: No authors specified.
Date: July 15, 1857

James Lane, from the Headquarters of the Kansas Volunteers free state militia, issued this certificate that appointed James Abbott, as Brigadier General of the 1st Brigade, to protect the ballot boxes during the upcoming elections. Election fraud, in the form of multiple votes cast by proslavery men, was a constant concern of free state supporters.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Free state cause; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

General Order No. 2, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Author: Conway, Martin Franklin; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: July 20, 1857

General Order No. 2 established divisions and brigades which were to protect the ballot box in Topeka. It lists the divisions, brigades, and the superintendents of the divisions and brigades. James Lane was organizing the Kansas Volunteers and Martin Conway was the Adjutant General for the K.V.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Deitzler, George W.; Election, Topeka Constitution, August 1857; Grasshopper Falls, Kansas Territory; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Moore, H. Miles (Henry Miles), b. 1826; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Stewart, John E.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Voting; Williams, Henry H.; Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory

Order No. 1, from the Headquarters of the Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box
Author: No authors specified.
Date: August 3, 1857

E.B. Whitman, Quarter-Master General of the Kansas Volunteers, composed this formal order in response to the Topeka Legislature's adoption of James Lane's resolution to organize the people in protection of the ballot boxes during the next elections. Whitman, who had just been appointed as Quarter-Master General by Lane under the Ballot Box resolution, requested that each Company of the Volunteers elect their own Quarter-Master to take an inventory of firearms held by their own Company.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Election fraud; Free state militia; Kansas Volunteers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Whitman, E. B.

Commission, James Montgomery, captain
Author: No authors specified.
Date: September 16, 1857

This printed commission, issued from the "Head-Quarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot-Box," was given to James Montgomery and signed by J.H. Lane and M. F. Conway, adjutant general, on September 16, 1857. Montgomery was commissioned captain of the "Little Sugar Creek Company." This would have been specifically for the territorial election, October 5, 1857.

Keywords: Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Elections; Free state militia; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)

Order No. 2, Quartermaster's Department, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, Lawrence, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Author: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 19, 1857

This printed letter written by E. B. Whitman concerned the success of Kansas volunteers in organizing to help freemen and the lack of success with voting lists.

Keywords: Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Whitman, E. B.

Letter, E. B. Whitman to My Dear Mr. [G. L.] Stearns
Author: Whitman, E. B.
Date: October 25, 1857

In this report from Lawrence, Whitman complained about his money problem and wrote that John Brown, who, according to Sanborn, had been in Iowa for some weeks, would be in Lawrence for "a very important council" of the military organization. "Look for something decisive this winter and Satisfactory." He informed Stearns that he (Whitman) would take care of "J. B.'s wants" as soon as he could, but there was a limit to what he could borrow on his own account. "I am willing to work, wear out, die if need be in the cause, but I cannot send a brick always without straw."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Free State Party; Free state militia; Iowa; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Whitman, E. B.

General Staff Roll, Officers on duty at Sugar Mound
Author: No authors specified.
Date: December 19, 1857

This roll list documents the attendance of various Kansas Militia officers to a skirmish at Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory , including Major General James Lane. The list appears to be incomplete, as age, stature, and equipment notes for each man are only provided on the list's first page.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Blunt, James G.; Free state militia; Gilpatrick, Rufus; Horses; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leonhardt, Charles F. W., 1827-1884; Linn County, Kansas Territory; McCannon, John; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891; Shore, Samuel T.; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns); Whitman, E. B.; Williams, Henry H.

Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1857

The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballott Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from Delaware City. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. The ages of company members range from 18 to 54. The captain was A. Cutter.

Keywords: Cutter, A.; Delaware City, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)

Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Jefferson County
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1857

The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Jefferson County. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas and residence in Kansas. The remarks column noted if the company member had a weapon. The ages of company members range from 15 to 56. The captain was Simeon Hull.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Jefferson County, Kansas Territory; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)

Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1857

The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from the areas of Walnut Creek and Fall Creek. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. This muster roll also included information under remarks about whether or not the members had weapons. All of the members are from Leavenworth County and their ages range from 18 to 66. The captain was Horace L Dunlap. This muster roll lits two free state men who, according to Captain Dunlap, refused to enroll.

Keywords: Dunlap, Horace L.; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns)

Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1857

The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited from the city of Leavenworth. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, where from to Kansas, and Kansas residence. All of the members are from Leavenworth and their ages range from 22 to 38. The captain was William Kempf. With the exception of the 1st Lieutenant Joseph Mrosowsky who was born in Poland, all of the members of the company were born in Germany though they had lived various places before coming to Kansas.

Keywords: Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Germans; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Kempf, William; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Leavenworth City; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections)

Muster Roll, Potawatomie Rifles, Co. B, Capt. Benjamin
Author: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1857 or 1858

This roll list named the members of the Potawatomie Rifles, Company B, of the Kansas free state militia. Under the direction of Captain Jacob Benjamin, the men were listed by rank, paired with information about their rank, age, height, and weapons or horses owned.

Keywords: Benjamin, Jacob; Free state militia; Horses; Militia; Pottawatomie Rifles; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)

Muster roll, Burlingame Rifles Company C
Author: No authors specified.
Date: ca. 1857

This "Muster Roll" lists men of Burlingame Rifles Company C, under the leadership of Captain H.W. Wood, who "mustered into the service" of the protection of the people of Kansas Territory. This particular documents lists men by their rank, and includes their names, age, height, and riding equipment and firearms owned.

Keywords: Burlingame Rifles; Free state cause; Free state militia; Horses; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns); Wood, H.W.

Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to Capt. Bayne
Author: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: February 3, 1858

James Abbott wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Captain O. P. Bayne, explaining his delay in responding to Bayne's request for military aid. Abbott told him that his engagement with the committee investigating election fraud in the December 21 and January 4 elections had caused him to pass the request to General Phillips (possiblity William A. Phillips). Phillips, instead of responding directly, waited for Major General James Lane to return to town and approve the action. Abbott was apologetic, stating "if I had been at liberty I would have started at once. . .entirely independent of the Territorial Militia."

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Abbott, James Burnett; Bayne, O. P.; Election fraud; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Phillips, William A. (William Addison), 1824-1893; Plumb, Preston B., 1837-1891

Letter, J. G. Anderson to "Dear Brother"
Author: Anderson, J. G.
Date: February 17, 1858

From "Camp near Luella K.T." on February 17, 1858, J. G. Anderson wrote to his brother regarding the "considerable excitement" that had recently resulted after a free state man was robbed in Fort Scott. Two companies of "Kansas Militia" were called out to arrest the thieves, "our company under Capt. [O.P.] Bayne and the Sugar Creek company under Capt. [James] Montgomery. When they arrived at "the Fort" on the 11th "the bloody villains" had already fled to Missouri. The letter is a "typical" mix of news about the Kansas troubles, work on the claim, and pleasantries about the folks back home. [Before the end of the year, Anderson would sign on with John Brown and follow him to Harpers Ferry.]

Keywords: Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Land claims; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)

Articles of Agreement for Shubel Morgan's Company
Author: Morgan, Shubel
Date: July 12, 1858

In July 1858, fifteen men including Shubel Morgan, alias John Brown, J. H. Kagi, James Montgomery, and Augustus Wattles signed this document and thus "agree[d] to be governed by the following rules" of conduct. The rules included "gentlemanly and respectful deportment," obedience to the commander's orders, "no intoxicating drinks," etc.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Free state militia; Kagi, John Henry; Military; Militia; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Morgan, Shubel; Wattles, Augustus

Record of Arms disbursed by the Kansas State Central Committee
Author: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: September 24, 1858

Opening with an entry signed by James Montgomery, acknowledging receipt a Sharps rifle and a Colt revolver "to be used in defense of Kansas," this small leather-bound volume contains over 30 such entries for numerous weapons.

Keywords: Blood, James; Free state militia; Guns; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Kansas State Central Committee; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)

Autobiography, Volume 2
Author: Reader, Samuel James
Date: Circa 1896

These sections of this volume of the autobiography were titled "Border War, Kansas Territory, 1856," and "Hickory Point." Sketches and watercolors by Reader accompanied portions of the text. The Border War section described events in which Reader participated as part of a free state militia. This section provided detail about militia activities as well as contact with John Brown and Aaron Stevens (Captain Whipple). The second section described the Battle of Hickory Point which occurred on September 13, 1856. The accounts in the autobiography were based on Reader's diaries.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state militia; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hickory Point, Kansas Territory; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles)

Battle of Indianola from Autobiography, volume 1
Author: Reader, Samuel James
Date: 1906

The section of Samuel Reader's autobiography deals with the Battle of Indianola, which occurred on August 30, 1856. The autobiography is based on notes from his diary for the same period. The reminiscence describes events near Indianola, Shawnee Co. when the local militia gathered to prevent theft and burning by pro slavery supporters but no fighting actually occurred.

Keywords: Free state militia; Indianola, Battle of; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Proslavery supporters; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory

Photograph, Samuel J. Reader
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

Samuel J. Reader was a participant in some of the free state activities. He wrote about his efforts in his diary, including descriptions of the Battles of Indianola and Hickory Point. He also used the diary as the basis for an autobiography which he illustrated with drawings and water colors. He lived in Shawnee County, Kansas Territory. His accounts also describe daily life.

Keywords: Cyanotypes; Free state supporters; Indianola, Battle of; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory

Photograph, Edwin Vose Sumner
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner commanded the First U.S. Cavalry regiment at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, and led the regular army forces that dispersed the free state legislature in Topeka on July 4, 1856. Col. Sumner was known for his campaigns against the Cheyenne Indians in the West and his attempts to mediate between free and pro-slavery forces in Kansas Territory during the period known as Bleeding Kansas.

Keywords: Card photographs; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Sumner, Edwin Vose, 1835-1912; United States. Army

Photograph, George W. Deitzler
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

George W. Deitzler was a free state supporter and resident of Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He was an officer in the Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box. He was also part of a free state group, along with Charles Robinson and John Brown, Jr., that was arrested and held prisoner near Lecompton. He was active in social activities in Lawrence.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Deitzler, George W.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)

Exemption Roll, Kansas Militia for Precinct of Columbia, Madison County, 7th Brigade
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

This undated document listed 8 men from the Columbia precinct of Madison County, Kansas Territory, who were exempt from serving in the Kansas Militia. Four were exempted due to age (46 through 70 years old), one was a physician and one was crippled. The cause of the exemption was not listed for 2 men. John W. Whistler was the commander of the 7th Brigade.

Keywords: Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory (see also Lyon County, Kansas); Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Madison County, Kansas Territory; Militia

Photograph, Gaius Jenkins
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

Gaius Jenkins was born in New York state in 1812. He and his wife came to Kansas City, Missouri in 1853. He moved to Lawrence, Kansas Territory, in 1854 and was active in the free state cause, serving as a Colonel in the Free State Militia. He was taken prisoner along with John Brown, Jr.; Charles Robinson and several others and held near Lecompton. He was killed in Lawrence on June 3, 1858, by James Lane over a land dispute.

Keywords: Ambrotypes; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Prisoners

Muster Roll, Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box, Leavenworth County
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

The Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box were free state supporters who were determined to see that fair elections were held in Kansas. James Lane was appointed to organize companies throughout the territory. General Order No. 1, found on this site, included instructions for listing the members of each company. This muster roll was prepared as a result of that order. This company was recruited in Leavenworth County from the area of Easton. The muster roll listed the officers and enlisted men, their age, place of birth, and where from to Kansas. Instead of listing where the company members lived in Kansas, this muster roll indicated how long they had been in Kansas under the column "residence is Kansas." The remarks column noted if the company member had a weapon. The ages of company members range from 18 to 52. The captain was Joseph Hicks.

Keywords: Easton, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Elections; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state supporters; Guns; Hicks, Joseph; Kansas Volunteers; Kansas Volunteers for the Protection of the Ballot Box; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Militia; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement); Voting; Voting fraud (see also Contested elections); Weapons (see also Guns)

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Letter, C. Robinson to E. Thayer
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date:  April 2, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts, described voting irregularities in the March 30, 1855 election of members to the territorial legislature. Robinson maintained that the election was "controlled entirely by Missourians" who came to the territory, took over the polling places, and cast illegal ballots to ensure that proslavery supporters were elected to the legislature. Robinson also reported that free staters in Lawrence had formed themselves into four military companies, and urged Thayer to send Sharps rifles and cannons for these forces.

Keywords: Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Election fraud; Election, Territorial Legislature, March 1855; Free state perspective; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letter, C. Robinson to Rev. E. E. Hale
Authors: Robinson, Charles
Date:  April 9, 1855
Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Edward Everett Hale, commented that Free State supporters were forming military companies in response to perceived "outrageous conduct" by Missourians during the March 30, 1855, election of representatives for the territorial legislature. Robinson asked Hale to send two hundred Sharp's rifles and two cannon for the use of Lawrence settlers.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state; Guns; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)


Stubbs Militia Company Constitution, By-laws, and Charter
Authors: No authors specified.
Date:  April 16, 1855
The Stubbs militia company was organized on April 16, 1855, to protect Lawrence and the people of Kansas Territory. The constitution limited membership to 64 "rank and file" members and listed the duties of the various officers. The by-laws called for weekly drills, public parades once each three months, and indicated that prospective members had to be voted upon as well as paying ten dollars. Other expectations for members were detailed in the by-laws. The charter was the draft of a bill to be passed by the territorial legislature and listed the following as the incorporators of the Stubbs, a volunteer military company: Joseph Cracklin, A. Cutler, George F. Earle, John G. Crocker, Caleb S. Pratt, A. Gunther, and A. D. Searl. Although the document included the date of April 16, 1855, a date of 1858 was penciled above the title Constitution.

Keywords: Cracklin, Joseph; Crocker, John G.; Cutler, A.; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Earle, Geroge F.; Free state activities; Gunther, A.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; Pratt, Caleb S.; Searl, Albert D.; Stubbs militia company


Diary
Authors: Reader, Samuel James
Date:  May 23, 1855 through December 31, 1857
Diary entries by Samuel Reader beginning with the latter part of his travels to Kansas from La Harpe, Illinois, and his life in Kansas Territory. He described daily activities as well as events related to the territorial struggle. He settled in Shawnee County north of Topeka. He participated in a militia group at the battles of Indianola and Hickory Point. Reader was an amateur artist and some of the diary pages contain sketches and water color paintings.

Keywords: Battles; Diaries; Free state militia; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hickory Point, Kansas Territory; Indianola, Battle of; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory


Letter, Henry Saunders, certifying James Abbott as a militia member
Authors: Saunders, Henry F.
Date:  July 25, 1855
Henry Saunders, Captain of the Wakarusa Liberty Guards, a free state militia group, wrote this letter certifying James Abbott as 2nd Lieutenant of that unit. Saunders added that Abbott was also officially employed in the task of procuring arms for the free state cause.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Saunders, Henry F.; Weapons (see also Guns)


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